FASTI HEREFORDENSES

Frontispiece

Fasti Herefordenses
AND OTHER
Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford

BY
REV. FRANCIS T. HAVERGAL, M.A.
VICAR-CHORAL AND SUB-TREASURER OF HEREFORD CATHEDRAL

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS BY
G.C. HADDON, ARCHITECT
HEREFORD

PRINTED BY R. CLARK, EDINBURGH
MDCCCLXIX
[All rights reserved.]

TO THE VENERABLE AND REVEREND
Frederick Twistleton Wykeham Fiennes,
D.C.L.,
THIRTEENTH BARON SAYE AND SELE,
ARCHDEACON OF HEREFORD,
TREASURER AND CANON RESIDENTIARY OF THE CATHEDRAL,

THESE PAGES ARE INSCRIBED AS A SMALL TOKEN OF
GRATITUDE AND ESTEEM.

CONTENTS. PAGE.
THE DIOCESE OF HEREFORD 1
THE SUCCESSION OF THE BISHOPS OF HEREFORD 10
DEANS OF HEREFORD 38
ARCHDEACONS OF HEREFORD 43
ARCHDEACONS OF SALOP 47
PRÆCENTORS OF HEREFORD 49
TREASURERS OF HEREFORD CATHEDRAL 52
CHANCELLORS OF THE CHOIR IN HEREFORD CATHEDRAL 55
PREBENDARIES OF THE CATHEDRAL 58
THE COLLEGE OF VICARS CHORAL IN THE CHOIR OF HEREFORD CATHEDRAL 92
VICARS CHORAL IN THE CHOIR OF HEREFORD CATHEDRAL 94
ORGANISTS OF THE CATHEDRAL 102
LAY CLERKS AND OTHER CHORAL ASSISTANTS 104
CHORISTERS 105
HEAD-MASTERS OF THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL 106

ANTIQUARIAN MEMORIALS.

I.- THE TITLE-PAGE 109
II.- EFFIGY OF ST. ETHELBERT 110
III.- OLD COLLEGE GLASS. ETHELBERT'S WELL. SAXON HAND BELL. GOLD RINGS 115
IV. & V.- ANGLO-SAXON GOSPELS 118
VI.- ANCIENT CHAIR AND FONT 122
VII.- COFFIN-LIDS, CAPS, ETC. 129
VIII.- ALPHABET FROM 12TH CENTURY MSS. 131
IX.- CRYPT PORCH ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE LADYE CHAPEL 133
X.- TIMBER ARCADE AND ROOF OVER THE BISHOP'S PALACE 135
XI.- ENAMELLED CHASSE OR RELIQUARY 142
XII.- PROCESSIONAL CROSSES AND PASTORAL STAYES 147
XIII.- ANCIENT NORMAN CHAPELS AND EARLY CAPITALS 150
XIV.- THE HEREFORD USE AND 12TH CENTURY DRAWING 152
XV.- MURAL DECORATION FORMERLY IN THE CATHEDRAL 155
XVI.- THE ANCIENT MAP OF THE WORLD 160
XVII. & XVIII.- HERALDRY OF THE BISHOPS OF HEREFORD 171
XIX.- BISHOP CANTILUPE'S AND OTHER TOMBS 175
XX. & XXI.- BRASSES IN HEREFORD CATHEDRAL 178
XXII.- THE CATHEDRAL LIBRARY 181
XXIII.- INSCRIPTIONS ON BELLS, CHALICES, ETC. 195
XXIV.- THE VICARS' CLOISTER 200
XXV.- ANCIENT CROSSES 202
XXVI.- GROUND-PLAN OF THE CATHEDRAL To follow 226

LIST OF BOOKS, PICTURES, MAPS, ETC., RELATING TO THE HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF THE CITY AND COUNTY OF HEREFORD 205
LIST OF MSS. IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM RELATING TO THE SAME 215
MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 218
LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS 221

The Diocese of Hereford

THE true origin of the SEE of HEREFORD is lost in remote antiquity. [1] Although little is actually recorded of this early period, there are sundry fragmentary pieces of information which tend strongly to establish the opinion entertained by many learned men, that the See was re-established when Putta came to preside over it in the seventh century. The Welsh claim a high antiquity for Hereford as the recognised centre of Christianity in this district. Archbishop Usher asserts that it was the seat of an Episcopal See in the sixth century, when one of its bishops attended a synod convened by the Archbishop of Caerleon (A.D. 544). In the Lives of the British Saints (Rev. W.J. Reeves, 1853), we learn that Geraint ab Erbin, cousin of King Arthur, who died A.D. 542, is said to have founded a church at Caerffawydd, the ancient British name of Hereford. In Wilkin's Concilia, i. 24, it is recorded that beyond all doubt a Bishop of Hereford was present at the conference with St. Augustine, A.D. 601. [2] Full particulars are there given of the supposed time and place of this conference. [3] It is there stated - "In secunda affuisse perhibentur septem hi Britannici episcopi Herefordensis, Tavensis alias Llantavensis, Paternensis, Banchoriensis, Cluiensis alias Elinensis, Uniacensis alias Wiccensis, Morganensis". It is styled "Synodus Wigornensis", or, according to Spelman, "Pambritannicam". [4]


[1] See Abstract of Bishop Swinfield's Roll, xviii.

[2] See also Bede, Eccl. Hist. ii. 2; Usher's Chronology; Heylin's Works.

[3] There has been much controversy touching the precise place at which this conference was held. At Abberley an "Apostle's oak" had for ages suggested the probable place. Alfric and Suckley, on the eastern boundary of this diocese, have also been mentioned; but Austcliffe, in Gloucestershire, is now generally considered to have been the scene of this celebrated conference.- Horæ Britan., i. 67.

[4] Godwin, de Præsul. ed. 1616, p. 47. Also Horæ Britannicæ, by J. Hughes, 1819, p. 265.

2 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Nothing whatever is recorded as to the names or the number of the British bishops who presided over the earliest church at Hereford.

The boundaries of this diocese in the tenth century are defined in Anglo-Saxon in an ancient volume known as the Mundy Gospels, now in the library of Pembroke College, Cambridge. "The condition of the church of Hereford (circa 1290 A.D.) gave clear testimony to the liberal piety of its founders by the extensiveness of its lands. The diocese itself was richly endowed by nature, and enviably situated. Those of St. Asaph, Lichfield, Worcester, Llandaff, and St. David's, were its neighbours. On the north it stretched from where the Severn enters Shropshire to where that river is joined on the south by the influx of the Wye. From the west to the east perhaps its greatest width might have been found from a point where the latter river, near Hay, leaves the counties of Radnor and Brecon, by a line drawn to the bridge at Gloucester. It embraced portions of the counties of Radnor, Montgomery, Salop, Worcester, and Gloucester, and touched upon that of Brecon. It included the town of Monmouth, with four parishes in its neighbourhood. The Severn environed its upper part. Almost midway it was traversed by the Teme, and the Wye pursued its endless windings through the lower district;- a region altogether remarkable for its variety, fertility, and beauty, abounding in woods and streams, rich pastures, extensive forests, and noble mountains. In several of the finest parts of it Episcopal manors had been allotted, furnishing abundant supplies to the occupiers of the See". - (Rev. J. Webb's Roll of the Household Expenses of Bishop Swinfield, xviii.)

The following were the manors attached to this See:-

Barton.
Bishop's Castle.
Bishop's Frome.
Bosbury.
Bromyard.
Colwall.
Cradley.
Coddington.
Eastnor.
Eaton.
Grendon.
Hampton.
Hereford.
Ledbury.
Ledbury, North (Salop).
Ross, and Ross Foreign.
Shelwick.
Sugwas.
Tupsley.
Upton.
Whitborne.
Prestbury, in Gloucestershire.

The Diocese of Hereford. 3

The bishop held lands also in the counties of Wilts and Worcester, and residences in Worcester and London.

The diocese underwent few changes until a very recent period. The following alterations have been made by Orders in Council:-

1844. Monmouth and Dixton were added to Llandaff.

1847. All parishes in the deanery of Bridgnorth were added to the diocese of Hereford, St. Mary and St. Leonard, Alveley, Claverley, Bobbington, and Quatt.

1849. Buttington (Montgomery) transferred to St. Asaph.

1852. Ewyas Harold, Walterstone, Dulas, Michaelchurch-Eskley, St. Margarets, Rollestone, Llancilo, Newton, Clodock cum capellis, Craswell, Longtown, and Llanveyno, were transferred from St. David's to this diocese.

1867. Part of the parish of Little Wenlock was detached to form part of the chapelry of St. John at Lawley, in the diocese of Lichfield.

The Archdeaconry of Hereford comprises seven Rural Deaneries, with the following parishes and Chapelries in each:-

RURAL DEANERY OF FROME.

Avenbury (V).
Aylton (R).
Bosbury (V).
Bridenbury (R).
Brockhampton (D).
Bromyard (V).
Coddington (R).
Collington (R).
Colwall (R).
Cowarne Much (V).
Cradley (R) St. John Evang (V).
Donnington (R).
Eastnor (R).
Edwin Ralph (R).
Evesbatch (R).
Felton (V).
Frome, Bishop's (V) St. Matthew's, Frome's Hill (C).
Frome Canon (V).
Frome Castle (R).
Grendon, Bishop (V)
Hellenswick or Ullingswick (R) with Little Cowarne (C).
Ledbury (V).
Marcle, Little (R).
Munsley (R).
Pencombe (R).
Ocle Pitchard (V).
Pixley (R).
Sapey, Upper (R).
Stanford, Bishop (V).
Stoke Bliss (V).
Stoke Lacy (R).
Stretton Grandison (V) with Ashperton (V).
Tedstone, Delamere (R).
Tedstone Wafer (R).
Thornbury (R).
Wacton (V).
Whitborne (R).
Wolferlow (V).
Yarkhill (V).

4 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

DEANERY OF HEREFORD.

Allensmore (V).
Blakemore (V) with Preston (V).
Breinton (V).
Brockhampton (V) with Fawley (C).
Bullingham, Upper V.
Canon Pyon (V).
Clehonger (V).
Dewsall (V) with Callow (V).
Dinedor (R).
Eaton Bishop (R).
Hampton Bishop (R).
Hereford, All Saints (V).
Hereford St. James (V).
Hereford St. John Baptist (V).
Hereford St. Martin (V).
Hereford St. Nicholas (R).
Hereford St. Peter (R) with St. Owen (V).
Holmer (V) with Huntington (C).
Kingston (V) with Thruxton (R).
Madley (V) with Tibberton (C).
Marden (V).
Moreton Jeffries (V).
Moreton-on-Lugg (R).
Norton Canon (V).
Pipe and Lyde (V).
Preston Wynne (V).
Putley (R).
Tupsley, St. Paul's (V).
Withington (V).
Woolhope (V).

DEANERY OF IRCHINFIELD OR ARCHENFIELD.

Aconbury (V).
Ballingham (V).
Birch, Much (V).
Birch, Little (R).
Bridstow (V).
St. Devereux (R) with Wormbridge (D).
Dewchurch, Little V.
Dewchurch, Much V.
Foy (V).
Garway (V).
Goodrich (V).
Hentland (V) with Hoarwithy (C).
Holm Lacy (V) with Bolston (C).
Kenderchurch (V).
Kentchurch (R).
Killpec (V).
Llandinabo (R).
Llangarren (V) St. Weonard's (C).
Llanrothal (V).
Llanwarne (R).
Marstow (V) with Pencoyd (C).
Orcop (D).
Peterstow (R).
Sellack (V) with King's Caple C.
Tretire (R) with Michaelchurch R.
Welsh Newton (V).
Welsh Bicknor (R).
Whitchurch (R) with Ganarew (R).

DEANERY OF LEOMINSTER.

Aymestry (V).
Birley (V).
Brimfield (V).
Byton (R).
Croft (R).
with Yarpole (V).
Eardisland (V).
Elton (V).
Eye (V).
Eyton (V).
Ford (V).
Hatfield (V).
Hope-under-Din-more (V).
Humber (R).
Ivington (V).
Kimbolton (V) with Middleton (V).
Kingsland (R).
Kinsham (D).
Knill (R).
Leinthall Earls (V).
Leinthall Starkes (V).
Leominster (V).
Lingen (V).
Lucton (V).
Marston (V).
Monkland (V).
Norton (V).
Orleton (V).
Pembridge (R).
Presteign (R) with Discoyd (C).
Pudleston (R).
Radnor, New (R).
Radnor, Old (R) with Kinnerton (C).
Sarnesfield (R).
Shobdon (R).
Stanton-upon-Arrow (V).
Stoke Prior (V) with Docklow (C).
Stretford (R).
Titley (V).
Wigmore (V).

The Diocese of Hereford. 5

DEANERY OF ROSS.

Aston Ingham (R).
Bishop's Wood (V).
Brampton Abbots R.
Fownhope (V).
Harewood (D).
Hope Mansel (R).
How Caple (R) with Sollers Hope (R).
Linton (V).
Marcle, Much (V) with Yatton (C).
Mordiford (R).
Ross (R).
Upton Bishop (V).
Walford (V).
Weston-under-Penyard (R).

DEANERY OF WEOBLEY.

Almeley (V).
Bacton (R).
Bishopstone (R).
Bredwardine (R) with Brobury (R).
Bridge Sollers (V).
Brilley (V) with Michaelchurch (R).
Byford (R).
Clifford (V).
Clodoch (V).
Crasswall (V).
Llanveyno (V).
Longtown (V).
Newton (V).
Credenhill (R).
Cusop (R).
Dore Abbey (R).
Dorstone (R).
Dulas (V).
Eardisley (V) with Bollingham (C).
Ewyas Harold (V).
Hardwick (V).
Kentchester (R).
Kington (V) with Huntington (C).
Kinnersley (R).
Letton (R).
Llancillo (V).
Lyonshall (V).
Mansel Gamage (V).
Mansel Lacy (V).
St. Margaret (V) with Michaelchurch-Eskley (V).
Moccas (R).
Monnington-on-Wye (R).
Peterchurch (V).
Rowlstone (R).
Staunton-upon-Wye R.
Stretton Sugwas (R).
Tumaston (R).
Vowchurch (V).
Walterstone (V).
Weobley (V).
Whitney (R).
Willersley (R).
Winforton (R).
Wormsley (V).

DEANERY OF WESTON.

Bodenham (V).
Brinsop (V).
Burghill (V).
Dilwyn (V).
Dormington (V) with Bartestree (C).
King's Pyon (V).
Lugwardine (V).
Stoke Edith (R) with Westhide (C).
Sutton St. Michael (V).
Sutton St. Nicholas (R).
Tarrington (V).
Wellington (V).
Weston Begard (V).
Wisteston (D).

6 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

The Archdeaconry of Salop comprises six Rural Deaneries, with the following parishes and Chapelries in each:-

DEANERY OF BURFORD.

Abberley (R).
Bewdley (V).
Bockleton (V).
Burford, first portion (R) with Boraston and Nash (C).
Burford, second portion Whitton (R & C).
Burford, 3d portion (R).
Cleobury Mortimer (V).
St. John's (V).
Clifton-on-Teme V.
Coreley (R).
Dowles (R).
Eastham (R).
Hanley William (R).
Hanley Child (C).
Orleton (C).
Edwin Loach (R).
Greet (R).
Hopton Wafers (R).
Kyre Wyard (R).
Knighton-upon-Teme (V).
Laysters (V).
Lindridge (V).
Mamble (V) with Bayton (V).
Neen Sollars (R) with Milsom (C).
Pensax (V).
Ribbesford (R).
Rochford (R).
Rock (R) with Heightington (C).
Far Forest (V).
Sapey Lower (R).
Shelsley Walsh (R).
Stanford-upon-Teme (R).
Stocton-upon-Teme (R).
Tenbury (V).
St Michael's (V).

DEANERY OF CLUN.

Aston (R).
Bedstone (R).
Bettws (V).
Bishop's Castle (V).
Brampton Brian (R).
Bucknell (V).
Burrington (V).
Clun (V).
with Chapel Lawn (C).
Newcastle (V).
Clunbury (V).
Clungunford (R).
Downton (V).
Edgton (V).
Hopesay (R).
Hopton Castle (R).
Knighton (V).
Llanvair Waterdine (V).
Leintwardine (V).
Lydham (R).
Lydbury, North (V) with Norbury (C).
Mindtown (R).
Mainstone (R).
More (R).
Sibdon (V).
Stowe (V).
Wentnor (R).
Wistantow (R) with Whittingslow (C).

DEANERY OF LUDLOW.

Ashford Bowdler (V).
Ashford Carbonell (R).
with Little Hereford (V).
Bitterley (R).
with Middleton (C).
Bromfield (V).
Cainham (V).
St. Paul's (C).
Clee St. Margaret (V).
Cold Weston (R).
Culmington (R).
Diddlebury (V) with Westhope (D).
Halford (V).
Hope Baggott (R).
Hopton Cangeford (V).
Ludford (V).
Ludlow (R).
Onibury (R).
Richard's Castle (R).
Silvington (R).
Staunton Lacey (V).
Stoke St. Milborough (V).
Stokesay (V).

The Diocese of Hereford. 7

DEANERY OF PONTESBURY.

Alberbury (V).
Brace Meole (V).
Cardeston (R).
Chirbury (V).
Marton (C).
Middleton (C).
Churchstoke (V).
Criggion (V).
Ford (V).
Forden (V).
Habberley (R).
Hanwood (R).
Hyssington (V).
Longdon (V).
Minsterley (V).
Montgomery (R).
Pontesbury, first portion (R).
Pontesbury, second portion (R) with Cruckton (C).
Pontesbury, third portion (R).
Pulverbatch (R).
Ratlinghope (V).
Shelve (R).
Snead (R).
Sutton (R).
Trelystan (V) with Leighton (C).
Westbury (R).
Woolaston (V).
Worthen (R) with Hope (C).
Yockleton (R).

DEANERY OF STOTTESDEN.

Alvely (V).
Astley Abbotts (V).
Aston Bottrell (R).
Billingsley (R).
Bobbington (V).
Bridgnorth St. Mary Magdalen (V).
St. Leonard's (V).
Burwarton (R).
Chelmarsh (V).
Claverley (V).
Cleobury, North (R).
Chetton (R) with Loughton (C).
Deuxhill (R).
Glazeley (R).
Ditton Priors (V).
Farlow (V).
Highley (V).
Kinlet (V).
Middleton Scriven (R).
Morvill (V) with Aston Eyre (C).
Neen Savage (V).
Neenton (R).
Oldbury (R).
Quatford (V).
Sidbury (R).
Stottesden (V).
Tasley (R).
Upton Cressett (R).
Wheathill (R).

DEANERY OF WENLOCK.

Abdon (R).
Acton Round (V).
Acton Scott (R).
Badger (R).
Barrow (V).
with Willey (R).
Beckbury (R).
Benthall (V).
Broseley (R).
with Linley (R).
Burton (V).
Cardington (V).
Coalbrookdale (V).
Easthope (R).
Eaton (V).
Holgate (R).
Hope Bowdler (R).
Hughley (R).
Ironbridge, St. Luke's (V).
Jackfield (V).
Madeley (V).
Monk Hopton (V).
Munslow (R) with Broadstone (C).
Preen (V).
Rushbury (R).
Shipton (V).
Stretton Church (R).
Staunton Long (V).
Tugford (R).
Wenlock, Little (R).
Wenlock, Much (V).
Woolstaston (R).

Not less than 100 parishes or ecclesiastical districts in the above list, formerly styled perpetual curacies, are now vicarages.

8 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

The following is an extract from the Act of Parliament, dated July 31, 1868, 31 and 32 Victoria, cap. 117:-

"An Act to amend the District Church Titles Act 1865, and to secure uniformity of designation amongst Incumbents in certain cases.

"The incumbent of the church of every parish or new parish for ecclesiastical purposes, not being a Rector who is authorised to solemnise therein marriages, churchings, and baptisms, &c. &c., shall, for the purpose of style and designation, but not for any other purpose, be deemed and styled the Vicar of such church and parish or new parish," &c.

BENEFICES AND DIGNITIES IN THE COLLATION OF THE LORD BISHOP OF HEREFORD.

Archdeaconries of Hereford and Salop.

The dignities of Precentor, Treasurer, and Chancellor of the Choir.
Twenty-eight Prebendal Stalls.
Four Canons Residentiary.

Allensmore (V).
Bosbury (V).
Brampton Abbott's (R).
Breinton (V).
Bridstow (V).
Brimfield (V).
Brinsop (V).
Bullingham, Upper (V).
Clehonger (V).
Coddington (R).
Colwall (R).
Cradley (R).
Dilwyn (V).
Eaton Bishop (R).
Goodrich (V).
Hampton Bishop (R).
Holgate (R).
Ledbury (V).
Lingen (V).
Marcle Little (R).
Middleton, with Kimbolton (V).
Preston Wynne (V).
Ross (V).
Thruxton (R) with Kingstone (V).
Tugford (R).
Tupsley (V).
Weston-under-Penyard (R).
Whitborne (R).
Wigmore (R).
Withington (V).

The Bishop of Hereford was until recently patron of the Rectory of St. Mary Somerset, in the city of London. This has been transferred to the Bishop of London. By an order in Council, dated May 15, 1852, the following patronage was transferred from the Bishop of Hereford to the Bishop of Worcester:-

Almeley (V).
Bromyard (V).
Kington, with Chapelries (V).
Knowbury, St. Paul (V).
Lyonshall (V).
Ullingswick, with Little Cowarne (R).
Wellington (V).
Weobley (V).

The Diocese of Hereford. 9

Also the Rectory of Moreton on Lugg, at present attached to the Prebend of Moreton Magna, which would have reverted eventually to the Bishop of Hereford; the Rectory of Little Hereford, formerly attached to the Chancellorship of the Choir; the Vicarage of Vowchurch, formerly attached to Putson Major Prebend; and the Vicarage of Walford, formerly attached to the Precentorship.

BENEFICES, ETC., IN THE GIFT OF THE DEAN AND CHAPTER.

St. Briavel's (V).
Brockhampton (V).
Canon Pion (V).
Dewchurch, Little V.
Diddlebury (V).
Fownhope (V).
with Fawley (C).
Hentland (V) with Hoarwithy C.
Hereford, St. John Baptist (V).
Hewelsfield (V).
Holmer (V) with Huntington (C).
Llangarren (V) with St. Weonard's (V).
Lugwardine (V).
Lydney (V) with Aylburton (C).
Madley (V) with Tibberton (C).
Marden (V).
Morton Jeffries (V).
Norton Canon (V).
Pipe and Lyde (V).
Preston-upon-Wye (V) with Blakemere (V).
Putley (R).
Sellack (V) with King's Caple (C).
Shinfield (V).
Staunton Long (V).
Swallowfield (V).
Upton Bishop (V).
Weston Begard (V).
Woolhope (V).
Yarkhill (V).

Six Minor Canonries.
Mastership of the School.
Mastership of St. Catherine's Hospital, Ledbury.
Mastership of St. Ethelbert's Hospital, Hereford.
The Custos and Vicars are Patrons of the Vicarage of Westbury, in the County of Gloucester.

NOTE. I am indebted to the Rev. Arthur W. Haddan, of Trinity College, Oxford, for the following information:- There is in existence a letter of Pope Gregory IX. (March 15, A.D. 1236), directing the Bishop, Archdeacon, and Dean of Worcester, to settle the boundaries of Hereford diocese as respects the dioceses of Llandaff, St. David's, and St. Asaph, the bishops of which Sees were then disputing their boundaries with the Bishop of Hereford. It is in the British Museum, Vatican Papers, MS. Additional, 15,353, p. 345, headed Anno IX. Epist. 425 (viz. of Gregory's pontificate and letters). Unfortunately it specifies no place or fact whatever beyond the existence of a dispute at that time.

10 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford, WITH SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES.

A.D. 676. 1. Putta was consecrated to the See of Rochester by Archbishop Theodore A.D. 669. He was advanced to Hereford A.D. 676. "The permanent establishment of Hereford as the place of an Episcopal See, was the work of Archbishop Theodore, who divided the great diocese of Mercia as he had done that of East Anglia into several bishoprics". [1] Bede, iv. 2, says that he taught, wherever he was asked, those ancient Gregorian tones which Augustine had introduced, and which Theodore was now disseminating throughout England. [2] Obiit A.D. 688.

688. 2. Tyrhtel.- Ob. 710.

710. 3. Torthere.

727 x 731. 4. Wahlstod.

736. 5. Cuthbert.- One of the most remarkable men of this period. Consecrated by Archbishop Nothelm. Translated to Canterbury A.D. 740, where he died October 26, 758. During his archiepiscopate the Lord's Prayer and the Creed were ordered to be universally taught "in the vulgar tongue". [3]

741. 6. Podda.- Little is known of this bishop and his eighteen successors.


[1] R.J. King, Western Cathedrals, 114.

[2] Hereford has always enjoyed a high reputation for its church music. It is gratifying to know that the first of the present long succession of bishops was a practical church musician.

[3] Cuthbert was born in Mercia of noble parents, and was high in favour with King Ethelbald. He occupied himself in the ornamentation of his cathedral, especially in the erection of a splendid cross, somewhere on the south side of the exterior, of which he himself gives the following description (Godwin, de Præs. 526):-

"Hæc veneranda crucis Christi veneranda sacratæ Coeperat Antistes venerandus, nomine Walstod, Argenti atque auri fabricare monilibus amplis, Sed quia cuncta cadunt mortalia tempore certo, Ipse, opere in medio moriens, e carne recessit,

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 11

He was present at the Council of Cloveshoo, in the county of Kent, A.D. 747. [1]

A.D.

747 x 758. 7. Hecca.- Presided at the Council of Becanceld, according to Spelman.

758 x 770. 8. Ceadda.- Matthew of Westminster states that he was witness to a grant of King Witlaf to the Abbey of Croyland.

777. 9. Aldberht.

781 x 785. 10. Esne.

785 x 788. 11. Cedmund.

793 x 798. 12. Utel.- In his days the importance of the church at Hereford was greatly increased, in consequence of the burial of the murdered King Ethelbert within its walls.

800. 13. Wulphard.

823. 14. Beonna.

825 x 831. 15. Eadoff.

837. 16. Cuthwulf.

857 x 866. 17. Mucel.

857 x 866. 18. Deorlaf.

888. 19. Cynemund.

888 x 901. 20. Eadgar.

930. 21. Tidhelm.

934 x 939. 22. Wulfhelm.

941. 23. Alfric.- Was witness to a deed of Croyland Abbey.

951 x 973. 24. Athulf.

1012. 25. Ethelstan.- This bishop is said to have rebuilt the Cathedral

Ast ego successor præfati præsulis, ipse Pontificis, tribuente Deo, qui munere fungor, Quique gero certum Cuthbert de luce vocamen, Omissum implevi quod ceperat, ordine pulchro".

He was the first archbishop that was buried at Christ Church, Canterbury. Hitherto the porch of St. Augustine's had been the usual place of burial. The account given by Dean Hook, in his Lives of the Archbishops, vol. i. 233, of the manner in which the Cathedral body deprived the Augustinians of the body of Cuthbert, is highly amusing. It appears that they buried him at midnight (in a stone coffin, which had been prepared some time previously) three days before the great bell announced his death!

His life is also given in Parker's Antiquitates Britannicæ Ecclesiæ, 1605, p. 59.


[1] Spelman's Concilia, i. 242. Wilkin's Concilia, i. 94.

12 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

from the foundations, but this structure was destroyed in 1058. by a body of Welsh invaders. He was blind during the last thirteen years of his episcopate, but he was assisted by Tramerin, Bishop of St. David's. He died at his manor-house at Bosbury, February 10, 1056, and was buried in the Cathedral. [1] "Vir magnæ sanctitatis".- Florence of Worcester.

A.D. 1056. 26. Leofgar.- "Earl Harold's mass-priest". Slain by Griffin, King of Wales, at Glasbury (as it is supposed) about June 16, 1056, after he had presided over this See but twelve weeks and four days. Shortly before his death a dreadful tragedy took place at the doors of the Cathedral. The Welsh invaders, under Prince Griffin and Earl Algar, destroyed the whole city, burnt and pillaged the Cathedral, slew seven canons who attempted to defend its doors, and took the bishop prisoner to Glasbury, where he met with a violent death. He is highly eulogised by Matthew of Westminster. This See remained vacant for four years, but the duties of it were discharged by Ealdred, Bishop of Worcester.

1060. 27. Walter of Lorraine, consecrated at Rome by Pope Nicholas II. He was a native of the province of Lorraine, and chaplain to Queen Edith. William of Malmesbury relates a questionable story of him. He died in 1079, and was buried in the Cathedral. A monument near the Bishop's cloister-door, the work of a much later period, is erroneously ascribed to this bishop.

1079. 28. Robert de Losing, a native of Lorraine, was consecrated at Canterbury by Archbishop Lanfranc, December 29, 1079. He commenced rebuilding the Cathedral on an enlarged scale. He was one of the most learned men of his day. He was invited by Remigius, the rebuilder of Lincoln Cathedral, to be present at its dedication. He refused to undertake the journey because the stars assured him that the dedication would not take place in the lifetime of Remigius, who died, in fact, the day before that appointed for the dedication (William of Malmesbury). He died June 26, 1095. See ground-plan, No. 73.


[1] Dingley, p. 188, gives a sketch of the tomb as it appeared, circa 1682, in the north corner of the north transept.

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 13

A.D. 1096. 29. Gerard.- Consecrated June 15, 1096. Translated to York in 1101, where he died 1108. He was Chancellor under the Conqueror and William II. Roger, clerk of the king's larder, was nominated by William II., about Michaelmas 1102, to succeed Gerard, but he died eight days after his election before consecration.

1107. 30. Reinhelm.- Appointed to this See by Henry I. He held it for a short time without consecration, and then resigned it into the king's hands on account of the dispute between the king and Archbishop Anselm relative to the right of investiture. He was consecrated at Canterbury, with four other prelates, on August 11, 1107. He doubtless completed the Norman Cathedral, which his predecessor De Losing had so nobly begun, and he appears to have established the prebendaries and other officers of this church. He died about October 27, 1115, and was buried in the north aisle of the choir. (No. 25.)

1115. 31. Geofry de Clive.- Consecrated December 26, 1115. He was distinguished for great moderation in diet and dress, and considerably improved the revenues of the See, which before his time had been impaired by the exactions of those who collected them. "Agriculturæ studens", according to William of Malmesbury. He died February 3, 1120, and was buried in the north aisle of the choir. (No. 16.)

1121. 32. Richard de Capella.- Consecrated at Lambeth, January 16, 1121. He died at Ledbury, August 15, 1127. He is said to have built a bridge over the Wye at Hereford. He was buried in the north aisle of the choir, but his stone coffin and effigy were moved to Bishop Stanbery's chantry when it was built in the fifteenth century. (No. 23.)

1131. 33. Robert de Bethune, a native of Flanders, Prior of Llanthony, was nominated to this See in 1129, but was not consecrated until June 28, 1131. William of Malmesbury speaks highly of his frugality and great power in Church and State. Brown Willis supposes "that he founded the deanery and settled the prebendaries, which Reinhelm seems to have introduced".

14 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

"During the troubles of Stephen's reign Hereford suffered greatly. The Cathedral was deserted and desecrated, and the Bishop himself was compelled to take flight in disguise. On his return, he cleansed and repaired the building. He was one of the best and worthiest bishops of his age - a man of peace and religion, when by far the greater number of English bishops were little better than the most turbulent barons". [1] He was a great benefactor to this church, and, dying in April 22, 1148, while attending the Council of Rheims, was buried in the south choir aisle. (No. 71.)

A.D. 1148. 34. Gilbert Ffolliott.- Abbot of Gloucester, and a firm adherent to King Stephen. He was highly esteemed for his austere habits and great learning. He added several prebends to this church, and was translated to the See of London in 1163, where he became a formidable adversary of Thomas Becket. This was the first instance of translation in the English Church. He wrote a commentary on the Book of Canticles, which was published in 1638. There are seven of his letters in the collection of those of Becket. [2] It was he who preached in Canterbury Cathedral in 1174, on the memorable occasion of Henry II. doing penance. It was Ffolliott who uttered the bitter sarcasm on Becket's consecration as primate:- "The king has wrought a miracle; he has turned a soldier and a layman into an archbishop". He died in 1187.

1163. 35. Robert of Maledon, or, as he is more generally styled, "de Melun", Prior of Llanthony, was advanced to this See by Henry II. He is also called Robertus Dunelmensis, and by an old writer he is styled "Episcopus Anglorum sapientissimus". He was present at the famous scene between Becket and Henry II. at Northampton, when he attempted with Ffolliott to take the cross from the hands of the Archbishop. He died February 27, 1167, and was buried in the south choir aisle. (No. 72.)


[1] R.J. King's Western Cathedrals,118. His life was written by William of Wycumb. See Wharton's Anglia Sacra, ii. 229; and Rev. G. Roberts' History of Llanthony, 1847; Harleian MS., No. 469.

[2] Du Pin's Ecc. Hist. x.174. Also edited by Giles, 1845. A.D. 1148.

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 15

There was a vacancy in the See for seven years, in consequence of the disputes between Henry II. and Thomas Becket. The annals of Worcester state that Archdeacon Godfrey was nominated to succeed this bishop, but his election was not perfected.

A.D. 1174. 36. Robert Ffolliott, Archdeacon of Oxford, elected 1173, consecrated at Canterbury, October 6, 1174. As a scholar his fame was great. The calendar of obits states that he gave to the church "multa bona in terris et libris, vasis et ornamentis". Bale states that he was tutor to Becket, and was elevated to this See through his influence. He died May 9, 1186, and was buried in the south choir aisle. (No. 70.)

1186. 37. William de Vere, supposed to be the son of Aubrey de Vere, third Earl of Oxford. He was witness to a deed of Richard I., granting to William, King of Scotland, all the liberties enjoyed by his ancestors in going to and returning from the court of Richard when required to appear. Godwin states that this bishop was not only a great benefactor to this church, but that he was a great builder:- "multa dicitur construxisse". He died December 24, 1199, and was buried in the south choir aisle. (No. 69.) [1]

1200. 38. Giles de Bruce, son of William, Lord Bruce or Braose, consecrated at Westminster, September 24, 1200. In the Barons' wars he took part against King John, and in 1208 he was obliged to fly the realm. On his homeward journey he died at Gloucester, November 17, 1215, and was buried in the Cathedral beneath the second arch on the north side of the choir. (No. 19) [2]

1216. 39. Hugh de Mapenore.- Dean of this church, consecrated at Gloucester,


[1] There is a fine impression of this bishop's seal in the Dean and Chapter's archives, of the usual oval shape. The bishop is represented in full episcopal vestments, mitre, etc., right hand erect, with pastoral staff and long maniple in his left hand. Around it is inscribed "Sigillum Willelmi de Vere Herefordensis episcopi".

[2] I cannot concur in the oft-repeated statement that this bishop built either the western or the central towers. The ball- flower, which was the prominent ornament of both towers, was not in use so early as his time. If he built a tower at all, it must have been nearly a century earlier than the present structure. The edifice on the monumental effigy of this bishop simply implies that he was a builder of some important part of the Cathedral, and not necessarily of a tower.

16 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

December 18, 1216. Little is known respecting this bishop. He died April 13, 1219, and was buried in the north choir aisle. (No. 14.)

A.D. 1219. 40. Hugh Ffolliott, Archdeacon of Salop, consecrated at Canterbury, November 3, 1219. He was the founder of Ledbury Hospital, at which place he died July 26, 1234. He was buried in the Cathedral, as supposed, but the place is not known. He bestowed several ornaments and books on this church. [1]

1234. 41. Ralph de Maidstone, consecrated November 12, 1234. He was Canon of Lichfield, Archdeacon of Chester, and Dean of this church. He gave to this See Mounthalt House in London, and the patronage of that benefice. He also appropriated Sellack to the Canons, and Diddleburgh, Salop, to the Vicars Choral. He resigned his episcopal charge December 17, 1239, and became a Franciscan friar at Oxford. He subsequently entered the monastery at Gloucester, where he died, January 8, 1245. He was buried there without any memorial. "Vir magnæ literaturæ, et in theologia nominatissimus".

1240. 42. Peter d'Acguablanca, a native of Savoy, consecrated at St. Paul's Cathedral, December 23, 1240. He was promoted from the household of some foreign bishop to be Archdeacon of Salop in 1239. He was one of the most hated of the foreigners who had been forced into an English See, and who dared not show his face in England. He founded a monastery at his native place, and left 192 bushels of wheat for the Cathedral body, and 200 for the poor of the county. He incurred public indignation by advising the Crown to lay certain burdens


[1] In one of the principal rooms at Ledbury Hospital there is a portrait of this bishop, with a long Latin and English inscription, all painted in 1588. This may be a copy of an older picture. He is represented with small features and little hair, an aged man, with jewelled mitre, wearing a crimson robe or vestment, right hand erect, left hand holding a pastoral staff. The conclusion only of the inscription is now given as a sample of the other portion:- "Laste of all (that we may see how Christian and true devotion was then linked with humane and fond superstition), he gave manie ornaments to the Church to adorne the sacrificing priesthood withall, Innocentius III., next predecessor to Honorius III., having established Transubstantiation in the Laterane Councel not long before; and he bequeathed two markes yearlie to the presbyters, Prebendaries, that should be present at his exequies ye 7th dy of the Ides of Julie yearly to be celebrated: and to the Chore halfe a marke, then also to be given".

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 17

on the clergy, and was so violently opposed to all English interests that the Barons drove him from his See in 1262. He reappeared in 1263, in consequence of a severe reprimand from Henry III. [1] He was assailed by the Barons in the Cathedral, imprisoned, and his goods sequestrated and divided. He died a miserable leper, at Eardisley Castle, on November 27, 1268. He was buried under a gorgeous monument between the choir and north transept. (See Plate XI X.; also ground-plan No. 11.)

A.D. 1269. 43. John de Breton, Doctor of Laws, Canon of Hereford, and Keeper of the King's Wardrobe, consecrated June 2, 1269. He is said to have been a great lawyer as well as theologian. Sir Edward Coke observes, that "he was a man of great and profound judgment in the common laws, and an excellent ornament to his profession". It has often been stated that he wrote a celebrated work, De Juribus Anglicanis; but it seems more than probable that the true writer of the work in question was one of the king's justices in the first year of Edward II. He died May 12, 1275, and was buried in the Cathedral, probably in the fine stone coffin (No. 7) which was discovered during the late restorations under the northern arch of the Tower. [2]

1275. 44. Thomas de Cantilupe, D.C.L., was consecrated September 8, 1275, at Canterbury. He was second son of William Lord Cantilupe, and Millicent Countess of Evreux, daughter of Hugh de Gornai. He was born at Hameldene, in Lincolnshire, about 1218. His early education


[1] Full particulars of this document are given in Brown Willis and Duncumb, p. 462. In Dean Hook's Lives of the Archbishops, iii. 247, it is stated "that he paid a large sum at Rome to obtain, through a Papal provision, the archbishopric of Bordeaux, which was reported to be vacant. The Pope took the money, and then informed Peter that the archbishop was in good health".

[2] His heart appears to have been deposited beneath a diminutive effigy in Abbey Dore Church. For full particulars, see a paper by W.S. Walford; also Rev. N. Stephenson's Account of Dore and other Churches; and the journal of the Brit. Arch. Association, ii. 361. The practice of heart-interment was not unfrequent at this period. Bishop Aquablanca's heart was sent to his native place in Savoy. Bishop Cantilupe's was sent to Ashridge. Other local instances occurred. The heart of Margaret de Clifford was sent to Aconbury, 1260. That of a lady, Clarice de la Warr (?), at Ewyas Harold, circa 1300. There is a curious stone chest at Bridstow which was used for this purpose. At Castle Frome Church, under the south window of the chancel, is an exquisite little stone carving of a knight holding a heart in his extended hands.

18 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

was confided to the care of his uncle Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester, and afterwards to Robert Kilwardby, Archbishop of Canterbury and Provincial of the Order of St. Dominick in England. He studied both at Oxford and Paris, and was learned in the Civil and Canon Law. He was made Chancellor of Oxford, and became so eminent that Henry III. appointed him Lord Chancellor of England. On the accession of Edward I., he obtained leave to relinquish that office, though he continued in the Privy Council all his life. He became Archdeacon of Stafford and Prebendary of Preston, in this Cathedral, 1273. Though he reluctantly allowed himself to be raised to the episcopate, he was greatly distinguished for his zeal in the discharge of his duties. After a life rich in good works, "he passed from this world to heaven", in the 63d year of his age, on August 25, 1282, at Montefiascone, in Tuscany, when returning from Rome, whither he had gone to obtain the settlement of some differences which had arisen between the archbishop and the bishops as to his jurisdiction.

In the Annals of Nicholas Trivet, a contemporary of St. Thomas, the following mention is made of his death:- "Hoc anno (1282) beatus Thomas Herefordensis Episcopus in via versus Curiam de præsenti sæculo nequam ereptus ad regna migravit cælestia, cum annos septem gregem sibi commissum cura rexisset. Hic nobilibus ortus natalibus a puero Deo vixit devotus". He was buried in the monastery of S. Severus, near the old town of Florence, but his remains were soon after removed to Hereford. They were, first of all, deposited in the Lady Chapel, behind the high altar, but on the completion of the north transept, about 1287, they were removed, in the presence of King Edward I., to the present tomb. Leland, in his Itinerary (circa 1533-40), mentions it as if uninjured in his days. He says:- "S. Thomas de Cantelupo, Epiis. Hereford, lieth at this tyme in the chyrch rychely shrined".

About the year 1300, or soon after, a strong desire was manifested by the king and by the nation that St. Thomas should be canonised and placed in the Calendar of Saints (see Rymer's Foedera, iii. 77, etc.)

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 19

A commission was appointed to inquire into the alleged miracles (July 13, 1307), and the canonisation was completed on April 20, 1320, in the time of Pope John XXII. St. Thomas is the last English saint in the Calendar of the Church. His festival was kept on October 2d. Many miracles are recorded as being wrought through the intercession of this saint (Historia Anglicana, Harpsfield, p. 473). The ancient Chronicle by Matthew of Westminster makes the number 163 (see also his Life and Gests, p. 228; and Acta Sanctorum, October 2, p. 647). He was Provincial Master of the Knights Templars. The arms of Cantilupe were adopted for the See of Hereford after the time of St. Thomas. (For a description of his tomb, see Plate XI X., and ground-plan No. 8.) [1]

A.D. 1283. 45. Richard Swinfield, D.D., Canon of Hereford and Archdeacon of London, consecrated at Gloucester, March 7, 1283. He was a native of Kent, and was chaplain and secretary to his predecessor. He was noted as a great and eloquent preacher. The household-roll of this bishop for the year succeeding Michaelmas 1289 is preserved at Stamford Court by Sir T. Winnington. It was published by the


[1] So many extravagant statements have been published at various times, that it is difficult to discern fact from fiction. The above notice is taken chiefly from the Rev. S. West's History of Withyham Church, Sussex, 1857, by permission. There are several deeds in the archive-room relating to Bishop Cantilupe. No. 25 is a grant from Alexander, Archbishop of Dublin, "to the frequenters of Bp. Cantilupe's tomb at Hereford - 40 days' indulgence". Date 1318. No. 88 is a similar indulgence to pilgrims to his shrine. Date 1324. No. 171, a deed for expediting his canonisation, A.D. 1309. Rev. J. Webb, in his Roll of Bishop Swinfield, p. 88, mentions a deed as having been in these archives:- "Absolutio T. de C. in articulo mortis", but he was uncertain whether it was in existence.

The oldest register now belonging to the See of Hereford commences during this episcopate, A.D. 1275. In 1289 there is a change in the handwriting of a much better character. These precious volumes are generally in a fair state of preservation, all official deeds having been entered, with few interruptions, ever since. "Anno gratim 1278, die Dominica proxima ante ascensionem Domini ... in qua dedicatione fuerunt præsentes et condedicantes ... Thomas de Cantelupe. Eodem die ... Thomas Herefordensis dedicavit altare, ad hostium chori in honore beatæ Mariæ virginis, et beatorum Johannis Baptistæ, et Egidii abbatis, et omnium sanctarum virginum". - Barth. de Cotton, p. 157, as occurring at Norwich where the Cathedral was dedicated.

Page 163 of the same it is stated:- "Magister Thomas de Cantulupo, episcopus Herefordensis, in curia Romana defungitur, qui eo quod archiepiscopus Cantuarim eum excommunicaverat, ad curiam Romanam appellavit".

20 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Camden Society in 1855, and was illustrated and translated by that learned antiquary the Reverend John Webb. This work is peculiarly interesting, not only ecclesiastically, but as elucidating the manners, customs, and expenditure of that age. There is abundant proof that this bishop led a most active life, and maintained a very large and expensive household. He was known as a consistent upholder of the doctrine and discipline of the Church, and a staunch protector of the revenues and persons of his clergy, He died at Bosbury, March 15, 1316, and was buried in the north-east transept of the Cathedral, "maxima pompa", according to Leland. (See ground-plan No. 30, and Plate XXIII.)

A.D. 1317. 46. Adam de Orleton, D.C.L., Canon of Hereford, nominated by the Pope, and consecrated at Avignon, September 25, 1317. He was probably a native of Orleton, in this county. [1] He gave an estate at Shinfield, in Berkshire, for the maintenance of the Cathedral fabric. He was translated to Worcester in 1327, and to Winchester in 1333. "Primus erat omnium episcoporum Angliæ (si Stigandum et Ricardum Pauperem excipias) qui a secundo ad tertium episcopatum translatus est. Unde versificator quidam illius temporis hoc illi tristichon posuit,

Trinus erat Adam; talem suspendere vadam.
Thomam despexit, Wulstanum non bend rexit.
Swithunum maluit. Cur? quia plus valuit".
Wharton's Anglia Sacra, i. 534.

He joined the Barons against Edward II., and in 1323 was arrested and charged with treason. He was deposed and banished when he was found guilty of this offence, being the first bishop who was brought before a secular tribunal. "These proceedings being looked upon as a violation of the liberties of the Church, the Archbishops of Canterbury, York, and Dublin, came immediately, with their crosses erected, into the court, and carried off the bishop, without giving him time to answer to the indictment". Collier's Eccl. Hist. In a letter to the King's keepers when imprisoned at Berkeley Castle, he concluded with the well-known


[1] Full information is given of this bishop in Dean Hook's Lives, etc., iii. 478.

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 21

enigmatical lines:- "Edwardum regem occidere nolite timere bonum est"; the sense being determined by the punctuation. Some writers entertain doubts about his being concerned in plotting the death of Edward II., in consequence of Edward III., in his complaints to Rome, taking no notice of the charge. Milner describes him as "an artful and unprincipled churchman". He died at Winchester in 1345, and was buried at the extreme north- east of that Cathedral, "in capella propria", which is known as "The Guardian Angels", or the Portland Chapel. [1]

A.D. 1327. 47. Thomas Charlton, D.C.L., Canon of York, Archdeacon of Wells, and Treasurer of England, consecrated October 18, 1327. In 1337 he became Chancellor of Ireland, and afterwards "Warden" of that kingdom. He was recalled in 1340. He was buried under the great window of the north transept. (No. 6.) Ob. January 11, 1343.

1344. 48. John Trilleck, D.D., consecrated June 24, 1344. He is said to have given "multa bona et plurima ornamenta" to this church, and


[1] The following correspondence appeared (1868) in Notes and Queries ADAM OF ORLETON'S SAYING.

"I read in Larousse's Grand Dictionnaire - 'Adam d'Orleton, prelat anglais, ne a Herefort (sic) vers 1285, mort en 1315. Il fut successivement eveque de sa ville natale, puis de Worcester, et enfin de Winchester. D'un esprit intriguant et factieux, il prit une part active aux troubles qui agiterent le regne du faible Edouard II., et mourut aveugle et peu regrette. Les historiens rapportent a son sujet une anecdote qui offre un trait caracteristique de l'esprit du temps, et rappelle le fameux oracle de la sibylle a Pyrrhus.

"Consulte par les conspirateurs qui servaient les vues ambitieuses et cruelles d'Isabelle, femme d'Edouard, pour savoir s'il convenait de tuer ce malheureux prince, le prelat repondit par cette phrase amphibologique: Edwardum occidere nolite timere bonum est, qui, suivant les repot que l'on observe dans L'enonciation de ces mots, presente cette double signification: Ne tuez pas Edouard, it est bon de craindre; ou: Ne craignez pas de tuer Edouard, c'est une bonne action.' ".

"Les historiens' alluded to, are evidently Hume and Co.

"I should like to know whether their testimony in this case may be taken as absolutely definitive.

"In other words, is the above-mentioned anecdote pure fiction, composed from mere hearsay and perpetuated by tradition? or is it a fact resting on historical grounds, and proved by contemporary chroniclers and other writers? H. TIEDEMAN, Amsterdam".

ADAM OF ORLETON'S SAYING (4th S.I. 411).

Adam Torleton, Bishop of Hereford, was one of the three bishops sent to King Edward II. to persuade him to resign the crown to his son.

The anecdote, quoted by Mr. Tiedeman, is to be found in Baker's Chronicle of the History of England (p. 165), as follows:-

"At last the pestilent Achitophel, the Bishop of Hereford, devised a letter to his keepers, blaming them for giving him too much liberty, and for not doing the service which was expected from them, and in the end of his letter wrote this line:- 'Edwardum occidere nolite timere bonum est', craftily contriving it in this doubtful sense, that both the keepers might find sufficient warrant, and himself might find sufficient excuse". Baker's Chronicles of the Kings of England, 2d Edit., 1653.

ADAM OF ORLETON'S SAYING (4th S.I. 411, 495).

I cannot refer to historians, but it seems worth while, perhaps, to quote a version of the story about fifty years older than the first edition of Baker's Chronicle. The following passage occurs in Marlowe's Edward II. (Dodsley's Old Plays, ii. 393)

"Mortimer jun.:- This letter, written by a friend of ours,
Contains his death, yet bids them save his life.
Edwardum occidere nolite timere, bonum est:
Fear not to kill the king, 'tis good he die.
But read it thus, and that's another sense -
Edwardum occidere nolite, timere bonum est:
Kill not the king, 'tis good to fear the worst.
Unpointed as it is, thus shall it go", etc.

Mr. Collier appends the following note:- "Sir J. Harington has an Epigram (L.I.E. 33) 'of writing with double pointing', which is thus introduced:-

"It is said that King Edward of Carnarvon, lying at Berkely Castle, prisoner; a cardinal wrote to his keeper, Edwardum occidere noli, timere bonum est, which being read with the point at 'timere', it cost the king his life. JOHN ADDIS Junior".

22 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

to have discharged the duties of his office with activity. He prohibited the continuance of "all plays and interludes, - by which the hearts of the faithful are drawn aside to vanities", in the churches of this diocese. He died November 30, 1360, and was buried in the centre of the second bay of the choir. (No. 20.) See Plates XII. and XX. [1]

A.D. 1361. 49. Lewis Charlton, D.D., Canon of this church, and Chancellor of Oxford, was consecrated October 25, 1361. Nothing remarkable appears to have taken place during his episcopate. He is supposed to have built the White Cross near this city. (See Plate XXV.) He left several valuable ornaments and books to this church, and 40 to the fabric. He died May 23, 1369, and was buried under a once-beautiful


[1] New Inn Hall, in the University of Oxford, was formerly known by the name of Trilleck's Inn, from its having been the property of this bishop; but he dying intestate in 1360, it devolved to his brother the Bishop of Rochester. It afterwards became the property of William of Wykeham, who gave it to the warden and scholars of New College.

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 23

monument, the effigy and lower part only remaining, in the south-east transept. (No. 50.)

A.D. 1370. 50. Honourable William Courtenay, D.C.L., fourth son of Hugh, second Earl of Devon, consecrated March 17, 1370. Translated to London 1375, he became Lord Chancellor, and Archbishop of Canterbury in 1381. His episcopate was not marked by any particular events. He strongly opposed Wickliff and his followers. He died at Maidstone, July 31, 1396, and was buried there. An alabaster monument is erected to his memory, near the tomb of the Black Prince, in Canterbury Cathedral.

1375. 51. John Gilbert, a friar and preacher, Bishop of Bangor, translated to Hereford September 12, 1375. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1386. On his return, in the same year, he became Treasurer of England, but was deprived of that office by Richard II. He was translated to St. David's in 1389, and dying in 1397, he was buried in the church of the White Friars, Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire.

1389. 52. John Trevenant, D.C.L., Canon of St. Asaph and Lichfield, consecrated June 20, 1389. He was sent by Henry IV. on an embassy to Rome in 1400. He died shortly before April 23, 1404, and was buried under a canopied monument beneath the great window of the south transept. (No. 78.) [1]

1404. 53. Robert Mascall, a Carmelite friar at Ludlow, consecrated at Rome, July 6, 1404. He was confessor to Henry IV., who frequently engaged him in embassies to foreign courts. He attended the Council of Constance in 1415. He rebuilt the church of the Whitefriars in London, and was buried there under a stately tomb. He died December 22, 1416, making liberal bequests to his own order, but leaving nothing to the Cathedral.

1417. 54. Edmund Lacy, D.D., Master of University College, Oxford, Dean of Windsor, and Prebendary of Hinton in this Cathedral, consecrated


[1] Three shields belonging to his tomb were placed in error, after the late restorations, beneath the effigy of Dean Harvey.

24 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

April 18, 1417, at Windsor, in the presence of Henry V. In 1420. he was translated to Exeter, where he was a great benefactor, and builder of the Chapter-house. He died in 1455, and was buried in Exeter Cathedral. [1]

A.D. 1420. 55. Thomas Polton, B.C.L., Dean of York, Prebendary of Sarum, and Archdeacon of Taunton, consecrated at Florence July 21, 1420. He remained here only fifteen months, being translated to Chichester in 1421, and to Worcester in 1426. He died in 1433, while attending the Council of Basil, and was buried at Rome.

1422. 56. Thomas Spofford, Abbot of St. Mary's, York, Bishop- elect of Rochester, consecrated May 24, 1422. He expended much on the episcopal residence at Sugwas, and 2800 marks on buildings at Hereford - probably the Bishop's Cloisters. His arms appear on the vaulting of the south transept, which would also be his work. He resigned his pastoral staff in 1448, and retired to St. Mary's, York, where he died and was buried. Brown Willis states that a window, with an inscription, was placed in the chancel of Catterick Church to his memory.

1449. 57. Richard Beauchamp, D.C.L., of a noble family, Archdeacon of Suffolk, consecrated at Lambeth February 9, 1449. He sat here scarcely two years, being translated to Salisbury in 1450, where he died in 1481, and was there buried under a sumptuous monument. He was one of the greatest architects of his time, having carried out extensive works at St. George's, Windsor. He was the first Chancellor of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, which office descended to the Bishops of Salisbury, until Edward VI. wholly left out ecclesiastics by appointing Sir W. Cecil to that office. But it was fully restored to the See by Charles II. in 1669. (Vide Ashmole, p. 238.)

1451. 58. Reginald Boulers, D.D., Abbot of Gloucester, consecrated in


[1] Owing to a multiplicity of engagements, and the king's illness, he could not be spared for a time to visit his new diocese; but in the interval his Register and the Fabric Rolls testify his zeal in promoting the completion of his Cathedral and its cloisters. He was one of Henry V.'s executors. He was a considerable benefactor to the Vicars-Choral of Exeter. His Hereford Register, consisting of 322 leaves, sets forth that he was consecrated by the Primate Chickeley and the Bishops of Worcester and St. David's.

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 25

1451. He remained here only two years, being translated to Lichfield.

A.D. 1453. 59. John Stanberry, D.D., a native of Bratton or Morwenstow in Cornwall, the most distinguished Carmelite friar of his time, translated from Bangor to this See in 1453. He was confessor to Henry VI., by whom he was made the first Provost of Eton College. He was a learned and eloquent scholar, and a faithful adviser of his sovereign. His attachment to the king remained unshaken in all the adverse circumstances of that monarch, and being taken prisoner with him after the battle of Northampton (1460), he suffered a long imprisonment at Warwick Castle. On his release he retired to the house of the Carmelites at Ludlow, where he died May 11, 1474. He had built and endowed a chantry in the Cathedral during his lifetime. He was buried on the north side of the high altar under a very beautiful alabaster tomb. (No. 21.) He gave the land on which the College now stands (upwards of two acres), and considerable pecuniary assistance, in order that the vicars-choral might reside in closer proximity to the Cathedral. An account of this bishop is given in Prince's Worthies of Devon, and his charities and will are given in the Survey of Bangor Cathedral.

1474. 60. Thomas Milling, D.D., Abbot of Westminster, formerly a Benedictine student at Gloucester College, Oxford, consecrated August 21, 1474. He was sponsor to Edward, Prince of Wales, son of Edward IV. He was the kind friend and patron of the celebrated William Caxton. He died in 1492, and was buried in the centre of St. John Baptist's Chapel at Westminster Abbey. [1]

1492. 61. Honourable Edmund Audley, D.D., translated from Rochester to this See in 1492. He graduated at Lincoln College, Oxford, to which society he was a great benefactor. He held a prebendal stall in


[1] Dean Stanley, in his most interesting Memorials, p. 222, says:- "His grave (Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, the Parliamentary General) was in St. John's Chapel, in a vault occupied by an Abbot, whose crozier was still perfect. This, no doubt, is the stone coffin (still containing some remains) now rudely placed above the monument of Abbotto Fascet in the same chapel, and probably belonging to Abbot Milling", etc. See also p. 355.

26 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Lincoln and Wells Cathedrals, and became Archdeacon of the East Riding. He built and endowed a chantry on the south side of the Ladye Chapel. He was translated to Salisbury, where he built another chantry, and was there buried in 1524.

A.D. 1502. 62. Adrian de Castello, an Italian Cardinal, consecrated May 9, 1502, on the appointment of Henry VIII. He appears to have been Vicar of Luton, Prebendary of St. Paul's, and Rector of St. Dunstan's in the East. He was translated in 1504 to Bath and Wells, but he never saw either of his dioceses. He gave a considerable sum of money towards vaulting the choir of Bath Abbey, where his arms, beneath a cardinal's hat, may still be seen. But conspiring against the Pope, he was deprived of all his preferments in 1516, so that when or where he died is unknown. [1]

1504. 63. Richard Mayo or Mayew, D.D., consecrated 1504; born at Hungerford, Wilts; educated at Winchester College, and admitted Fellow of New College in 1459. In 1480 he was made President of Magdalen College by the founder (William of Waynfleet). He laid the foundation-stone of the unrivalled tower of that College. He was Archdeacon of Oxford, and the East Riding. In 1501 he conducted the Infanta Catherine of Spain to England, to be wedded to Prince Arthur, eldest son of Henry VII. In 1503 he was elected Chancellor of the University of Oxford. He died April 18, 1516, and was buried under a rich monument on the south side of the high altar. (No. 67.)

1516. 64. Charles Booth, D.C.L., educated at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, consecrated November 30, 1516. He was Prebendary of Lichfield, Archdeacon of Buckingham, and Chancellor of the Marches of Wales. He built the outer north porch of the Cathedral, and gave many books and rich ornaments to the Cathedral. He was buried in his episcopal


[1] The consecration of this bishop is not noticed in Professor Stubbs' most valuable work, Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum.

[2] He bequeathed his crozier and 500 marks to this Cathedral. His ring is still preserved (see Plate III.) His monument was restored in 1862, and the brass work replaced at the cost of the President and Fellows of Magdalen College. For a biographical notice, see Athenæ Cant. i. 18.

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 27

vestments in the tomb which he had erected during his lifetime. [1] (No. 1.) He died May 5, 1535.

A.D. 1535. 65. Edward Fox, D.D., born at Dursley; educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge; consecrated at Winchester, September 26, 1535. He was Archdeacon of Leicester, and also of Dorset; Provost of King's College, which office he held during his life; almoner to Henry VIII., who employed him in several embassies to the Courts of Germany and France. He was an able scholar and divine, and he supported Cranmer in the Reformation. Fuller calls him "the principal pillar of the Reformation". He died in 1538, and was buried in the church of St. Mary, Monthault, which was destroyed in the great fire of London. Athen. Cant. i. 66.

1538. Edmund Bonner, D.C.L., was elected to this See, November 27, 1538, but was removed to London before consecration. He has been described as "the most severe of all bishops against heretics, as they were then called". Duncumb observes that "his zeal for the Roman Catholic religion, his own sufferings in that cause, and his persecution of the Protestants in the reign of Queen Mary, are well known". He died in the Marshalsea prison in 1569. [2]

1539. 66. John Skip, D.D., Prior of Wigmore, Master of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, and Archdeacon of Dorset, consecrated at Lambeth, November 23, 1539. He was one of the "notable learned men" associated with Cranmer in drawing up the Order of Communion (1548), and was probably one of those who assisted in compiling the first Common Prayer Book of Edward VI. He died March 30, 1552, and was buried in the same place as his predecessor Bishop Fox. [3]


[1] This effigy is remarkably small. The pastoral staff is placed in his right hand. This is the only instance of the metal-work protecting the tomb being left undisturbed. Many of our finest monuments owe their preservation in a great measure to the strong ornamental iron-work which formerly surrounded them, but all now utterly destroyed. For his biography, see Athen. Cant.i. 52.

[2] See Athenæ Oxon. 123, for full particulars of his life and writings.

[3] Athen. Cant. i. 109. In 1868 part of the graveyard in which Bishops Fox and Skip were buried was disturbed by the construction of a new street. Measures were taken to respect the

28 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. 1553. 67. John Harley, B.D., a native of Newport Pagnel, and Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford (circa 1537), consecrated at Croydon, May 26, 1553. He was Rector of Upton-upon-Severn, Vicar of Kidderminster, and Prebendary of Worcester. He was deposed from this See by Queen Mary a few months after consecration, on account of his being a married priest. He died in obscurity about the year 1557. [1]

1554. 68. Robert Parfew, alias Wharton, B.D., consecrated in 1536 to St. Asaph, and translated to Hereford 1554. He was formerly Abbot of St. Saviour's Monastery, Bermondsey, and educated at Cambridge (Ath. Cant. i. 171). He contributed largely towards building the churches of Mould, Gresford, and Wrexham; and he gave magnificent copes and other ornaments to the Cathedral. He died September 22, 1557, and is said by some to have been buried in the south transept, and by others in the north-east transept of the Cathedral. (No. 32.) [2]

remains of these prelates, so that if their removal were imperative they might be conveyed to Hereford. I was assured by the superintendent of the works that the bishops were not disturbed, but that they were supposed to be "under the foundation of the wall on the south side of the ground, which will not be disturbed at present". June 22, 1868.


[1] After most diligent search in and around Kidderminster, I have failed to obtain any proof from registers or Antiquarian friends of the exact time and place of his death or burial.

The following appeared lately in Notes and Queries:-

"JOHN HARLEY, BISHOP OF HEREFORD.

"There seems to be very little known of this prelate, who was deposed from his See by Queen Mary, on account of his attachment to the principles of the Reformation.

"Collins claims him as a member of Lord Oxford's family, but does not fix his place in the pedigree; and of his life subsequent to his deposition I can find no traces. Can your readers assist me? C.J.R".

"BISHOP HARLEY (4th S.I. 365).

"In Wood's Athenæ Oxonienses I find an account of Bishop J. Harley, who was originally tutor in the Duke of Northumberland's family, and preacher at Oxford against the Roman Catholics during the reign of Edward VI.

"Leland, the antiquary, in his work, Encomiis, etc., eruditorum in Angliæ virorum, praises him for his virtues and learning, especially in classical authors, for his fine vein of poetry, etc.

"Harley, after his deprivation, wandered from place to place consoling the remnant of Protestants in those days. Wood does not mention his family, but that he was born in Herefordshire. THOS. E. WINNINGTON".

The sides of this tomb appear to be the work of the preceding century. The effigy is more mutilated than any other in the Cathedral. It possibly may have been removed to this place from the south transept. Future antiquarians will find a very beautiful coffin-slab under the base of this tomb; a portion of it is fixed on the adjacent wall, bearing the words "Ave Maria".

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 29

A.D. 1558. Thomas Reynolds, D.D., Warden of Merton College, and Dean of Exeter, was nominated to this See; but Queen Mary dying before his consecration, the appointment became void. He died in Marshalsea prison, November 24, 1559.

1559. 69. John Scory, B.D., consecrated at Croydon as Bishop of Rochester, August 30, 1551. He was promoted to Chichester in 1552, but was deprived of that dignity by Queen Mary. He was promoted in 1559 to this See by Queen Elizabeth on certain conditions. During his episcopate "the diocese suffered an almost total revolution, under the specious pretext of an exchange with the Queen, to which in reality he was obliged to accede. He alienated several of the best manors, and almost all the ancient demesnes, belonging to the Cathedral" (Dugdale's Monasticon, vi. 1211). He died at his manor-house at Whitbourne, June 25, 1585, and was buried in that church without any memorial. [1] His burial is recorded in the register of that parish. He bequeathed 200 bushels of corn to the poor of Hereford, and 200 to be lent to young tradesmen of Hereford without interest, and a similar sum to the tradesmen of Leominster.

1586. 70. Herbert Westfaling, D.D., Rector of Brightwell, Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, and Treasurer of St. Paul's, London. He was consecrated at Lambeth, January 30, 1586. He purchased an estate at Rudhall, near Ross, which was held by his descendants till within the present century. He had also an estate and residence at Mansel Gamage in this county. He was a great benefactor to the poor of Hereford and Whitbourne, and he bequeathed his manor of Batche, in this county, to Jesus College, Oxford, for the maintenance of two fellows and two scholars, on certain conditions. He was a learned divine, and a person of great gravity and integrity. [2] Wood's account


[1] In Athenæ Cant. i. 511, there is a long biographical sketch of this bishop; also the inscription on his wife's tomb in St. Leonard's, Shoreditch. He was appointed by Cranmer to be one of the six preachers in Canterbury Cathedral.

[2] In the Western Cathedrals, p. 130, it is stated that "while this bishop was preaching in the Cathedral, a mass of frozen snow fell from the tower upon the roof, and so frightened the congregation, that they endeavoured to escape in all haste; but the bishop remained unmoved in his pulpit, calmly exhorting them to sit still and fear no harm". A large building was attached

30 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

of his great gravity is confirmed by Godwyn, who informs us that during an intimate acquaintance for many years he never saw him once laugh (Athen. Oxon. i. 719). He died at Hereford, March 1, 1602, and was buried in the north transept, beneath the great window, where his effigy is now placed. (No. 5.)

A.D. 1603. 71. Robert Bennett, D.D., Master of St. Cross's Hospital, Dean of Windsor, and sometime Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge; consecrated at Lambeth by the appointment of Queen Elizabeth, February 20, 1603, but he did homage to James I. He left numerous legacies, and expended considerable sums on the episcopal residences. He died October 20, 1617, and was buried on the north side of the choir (No. 18), where his alabaster effigy and portions only of his monument remain. [1]

1617. 72. Francis Godwin, D.D., student of Christ Church, Canon of Wells, Sub-dean of Exeter; nominated to the See of Llandaff by Queen Elizabeth, and consecrated in Henry VII. Chapel, November 22, 1601. He was translated to Hereford in 1617. Fuller states that "he was a good man, grave divine, skilful mathematician, pure Latinist, and incomparable historian". His great work was a Catalogue of all the Bishops of England, to which all succeeding church historians have been greatly indebted. [2] He also wrote several other works. He died at Whitbourne, where he was buried without any other memorial than his arms.

1633. William Juxon, D.C.L., Prebendary of Chichester and Dean of Worcester, elected October 3, 1633, but was translated to London before consecration.

Godfrey Goodman, D.D., Bishop of Gloucester, was elected to this See, but he refused it.

to the palace (taken down within the memory of persons now living) by this bishop. It was always called "Westfaling's Room".


[1] This bishop was involved in much contention with the civic authorities of Hereford. See Britton's Antiquities, p. 29, and Johnson's Ancient Customs, chap. vi.

[2] The large folio edition by Dr. Richardson, 1743, with numerous corrections and additions, is still one of our valuable and standard works.

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 31

A.D. 1634. 73. Augustine Lindsell, D.D., consecrated as Bishop of Peterborough at Lambeth, February 10, 1633, translated to Hereford, March 1634. He was Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, and Dean of Lichfield. He was a distinguished student in Greek, Hebrew, and all antiquity. He was found dead in his library, November 6, 1634, and he was buried in the south-east transept of the Cathedral (No. 60), where his effigy alone marks the spot.

1635. 74. Matthew Wren, D.D., consecrated at Lambeth, March 8, 1635. He was Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, Master of Peterhouse, and Vice-Chancellor of that University. He was Prebendary of Westminster and Winchester, and Dean of Windsor. He remained here only a few months, being translated to Norwich and Ely. He died in London 1667, and was buried at Cambridge. The celebrated architect Sir Christopher Wren belonged to this bishop's family.

1635. 75. Theophilus Field, D.D., elected December 15, 1635. He was consecrated in 1619 to Llandaff, and was translated to St. David's in 1627. He was Scholar and Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge, and he held the benefices of Cotton in Suffolk and Lidde in Kent. He died June 2, 1636, and was buried in the north transept aisle (No. 9), where his alabaster effigy is attached to the wall.

1636. 76. George Coke, D.D., brother of Sir John Coke, Secretary of State, was educated at Pembroke College, Cambridge; Rector of Bigrave, Herts; consecrated Bishop of Bristol 1633; translated to Hereford June 18, 1636. Fuller observes that "he was a meek, grave, quiet man, much beloved of such as were subjected to his jurisdiction". He died at Eardisley, December 10, 1646, where he was buried in the south-east corner of the chancel. [1] The monument in the south-east transept of the Cathedral is a cenotaph, where his effigy and part of the inscription only remain.


[1] A small brass-plate in the pavement marks the spot of his interment. The large stone containing his arms and inscription is in a good state, but has been removed to the western end of the chancel.

32 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

The See was now vacant fourteen years. [1]

A.D. 1661. 77. Nicholas Monk, D.D., of Wadham College, Oxford, Rector of Kilkhampton, Cornwall, Provost of Eton College, consecrated at Westminster January 6, 1661. He was brother of the great Duke of Albemarle, "the Wellington of that age". It has been stated that he never visited his diocese. He died December 17, 1661, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. [2]

1662. 78. Herbert Croft, D.D., consecrated at Lambeth, February 9, 1662. He was descended from the ancient family of Croft, of Croft Castle in this county. He appears to have held the benefices of Harding, Oxfordshire; and Uley, Gloucestershire; a Prebendal Stall at Salisbury, and a Stall at Windsor. He became Dean of this Cathedral in 1644. He was a man of exemplary charity, and had a strict regard to his Cathedral. He died at the age of eighty-eight, on May 18, 1691, and was buried beneath the present bishops' throne. The stone placed to his memory is now in the south-east transept. (No. 59.) See note on page 40.

1691. 79. Gilbert Ironside, D.D., Fellow and Warden of Wadham College, Oxford, consecrated Bishop of Bristol in 1689, translated to Hereford in 1691. He died at the age of sixty- nine, on August 27, 1701, and was buried in the chancel of St. Mary Somerset Church, London. His remains were removed to this Cathedral, December 1867 (in consequence of that church being taken down), and they now


[1] An ordinance of the then existing government was passed in October 1646 to abolish Episcopacy; but this spiritual office being of Divine institution, no power of king or parliament can either make or unmake the same.

The sufferings of all the clergy at this unhappy period are too well known to need any further remarks in this place.

[2] Dean Stanley, in his Memorials, page 229, writes thus:- "In St. Edmund's Chapel lies Nicholas Monk, 'the honest clergyman', who undertook the journey to Scotland to broach the first design of the Restoration to his brother the General, for whom he had always had a brotherly affection, but who was sent back with such infinite reproaches and many oaths, that the poor man was glad when he was gone, and never had the courage after to undertake the like employment. Camden, vii. 383. His services, however, were not forgotten, and he was raised to the See of Hereford, and dying immediately afterwards, was buried in the Abbey. But he also was left for sixty years to wait for a monument, which ultimately was erected by his last descendant, Christopher Robinson, in 1723".

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 33

rest beneath the original marble inscription in the south-east transept (No. 59.) [1]

A.D. 1701. 80. Humfrey Humphries, D.D. of Jesus College, Oxford, Dean and afterwards Bishop of Bangor, was consecrated to that See in 1689. Translated to Hereford, October 1, 1701. Anth. Wood states that he was "excellently versed in antiquities". He was buried on the north side of the choir, near Bishop Trilleck's brass. Ob. November 20, 1712. His finely-cut monumental slab is now in the south-east transept. (No. 57.)

1713. 81. Philip Bisse, D.D., consecrated to the See of St. David's, November 19, 1710. Nominated to this See, January 26, 1713. "He was a great benefactor to the Cathedral, adding many ornaments and repairs to the choir", at very great cost, but in a manner totally at variance with ancient or modern principles. He also expended a large sum upon the Palace. He died September 6, 1721, and was buried on the south side of the choir, under a sumptuous monument which has entirely disappeared, with the exception of the mitre and the inscription. [2] (No. 91.)

1721. 82. Benjamin Hoadley, D.D. of St. Catharine's College, Cambridge; translated from Bangor to this See November 7, 1721; promoted to Salisbury in 1723, and to Winchester in 1734. He took a prominent part in the politics of that time, and wrote numerous pamphlets, which were then esteemed inferior to few other writings in the English language. He died in 1761, aged eighty-three. [3]


[1] For further particulars, see "Miscellaneous Notes", near the end of this volume.

[2] The long Latin inscription concludes thus:-

"Natus est Oldburia in agro Gloucestrensi
A sacerdotum stemmate per quinque successiones deducto
Institutus in Schola Wintoniensi
Dehinc in Coll: Nov: Oxon, cooptatus:
Cujus honori promovendo,- omnimode ut vivens studuit.
Ita centum Libras moriens legavit.

Dr. Bisse married Lady Bridget Osborne, widow of Charles Fitz- Charles, for some time known as Don Carlos, and created Earl of Plymouth in 1675, the eldest son of Katherine Pegge, by King Charles the Second (Nichols' Literary Anecdotes, vi. 224).

[3] See Duncumb, 493; Britton, 33; and Supplement to Biographia Britannica, for enlarged accounts of his life.

34 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. 1724. 83. Honourable Henry Egerton, D.C.L., fifth son of John, third Earl of Bridgewater, was consecrated to this See, February 2, 1723 (old style), and enthroned on March 18. He was Rector of Whitchurch, Salop, Canon of Christ Church, and Chaplain to George I. He died suddenly April 1, 1746, and was buried at St. James' Church, Westminster, beneath the altar. [1]

1746. 84. Lord James Beauclerk, D.D. of Queen's College, Oxford, was consecrated to this See on May 11, 1746. He was eighth son of Charles Beauclerk, Duke of St. Albans. Shortly before the close of his episcopate (which was not replete with noteworthy events), the fall of the whole western part of the Cathedral occurred on Easter Monday 1786. He presided over this diocese forty-one years, and died October 20, 1787. He was buried in the choir near the Bishops' Throne. [2]

1787. 85. Honourable John Harley, D.D. of Christ Church, Oxford, was consecrated to this See, December 9, 1787. He was third son of the third Earl of Oxford. Dean of Windsor. He died very soon after his consecration, on January 7, 1788, and was buried with his ancestors at Brampton Bryan in this county.

1788. 86. John Butler, D.D. (Lambeth), consecrated Bishop of Oxford in 1777; translated to Hereford, January 23, 1788. He was Chaplain to George III., Prebendary of Winchester, Incumbent of Everleigh, Wilts, and Archdeacon of Surrey. He published a volume of sermons shortly before his death, which occurred on December 10, 1802, at the


[1] In 1937 the demolition of the very ancient and curious chapels adjoining the palace was commenced under his sanction; "but after an expense of 50 in taking down one-third of the chapel, the design was relinquished, the cement being found harder than the stones themselves. It was well known that 20 would have put it into as good repair as it had been in during 400 years". The Society of Antiquaries strongly protested against a deed worthy of the darkest age. This building, lately known as the "Magdalens", was the oldest of all the structures at Hereford. Part of the north wall alone now remains.

Mr. Britton remarks:- "It is related that the entrance doorway was semicircular, with at least ten receding mouldings, springing from as many columns on each side; and if so, it must have surpassed the noble south porch of Malmesbury Abbey Church. The building was nearly square, with an arched roof sustained on two pillars and covered with stone, similar to some early buildings in Normandy".

[2] All that remains of his monumental tablet is now fixed on the wall of the Bishops' Cloister near No. 103.

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 35

age of eighty-five. He was buried on the north side of the choir, but there is no memorial now remaining. In earlier life he was a popular preacher and an able political writer.

A.D. 1802. 87. Folliott Herbert Walker Cornewall, D.D., Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, Dean of Canterbury, was translated from Bristol to this See on December 18, 1802. He was promoted to Worcester, June 1808. He died in 1831.

1808. 88. John Luxmoore, D.D. of King's College, Cambridge; Dean of Gloucester 1800; Bishop of Bristol 1807; translated to Hereford 1808. He was promoted to St. Asaph in 1815. He took an active part in establishing national schools in this diocese.

1815. 89. George Isaac Huntingford, D.D. of New College, Oxford; Warden of Winchester College 1789; Bishop of Gloucester 1802; translated to Hereford, June 21, 1815. He was author of several classical and theological works. He died April 29, 1832, in his eighty-fourth year, and was buried at Compton, near Winchester. There is a monument in the Bishops' Cloister (No. 102) to his memory, and a stained-glass window in the south-east transept (No. 53). See Watt's Bibliotheca Britannica for a list of his works.

1832. 90. Honourable Edward Grey, D.D. of Christ Church, Oxford, youngest son of the first Earl Grey, was nominated to this See, May 4, 1832. He was Dean of Hereford in 1831. He was buried in the choir of the Cathedral, eastward of the throne (between Nos. 91 and 92), on July 24, 1837, aged fifty-five years. A brass plate has recently been fixed on the wall to mark the spot. There is also a monument to his memory, now in the Bishops' Cloister. (No. 101.)

1837. 91. Thomas Musgrave, [1] D.D., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge;


[1] Thomas Musgrave was second surviving son of Peete and Sarah Musgrave, born at Cambridge, March 30, 1788. His father was a woollen-draper in Cambridge, one of the leading tradesmen who took an active and influential part in the politics and affairs of that University town. As a boy, Thomas Musgrave was pupil of the Rev. Mr. Heald of Birstall, and also of the celebrated James Tate at Richmond. He entered Trinity College as a Pensioner in 1806, Scholar 1808, B.A. as 14th Wrangler 1810, Fellow 1812. He resided there as Fellow and Bursar for twenty-five years. He held the office of Lord Almoner's Reader in Arabic. He was appointed to Bristol and Hereford by Lord Melbourne, and to York by Lord John Russell.

36 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Dean of Bristol; consecrated Bishop of Hereford, October 1, 1837; promoted to the Archbishopric of York, December 1847. He died in London, May 4, 1860, aged seventy-two years, and was buried at the Kensal Green Cemetery, where there is a tomb with a short inscription. There is a monument to him in York Minster - an altar-tomb, with full-length effigy, sculptured by Noble. There are also three stained-glass windows in the north choir aisle of Hereford Cathedral to his memory. (No. 24.)

A.D. 1847. 92. Renn Dickson Hampden, D.D., Fellow of Oriel College; Principal of St. Mary's Hall; Regius Professor of Divinity; and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford. He was nominated by Lord John Russell to this See, December 11, 1847; elected on December 28. He received the royal assent January 6, 1848, which was confirmed on January 11. On March 14th Her Majesty the Queen directed letters-patent to issue to consecrate him, and the ceremony was performed on March 26 by the following prelates at Lambeth:-

John B. Sumner, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Edward Coplestone, Bishop of Llandaff.
Edward Stanley, Bishop of Norwich.
Henry Pepys, Bishop of Worcester.

The temporalities were restored to him on April 17, 1848. He gained the Latin Prize Essay 1814; Fellow of Oriel 1815; Public Examiner 1829-31; Bampton Lecturer 1832; Principal of St. Mary Hall; Professor of Moral Philosophy 1836; Regius Professor of Divinity and Canon of Christ Church. He died April 23, 1868, in London, and was buried at Kensal Green Cemetery, in close proximity to the Princess Sophia. His Scholastic Philosophy was pronounced by Hallam to be the only work of deep metaphysical research on the subject to be found in the English language. [1]


[1] During the episcopate of Bishop Hampden a large number of churches were built or restored in all parts of the diocese, pre-eminent among them being Ludlow, Leominster, Tenbury, and St. Michael's near Tenbury. One of his first acts was to cause the Cathedral service to be resumed in the nave; from 1841 to 1849 it had been discontinued in consequence of the extensive work of restoration in the interior. He preached on the memorable occasion of the opening of the Cathedral, on June 30, 1863, to one of the largest congregations ever seated within its walls. The present Bishop of Oxford preached on the afternoon of the same day. His speeches and addresses were always models of deep thought, combined with the utmost refinement and tenderness of expression. He was a staunch supporter of many of our local and national Church Societies.

The Succession of the Bishops of Hereford. 37

A.D. 1868. James Atlay, D.D., second son of the Reverend Henry Atlay, M.A., formerly Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. He was born July 3, 1817; graduated at St. John's College, Cambridge, of which he was subsequently Fellow and Tutor. Appointed one of Her Majesty's Preachers at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall, 1857; Vicar of Leeds 1859; Canon of Ripon 1861; nominated to this See, May 9; consecrated at Westminster Abbey on June 24th by the following prelates:-

Charles Thomas Longley, Archbishop of Canterbury.
Charles John Ellicott, Bishop of Gloucester.
Edward Harold Browne, Bishop of Ely.

Enthroned in Hereford Cathedral, July 2, 1868. [1]

Seal

[1] By his Lordship's kind permission I am enabled to present a facsimile of his official seal, engraved by Wyon. The plates with the Heraldry of the Bishops of Hereford were completed before his appointment to this See.

38 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Deans of the Cathedral Church of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1140. 1. RALPH is the first Dean whose name is recorded. He was appointed by Bishop de Bethune, and deposed soon after.

1150. 2. Geoffrey.

1157. 3. Ralph.

1173. 4. Geoffrey.

1187. 5. Richard.

1187. 6. Hugh de Breuse or Breusa held it A.D. 1202.

1207. 7. Hugh de Mapenore. Promoted to bishopric 1216. - 1219.

1216. 8. Henry.

1218. cir 9. Thomas de Bosbury. - Sept. 26, 1231.

1231. 10. Ralph de Maidstone. Promoted to bishopric 1234. - 1245.

1234. 11. Stephen de Thorne.

1247. cir 12. Ancelinus or Anselm.

1271. 13. Giles de Avenbury. There was a suit about his will, which was not settled in 1285. - 1278.

1278. 14. John de Aquablanca. Nephew of the Bishop. Buried in the north transept, as ordered by his will (No. 10). - 1320.

1320. 15. Stephen de Ledbury. - circa 1352.

1352. 16. Thomas de Trilleck. Coadjutor to his brother, the Bishop of this See. Dean of St. Paul's and Bishop of Rochester in 1364.

1361. 17. William de Feriby. July 28 of this year. His name is omitted by local historians. A patent of Edward III. proves his admission to this office. Fasti Ebor. i. 432.

1363. 18. William de Birmingham.

1363. 19. John de Middleton. Deprived circa 1380.

1380. 20. John Harold. Buried in the Cathedral (No. 48 ?). - October 19, 1393.

1391. 21. John Prophete. Keeper of the Privy Seal, Dean of York, 1407.

1407. 22. Thomas Felde, D.C.L. He left 40 marks to this church. He was buried at Maidstone. - 1419.

Deans of the Cathedral Church of Hereford. 39

A.D. - OBIIT.

1422. 23. John Bagshaw was Dean in May 1422. (Duffus Hardy).

1422. 24. John Stanwey. Died possessed of it. - August 9, 1434.

1434. 25. Henry Shelford. - September 26, circa 1445.

1446. 26. John Berew or Beaurieu. Buried on the south side of the Ladye Chapel under an effigy of unusual merit. - April 6, 1462.

1462. 27. John ap Richard. June 24. Deprived two days after.

1462. 28. Richard Pede, D.C.L. March 8. Chancellor of Lichfield. - 1480.

1481. 29. Thomas Chandeler, D.D. Chancellor of Oxford and Warden of New College. Buried in the south-east transept. (No. 62). - November 2, 1490.

1491. 30. Oliver King, D.C.L. Resigned the same year. Secretary to Henry VII. Bishop of Exeter 1493, and Bath and Wells 1495. [1] - 1502.

1491, 31. John Harvey. Buried in the south-east transept under an alabaster effigy. (No. 61). - 1500.

1501. 32. Reginald West. - Resigned or died circa 1512.

1502. 33. Thomas Wolsey, the celebrated Cardinal, was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford. After holding various preferments, he was made Dean of Hereford some time during the year 1512. He resigned it December 3, on his promotion to the Deanery of York. [2] He died at Leicester, November 29. - 1530.

1512. 34. Edmund Frowcester, D.D. A benefactor to the library. Buried under a fine brass in south aisle of the choir. (No. 66). - 1529.

1530. 35. Gamaliel Clifton, D.C.L. Canon of York and Windsor. Buried in the Cathedral. (Athen. Cant. i. 78). - April 29, 1541.

1541. 36. Hugh Coren or Curwyn, D.C.L. He became Archbishop of Dublin in 1555, and Bishop of Oxford 1567. He resigned this Deanery for a few weeks, but resuming it he held it till 1558. (Athen. Cant. i. 280.)

1558. 37. Edmund Daniel, M.A. Deprived in 1559. He retired to Rome, and was buried in the chapel dedicated to St. Thomas Becket, aged 57. - October 30, 1576.

1559. 38. John Ellis, M.A. Resigned 1576. (Athen. Cant. i. 363).

1576. 39. John Watkins, M.A. Rector of Ross. Resigned 1593. - May 1594.


[1] He began to rebuild Bath Abbey, but lived only to see the west end and south part completed. From its lightsome appearance it obtained the name of "the lantern of England". He was buried on the north side of its high altar.

[2] In Lives of the Bishops of Bath and Wells (Cassan) it is stated that Wolsey proceeded to the M.A. degree, but I can find no account of his taking any higher degree.

40 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1593. 40. Charles Langford, M.A. Vicar of Lugwardine. He endowed several Exhibitions for the benefit of natives of Hereford educated at the Cathedral School. Buried in this Cathedral without any memorial. - October 28, 1607.

1607. 41. Edward Doughtie, M.A. - 1616.

1616. 42. Richard Montague, B.D. Cambridge. Resigned the same year. Archdeacon of Hereford 1617. Bishop of Chichester 1628.

1617. 43. Silvanus Griffiths, D.D. Rector of Kingsland and Stoke Say. - 1623.

1617. 44. Oliver Lloyd was the next Dean, according to the Bishops' Registers.

1623. 45. Daniel Price, D.D. Canon Residentiary, and Rector of Worthen, where he died and was buried. - September 23, 1631.

1631. 46. John Richardson, D.D. (Fasti Oxon. 807.) Died at Stretton or Hereford. - April 1636.

1631. 47. Jonathan Brown, D.D. Buried at Hertingfordbury, Herts, where he was Rector, without any memorial. [1] (Fasti Oxon. 868). - 1643.

1644. 48. Herbert Croft, D.D. Bishop of Hereford 1661. - 1691.

1661. 49. Thomas Hodges, D.D. Christ Church Oxon. Rector of Kensington, where he was buried. (Fasti Oxon. ii. 714). - 1672.

1672. 50. George Benson, D.D. (Fasti Oxon. ii. 812.) Buried in the choir beside Bishop Croft. Monumental stones now in south- east transept. [2] (No. 59). - 1692.

1692. 51. John Tyler, B.D. Vicar of St. Peter's, Hereford. Bishop of Llandaff 1706, held with this Deanery. Buried in south transept near No. 79. Aged eighty-four. - July 8, 1724.

1724. 52. Robert Clavering. Bishop of Llandaff 1724, and Peterborough 1729. - 1747.

1729. 53. John Harris, New College, Oxon. Dean of Wells 1736, and Bishop of Llandaff 1729.


[1] He was reputed to be an excellent preacher. He was also Prebendary of Westminster and Minister of St. Faith's, London. Dr. Croft was his son-in-law.

[2] Between 1848 and 1852 a large number of monumental stones were injudiciously put out of the Cathedral. A few of the best only were replaced, among them the black marble slabs with the well-cut armorial bearings of Bishop Croft and Dean Benson. In allusion to the intimacy that had existed between these aged dignitaries, and to the fact of their being buried side by side, a hand within a hand was carved on the stones, with the words, "In vita conjuncti, In morte non divisi". This inscription was restored and the stones replaced within the church (but not in their original position), by the usual liberality of the Venerable Archdeacon Lord Saye and Sele.

Deans of the Cathedral Church of Hereford. 41

A.D. - OBIIT.

1736. 54. Edward Cresset, M.A., Bishop of Llandaff 1749. - 1755.

1748. 55. Edmund Castle, D.D., Master of C.C. Coll., Cambridge. - 1750.

1750. 56. John Egerton, B.C.L. Rector of Ross 1745. Bishop of Bangor 1756. Promoted to Lichfield 1768, and Durham 1771. - 1787.

1756. 57. Francis Webber, D.D., Rector of Exeter College, Oxford.

1771. 58. Nathan Wetherell, D.D., Fellow and Master of University College, Oxford. Prebendary of Westminster 1775. He was born and educated at Durham, and entered Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1744 [1]. - Dec. 29, 1807.

1808. 59. William Leigh, D.C.L. Installed March 4. Of a Cheshire family. He effected considerable repairs at the Deanery, but died before residence. - 1809.

1809. 60. George Gretton, D.D. Installed April 5. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Vicar of Upton Bishop, where a window and inscription in the chancel record his burial, July 31, 1820. He was Canon Residentiary. - 1820.

1820. 61. Robert James Carr, D.D. Resigned on his promotion to the See of Chichester in 1827. Bishop of Worcester 1831. Also Canon of St. Paul's. - April 1841.

1827. 62. Edward Mellish, M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge [2]. - December 1830.

1831. 63. Honourable Edward Grey, D.D. Bishop of Hereford, May 20, 1832. - 1837.

1832. 64. John Merewether, D.D. Queen's College, Oxford. Chaplain to Queen Adelaide. Vicar of Madley. He was the last of the Deans who were also Residentiaries. [3] He was buried in the Ladye Chapel. (No. 37). - April 4, 1850.


[1] Dean Wetherell was a man of good understanding, sincere piety, and strict and conscientious in his duties as a clergyman and Master of the College, over which he presided forty-three years. He kept up the custom of fasting on Fridays and during Lent, and was an exact observer of the Sabbath; he was affectionate and indulgent in his family, and charitable to the poor. With good temper and cheerfulness, his society was pleasant and agreeable. Dean Wetherell was buried in the chapel of University College, where there is a monument to his memory. - Contributed.

[2] He married a first cousin of the distinguished minister, Mr. Canning. He was not buried in this county.

[3] He was ordained in 1819 to the curacy of Gillingham, Dorset; Curate of Hampton, Middlesex, 1823; Vicar of New Radnor, 1828. He was advanced to this Deanery by William IV.,

42 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1850. 65. Richard Dawes, M.A. Graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge, as fourth Wrangler, 1817. He was elected as Fellow and Tutor of Downing College in 1818. Vicar of King's Somborne, Hampshire, 1837. Appointed Dean of Hereford by Lord John Russell in 1850. Author of several valuable works on national education, of which he was a great practical promoter. He was appointed Master of Ledbury Hospital in 1861. He died March 10, 1867, and was buried near the Ladye Arbour of this Cathedral. His public memorial is erected in the north-east transept, between Nos. 26 and 35 in the ground-plan.

1867. 66. Honourable George Herbert, M.A. of St. John's College, Cambridge. Vicar of Clun 1855-67. Was appointed Dean of Hereford by Lord Derby, April 1867. He was installed on May 4, with all the customary ceremonies. [1]

when Duke of Clarence. He died at Madley, aged 53. Biographical notices of him appeared in the Hereford newspapers on April 6, 13, and 20. "His high talent, love of art and science, extreme courtesy, untiring zeal in furthering every object tending to the improvement of this place and the minds of the citizens, will cause his loss to be widely felt.

"Above all, the great and noble work of saving our venerable Cathedral from utter ruin, and to so great an extent restoring it to its pristine beauty, are fresh in the memories of all".


[1] The present Dean has expended a considerable sum in enlarging and improving the Decanal residence at his own cost, A.D. 1867-9.

Archdeacons of Hereford. 43

A.D. - OBIIT.

1109. Heinfridus held this dignity.

1111. William.

1118. Geoffrey. Rawlinson states that he is reported to have been drowned with Prince William, son of Henry I.

1135. cir. Alexander de Waltun.

1149. Peter.

1154. cir. Walter, also in 1160.

1163. Ralph Foliot.

1173. cir. Robert de Oxenford.

1176. Ralph Foliot again. - 1195.

1200. cir. William.

1214. Walter Fitzwalter.

1221. William.

1240. Henry Bustard.

1257. William de Conflens. Consecrated "Episcopus Gebennensis" on 6 Kal. June 1287.

1187. Roger de Sevenak.

1290. Richard de Hertford. - 1303.

1303. Henry Schorne.

1327. Thomas de Chandos.

1332. John de Barton.

1369. John de Bedwardyn. Resigned in 1379.

1379. Richard de Kingston. Resigned 1404. Prebendary of York, and buried at Southwell. - 1415.

1404. John Loveney. Resigned in 1417 for Archdeaconry of Salop.

1417. John Hereford. Resigned 1424.

1424. John Berew. Dean in 1446. - 1462.

1446. Richard Rudhall, D.C.L. Buried in the Cathedral near Bishop Stanbery, under a fine brass. (No. 63). - 1476.

44 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1476. Richard Martyn, B.C.L. Bishop of St. David's 1482. (Athen. Cant. i. 521). - 1483.

1483. Robert Jeffry. Buried under a brass near his predecessor Rudhall. - 1494.

1494. Thomas Morton. Buried in the cloister near the south door, under a brass, with inscription. - 1511.

1511. William Webb. Rector of Ross and Archdeacon of Salop. Buried in the Cathedral under a brass. - 1522.

1522. John Boothe, M.A. - 1542.

1542. John Styrmin. (Athen. Cant. i. 109). - 1551.

1551. Richard Cheyney, B.D. Resigned 1557. Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol 1562. (Athen. Cant. i. 400). - 1579.

1557. John Glazier, R.C.L. Deprived in 1557.

1559. Robert Crowley, D.D. Resigned 1567.

1567. Edward Cowper. Resigned 1578. (Athen. Cant. ii. 208, where there is a copy of the inscription on his monument, formerly in Ledbury Church.)

1578. Simon Smith, D.C.L. (Athen. Cant. ii. 441). - 1606.

1606. Silvanus Griffiths, D.D. Dean in 1617. - 1623.

1617. Richard Mountague, B.D. Resigned 1623.

1623. John Hughes, D.D. - 1648.

16??. Matthew Burst. "Vir insigniter doctus".

1660. George Benson, D.D. September 24, 1660. Resigned the office to his son. (Fasti Oxon. 710). - 1692.

1684. Samuel Benson, M.A. He was deprived in 1690 for refusing to take the oath of allegiance to King William and Queen Mary. He was living in 1723.

1690. *William Johnson, D.D. Chaplain to Bishop Croft. Rector of Whitbourne, where he was buried. [1] - 1697.

1698. Brian Turner, D.D., was nominated, but died before installation. - 1698.

1698. Thomas Fox, M.A. Vicar of Bromyard. - circa 1728.

1728. John Walker, D.D. - 1741.

1741. *Robert Breton, M.A.

1769. Honourable John Harley, M.A. Bishop of Hereford 1787. - 1788.

1787. James Jones, D.D.

1823. John Lilly, B.D. Rector of Stoke Lacy. Died at Newent.

1825. Henry Wetherell, B.D. Rector of Thruxton and Kentchurch.


[1] An asterisk is prefixed to the names of those dignitaries and Prebendaries who became Residentiaries after the year 1660. A.D.

Archdeacons of Hereford. 45

A.D. - OBIIT.

Fifth son of Dean Wetherell. Born in 1775 at Oxford. B.A. 1795. B.D. 1817. Canon Residentiary of Gloucester 1825. He resigned this Archdeaconry in 1852. Buried at Gloucester Cemetery [1]. - 1857.

1852. Richard Lane Freer, D.D. [2]. - 1863.

1863. *Frederick Benjamin, Lord Saye and Sele, D.C.L. of New College, Oxford, was instituted on September 19, 1863.


[1] Archdeacon Wetherell was much respected for the benevolence, the single-mindedness, and the high sense of honour which ever actuated his conduct.

His strong feeling of the responsibility of the office of Archdeacon induced him to depart from the practice of his predecessors by its voluntary surrender. Contributed.

[2] The Venerable Richard Lane Freer, born at Handsworth, Staffordshire, February 10, 1806; educated at Westminster School; Christ Church, Oxon. B.A. 1828, M.A. 1834, B.D. 1839, D.D. 1858. Deacon 1829; Priest 1830, by Bishop of Worcester (Folliott Cornewall). Rector of Bishopstone-cum-Yazor from 1839. to 1863. Prebendary of Gorwall and Overbury 1847. Archdeacon of Hereford 1852. Prælector, Hereford Cathedral, 1861. In 1852 he was elected Fellow of Society of Antiquaries, and in 1860 Deputy Provincial Grand-Master of the Freemasons of Herefordshire. Died August 11, 1863, aged 57, at Bishopstone Rectory, and on the 17th was followed to his grave in Bishopstone Churchyard by the Bishop of Hereford (R.D.H. Hampden), Dean of Hereford (R. Dawes), Canons, Prebendaries, Rural Deans, the great body of the clergy of his Archdeaconry, the Freemasons of Herefordshire, his parishioners, and friends of all classes.

In the discharge of the duties of his office he made himself remarkable and beloved for the kind discretion with which he tempered his active zeal.

His liberality was unbounded. He was no common man; courteous, affable, accessible, learned, large-hearted, open-handed, a sound churchman, having the confidence and respect of all shades and sects.

As a Christian, as a scholar, as a man of a refined taste, as a kind and charitable country clergyman, as an active and useful public man, not less than as a warm and constant friend, the name of Archdeacon Freer will be held in affectionate remembrance wherever known.

"He, being dead, yet speaketh", in the Archidiaconal Charges which he delivered to his clergy from 1852 to 1863, a volume of which is in the Cathedral Library. His own likeness is impressed on them; they are representatives, not only of his opinions, but of himself.

His genial heartiness; his straightforward fearlessness of speech; his utter condemnation of all that he deemed wrong in principle, tempered with a singular power of entering into the feelings and understanding the position of even those with whom he could not agree; his common sense, tenacity of purpose, and strength of will, are all before us in the plain strong English with which he clothed his thoughts. He faithfully bore testimony to the truth of God.

During the eleven years in which Archdeacon Freer held his office, he had the high gratification of promoting, by his tact and activity and zeal, and of assisting by his munificence, in the building of eighteen churches, and in the restoring of seventy-two churches, within his Archdeaconry.

Memorial Window in the Cathedral.

The commemoration of Archdeacon Freer has taken the form of filling with stained glass the stately window of the North Transept of the Cathedral, one of the noblest examples of a geometrical window in this country (48 ft. 6 in. in height, by 21 ft. 6 in. in breadth). The cost

46 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

exceeded 1300. A fitting tribute to the memory of a man whose life was to a great extent spent in the work of the sanctuary which this testimonial so richly adorns. The window is a magnificent work of art (by Hardman, Birmingham), and is in that sense too a fitting tribute to the memory of a man whose life was bright and rich with Christian graces, and whose mind and taste were singularly refined and elegant.

On a large brass plate beneath the window is the following inscription:-

The Venerable Richard Lane Freer, D.D., Rector of Bishopstone- cum-Yazor, Prælector in Theology in this Cathedral, and during the last eleven years of his life Archdeacon of Hereford. Born Feb. 10, A.D. 1806. Died August 1, A.D. 1863.

This window thus adorned with sacred device,
Representing the Church Militant and the Church Triumphant,
Is the offering of many hearts,
Specially of the Clergy of this Archdeaconry,
And of his brethren of the Ancient Order of Freemasons;
And is designed to glorify God through Jesus Christ In the honour paid to his faithful servant,
Who, by the diligent discharge of his ministry, And by his singular kindness and munificence, Commended himself to the love of all,
And shed around him the light
Of a holy and consistent example.

Archdeacons of Salop. 47

A.D. - OBIIT.

1162. William Folliot held this dignity in 1162 and 1175.

1216. Hugh Folliot. Bishop of Hereford 1219. - 1234.

1226. Simon.

1236. cir. N., probably Nicholas.

1239. Peter de Aquablanca. Bishop of Hereford 1240. - 1268.

1240. cir. James de Aquablanca.

1244. John Folliott.

1281. Adam de Phileby held it this year. - 1287.

1287. John de Bestan or Weston. Resigned 1289.

1289. John de Swinfend or Swinfeld. He became Treasurer.

1292. Roger de Canterbury. Became Treasurer.

1299. Philip Talbot.

1308. John de Rosse. Bishop of Carlisle 1325. - 1332.

1318. William de Rosse. - 1332.

1332. Richard de Sidenhale.

1360. Henry de Shipton.

1365. William de Borstall. Exchanged in 1367 with

1367. Richard Nowell. Rector of Flamstead, Herts.

????. John Hore. Resigned 1410.

1411. John Welles. - 1410.

1410. John Hereford. Exchanged for Archdeaconry of Hereford.

1417. John Loveney. Exchanged for Rectory of Kedington, Norfolk.

1422. John Merbury. - 1424.

1425. William Lathes. - 1441.

1441. Thomas Yeon or Yon. Resigned or exchanged with

1449. Robert Jeffry. Resigned about 1480 for Archdeaconry of Hereford.

1480. Thomas Morton. Archdeacon of Hereford circa 1494.

1494. John Martin. - 1504.

1504. William Webb. Archdeacon of Hereford 1511.

1511. John Wardroper. - 1515.

48 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1515. William Gobard or Gilbert. Buried in Magdalen College, Oxford. - 1515.

1515. Henry Martyn, B.C.L. Became Treasurer. (No. 52). - 1524.

1523. Humphrey Ogle. Resigned 1536.

1536. Richard Sparchford, M.A.

1560. Nicholas Smith.

1561. Robert Grensil. Vicar of Lydney. - 1579.

1580. William Greenwich or Greenvill, M.A.

1631. Morgan Godwin, B.C.L. Died after 1644.

1660. Thomas Cooke, M.A. September 24. Buried at Bampton, Oxon. - 1669.

1669. Stephen Philips, D.D. - 1684.

1684. Francis Wheeler, M.A. Vicar of St. Leonard's, Bridgnorth. Buried there. - 1686.

1686. Adam Ottley, M.A. Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge. Bishop of St. David's, 1713.

1713. Robert Comyn, M.A. Rector of Presteign.

1726. Richard Crosse, B.C.L.

1732. Samuel Croxall, D.D. St. John's College, Cambridge, Resigned.

1738. *Robert Breton, M.A. Resigned.

1740. *Egerton Leigh, B.C.L. Vicar of Upton Bishop, 1749. Buried in the chapel of Ledbury Hospital. 1760.

1760. Honourable John Harley, M.A. Resigned.

1769. Robert Clive, M.A. St. John's College, Cambridge.

1792. Joseph Plymley (B.A. Oxon., M.A. Camb.) He assumed the name of Corbett 1792. Buried at Leebotwood, Salop.

1838. William Vickers, M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge. Rector of Chetton, Salop. - 1851.

1851. William Waring, M.A., was collated August 16, 1851. Examining Chaplain to Bishop Hampden. Rector of Burwarton in the County of Salop 1853. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Magdalene College, Cambridge. Nominated by Bishop Hampden to be Canon Residentiary November 1867.

Præcentors of Hereford. 49

A.D. - OBIIT.

1150. Gilbert held this office about the year 1150.

1150. Reginald - between this year and 1163.

????. Richard.

????. William de Kilpec.

1195. William Folliott.

????. Thomas Folliott occurs in 1226.

????. Robert Swardeby in 1233.

????. Emeric de Aquablanca in 1263. Resigned for Chancellorship.

????. Hervey de Borham in 1270. Dean of St. Paul's, London. - 1276.

????. William de Montfort. Dean of St. Paul's. - 1294.

????. John de Swinfeld held it in 1294 and 1311.

1329. Richard Havering; but the King, disputing his title, conferred the office on

1330. John de Hoo of Exeter, March 30; and afterwards on

1330. John de Asheton, on May 1.

1330. Richard Havering was confirmed in this dignity by Edward III. December 13, 1330.

1346. Thomas of Winchester. Resigned 1349.

1349. Walter de Elvedon. Exchanged for Rectory of Shropsham, Norfolk.

1358. Ralph de Cokeshall.

1358. Henry de Bernyngton held it October 14, 1361.

1358. William de Outeby. Resigned it 1364.

1364. William de Borstall. Resigned 1381.

1385. cir. Walter de Rammesbury, B.D. [1] - 1406.

1406. Henry Miles. Resigned.

1407. Richard Talbot. Prebendary of York 1412. Archbishop of Dublin 1417. Buried in St. Patrick's Cathedral. - 1449.

1410. cir. William Lowman.


[1] He gave, A.D. 1394, ten marks towards making the choirstalls, and 10 for the desks in the library. B. Willis, p. 538.

50 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1412. Fulk Stafford, B.C.L. - 1413.

1412. Nicholas Colnet. Resigned.

1413. Robert Felton. Resigned.

1416. John Bridebrook, B.C.L. Canon of Windsor. Resigned 1431.

1432. John Arundel. Resigned circa 1434. Bishop of Chichester 1457. - 1477.

1435. William Lochard. - circa 1439.

1440. William Middleham. A great benefactor to western end of the church. Buried in the nave under a brass, fifth arch from the tower. - 1463.

1463. John Baily, B.C.L. - 1479.

1479. Thomas Downe. Buried under a brass near south-east end of nave. - 1489.

1489. John Harvey. Dean in 1491.

1491. Robert Kent, D.D. Buried near the rood-loft, which was under the western arch of central tower. - 1515.

1515. William Porter, B.D. of Newent, Gloucestershire. Fellow of New College, Oxford. Buried under a fine brass in the sixth archway from the tower, north side [1]. - 1524.

1524. Roland Philips. Resigned 1531.

1531. Thomas Parker, D.C.L. - 1538.

1538. Richard Benyse. Rector of Long Ditton, Surrey. Buried there. - 1546.

1546. John Barlow. Also Dean of Worcester, but was deprived in 1554 of all his preferment.

1554. William Chell, B.M. Deprived 1559.

1559. Walter Jones or Johnson. Desired to be buried in the Cathedral. - 1573.

1573. Thomas Thornton, D.D. A great benefactor to the Library. Buried at Ledbury. - 1629.

1629. Matthew Bust, M.A. Master of Eton College, and Fellow of King's College. - 1638.

1638. John ? was instituted on July 27th of this year. All efforts to supply the second name have failed, as the Chapter Act Book of this period is not to be found.

1638. Francis Cooke or Coke, M.A. Archdeacon of Stafford. Buried at Yoxall in that county. - 1682.

1682. William Brabourn, D.D. Vicar of Northall, Middlesex. Buried there. - 1684.


[1] Præcentor Porter's name occurs in "the Roll of Distinguished Wykehamists", by Rev. M. Walcot. He bequeathed lands to Brasenose College, Oxford, to maintain a Fellow from the county or diocese of Hereford, or the county next to Oxford. The gift confirmed in 1531.

Præcentors of Hereford. 51

A.D. - OBIIT.

1684. Thomas Seddon or Sidney, D.D. Rector of Worthen. Buried there. - 1685.

1685. William Watts, B.D. Archdeacon of Llandaff. Rector of Abbey Dore, where he was buried. - 1722.

1722. *Thomas Whishaw, M.A. His portrait is now in the Library, much injured.

1756. Edward Ballard, D.D.

1771. *Charles Morgan, M.A. Resigned 1775. (See brass plate and window in Lady Chapel, Nos. 43 and 63). - 1787.

1775. Honourable Henry Beauclerk, M.A. - 1817.

1817. Thomas Huntingford, M.A. Rector of Weston-under-Penyard, and Kempsford, Gloucestershire, where he was buried. - 1855.

1855. Sir Frederick Arthur Gore Ouseley, Baronet, M.A. and Doctor of Music, of Christ Church, Oxford, was instituted June 4, 1855. Professor of Music in that University, 1855. Incumbent of St. Michael's, Tenbury. Founder and Warden of St. Michael's College, 1856.

52 Treasurers of Hereford Cathedral.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1145. Elias de Bristol held this office in 1145.

1150. cir. Reginald.

1160. cir. Thomas Folliott.

1173. cir. Ivo. His obit was observed here on July 18.

1200. cir. Gilbert. His obit on May 5.

1217. Elias de Radnor. Bishop of Llandaff 1230.

1230. cir. Richard de Gravesend. Bishop of Lincoln 1258. - 1279.

1262. Giles de Avenbury. Dean 1271.

1272. William le Rus or Rous. - circa 1277.

1277. Luke de Bre, alias Brett or Brecc.

1292. John de Swinfend. Resigned 1294.

1294. Roger de Sevenak. - 1299.

1299. Roger de Canterbury. - 1303.

1303. William de la Gare or de la Barre. - 1303.

1304. Nicholas de Reygate. - circa 1308.

1308. John de Kemsey.

1317. Thomas de Pembridge. - 1328.

1328. John de Ewe.

1329. William de Everdin.

1330. Thomas de Bolere or Boleye.

1331. John de Chaumbre. Resigned 1333.

1333. Henry de Shipton. Exchanged with

1341. cir. Richard de Sidenhall. Archdeacon of Salop. Resigned 1345.

1348. John Boler. Resigned.

1367. Roger Mey. Resigned.

1368. Robert de Upcote. Resigned.

1378. Robert Jones.

1397. Nicholas de Hereford, D.D. [1]


[1] This remarkable man was educated at Queen's College, Oxford. In 1382 he was one of the leaders of the Lollard party in that University. He was excommunicated for preaching heretical doctrines; he appealed to the Pope, and proceeded to Rome, where he was imprisoned.

Treasurers of Hereford Cathedral. 53

A.D. - OBIIT.

1417. Richard Northop.

1430. Richard Rotheram. Resigned 1434.

1434. William Middleham or Middleton. Resigned for Præcentorship 1440.

1440. Thomas Wassayle. Resigned.

1443. Richard Rudhall. Archdeacon of Hereford 1446. (No. 63.)

1446. John Ashby.

1460. Richard Pede. Dean 1462.

1462. John ap Richard. Dean the same year.

1462. Robert Jeffry. Resigned.

1464. John Arundel. Resigned.

1476. Simon Massingham, alias Stallworth. Resigned.

1477. Adrian de Bardis.

1486. Robert Sherbourn. Bishop of St. David's, 1505; Chichester, 1508. - 1536.

1506. Owen Pole. Desired in his will to be buried here. - 1509.

1510. John Wardroper. Archdeacon of Salop 1511.

1511. Richard Judde. Rector of Ross. Buried in the south transept. - 1512.

1512. Edmund Frowcester, D.D. Dean the following January.

1512. William Gobard or Gilbert.

1514. Henry Martin. Archdeacon of Salop.

1515. Hugh Pole. Resigned.

1518. William Burghill, D.C.L. He desired to be buried in the Cathedral. B. Willis gives a copy of the curious inscription on his brass. - 1525.

1525. Roger Brayne. - 1526.

1526. Nicholas Walwyn. - 1545.

1545. John Mason. Bachelor of Music. - 1547.

1547. Walter Mey, B.D. Desired to be buried near Bishop Boothe. - circa 1558.

1558. William Lewson. - circa 1583.

1583. Edward Cooper. - 1596.

1596. Richard Edes, D.D., Dean of Worcester. Buried there. - 1604.

1604. Silvanus Griffith, D.D. Resigned.

1606. Francis Kerry, D.D., of Balliol College, was buried in the north transept, "near the clock". - circa 1650.


[1] He returned to England, and was again imprisoned. He was at Hereford in 1393, when one Walter Brute was accused of heresy. He became Chancellor of this Cathedral in February 1394. He was one of Wycliffe's principal coadjutors in the translation of the Scriptures, and laboured considerably in promoting this great work. See Preface to Wycliffe's Bible, by Forshall and Madden. 1850.

54 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1660. Edward Benson, M.A. - August 29, 1667.

1667. Henry Philley, M.A. - 1668.

1668. *Thomas Wotton, B.D. Buried at Lugwardine. - 1711.

1711. Thomas Gwillim, M.A.

1726. William Egerton, D.C.L. Resigned for Chancellorship [1]. - 1737.

1731. *Samuel Croxall, D.D. Resigned.

1732. *William Lane, M.A. Resigned.

1745. Rodney Croxall, M.A.

1754. William Willim, M.A. Resigned. Buried in south cloister.

1760. William Parker, D.D.

1802. Richard Walond, M.A., New College, Oxford. Rector of Weston-under-Penyard. Buried there. - 1831.

1831. *Frederick Benjamin Twisleton, D.C.L., now Lord Saye and Sele. Was collated to this dignity December 15, 1831.


[1] He was third son of Honourable Thomas Egerton of Tatton Park. Rector of Settrington, Yorkshire. Chaplain to two succeeding kings. Rector of Penshurst, Kent, where he was buried February 26, 1737.

Chancellors of the Choir in Hereford Cathedral. 55

A.D. - OBIIT.

1200. Henry de Vere held this dignity about this time.

????. Raynulphus. Precise date not known.

????. Albinus de Cave. Held it 1215 and 1226.

1242. cir. Thomas.

1281. cir. Emericus de Aquablanca. Probably the same person as the following under another name.

????. Emericus de Bryauncun. - 1286.

1286. Gilbert de Swinfend. - 1299.

1299. Robert of Gloucester.

1321. Thomas de Orlton.

1336. Robert de Winferthing or Winforton.

1341. John de Charneles.

1344. John de Ambresbury. - 1349.

1349. Thomas Hakeluit.

1364. Roger de Okey.

1377. Nicholas de Hereford, D.D.

????. The Cardinal "Glandatensis" is mentioned in Rimer's Foedera, vol. vii., as holding this stall in 1380. He was deprived 1381 by the Pope, who gave it to

1381. The Cardinal "Perusinensis" (Perugia).

1384. John de Nottingham. Archdeacon of Nottingham and Treasurer of York.

1390. Thomas Hanley held it this year.

1391. Nicholas de Hereford held it this year and in 1394.

????. Thomas Hanley held it again in 1399. Resigned 1417.

1417. Richard Proctor. Resigned 142 5.

1425. John Castell, B.C.L. Resigned on promotion to a stall at York.

1438. cir. Richard Rotherham.

56 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1451. John Dilewe, alias Dilwyn. - 1460.

1460. John Ashby. - 1464.

1464. Robert Jeffry. Archdeacon of Salop 1469.

1471. Thomas Yeon or Yon. - 1472.

1472. Simon Tawe or Tawre. - 1476.

1476. John Arundel. Canon of Windsor 1479.

1481. Ralph Heithcote. - 1487.

1487. Sampson Aleyn. - 1494.

1507. cir. Walter Stone, D.C.L. Vicar of Stepney. It is doubtful whether he was Chancellor of the Cathedral or of the Diocese. - 1518.

1516. William Burghill. Resigned 1518.

1518. James Bromwich. Archdeacon of Salisbury. - 1524.

1524. William Hull [1]. - 1543.

1543. John Elton, alias Baker, B.C.L. Archdeacon of Salisbury. He desired to be buried there. - 1547.

1547. John Compton, alias Theale. - 1555.

1555. Edward Baskerville, D.D. - 1566.

1566. William Penson, M.A. Rector of Cradley.

1587. Morgan Powell, B.D. Rector of Cradley. Buried there.

1617. Oliver Lloyd.

1621. Thomas Godwyn, B.D. Son of Bishop Godwyn. Rector of Whitbourn. - 1644.

1644. Richard Coke, [2] M.A. Rector of Eastnor. Buried there. - circa 1681.

1681. Joseph Harvey, M.A. He quitted all his preferment in 1716. on account of his refusal to take the Abjuration Oath. He died and was buried at Weston, near Ross.

1716. Thomas Bisse, D.D. A learned preacher and author. - 1731.

1731. William Egerton, D.C.L. of New College, Oxford. - 1737.

1738. *Samuel Croxall, D.D.

1752. *Joseph Browne, D.D. Resigned.

1754. Henry Egerton, M.A. of Oriel College, Oxford.

1795. Herbert Hill, M.A.

1828. Morgan Cove, D.C.L. Rector of Eaton Bishop. Buried in the Cathedral. - April 9, 1830.


[1] He desired to be buried near Bishop Boothe's tomb; also that his gravestone should be similar to Archdeacon Rudhall's.

[2] See Burke's Commoners for biographical accounts of this family

Chancellors of the Choir in Hereford Cathedral. 57

A.D. - OBIIT.

1830. *Hugh Hanmer Morgan, B.D. of Christ Church, Oxford. Vicar of Lugwardine and Master of Ledbury Hospital [1]. - June 1861.

This stall remained vacant upwards of seven years.

1868. Archer Clive, M.A. of Brasenose College, Oxford. Was collated to this dignity on October 8, 1868.


[1] He was buried in a vault on the south side of Lubenham Church, on the borders of Lincoln and Northamptonshire. There is a window in the north-east corner of the Ladye Chapel to his memory.

58 Prebendaries of the Cathedral.

BARTONSHAM OR BARTESHAM.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1268. Theodosius de Camilla was appointed on December 9 of this year.

????. William de Feretta. Resigned in 1278.

1278. Adam de Phileby.

1287. Gilbert de Swinfend. - 1299.

1299. Richard de Swinfend. - 1311.

1311. Richard de Nonington.

1317. Thomas de Pembrugge.

????. Richard de Monington exchanged this in 1319 for St. Mangan's, in Cornwall, with

1320. Robert Hereward. His appointment confirmed June 12.

1330. Thomas Chandos. Appointed by the King June 1.

1331. Richard de Nonington.

????. Roger Allweyn or Awritten, exchanged with

1381. William Borstall. Buried at Northill, Beds. - 1389.

????. Reginald Breybrook. Resigned in 1392.

1392. Reginald Kentwood. Dean of St. Paul's. - 1441.

1441. Robert Jordan. Buried in centre of south transept. - 1465.

1466. John Parsons. Archdeacon of Bangor. - 1471.

1471. William Chapman. Appointed to be buried at the head of the Cantilupe shrine. - 1493.

????. John Martin held this stall at the time of decease. - 1504.

1504. Robert Tehy, D.D.

1511. cir. John Wardroper. Archdeacon of Salop. - 1515.

1515. George Mason, B.A. Exchanged for Pion Parva with

1523. William Burghill, B.C.L. - 1525.

1526. David Walker. Desired to be buried in the south aisle near the High Altar. - 1547.

1547. John Strymin or Stirman. - 1551.

1551. Hugh Coren, D.C.L. Dean of Hereford. Resigned 1558.

1559. Thomas Arden. Deprived 1562; also of the valuable Rectory of Hartlebury. (Athen. Cant. i. 219.)

1562. John ap Owen.

1601. Thomas Carwardyn. Vicar of Lugwardine. - 1603.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 59

A.D. - OBIIT.

1603. George Benson, M.A. Resigned.

1614. John Hoskins, D.C.L. Chaplain to James I. Master of St. Oswald's, Worcester. Buried at Ledbury, where he was Vicar. - 1631.

1631. William Skynner, D.C.L. - 1647.

1660. *William Watts, M.A. Vicar of Upton Bishop. Buried at Great Marcle, where he was Vicar. - 1679.

1679. Theophilus Cook, M.A. - 1684.

1684. John Thompson, M.A. Buried at Upton Bishop. - June 1688.

1688. *John Tyler, B.D. Dean of Hereford and Bishop of Llandaff. - 1724.

1724. Richard Cross, B.C.L.

1732. William Beasley, M.A. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge.

1743. Lewis Owen.

1746. *Joseph Brown, D.D. Chancellor 1752.

1767. Gibbons Bagnall, M.A. Vicar of Upton Bishop. - 1800.

1800. Robert D'Alembert Squire.

1821. Liscombe Clarke, M.A. Archdeacon of Salisbury.

1832. John Hopton, M.A. of Brasenose College, Oxford, was collated to this stall January 6, 1832. Vicar of Canon Frome, 1808. [1]

BULLINGHOPE, alias BULLINGHAM.

1278. John de Aquablanca. Dean. Held it in this year.

1320. Adam de Murimuth, on April 1, but resigned it February 12 following.

????. Nicholas de Borham. Died possessed of it. - 1320.

1320. Thomas de Chandos. Archdeacon of Hereford. - 1332.

????. Stephen de Ledbury. Dean. - 1353.

1353. William North.

1369. John de Bedwardeyn. Appointed by the King on September 4. In 1379 a licence was obtained to annex this Prebend, or that of Huntington, to the Deanery.

1385. Nicholas de Hethe. Resigned 1389.

1390. John Harold. Dean of Hereford. - 1393.

1393. Richard de Kingston. - 1413.

????. William Lochard. Præcentor. - 1438.

1439. William Middleham. - 1465.

1465. John Greene.

1472. Richard Rudhall. Archdeacon of Hereford. - 1476.

????. Richard Judde. - 1512.


[1] The whole of the lands attached to this stall, situated in St. Owen's parish, were surrendered in 1866 to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners by this highly-esteemed gentleman, towards the endowment of a new church in this populous suburb of Hereford. The foundation of this church, dedicated to St. James, was laid in the earlier part of 1868, and consecrated May 1869.

60 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1512. Richard Smith, D.C.L.

1528. William Bolton.

1528. Edward Welch.

1554. Nicholas Smith.

1566. John Ellis. Dean of Hereford. - 1576.

????. Charles Nicholes or Nicholets held it in 1581.

1578. Richard Webster, D.D. (Athen. Cant. ii. 321). - 1601.

1601. Richard Dalton. Rector of Stoke Edith.

????. Roger Acroyd. Archdeacon of York circa 1612. - 1617.

1618. Thomas Godwin, D.D. - circa 1645.

1645. cir. Richard Coke, B.D. Chancellor and Rector of Eastnor. - 1681.

1681. Ambrose Sparry, M.A. Rector of Eastham. Died at St. Margaret's parish, Westminster. - 1710.

1710. John Davis, B.D.

1742. *Egerton Leigh, D.C.L. Died at Bath [1]. - 1760.

1760. Digby Cotes, M.A.

1767. John Wormington.

1771. *Charles Morgan, M.A. Rector of Ross 1776. - 1779.

1771. Hugh Price, M.A.

1781. Francis Woodcock, M.A. Resigned for Moreton Magna.

1783. Thomas Clarke.

1810. Hon. Richard Bruce Stopford, M.A. Chaplain to the Queen and Canon of Windsor.

1846. Honourable Orlando Wathyn Weld Forester, M.A. Vicar of Doveridge, now Rector of Gedling, Nottinghamshire. Resigned 1868.

1868. William Pulling, M.A. of Oriel College, Oxford, formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, was instituted on October 8, 1868. Rector of Eastnor 1849.

COLWALL, alias BARTON AND COLWALL.

1286. John Walraund held this in 1286.

????. Henry de Newerk in 1278 and 1291.

1298. cir. William de Sardinia or Gardinia is said to have held it. - 1303.

1303. John de Kemmes or Kemesey.

1317. Thomas de Pembridge. Also Treasurer. - 1328.

1328. Thomas de Ewe. Also Treasurer.

1328. John Catesby. Resigned 1389.

1389. John Barnel.

????. John Catesby held it again, and died possessed of it. - 1404.

1410. John Sutton.


[1] He succeeded his father as Rector of Lymme, Cheshire, and Middle Salop. Master of Ledbury Hospital. By an inscription in the pavement of St. Catherine's Chapel he appears to be there buried.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 61

A.D. - OBIIT.

1416. John Bridebrooke. Resigned for Præcentorship.

1427. Henry Shelford. Dean. - circa 1445-46.

1446. cir. John Arundel. Bishop of Chichester 1459.

1459. Thomas Manning. Resigned on being made Treasurer of Salisbury.

1462. Robert Stanbury. - 1464.

1464. Honourable Edmund Audley. Bishop of Rochester 1480; Hereford 1492; Salisbury 1502.

1480. David Hopton. Canon and Archdeacon of Exeter.

1500. Richard Bromfield or Brumfeld. Archdeacon of Merioneth. Buried in this Cathedral [1]. - 1518.

1518. Edmund Frowcester, D.D. Dean.

1529. Gamaliel Clifton. Dean.

1541. William Wilbraham.

1561. Robert Grensill. Archdeacon of Salop.

1580. Philip Kinwen, M.A. - circa 1604.

1603. John Buckridge, D.D. Bishop of Rochester 1611.

1611. Edward Vernon, B.D.

1621. Richard Basset, B.C.L. Buried at Llantrissent, where he was Vicar. - 1644.

1645. William Coke. Vicar of Bosbury, and Portionist of Bromyard. - 1690.

1690. John Benson, M.A. Buried at Cradley. - 1713.

1713. Thomas Bisse, D.D. Chancellor. - 1731.

1731. William Egerton, D.C.L.

1737. Sir John Head, M.A. (D.D. Lambeth). Archdeacon of Canterbury 1748. - 1769.

1769. Honourable Henry Beauclerk. - December 26, 1817.

1817. *Henry Huntingford, B.C.L. of New College, Oxford, was instituted December 1817 [2]. - 1867.

1868. Richard Underwood, M.A. of St. John's College, Oxford, was instituted on April 4, 1868. Vicar of All Saints, in the City of Hereford.

CUBLINGTON. [3]

????. Roger de Sevenack died possessed of this Prebend. - 1299.

????. William de Mortimer (de Mortuomari). - 1316.

1316. John de la Feld.


[1] He appears to have been in much trouble a few years before his death. In the Record Office there is a document, 6 Henry VIII., stating, that being outlawed, there was "inquisitio de possessionibus Ricardi Bromfelde nuper de London clerici alias dicti R.B. de civitate Hereford".

[2] He was Canon Residentiary, Fellow of Winchester College, and Rector of Hampton Bishop, 1822. He was Master of Ledbury Hospital for a few months in 1867. He died at Great Malvern on November 2, 1867, and was buried in the churchyard of Hampton Bishop, where there is a monument and a window in the chancel to his memory.

The tenure of this stall by Mr. Huntingford and his predecessor for the long term of ninety-eight years is without any parallel in the whole annals of this Cathedral.

[3] This is frequently styled in old registers "Prebenda de Madley", from lands in that parish.

62 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. Thomas de Guldeford occurs in 1399.

1403. Thomas Busseham or Bushbury. Buried at Ashbury, Berks. - 1409.

1409. John Pavy. - 1414.

1414. John Stanwey. Dean. Rector of Ross. - 1434.

1434. John Ashby. - 1464.

1464. Simon Tawe or Tawre, B.C.L. - 1474.

1474. Robert Jeffrys. Archdeacon of Salop. Resigned.

1476. John Arundel. Bishop of Lichfield 1496; Exeter 1502 [1]. - 1504.

????. Peter Vannes held it in 1534. Dean of Salisbury. (Athen. Cant. i. 220). - 1563.

1563. John Pedder. Dean of Worcester. (Athen. Cant. ii. 1). - 1571.

1571. Edward Threlkeld, D.C.L. Vicar of Tenbury. (Aiken. Cant. ii. 42). - 1588.

1588. William Tovey, B.C.L. Prebendary of Worcester. - 1598.

1598. Thomas Bache. Rector of Whitbourne. - 1632.

1632. Samuel Barkley. July 20.

1632. Thomas Clent. September 6.

1672. John Newton. Resigned 1674. Rector of Ross. - 1678.

1675. Thomas Trafford, D.D. Rector of Pembridge, where he founded almshouses. - 1685.

1685. Benjamin Pritchard, M.A. Vicar of Ledbury. Buried there. - 1702.

1702. *Robert Morgan, D.D. Rector of Ross. - 1745.

1745. *John Egerton. Rector of Ross. Dean 1750. Bishop of Lichfield, but held this stall until again promoted to the See of Durham 1771.

1771. Theophilus Meredith, M.A. Presented to this stall and the Rectory of Ross by George III.

1775. Uvedale Kyffin, D.D. Vicar of Mansel Lacy 1744-54.

1777. *Nathan Wetherell, D.D. Dean 1771.

1808. Christopher Swainson, M.A. Vicar of Clun. Rector of Wistanstow, where he is buried. - 1854.

1855. Charles Awdry, B.C.L. and M.A. of New College, Oxford, was instituted April 18, 1855. Rector of Worthen and Rural Dean.

CHURCH WITHINGTON. [2]

William de Conflens resigned this Prebend on being made "Episcopus Gebennensis" by the Pope in 1287.

1287. Bonetus de Sancto Quintino.


[1] According to Hardy he was buried in the church of St. Clement Danes, London. It is singular that the two John Arundels, Bishops of Chichester and Exeter, should have been dignitaries of Hereford.

[2] This Prebend is called Church Withington to distinguish it from Ewithington, because the property formerly belonging to it lay near the church.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 63

A.D. - OBIIT.

1288. Peter of Savoy (de Sabaudia).

????. John de Whiting-ton held it (according to B. Willis) in 1308.

1317. Thomas de Cherleton. April 7.

1317. Hugh de Lemenister. June 6.

1327. Roger de Mortuomari.

1337. Roger de Chigwell. Prebendary of St. Paul's.

1366. William Bughbrigg.

????. Thomas Forney held it March 20, 1386.

1386. Thomas Godemeston. March 22.

1389. William Chiffren.

????. John Chiffren. Archdeacon of Wilts. - 1417.

1417. John Cokeworthy.

????. Thomas Guildfield, by exchange in 1422. - 1427.

1427. Nicholas Mattamer.

1440. William Hambald.

????. John Besford, B.C.L. [1]. - 1447.

1462. William Dorset.

????. James Bromwich. Chancellor. - 1524.

1524. George Mason held it in 1534.

1540. William Lewson. Treasurer. - 1584.

1584. Francis Jones. Rector of Whitbourne.

1626. Sampson Price.

1630. James Parry. Rector of Tedstone Delamare.

1671. *Philip Lewis. Exchanged 1678 for Preb. Episcopi.

1678. Joseph Harvey, M.A. Resigned 1716 for Chancellorship.

1716. William Floyer. Rector of Whitbourne.

1752. William Willim, M.A.

1767. Guy Hill, M.A. Resigned. Vicar of Sellack 1768-74.

1769. Richard Smith, M.A.

1796. Robert Wetherell, B.C.L. [2]. - October 1842.

1845. Gilbert Frankland Lewis, M.A. Resigned 1856. [3]

1856. William Poole, M.A. of Oriel College, Oxford, was instituted September 23, 1856. Vicar of Hentland with Hoarwithy 1854. Rural Dean of Archenfield 1856.


[1] There is an inscription in the ante-chapel of New College to his memory. B. Willis, 566. The whole of the brasses remaining in this chapel have been moved to the north side in the earlier part of this century.

[2] He was second son of Dean Wetherell, and was born at Oxford in 1768. Fellow of New College, Vicar of Stanford, Berks, Rector of Newton Longville, Bucks, where he was buried.

[3] Rector of Monnington-on-Wye 1832-64. Canon of Worcester 1856. He succeeded his brother Sir George Cornewall Lewis as third Baronet, April 13, 1863. Sir George was one of the most distinguished and deservedly popular politicians and statesmen of his time, and also eminent as an historian, essayist, and philosophical writer. Public memorials were erected in memory of him in front of the Shire-hall, Hereford, and at Radnor Forest, and consecrated May 1869.

64 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

EWITHINGTON, alias EAST WITHINGTON.

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. Hervey de Borham, Dean of St. Paul's and Precentor of this church, possessed this prebend at his death. - October 7, 1276.

1277. William de St. John.

1316. Reginald de Hamenath.

????. Robert de Wodehouse held it in April 1323.

1324. Thomas de Astley. Prebend of St. Paul's. - 1349.

1349. Edward Grimsby, appointed by the King August 22.

1353. Peter de Gildesburgh.

1374. Nicholas Long.

1374. William Humberston.

1395. John Elvet. Prebendary of Lincoln and Salisbury. Archdeacon of Leicester. - 1404.

????. John Hartlepool. Buried at Sandy, Bedfordshire. - 1432.

1432. Robert Parfeit.

????. Nicholas Caraunt, resigned 1453. Dean of Wells. - 1467.

1453. John Barbour.

1455. John Parsons. Resigned 1466 for Bartonsham.

1466. John Bayley. Præcentor. - 1479.

1479. Richard Jacwyson, alias Jaqueson, B.C.L. Buried in the Cathedral. - 1497.

????. Ralph Pole occurs 1520 and 1538.

1539. William Buckmaster. (Athen. Cant. i. 86.)

1545. William Chell, B.C.L. Also Precentor, but was deprived in 1559.

1559. Roger Marbeck. Canon of Christ Church, and Provost of Oriel College. He was son of John Marbeck, the celebrated church musician of the Chapel Royal, Windsor. (Athen. Oxon. i. 736. Also Hist. and Antiq. Univ. Oxon. ii. pp. 47 and 257.)

1566. Edward Morecraft. Canon of Windsor. - 1580.

1580. James Dennis. Rector of Monnington.

1598. Francis Kerrie, D.D. Treasurer. - circa 1650.

1660. William Brabourne, D.D., Sept. 24. Præcentor. - 1684.

1684. Mark Fothergill, M.A. Rector of Culmington, Salop; there buried. - 1691.

1692. Bryan Turner, B.D. Archdeacon of Hereford. Rector of Soulderne, Oxon; there buried. - 1697.

1697. Charles Whiting, D.D. Rector of Ross; there buried. - 1711.

1711. John Davies, B.D. Præcentor of St. David's and St. Asaph, and Rector of Kingsland.

1733. John Morse, M.A. Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge.

1747. Philip Brown, B.D. Resigned.

Prebendaries of the Cathebral. 65

A.D. - OBIIT.

1765. Thomas Hodgson, M.A.

1786. James Bullock, M.A.

1815. Thomas Huntingford, M.A. New College, Oxford. Præcentor. - 1855.

1817. Henry Hoskins, M.A. - 1858.

1858. William Parsons Hopton, M.A. of Trinity College, Oxford, Vicar of Bishop's Frome, was instituted December 11, 1858.

EPISCOPI SIVE POENITENTIARII, OR THE GOLDEN PREBEND. [1]

????. Peter de Radnor held this in 1264.

????. Roger de Bosbury in 1273.

????. Henry Fitz Warin was presented by the King July 16, 1275. Resigned.

1275. Nicholas de Hereford.

1282. John de Brinsope.

1293. Hugh de Brewse or Bruce. [2]

1310. John de St. Omer. Resigned same year.

1310. Henry Fitz Warin. Re-appointed June 24.

1320. John de la More.

1366. Henry, Vicar of Ledbury.

????. Walter Pryde held it in 1391.

1394. Nicholas Brideport.

????. Hugh Harper. Resigned 1414.

1414. John Castell.

1430. Richard Rotherham, D.D. Rector of Ross. He was a great benefactor to Hentland Church, where he built the


[1] Such is the title of this stall exactly as it is given by Brown Willis and Duffus Hardy. The former of these observes:- "This Prebend, stiled the Golden Prebend, because whosoever has it is a Canon de jure, never had any Corpse or Endowment, etc. The office of this Prebendary was to be the Bishop's Confessor; as a Canonry has gone ever with this stall, so there has been for many years last past an house in Hereford affix'd to it". It is necessary to observe that the Golden Canon does not receive any double dividend or any special emoluments. A few extracts from Rev. M. Walcot's Cathedralia will illustrate the nature of this office in former times:-

"The Penitentiary was a necessary officer of a Cathedral; he heard confessions and regulated penances throughout the diocese. As at Rouen, so at Hereford, he was the preacher and divinity reader, and at the present time he has the option of taking the office of Prælector, but failing to do so, pays half his stipend. At Worcester he heard confessions and distributed ashes to the people. At Exeter he visited those sick of the diocese who could not come up to the Cathedral Church. Sometimes there were two Penitentiaries:- 1. The external, who was confessor for the diocese. 2. The internal, who regulated penances, and conferred absolution in cases referred to the Bishop. The Penitentiary had preference next to the Dean for a residentiaryship, and he paid no fee on admission.

[2] Brown Willis states that he was "Dean of this Church", but the only Dean bearing this name occurs in 1202 A.D.

66 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

chancel. Part of the ancient glass still remains in the east window.

????. John Dilewe held it 1449. Chancellor. - 1460.

1460. John Baily.

1464. Thomas Down.

????. Walter Petwine. - 1470.

1470. John Heynes, B.C.L.

1480. John Lech.

????. Robert Kent. Præcentor. - 1515.

1515. William Peter. - 1524.

1524. Thomas Parker. Præcentor. Resigned 1531.

1531. Thomas Woodroff.

1535. Walter Mey. Treasurer. - 1558.

1558. Edward Cooper. Archdeacon of Hereford.

1585. Godfrey Goldsborough. Bishop of Gloucester 1598. (Fasti Oxon. 746). - May 1604.

1604. Thomas Singleton, D.D. Principal of Brasenose College, Oxford. - 1614.

1614. George Benson, D.D. Rector of Rock. Buried there. - 1648.

1660. *Thomas Good, D.D. Master of Balliol College. Rector of Wistanstow. Died at Hereford, and buried in the Cathedral. - 1678.

1678. *Philip Lewes, M.A. Rector of Presteign. Buried there. - 1684.

1684. *Thomas Rogers, B.D. Vicar of Clun. Buried there. - 1709.

1709. Richard Smallbrook, D.D. Appointed by Archbishop Tenison. Vicar of Lugwardine, and Treasurer of Llandaff.

1723. *Robert Breton, M.A.

1769. *John Woodcock, D.D., St. Catharine's College, Cambridge.

1781. Hugh Price, M.A.

1782. *Charles Morgan, M.A. Rector of Ross 1776. - 1789.

1789. John Napleton, D.D., Brasenose College, Oxford. Vicar of Lugwardine and Upton Bishop. Chancellor of the Diocese. Died aged 79. - 1817.

1818. Andrew Bell.

1819. *Henry Charles Hobart, M.A. Rector of Beerferris, Devon, and Master of Ledbury Hospital, where he was buried. Grandson of the first Earl of Buckinghamshire. - January 1844.

1844. William Peete Musgrave, M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, was collated on February 1, 1844. Rector of Etton, Yorkshire, 1854. Canon Residentiary. Master of St. Catherine's Hospital, Ledbury, 1867.

GORWALL AND OVERBURY.

1230. Adam de Salop was appointed about this time. ????. Nicholas de Scotten.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 67

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. Adam de Esger.

1369. Henry de Wakefield. Bishop of Worcester 1375. He expended large sums in building portions of his Cathedral, chiefly the nave. See Noake's Monastery and Cathedral of Worcester, 1866. - 1395.

1389. John Pratt. Buried in the Cathedral. - 1415.

1415. Robert Felton.

1433. Thomas Merden. He died within one month of admission.

1433. Thomas Manning. Prebendary of Lincoln, and Treasurer of Salisbury.

1459. John Grene. Resigned.

1463. Hugh Ragonn or Ragoun. Rector of Ross.

????. William de la Cona. - 1475.

1475. John Pykin, M.A.

1482. Robert Reynell, D.C.L.

1483. John Vaughan, B.C.L. Resigned.

1486. Thomas Chaundler. Dean. - 1490.

1490. John Nans, B.C.L. Canon of Exeter. Desired to be buried in Hereford Cathedral.

1508. William Webbe. Rector of Ross. Archdeacon of Salop and Hereford successively. - 1522.

1508. Henry Marten, B.C.L. Archdeacon of Salop. Resigned.

1512. Hugh Pole, M.A. Resigned 1526.

1526. John Cragg, M.A. Desired to be buried at Ludlow. - circa 1552.

1560. John Gosseline.

1577. William Underwood.

1577. John Glynn in the same month.

1578. William Stroke.

1579. Godfrey Goldsborough. Resigned.

1585. Edward Cooper or Cowper. - 1596.

1596. Richard Newton, M.A.

1608. Edward Doughtie, M.A. Dean. - 1616.

1616. Thomas Dennis, M.A.

1627. John Freemantle, M.A. - circa 1635.

1636. Thomas Pritchard, D.D. Archdeacon of Llandaff. Buried at Ruckbaston, Pembrokeshire. - May 1646.

1660. *Walter Rogers, M.A. August 30. Rector of Mordiford. Buried there. - 1689.

1689. John Harding, M.A. Vicar of Chirbury, Salop.

1735. Philip Birt, M.A. Resigned.

1760. *James Birt, M.A. Vicar of Fownhope 1769-90.

1801. Morgan Cove, B.C.L. Chancellor 1828. Rector of Eaton Bishop. - 1830.

1830. Kyrle Ernley Money, M.A.

1847. Richard Lane Freer, D.D. Archdeacon of Hereford 1852. - 1863.

1864. Henry Wright Phillott, M.A., and late Student of Christ Church, Oxford, was instituted May 12, 1864. Assistant-Master of Charterhouse School. Rector of Staunton-on-Wye 1850. Rural Dean 1854.

68 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. OBIIT.

HAMPTON EPISCOPI.

????. John de la Pole died possessed of this Prebend A.D. - 1303.

????. Simon de Faversham, circa 1303.

No further names are recorded during this century.

????. Richard Dyer. Resigned it in 1411 A.D.

1419. John Grene, alias Norton.

1459. Richard Catesby. Also Prebendary of Lincoln.

????. Thomas Alcock. The date of his institution is not known, but he resigned it in 1522, "being very aged". Archdeacon of Worcester 1483. (Athen. Cant. i. 28.)

1522. John Prynn, D.C.L.

1551. Richard Harford.

1551. Henry Morgan, D.C.L. Bishop of St. David's, 1554. - 1559.

1560. William Ailward.

1566. Roger Normecot. Vicar of Munslow 1572.

1576. John Hopkins.

1581. Humphrey Eton.

1585. Bernard Bennett. Rector of Ross; buried there. - 1615.

1615. Philip Price, M.A. Rector of Ross. - circa 1660.

1660. John Lydal, M.A., Sept. 24. Rector of Bitterley, Salop; buried there. - 1679.

1679. *Thomas Rogers, M.A. Resigned.

1684. Richard Bulkeley, D.D. Rector of Ludlow; buried there. - 1702.

1702. Francis Broad, M.A. Rector of Stoke Lacy.

1727. Robert Eyton, M.A.

1732. Philip Birt, M.A.

1736. Robert Lloyd, M.A.

1760. James Prise.

1779. *Hugh Morgan, D.D. Resigned 1780. Rector of Ross. - 1809.

1780. Richard Underwood, M.A. of Christ Church, Oxford.

1780. Abraham Rudd, M.A. Resigned. Vicar of Diddlebury 1781-95.

1781. Thomas Birt, M.A. Vicar of Madley 1782. - 1813.

1813. James Price.

1825. James Johnson, M.A. Vicar of Byford. - 1866.

1866. Hon. Arthur Allen Bateman Hanbury, M.A. of Christ Church, Oxford. Was appointed in September 1866, and was installed December 12, 1867. Rector of Shobdon.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 69

HINTON.

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. Hugh de Muster died possessed of this Prebend. - 1290.

1290. John de Shelving.

1290. Pontius de Cotes.

1294. John de Weston. By authority of the Pope.

1298. Richard de Swinfend.

1299. Roger de Cantuar.

????. Thomas de Lyggore held it A.D. 1308.

1313. Stephen de Tanethus.

????. William de Knapton. Resigned it 1318.

1335. Laurence de Sancto Mauro.

1338. John de Corcorato. Archdeacon of London.

1350. John Rees. Presented by the King.

1353. Nicholas de Kaerwent or Carrwent.

????. David ap Jack. - 1396.

1396. Reginald de Wollaston.

1411. John Bailey.

1412. Edmund Lacy, D.D. Bishop of Hereford 1417. Exeter 1420. - 1455.

1417. Thomas Moreton, B.C.L.

????. Thomas Wodeford. - 1452.

1452. Richard Pede. Dean 1462.

1458. Robert Dobbys. Resigned.

1459. John Clone. - 1465.

1465. Robert Dobbys. Re-admitted. - 1475.

1476. Thomas Moreton. Rector of Ross. Archdeacon of Hereford. - 1510.

1510. Hugh Pole. Resigned 1512.

1512. John Oliver, alias Smith.

1565. Silvanus Scory. Son of the Bishop. (Athen. Cant. i. 513.).

1569. Walter Bedell.

1580. Miles Smith, [1] D.D. Bishop of Gloucester 1612. He held this stall, with a Canonry, until his death. - 1624.

1624. Daniel Price, D.D. Dean. - 1631.

1631. Thomas Clent, M.A. Rector of Martley.

1660. *Daniel Wicherley, B.D. Rector of Whitney, where he was buried. - 1677.


[1] This Bishop, a truly learned man, was the chief translator of the present English Bible, the supervisor of the whole work, and author of the preface. Some of his MSS. are preserved in the Bodleian Library. He gave twenty-one of his books, chiefly Hebrew and Arabic, to this Cathedral library, and 40 for the purchase of other books. He was buried in the Lady Chapel of Gloucester Cathedral without any memorial. See Fasti Oxon. folio ed. p. 416. He was consecrated at Croydon Church by Archbishop Abbott on September 20, 1612, as recorded in the old parochial register.

70 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1677. *William Watts, B.D. Præcentor. Archdeacon of Llandaff. Rector of Abbey Dore, where he was buried. - 1722.

1722. John Hoadley, D.D. Chancellor of Salisbury. Bishop of Ferns 1727.

1727. *Samuel Croxall, D.D.

1730. John Griffith, M.A.

1745. Francis Wanley, D.D. Dean of Ripon 1750. Buried in that Cathedral, aged eighty-two. There is a monument to his memory. - 179l.

1791. *Henry Ford, D.C.L. Buried in the Cathedral. Tablet in cloisters. - 1813.

1813. James Garbett, M.A. Gustos of the College. Vicar of Brinsop, St. John Baptist, and Upton Bishop. Buried at Upton Bishop. - 1857.

1857. Honourable George Herbert, M.A. of St. John's College, Cambridge, was collated November 12, 1857. Vicar of Clun with Chapel Lawn 1855-67. Dean of Hereford May 9, 1867.

HUNDERTON.

????. Edmund de Mortimer resigned this Prebend A.D. 1282.

1282. Geoffrey de Newland.

1282. Robert de Gloucester.

1304. Gilbert de Segrave. Bishop of London 1313. - 1316.

1313. Robert de Nelesham.

1351. William de Herleston, alias Hullaston.

????. Nicholas Heth, about the same time.

1351. Roger de Eye.

1422. William Linwood. Bishop of St. David's 1442 [1]. - 1446.

1442. Andrew Holes. Chancellor of Salisbury.

1446. Thomas Tawre.

1472. Richard Jacwyson, B.C.L. Resigned 1479.

????. Robert Ashcombe. - 1528.

1528. William Edwards.

1537. Hugh Coren, D.C.L. Archbishop of Dublin and Bishop of Oxford.

????. Robert Paternoster in 1560 and 1580.

1583. James Ballard. Prebendary of Llandaff and Vicar of Lugwardine. - 1601.

1601. Gabriel Walweyn, M.A. Rector of Dinedor and Winforton.


[1] Linwood was a very noted man, especially as a lawyer (vide Hook, vol. iii. 14). He was Dean of the Court of Arches. A body swathed in cere-cloth was found in January 1852 built in the wall of the Crypt under the chapel of St. Stephen, Westminster. It is supposed to be that of Bishop Linwood. See the Report of the Society of Antiquaries, Archaologia, xxxiv. 406.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 71

A.D. - OBIIT.

1628. Richard Todd, M.A. Prebendary of Llandaff and Vicar of Wellington. - 1643.

????. John Nowell. Ejected circa 1643. - 1660.

1660. Lawrence Seddon. Resigned.

1661. John Newell.

1681. Simon Jones. Rector of New Radnor.

1682. Thomas Fox, M.A. Vicar of Bromyard. Archdeacon of Hereford.

1722. John Fox.

1728. James Lane.

1730. *William Lane, M.A. Vicar of Fownhope.

1752. *Thomas Russell, D.D. [1]. - 1785.

1785. *George Cope, D.D. Successively Vicar of Allensmore, Bromyard, Sellack, and Madley. Buried in the centre of Bishop Booth's porch. There is an inscription in the cloisters. - 1821.

1821. James Wetherell, B.C.L. Fellow of New College, Oxford. Incumbent of Upton St. Leonard's, Gloucestershire. Buried at Ticehurst, Sussex. - 1857.

1857. Hubert M'Laughlin, M.A. of Trinity College, Dublin, was collated on September 12, 1857. Rector of Burford, first portion, 1838. Rural Dean 1843.

HUNTINGTON.

????. John de Weston. Confirmed in this stall A.D. 1295.

1304. Roger de Gloster.

1354. William de Huntilowe or Henselowe.

1357. Philip Algar, alias Ilgar.

1387. John Chyne. Presented by the Crown.

????. Thomas Moor held it 1421. Dean of St. Paul's.

1421. Walter Eston.

????. Richard Rotherham. Resigned 1454.

1454. Richard Rudhall. Archdeacon of Hereford.

1472. Robert Tarry.

1477. Richard Marten. Exchanged 1478 with

1478. Richard Pede, D.C.L. Dean 1462. - 1481.

????. Christopher Twynhoe. Resigned 1508.

1508. Thomas Woodroff. Resigned 1531.

1531. Thomas Parker. - 1538.

1538. Richard Benson. Buried in the Cathedral, "on the north side of the Lady Altar". - 1547.

1547. Thomas Carpenter.

1556. Francis Baldwin.

????. Simon Smith held it 1561. Archdeacon of Hereford. - 1606.


[1] There is a white marble tablet to his memory in the Bishops' Cloister.

72 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1606. John Richardson, M.A. Dean of Hereford. - 1636.

1636. Jonathan Browne. Dean. - 1643.

1644. Herbert Croft, D.D. Dean. Bishop of Hereford 1661. - 1691.

1662. cir. Robert Scudamore. Rector of Stoke Edith. - 1683.

1683. James Pole, M.A. Rector of Stretton Strensham. Buried there. - 1720.

1720. Ralph Brideoake, M.A. Archdeacon of Winchester.

1743. Edward Bentham, D.D.

1776. *Charles Morgan, M.A.

1809. Richard Raikes.

1823. John Ellis Troughton, M.A.

1826. Honourable Henry Rodney, M.A. of Trinity College, Cambridge, was collated August 4, 1826. Vicar of Eye and Berrington, Llanfihangel Crucorney, and Llangattock Llingoed, Monmouthshire.

INKBARROW OR INKBERROW.

1276. William Rufus was collated to this stall June 21, 1276.

????. William de Kingtone. - 1277.

1277. William de Medford or Modford.

1294. Stephen Swinfend. Nephew of the Bishop.

1318. Richard de Vernon. Prebendary of Lichfield. - 1330.

????. John Barton. Deprived 1334.

1334. John de la Chambre. Exchanged with

1344. John de Leche.

1389. John Trevaur. Bishop of St. Asaph 1395. - 1410.

1395. William de Henselowe or Huntelowe.

1395. John Cresset. Resigned.

1397. Hugh Holbech. Dean of St. Asaph.

1407. Thomas Staundon.

1429. John Burdet. Archdeacon of Chester. - 1448.

????. John Storkys. Archdeacon of Ely and Præcentor of Salisbury. - 1466.

1466. Robert Jeffry. Chancellor and Archdeacon of Hereford. - 1494.

????. Stephen Surteis or Curtis. - 1510.

1510. Richard Smith, D.C.L. Resigned.

1512. William Webb. Archdeacon of Hereford. Exchanged same year.

1512. Henry Marten. Archdeacon of Salop. - 1523.

1523. John Booth. Archdeacon of Hereford. - 1542.

1542. Richard Taylor.

1554. Richard Cornwall. Appointed by Queen Mary.

1561. John Bland.

1599. Richard Madokes or Maddox.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 73

A.D. OBIIT.

1602. Nathaniel Harris, B.C.L. Buried at Blechingly, Surrey. - 1625.

1625. John Hughes, D.D. Archdeacon of Hereford. - 1648.

1660. John Harris, B.D. August 24. Buried at Mestham, Surrey. - 1678.

????. Daniel Pilsworth, M.A. Vicar of Lydney. - 1694.

1694. Charles Whiting, M.A. Exchanged.

1695. Henry Knight, M.A. - 1730.

1730. Richard Chambers, M.A.

1776. William Allen, D.D. Rector of Hampton Bishop 1794. - 1808.

1809. John George Hannington, D.D. Rector of Hampton Bishop 1808. - 1822.

1815. Charles Scott Luxmoore, M.A. Dean of St. Asaph, and Rector of Cradley. - 1854.

1854. William Hayward Cox, B.D. of Pembroke College, Oxford, and afterwards Vice-Principal of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, was collated August 24, 1854. Rector of Eaton Bishop and Rural Dean. Examining Chaplain to the late Bishop Hampden. Formerly Rector of Carfax, Oxford, 1839-52. Rector of Tenby 1852-54. Public Examiner at Oxford 1831-36.

MORETON CUM WHADDON.

1274. Ralph de Hengham was collated 1274. Buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. - 1311.

1311. Hamon de Sandwich.

????. Michael de Borham in 1311.

????. John de Winchelsey also in 1311. Resigned.

1316. John de Elham or Eltham.

????. Henry de Restoreshall held it 1349.

1349. Richard de Retford.

????. William de Birmingham. Resigned 1368.

1368. Roger de Sutton.

????. William Preen. Resigned 1385.

1385. Guy de Mona or de Mohun. Bishop of St. David's 1397. - 1407.

1396. Walter Ameney.

1397. Richard Winchcomb, alias Jaks. - 1404.

1404. John Brugg. - 1407.

1407. John Baysham.

1412. Thomas Balding. Resigned.

1415. John Baysham again admitted.

1420. William Ingram.

1427. Thomas Burton.

1430. Nicholas Dixon. Prebendary of Lincoln. Buried at Cheshunt. - 1448.

1439. Thomas Ringstead.

1446. John Breton. Canon of Lincoln. Buried there. - 1465.

1464. Walter Hunt.

74 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1478. Adrian de Bardis. Prebendary of Lincoln. Resigned.

1480. Oliver Sompner, B.C.L.

????. John Woodrooff exchanged it in 1508.

1508. Christopher Twynhoe. Archdeacon of Bucks.

1509. William Gobard. Treasurer.

1512. William Grey. Archdeacon of Berks. Buried at Ramsbury, Wilts.

1521. David Walker.

1526. Hugh Pole. Buried at St. Bartholomew's, Smithfield.

1529. George Downe. Chancellor of York.

1560. John Little-Grome, alias Grome. Rector of St. Dennis, Back-church, London. - 1574.

1574. Thomas Stallar. Resigned same year. (Athen. Cant. i. 438.).

1574. Theophilus Jones.

1606. John Best.

1607. Richard Vaughan.

1624. Paul Godwin.

1626. John Pitt. Warden of Wadham College. Deprived 1647. Died before. - 1660.

1660. Edward Jones, M.A. September 29. Vicar of Lydney. Buried at St. Briavel's. - 1681.

1681. Michael Stevens. Vicar of Leominster. Buried there. - 1713.

1713. Robert Kiffin. Vicar of Yazor. - 1724.

1724. William Beasley, M.A.

1732. Robert Eyton, D.D.

1751. John Ewer, M.A. Bishop of Llandaff 1761. - 1774.

1756. Thomas Evans, M.A.

1760. Sir Peter Rivers Gay, M.A. Sixth Baronet. He assumed the name of Gay. Prebendary of Winchester. Died July 20. - 1790.

1790. Henry Ford, D.C.L. Buried in the Choir. - 1813.

1791. Robert Holmes, D.D.

1805. John Carr.

1807. Love Robertson, M.A. Vicar of Bridstow and Sellack 1831.

1846. Robert Norgrave Pemberton, M.A. Rector of Church Stretton. Buried there. - 1848.

1848. The Venerable George Clark, M.A. of University College, Oxford, was collated December 12, 1848. Examining Chaplain to Bishop Hampden. Vicar of Cantley, Yorkshire, 1845. Vicar of Tenby 1854-67. Archdeacon and Prebendary of St. David's.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 75

MORETON MAGNA.

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. Peter Eymer held this stall 1278 A.D.

1279. Adam de Fileby.

1279. Ralph de Hougham.

1294. Philip de Comite.

????. John Rosse. Resigned 1324. Bishop of Carlisle 1325.

1324. John de Denton.

1326. John de Orlton.

1327. Thomas de Trilleck. Dean 1352. Bishop of Rochester 1364.

????. Anthony de Comite.

????. Adam de Herewinton.

????. John Prophet. Resigned 1407.

1407. Thomas Felde. Dean of Hereford. - 1419.

1415. Thomas Walton. Resigned.

1438. Maurice Winter.

1443. Richard Hore.

1449. Thomas Worshop, alias Chesterfield.

1452. William Boulers.

1458. Richard Pede, D.C.L. Dean 1462. - 1480.

1480. Richard Martin, by exchange. Bishop of St. David's, 1482.

????. John Foster. - 1512.

1512. William Webb. Archdeacon of Hereford. - 1522.

1522. Humphrey Ogle.

1534. Thomas Colemount.

1541. Richard Turketill.

1561. Henry Harford. Resigned 1565.

1565. Philip Sidney.

1575. Griffith Lewes. Also Dean of Gloucester. Buried in this Cathedral, June. - 1607.

1607. John Best, D.D. Buried at Lugwardine. - 1637.

1637. John Coke, M.A. Rector of Ross and Whitbourne. - 1675.

1675. John Boraston, M.A. Buried at Ribbesford. - 1688.

1688. Thomas Boraston, M.A. Succeeded his father. Buried at Ribbesford. - 1706.

1706. Patrick Gordon, B.D. Rector of Abberley.

1730. *Samuel Croxall, D.D.

1752. William Hunter, M.A.

1778. John Stone, D.C.L. Rector of Moreton-on-Lugg.

1783. Francis Woodcock, M.A. Vicar of Holmer. Buried at Pipe. - 1818.

1818. George Gretton, D.D. Dean of Hereford. - 1820.

1820. Charles Taylor, D.D. Buried in the South Cloister. Died June 9, aged 56 years. - 1836.

1836. Charles Taylor, B.D. of Brasenose College, Oxford. Was collated July 7th, 1836. Vicar of Lydney, 1838-59. Rector of Great Cressingham, Norfolk, 1859.

76 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

MORETON PARVA.

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. Henry de Hankle held this stall circa 1294.

????. W. de Rudmarley.

????. Walter de Roderick. - 1301.

1302. John de Kemmes.

1303. William de Kaple.

1310. John de Rosse.

????. William de Humberston. Resigned 1372.

1372. John Plowfield.

1386. Thomas Moor.

1403. John Kington.

1409. John Katerick. Bishop of St. David's, Lichfield, and Exeter. - 1419.

????. Henry Bowett.

1412. cir. Thomas Polton. Bishop of Hereford 1420.

1412. Nicholas Mocking.

1424. Henry Newton.

1428. John Ashby. Treasurer.

1434. William Wallesby. Resigned.

1437. John Langton.

1441. W. Wallesby again.

????. Thomas Bolleyn. Exchanged.

1446. William Sanders. Archdeacon of Anglesey.

????. David Husband. Resigned.

1469. William Gifford, D.D.

1472. William Wrixham, D.D.

1482. William Fitzherebert, D.C.L.

????. Miles Ragoun. Resigned 1512.

1512. Nicholas Walweyn. Treasurer. - 1545.

1545. Richard Harford.

1546. John Barlow, M.A. Præcentor.

1554. William Collins.

1556. cir. John Parfew. Deprived 1561.

1562. Ralph Griffith.

1570. Timothy Deswell.

1575. Richard Harris.

1588. Morgan Powell. Chancellor. - 1621.

1614. John Hughes, B.D. Resigned 1625.

1626. John Sculle, M.A. Buried at Slinsford, Sussex. - 1641.

1642. *William Sherborne. Chancellor of Llandaff. Buried at Pembridge. - 1679.

1679. Thomas Martin, M.A. Buried at Hom-Lacy. - 1689.

1690. Francis Jauncy, M.A. Vicar of Yarkhill. - 1732.

1732. Rodney Croxall. Vicar of Madley 1735. - 1754.

1754. John Stephens, B.C.L.

1756. John Harley, M.A.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 77

A.D. - OBIIT.

1760. John Hoskyns, M.A. Rector of Llandinabo 1768.

1805. Samuel Picart, B.D. Vicar-Choral of Hereford. Vicar of Little Marcle. Rector of Hartlebury. Chaplain to the Bishop of Worcester. - 1835.

1835. Charles Taylor, B.D. See Moreton Magna.

1836. Waties Corbett, M.A. Chancellor of the Diocese. - 1856.

1856. Thomas Barratt Power, M.A., Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, was collated February t, 1-856. Head Master of the Cathedral School 1851-57. Vicar of Upton Bishop 1857.

NONNINGTON.

????. John de Shelving held it A.D. 1294.

1295. William de Gare.

1303. Richard de Dinmour.

1312. John de Orleton.

1341. Richard de Chandos.

1389. John Hereford. Resigned 1424. Archdeacon of Hereford.

????. Thomas Makeblith. - 1431.

1431. Richard Moreton.

1433. John Homme. Buried in the Cathedral. - 1473.

1473. David Hopton. Resigned 1479.

1485. Walter Oudby. Prebendary of Lichfield and London.

1498. Richard Fox, B.C.L.

1507. cir. Polydore Vergil, otherwise named de Castello or Castellen. Prebendary of Lincoln, and Archdeacon of Wells. Rector of Church Langton, Leicestershire. Kinsman of Adrian de Castello, Bishop of Hereford. One of the most literary men of his period, and the author of a most popular his-tory of this country [1]. - circa 1555.

1558. John Amynde.


[1] Few writers of the English story have met with such harsh treatment as P. Vergil. The truth is that his attainments went far beyond the common learning of his age. He was charged with shipping MSS. for Rome - a whole ship-load, and with pillaging libraries, borrowing without taking care to restore. But neither the proof nor the probability of these tales has been established; and it is not a little singular that so many of our good antiquaries and historians should, like sheep, have leaped after each other in gross error. It was also asserted that he had cut out three leaves from the Bishop of Hereford's Register. Wharton, in his Anglia Sacra, calls him "vir undequaque doctissimus et Anglicanæ Historim peritissimus". The compilation of his History occupied the labour of twenty-eight years. He was the first of our historians who ventured to compare the facts and weigh the statements of his predecessors. His history is indispensable to fill a chasm of nearly seventy years in the dark period to which they bear relation. Extracted from Sir H. Ellis's Preface to P. Vergil's History, published by the Camden Society, 1844.

78 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. OBIIT.

1561. Hugh Wall. Buried at Hasfield, Gloucester. - 1570.

1570. John Watkins. Resigned.

1594. Giles Thompson. Bishop of Gloucester 1611. - 1612.

1612. John Hoskins, B.C.L. Resigned same year.

????. John Williams, M.A. Bishop of Lincoln 1621. Archbishop of York 1641. (Le Neves, Lives of Bishops, i. pt. ii. 15 3). - 1650.

1621. Robert Bankworth.

1623. Ferdinando Tereva or Texada, a Spaniard.

1631. *William Evans, D.D. Buried in the Cathedral. - 1668.

1668. William Johnson, D.D. Archdeacon of Hereford. - 1697.

1698. John Gregory, D.D. Buried at Hampsted, Gloucester. - 1708.

1708. Richard Lloyd. Vicar of Sellack and Head Master of Salop Grammar School.

1733. William Watson.

1754. *John Evans, M.A.

1783. Richard Walond, M.A. Treasurer 1802. Vicar of Dilwyn 1801.

1802. Job Walker Baugh, M.A. Vicar of Richards Castle. - 1838.

1841. *William Edward Evans, M.A. of Clare College, Cambridge, was collated November 6, 1841. Vicar of Madley 1850. Canon Residentiary 1861.

NORTON.

1290. Anthony Wells, collated this year.

1294. cir. John de Scardeburg.

1305. Richard de Bello or Wello. This is the same person as Richard de Haldingham, the author of our celebrated Map of the World. There are several notices of him in Bishop Swinfield's Roll.

1326. Roger de Breinton.

1326. Thomas de Evesham.

????. Thomas Schifford. Exchanged in 1370 with

1370. Thomas Staynthorpe.

1389. Reginald de Wollaston.

1396. William Pion.

????. John Burwell. Resigned it 1436.

1436. Simon Alcock. Buried in Lincoln Cathedral. - 1459.

1459. Richard Home.

1466. Richard Hyde.

1467. William Bagart, B.C.L.

????. Richard Burton. - 1504.

1504. Henry Marten, B.C.L. Resigned.

1508. Edmund Frowcester, D.D. Dean 1512. - 1529.

1510. Hugh Pole. Resigned.

1511. John Oliver, alias Smith.

1512. Thomas Chipman, M.A.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 79

A.D. - OBIIT.

1516. Richard Parkhurst. Rector of Ross.

1529. William Marbule. Buried in the Cathedral. - circa 1553.

????. John Ellis. Resigned 1566. Dean 1560.

1566. Griffith Williams.

1581. John Bullingham. Held this stall with the Sees of Gloucester and Bristol. Resigned 1589. (Athen. Cant. i. 247.).

1589. Roger Bradshaw. Vicar of Presteign. Buried in the Cathedral. - 1612.

1612. John Hoskins, B.C.L.

1613. John Jeames, M.A.

1614. Thomas Mansfield, M.A. Vicar of Hom-Lacy. - 1644.

1661. Thomas Wild.

1670. *Stephen Philips, M.A. Archdeacon of Salop. - 1684.

1684. John Slade, M.A. Rector of Kingsland. - 1720.

1721. Paulet St. John, D.D. Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge, Rector of Yeilden, Bedfordshire.

1733. Page Newborough, M.A.

1746. Edward Ballard, D.D.

1746. William Hunter, M.A.

1749. William Bach, M.A. Vicar of Kington 1746-82.

1752. *Thomas Russell, D.D. Resigned. Buried in the Choir. - 1785.

1752. William Willim, M.A.

1752. John Evans, M.A.

1754. John Hoskyns, M.A.

1760. Uvedale Kyffin, D.D. Rector of Colwall 1763. - circa 1775.

1775. *Nathan Wetherell, D.D. Dean 1771.

1777. Richard Evans, M.A. Rector of Kingsland 1794-97.

1782. Richard Walond, B.A.

1783. *Thomas Russell, M.A. Vicar of Dilwyn. - 1831.

1831. John Clutton, M.A. of Worcester College, Oxford, was installed May 26, 1831.

PRESTON, OR PRESTON WYNNE, OR PRESTON SUPERIOR.

????. Robert Burnel held this Prebend 1273. Bishop of Bath and Wells 1275. - 1292.

1273. Thomas de Cantilupe. Bishop of Hereford 1275.

1275. Henry Woodstock.

1277. cir. Robert de Fileby.

1283. Peter de Langona. Ejected, but re-installed.

1299. Roger de Cantuaria.

1303. William de Kinscote.

1311. William de Wykes.

1320. Thomas Talbot. Rector of Ross.

????. Edmund Ryall. Buried in the Cathedral. - 1427 or 1428.

1428. Nicholas Liney, B.C.L. Died the same year.

80 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1428. Henry Newton.

1438. Robert Jordan. Rector of Ross. Resigned.

????. Robert Jeffry. Resigned 1467.

1467. Thomas Saintjust. Died the same year.

1467. Jeffry Castell.

1467. Robert Eynsham.

1486. Thomas Eynsham.

????. John Blith. Resigned 1512.

1512. Miles Ragoun.

1534. John Gorle.

1560. William Evans.

1589. Richard Eedes. Dean of Worcester. - 1604.

1605. William Hinton, D.D. Archdeacon of Coventry and Præcentor of St. David's. Resigned 1627.

1627. Henry Hacket, M.A. - circa 1642.

1643. Roland Scudamore.

1660. Laurence Womack, D.D. Resigned 1673. Bishop of St. David's 1683.

1673. Richard King. Buried at Allensmore. - 1688.

1688. Thomas Matthews, M.A. Died in London. - 1712.

1712. John Rodd, M.A. Vicar of St. Peter's, Hereford. - 1746.

1746. Edward Ballard, D.D. Resigned.

1756. John Stephens, B.C.L.

1762. Honourable Shute Barrington, D.D. Canon of St. Paul's. Bishop of Llandaff 1769; Salisbury 1782; Durham 1791. His life is given in Surtees' History of Durham. - 1826.

1769. Thomas Powys, M.A. Son of Sir Thomas Powys of Lilford. Dean of Canterbury.

1809. Edward Barnard, M.A.

1843. John Birch Webb, M.A. Resigned 1857. Vicar of King's Pyon and Weobley. - 1869.

1858. John Jebb, D.D. of Trinity College, Dublin, was installed January 16, 1858. Rector of Peterstow 1843. Prælector of this Cathedral 1863. Proctor in Convocation for the Diocese of Hereford 1852.

PIONIA PARVA.

????. William de la Hay held this in 1288 A.D.

1290. John de Shelving. Rector of Ross.

1294. Roger de Cantuaria. Resigned 1299.

1299. Thomas Cobham, B.C.L. Bishop of Worcester 1317.

1317. Roger de Nassington.

1317. Roger de Northburgh. Bishop of Lichfield 1322. He was taken prisoner by the Scots at the battle of Bannockburn. Treasurer of England 1327 1359.

Prebendaries of Hereford. 81

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. Adam Esger. Resigned 1341.

1341. John Sheinton.

1345. Griffith de Charleton.

????. John Prophet Resigned 1407, being made Dean of York.

1408. John Baysham. Prebendary of Lincoln. - 1437.

????. Richard Chester. Resigned 1448.

1448. Helias Helcot, B.D. Warden of Merton College, Oxford.

1451. John Sutton.

1486. Ralph Hannys, B.C.L.

1488. Hugh Grene.

1510. William de la Bere.

1512. John Vial. December 12. Resigned same day.

1512. John Kidwelly. - 1513.

1513. William Gobard, M.A. Archdeacon of Salop. - 1515.

1515. David Walker, B.C.L.

1521. William Burghill.

1523. George Mason.

1524. John Herring, D.C.L.

1533. Robert Brigge, B.D.

1539. Richard Sperchford, or Sparchford. Archdeacon of Salop. - 1560.

1560. Walter Jones, M.A. Prwcentor. - 1573.

1573. Thomas Thornton, D.D. Præcentor

1629. James Howell, M.A.

1629. William Harward.

1632. Richard Lloyd. Died during the wars.

1660. Thomas Holland. September 24. Buried at Cainham. - 1684.

1685. James Hatchway, or Hathway, M.A. Vicar of Upton Bishop. Buried there. - 1694.

1694. James Gwinn, or Gwyn. Buried at New Radnor. - 1706.

1706. Thomas Gwillym, M.A.

1726. William Egerton, D.C.L.

1731. John Morse, M.A.

1733. Thomas Willim, M.A. Rector of Eaton Bishop.

1750. Peter Leigh, B.C.L.

1758. Digby Cotes. Rector of Abbey Dore 1741. Vicar of Bromyard 1767. - 1793.

1760. *Gibbons Bagnall, M.A. Vicar of Upton Bishop 1790. - 1801.

1767. *John Woodcock, M.A.

1769. William Skinner, M.A. Vicar of Bosbury 1764. Rector of Eastnor 1766. - 1795.

1795. Robert Squire, M.A.

1800. Francis Coke, B.A. Vicar of Sellack and Rector of Gladestry.

1831. Honourable Edward Grey. Dean 1831. Bishop of Hereford 1832 - 1837.

1832. John Merewether, D.D. Dean of Hereford 1832 - 1850.

1850. Archer Clive, M.A. of Brasenose College, Oxford, was instituted October 15, 1850. Rector of Solihull 1829-47. Chancellor of the Choir 1868.

82 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PRATUM MAJUS.

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. Philip Talbot held this stall in 1294.

1327. James de Berkeley. Bishop of Exeter same year.

1327. William de Fowhope.

1356. Baldwin de Whitney.

1416. cir. John Setow. Præcentor of York 1436.

1433. William Beford, alias Blower.

????. John Clone. Resigned 1459.

1459. Hugh Regoun.

1462. John Grenewey.

1466. William Rawlins.

1466. Ralph Barton, M.A.

1476. William Vance, B.C.L. Præcentor of Lichfield 1478. - 1478.

1478. Richard Cornwall.

????. Roger Brayne. Resigned 1508.

1508. William de la Bere.

1511. Hugh Grene, B.C.L. - 1523.

1523. John Cragg.

1526. Richard Baldwin.

1542. William Barrett.

1560. Robert Crawley or Crowley. Archdeacon of Hereford.

1568. John Badham.

1569. Thomas Turner.

1593. Robert Russell. Rector of Stoke Edith.

1616. Henry Rogers. Buried at Withington. - 1658.

1660. cir. Thomas Goodwin.

1669. Herbert Boughton or Broughton, M.A. Buried at Madley. - 1678.

1678. Thomas Tyrer. Vicar of Sellack. Buried there. - 1684.

1684. John Hathway, M.A. Buried at Upton Bishop. - 1700.

1700. Anthony Whistler, M.A. Vicar of Kineton. - 1721.

1721. Henry Price. Vicar of Felton.

1733. John Geree, B.D.

1661. Honourable Shute Barrington, D.D. (See page 80.)

1762. *Ralph Cope Hopton, B.C.L. and M.A.

1797. James Roberts, M.A.

1816. John George Hannington, D.D. Rector of Hampton Bishop 1808. - 1822.

1822. Robert James Carr, D.D. Dean 1820. Bishop of Chichester 1824. Bishop of Worcester 1831. - 1841.

1824. Honourable James Somers Cocks, M.A. Canon of Worcester and Vicar of Neen Savage. - 1856.

1856. William Knox Marshall, B.D. of Trinity College, Dublin, was collated to this stall September 23, 1856. Principal Official and Commissary of the Royal Peculiar of the Deanery of Bridgnorth, and Rector of St. Mary Magdalene 1833-60. Rector of Panton, with Wragby Vicarage, in the Diocese of Lincoln.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 83

PRATUM MINUS.

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. William de Kingscote held it A.D. 1294.

????. Richard Sidenhale. Treasurer. Resigned it 1348.

????. John Exeter. Exchanged October 1396 with

1396. Walter Trote.

1401. John Gorwall.

1406. Thomas Shelford.

1409. John Setow, B.C.L. Promoted 1416.

????. Nicholas Hereford. Resigned 1417.

1417. William Bailly.

????. Thomas Yeon. Chancellor. - 1472.

1472. Richard Marten.

1473. Roger Griffith, M.A.

1487. Walter Hylle, M.A. Warden of New College, Oxford. Buried there. - 1494.

????. Reginald West. Dean. Resigned 1510.

1510. Thomas Wolsey. July 5th. Dean 1512.

1512. William Edwards. Resigned.

1513. John Vyall. Buried in the north transept.

1525. John Mason. Bachelor of Music.

1525. William Edwards came in a second time. Resigned 1528.

1528. Gamaliel Clifton, D.C.L. Dean 1530.

1529. cir. Hugh Charnock. - 1550.

1551. William Baker.

????. John Cuthbert. Resigned 1561.

1561. Marcel Outred.

1561. John Cuthbert. Restored September 29. Rector of Rock.

1562. Philip Bagge.

1577. William Griffith.

????. Thomas Tourner held it 1581.

1592. Charles Langford, M.A. Dean 1593. - 1607.

1607. Henly Blight or Bright. Died at Worcester. - 1616.

1627. John Pember, M.A. Vicar of Bodenham. - 1676.

1677. Thomas Brome, M.A. Rector of Ross. Buried there. - 1699.

1699. William Morgan, M.A. Rector of Presteign. Buried there. - 1702.

1702. Daniel Philips, D.D. Vicar of Great Marcle. Buried there.

1721. Thomas Lingen, M.A. Prebendary of Llandaff.

1736. Thomas Barnes, M.A.

1757. William Parker, D.D. Resigned.

1760. Robert Clive, M.A.

1769. James Jones, M.A.

1776. Thomas Watkins, M.A.

1782. John Wall, M.A. Vicar of Kington.

1834. Robert Biscoe, M.A. of Christ Church, Oxford, was collated to this Prebend November 27, 1834. Rector of Whitbourne 1833. Formerly Examining Chaplain to Bishop Grey.

84 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

PUTSTON MAJOR.

????. John de Swinfend held this A.D. 1294.

????. Gilbert de Knovill or Genovill. - circa 1309.

1309. cir. Michael de Borham.

1311. Hamon de Sandwich.

1345. cir. William de Edinton.

1353. Peter de Wotton.

1358. Nicholas de Newton.

????. John Upton. Resigned 1384.

1384. Richard Thurban.

1401. Richard Talbot.

1417. William Cave.

1419. John Malton.

1423. John de la Bere. Resigned 1427. Bishop of St. David's, 1447, which he resigned 1461.

????. William Myll died possessed of it. - 1451.

1451. Vincent Clement. Treasurer of Lichfield. - 1474.

????. John Sebrande. Buried in the north transept. - 1496.

1496. Owen Pole. Treasurer. - 1509.

1509. Edmund Frowcester. Dean 1512. - 1529.

1514. William Hull. Chancellor. - 1543.

1543. William Tinmour.

1545. Richard Harford. Resigned.

1551. Robert Johnson, B.C.L. Prebendary of Worcester. Vicar of Clun. (Athen. Cant. i. 203). - 1558.

1559. Nathaniel Harford, also in 1581.

1592. cir. Robert Russel.

1622. James Rawlins. Rector of Burford, 3d Portion, and Stoke Lacy. Buried in the Cathedral. - 1660.

1661. *Laurence Seddon, D.D. Rector of Worthen. Buried there. - 1675.

1675. Phineas Jackson. Resigned same year.

1675. Thomas Wotton, B.D. Treasurer. - 1711.

1711. William Lloyd, M.A. Vicar of Upton Bishop. - 1733.

1733. *Humphrey Whishaw, M.A. Vicar of Lugwardine. His portrait is now in the Cathedral Library. This institution is the first English entry in the Bishop's Registers; Latin only previously.

1780. *Hugh Morgan, M.A.

1782. Richard Evans, M.A. - 1797.

1795. Richard Davies Evans, M.A. Succeeded his father as Rector of Kingsland. - 1821.

1821. Harry Lee, B.D. of New College, Oxford. Was collated June 2, 1821. Fellow of Winchester College, 1828. Vicar of North Bradley, Wiltshire, 1832.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 85

PUTSTON MINOR OR PUTTESTON.

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. Nicholas de Gaynville held in 1294 A.D.

????. John de la Hay in 1308.

????. Giles de Stanford resigned it 1366.

1366. Henry de Shipton. Archdeacon of Salop.

????. Richard Thurban. - 1399.

1399. John Trefnant, alias Howell.

????. John Sefford. - 1419.

1419. John Donstable.

1440. William Drokyll.

1473. Richard Martin. Bishop of St. David's 1482. - 1483.

1477. John Harvey, B.A. (?) Præcentor 1489. Dean 1491. - 1500.

1489. cir. John Nans.

1490. Christopher Litton. Rector of Harlington, Middlesex. - 1505.

1505. cir. John Pratt. - 1513.

1513. John Viall.

1525. John Mason, Bachelor of Music. - 1548.

1548. William Golding, B.A. (Athen. Cant. i. 421.)

1560. Philip Baker, D.D. Presented by Queen Elizabeth. Provost of King's College, Cambridge. Deprived in 1569 for being "a concealed Papist". Died in Lovain. (Athen. Cant. ii. 323.).

1570. John Badham.

1572. Thomas Lloyd. Treasurer of St. David's. Buried there. - 1612.

1612. John Hoskins.

1614. John Jeames or James, M.A. Rector of Holgate. - 1634.

1634. Samuel Lindsell, B.D. - 1669.

1669. John Jennings. Rector of Holgate.

1675. Thomas Seddon, alias Sidney. Præcentor. - 1685.

1685. *Adam Otley, D.D. Archdeacon of Salop. Bishop of St. David's 1713. - 1723.

1723. *Daniel Wilson.

1742. Joseph Guest, M.A. Vicar of Weobley 1737. - 1759.

1753. *Joseph Guest junior, M.A. Successively Vicar of Titley, St. John's, Madley, and Lugwardine. - 1804.

1804. Richard Francis Onslow, M.A. Archdeacon of Worcester.

1808. *Hugh Hanmer Morgan, B.D. Chancellor, etc., 1830. - 1861.

1861. Frederick Custance, M.A. Rector of Colwall 1841. Rural Dean. Died March 1867, and was buried in Colwall churchyard. - 1867.

1867. Edward Renn Hampden, M.A. of Christ Church, Oxford, was collated on December 12, 1867. Rector of Cradley 1854.

WARHAM OR AYLESTON.

????. William de Ablaniat or Albaniaco resigned this stall A.D. 1287. Rector of Ross.

86 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1287. Richard de Hartford.

????. Luke de Brett. - 1292.

????. Richard de Hertford held it 1292. Resigned same year for Archdeaconry of Hereford.

1292. William de Kingscote.

????. Henry de Hertford. - 1303.

1303. William de Schorne.

????. Robert Wodhul held it 1343.

1343. John de Ufford. Dean of Lincoln 1345.

????. Richard Prophet exchanged 1349 with

1349. John Prophet.

????. Humphrey de Carlton exchanged with

1371. Richard Thurban.

1401. Laurence Allerthorp. Buried in St. Paul's Cathedral. - 1406.

1406. Thomas Field, D.C.L. Exchanged with

1406. John Prophet. Exchanged with

1407. Roger Hore.

1418. John Cokeworthy.

1419. Robert Trysks.

1419. William Kinwoldmersh, B.D. Resigned.

1433. John Blodwell, B.C.L. Dean of St. Asaph 1417.

1441. David Blodwell. Dean of St. Asaph. - 1461.

1461. Simon Tamer.

1464. John Baily. Precentor. Resigned.

1466. John Grenewey.

1486. Henry Gedwen, alias Meyse.

????. Thomas Grete. - 1508.

1508. Henry Marten. Resigned.

1508. Roger Brayne, D.C.L.

????. Walter Mey, B.D. Treasurer. Resigned 1533.

1533. Thomas Booth.

????. Edward Baskerville held it 1540. - 1566.

1566. Thomas Greenvill.

1571. William Greenvill or Greenwich. Archdeacon of Salop. - 1631.

1631. Morgan Godwin, B.C.L. - 1645.

????. Thomas Swift, said to have been sequestered from this stall in 1646.

1667. Edward Bosworth, M.A. Rector of Cradley. Buried there. - 1679.

1679. Samuel Benson, M.A. Archdeacon of Hereford, but deprived 1690 for not taking the oath of allegiance to King William and Queen Mary.

1690. Hugh Lewis, M.A. Vicar of All Saints. - 1722.

1722. *John Evans, M.A. Archdeacon of Llandaff. Buried in this Cathedral. - 1748.

1749. William Hunter, M.A.

1752. William Bach, M.A. Vicar of Kington 1746. - 1782.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 87

A.D. - OBIIT.

1782. Thomas Watkins, M.A.

1794. *John Clutton, D.D. Died May 7, 1838, aged 78 years [1]. - 1838.

1842. Charles Drury, M.A., Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford, and Rector of Pontesbury, second portion. Died January 15, in eighty-first year. - 1869.

1869. John Purton, M.A. of Trinity College, Oxford, was collated to this Prebend March 16, 1869. Rector of Oldbury 1834. Rural Dean of Stottesdon 1840.

WELLINGTON.

????. Robert Foliott seems to have held this stall in 1155 A.D.

1196. John de Ponte.

1303. Roger de Cantuaria.

1304. Nicholas de Reygate.

1317. cir. Roger de Northburgh.

????. William de Coston. Resigned it 1320.

1320. William de Ayreminne or Ayermin. Bishop of Norwich, 1325. - 1336.

1327. John de Trilleck. Resigned immediately. Bishop of Hereford, 1344. - 1360.

1327. John Walwin.

1336. Lewis Cherleton or Charlton. Bishop of Hereford 1361. - 1369.

1361. Richard Ravensor. Resigned 1368. Archdeacon of Lincoln 1387.

1368. cir. Walter Rammesbury. Præcentor circa 1381. - 1406.

1406. Henry Miles. Præcentor. - 1420.

1420. Walter London.

1420. John Baysham.

1434. Richard Marten.

1442. Thomas Lewsham.


[1] There is a tablet in the cloisters to his memory; also a stained-glass window on north side of the nave of the Cathedral. (No. 2.)

Dr. Clutton was born in 1760 at Birmingham. He entered St. John's College, Oxford, where he graduated B.A. 1782, D.D. 1810. He was Lecturer of St. Martin's, Birmingham, 1785. Rector of Kinnersley 1784. Prælector and Canon Residentiary 1813. Vicar of Lydney 1818, which he resigned for Lugwardine 1831. He died at Hereford May 7, 1838, and was buried in the chancel of Kinnersley, of which parish he was rector for fifty-three years. In the Bishops' Cloisters is a marble monument to his memory, and in the north aisle of Cathedral is a stained-glass window by Warrington, consisting of nine subjects relating to the life of St. John the Baptist, placed as a memorial to Dr. Clutton and his wife (a daughter of Dean Wetherell), by their son-in-law Archdeacon Lane Freer. Dr. Clutton was a distinguished member of the Cathedral, greatly beloved; an earnest preacher, defending the doctrines of Christ against the champions of infidelity; a firm supporter of the Church of England; singularly devout and impressive in all his ministrations; of unobtrusive piety, sound learning, true Christian zeal, upright and honourable; a liberal contributor to various institutions, and a kind friend and benefactor to the poor.

88 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A.D. - OBIIT.

1461. James Goldwell, D.C.L. Bishop of Norwich 1472. - 1499.

1464. Walter Peitwin.

1468. Thomas Downe. Precentor. - 1489.

1490. Robert de Castellen.

????. Ralph Hannys. Died possessed of this stall. - 1501.

1508. William Webb. Archdeacon of Salop.

1512. John Blith. Archdeacon of Coventry. - 1558.

1558. Simon Gilbert. - 1568.

1568. Henry Tanner.

????. George Wittingham held it 1580.

1588. Gervase Babington, D.D. Successively Bishop of Llandaff 1591, Exeter 1595, Worcester 1597. He held this stall until his translation to Worcester. - 1610.

1597. William St. Barbe.

1625. Robert Robotham. Resigned.

1628. Bartholomew Pettingale, M.A. Vicar of Dilwyn. Died during the wars.

1660. *George Benson, D.D. Dean 1672. - 1692.

1692. John Page, M.A. Rector of Colwall.

1723. *Thomas Wishaw.

1753. Walwyn Morgan, M.A.

1780. Richard Underwood, M.A. Custos 1794. Buried at Canon Pyon. - 1819.

1801. Thomas Underwood, M.A. Rector of Ross.

1842. Watson Joseph Thornton, M.A. Rector of Llanwarne. - 1856.

1856. John Hanmer Underwood, M.A. Rural Dean of Frome. Vicar of Bosbury, 1830-56. He died August 30, 1856, and was buried on the south side of the tower at Bosbury. [1] 1856.

1857. William Francis Raymond, M.A. of St. Peter's College, Cambridge, was collated March 30, 1857. Rector of Stockton 1834. Vicar of Wilsford, Wilts, 1835. Rural Dean of Burford 1839.

WITHINGTON PARVA.

????. Robert of Gloucester resigned this stall 1282 A.D.

1282. Nicholas de Hereford.

1285. John Swinfeld.

1286. Nicholas de Geynvill.

????. Richard Patts or Passamer. - 1350.

1350. William de Hervington.

????. Henry Hamerton. Resigned A.D. 1400.

1400. John Hartlepool.


[1] A tablet was also erected in the chancel of this church by the parishioners to record their respect and affection for his memory. The Bishop of the Diocese in 1856, and Archdeacon Freer in his Charge, 1857, lamented his loss as a great promoter of education, an elegant and accomplished scholar, and a forcible and pleasing public speaker.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 89

A.D. - OBIIT.

1403. John ap Howell.

1403. Thomas Feld.

1406. John Baysham.

1407. John Loveney. Archdeacon of Hereford.

1422. John Merbury. - 1425.

1425. cir. Robert Holyday. - 1428.

1429. John Berew or Beaurieu. Dean. - 1462.

1462. Hugh Ragoun.

1462. John ap Richard. December 21.

1515. John Cole. Resigned.

1515. John Elton, alias Baker. Chancellor. - 1547.

1547. John Compton. Chancellor. - 1555.

1555. John Williams, D.C.L. Chancellor, and Archdeacon of Gloucester. - 1558.

????. Richard Aldrich held it in 1560 and 1580.

1603. Silvanus Griffiths, M.A. Dean. - 1623.

1623. John Freemantle, M.A.

1627. Jonathan Dryden.

1638. cir. William Paxton. - circa 1655.

1660. Richard Newborough, M.A., September 24. Rector of Stoke Milburgh. - 1686.

1686. Vincent Owen, B.C.L. Buried at Munsley. - 1703.

1703. Henry Rogers, M.A. Vicar of Glasbury. - 1709.

1709. Richard Langford. Archdeacon of Merioneth 1712.

1712. Paul Williams, M.A. Rector of Eaton Bishop and Madley.

1735. William Davies, M.A.

1765. Guy Hill, M.A. Vicar of Sellack 1768-74.

1767. Hugh Price, M.A.

1771. Daniel Price, M.A.

1772. *Charles Morgan, M.A.

1776. Thomas Huntley, D.C.L.

1800. Morgan Cove, D.C.L. Rector of Eaton Bishop. Died in 77th year. - 1830.

1801. Theophilus Lane. Vicar of Eardisland. - 1814.

1814. Charles Maitland Babington.

1818. *Arthur Matthews, B.D. Fellow of Brasenose College. Vicar of Woolhope with Fownhope. Vicar of Linton. Buried there. - 1843.

1843. John Venn, M.A. Fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge. Vicar of St. Peter with St. Owen's, Hereford, 1833. Resigned December 1867.

1868. James Wayland Joyce, M.A. of Christ Church, Oxford. Was collated October 8, 1868. Rector of Burford, 3d Portion, 1842. Examining Chaplain to the Lord Bishop of Hereford 1868. Proctor in Convocation for the Diocese of Hereford.

90 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

YNE OR EIGNE.

A.D. - OBIIT.

????. Thomas de Sancto Omero held this stall A.D. 1294.

1308. John de la Barew.

????. Thomas de Chandos held it 1317. Resigned 1320. Archdeacon of Hereford 1327.

1320. John de Oxenden.

????. Roger de Sutton. Resigned 1368.

1368. William de Berningham or Birmingham. Dean 1363.

????. Gilbert Stone. Resigned 1414.

1414. John Clark.

1417. Edmund de la Board.

????. John Mapleton held it at his death. - 1432.

1432. William Middleham. Resigned.

1439. John Paslew. Resigned.

1447. Ralph Durewarde.

????. Richard Hues.

????. Oliver King. Resigned 1480. Bishop of Exeter 1493; Bath and Wells 1495. - 1503.

1480. William Skyby, M.A.

1488. Ralph Hannys, B.C.L. In his will, dated April 10, 1501, he calls himself Prebendary of Wellington.

????. Nicholas Walwen. Resigned it 1512.

1512. William de la Bere.

1520. Humphrey Ogle, B.C.L.

1522. Roger Beubride or Beubryde. - 1532.

1532. William Chell, B.M. Resigned.

1545. John Styrman or Stirmin, B.C.L. Archdeacon of Hereford.

1547. William Barker.

1555. Roger Stretye.

1567. William Penson. Chancellor. - 1587.

1587. John Howson. Resigned. Bishop of Oxford 1619; Durham 1628. - 1632.

1603. Robert Burghill, B.D. Rector of Peterstow. Buried at Northwold, Norfolk. - 1641.

1641. Stephen Philips. Vicar of Lugwardine. Buried there. - 1666.

1666. Theophilus Cook. Resigned.

1680. John Clark, M.A. Vicar of Madley. Buried in the Cathedral. - 1712.

1712. Richard Witherston. Rector of Sutton St. Nicholas.

1738. Lewis Owen, B.D.

1743. *John Jones, M.A. Buried at Foy. - 1768.

1768. *Charles Morgan, M.A. Buried in the Cathedral. - 1789.

1771. William Allen, D.D. Rector of Hampton Bishop 1794.

1776. John Stone, D.C.L.

Prebendaries of the Cathedral. 91

A.D. - OBIIT.

1778. Robert Price, B.C.L.

1801. Henry Gorges Dobyns Yate.

1812. John Lilly. Chairman of Quarter Sessions. Vicar of Felton. - 1825

1825. *Frederick Benjamin Twistleton, now Baron Saye and Sele, D.C.L. of New College, Oxford, was collated to this Prebend November 17, 1825. Archdeacon of Hereford 1863. Rector of Broadwell with Addlestrop 1825-52.

NOTE.- Among the letters of Margaret of Anjou (Camden Society) is one addressed to William Scroop, Prebendary of Pionia Parva A.D. 1448. His name does not occur in the preceding list. He afterwards held the Prebend of Twyford in St. Paul's Cathedral.

In a book of Patents, of the 5th and 6th years of Edward VI., is one presenting Dr. John Olde to a Canonship or Prebend in Hereford Cathedral, vacant by the death of one Anthonne Bellows; but there is no proof that either of these ecclesiastics was ever duly installed, the name of the stall being unknown.

Hinton.- Dr. Hoadley became Archbishop of Dublin in 1730, and Primate of Ireland in 1742. He died A.D. 1746.

Preston.- Prebendary Barnard was son of the Provost of Eton. He was Rector of Everdon in Northamptonshire, and afterwards Vicar of Bexley in Kent. Also Rector of Alverstoke in Hampshire. He died October 1840, aged 76 years.

92 The College of Vicars Choral.

THE first Charter was granted to this Body in the reign of Richard II., September 6, 1396, when they were declared to be "Collegium incorporatum ad impetrand: ad recipiend: et adquirend: nomine Custodis et Vicariorum", and to have a common seal. The building was then in Castle Street, but in 1475 Richard Gardiner, the Custos, complained of the distance from the Cathedral, and the inconvenience of attending midnight mass during the winter season. Bishop Stanbury gave a portion of the Palace garden, and contributed largely towards the erection of the present building. In 1534 the revenue of the College was estimated at 88: 14: 9. At this time there were a Custos and twenty-six Vicars. The Charter was again granted by Queen Elizabeth, March 26, 1583. The corporation was then reduced to twelve members, but just before the civil wars there were sixteen, all graduates and in holy orders. From the year 1660 to 1840, twelve Priest Vicars were constantly engaged in the daily services of the Cathedral. It was by the unfortunate enactments of 3 and 4 Vict. c. 113, "when the ancient polity of the Church of England was ruthlessly broken up", that this Body was reduced to six. Arrangements having been made (1865 to 1868) for the gradual restoration of the full number, there are at present a Custos, three Vicars Choral, and six assistant Priest Vicars. [1]


[1] The following particulars are extracted from a most valuable work by the Rev. Mackenzie Walcott, Pracentor of Chichester - Cathedralia, a Constitutional History of Cathedrals; Masters, 1865:-

"This Body receives 12: 3: 4 yearly, and each member 26 bushels of wheat from the capitular revenues. Besides these were 'frequentantes chorum', who were neither canon's vicars nor recipients of certain stipends, but attended in choir at irregular periods. In the first form were canons and priests, in the second deacons and subdeacons' vicars, in the third all clerks of inferior orders. Before admission into choir the introduction and maintenance by a canon, or licence of the dean and chapter, was requisite. The new vicar had to learn the hymnal, psalter and antiphonar, within a year and a day. Only a canon priest or the Dean's vicar might celebrate at the high altar, except in case of necessity, when the senior vicar was to supply the vacancy. The vicars were to attend matins in the Cathedral at 5 or 5.30 A.M., according to the season, daily. Their quotidian was called 'secta chori'. The perpetual vicars, who received a certain portion in the church, were those of St. Nicholas or Cawkbridge; St. Agnes'; St. Margaret's or Philip Hayes; St. Michael's or Kingston; St. Mary's or Ann Bohun; and those of Diddlebury or Holm Lacy. Two were to bury the dead (Stat. 1584, c. 4). No vicar was admitted

The College of Vicars Choral. 93

except after examination in music by the succentor and vicars (c. vii.) Absalon, clerk, founded the vicarage of Holy Trinity; Canon P. Rufus, another vicarage; Roger de Cawkbridge, another (Obit, p. 11); W. de Hamme, clerk, another; Canon W. de Haye, the vicarage of St. Francis' Altar (ib. 4); Canon P. de Haye, another (ib. 23); Matthew de Cygonia, canon, that of St. Nicholas' Altar (ib. 19); and Master Alexander, the secular, another vicarage (ib. 25).

"Perpetual vicars were to attend all the hours; they were the actual ministers of the Church; and other vicars were maintained by endowed Canons. A vicar who refused to sing or read in the Choir when tabled was delated by the succentor in Choir; and if a deacon or subdeacon, he was flogged on the bare back by the hebdomadary; and if a priest, besought pardon on bended knee. Vicars of the second or third form also received discipline for failure in singing, and those of the first form had sharper punishment. By statute 1637 there were to be twelve vicars choral and four subcanons, deacons, or subdeacons; the latter (Stat. 1583) might be laymen, but were required to live in the Vicars' College.

"According to the Consuetudines there were four vicars of the Abbots of Lyra and Corneilles, and six vicars, two priests, two deacons, and two subdeacons, founded by Bishop de Maidenston, receiving 20 marks from Diddlebury a year; the priests 3 marks; deacons 20s.; the subdeacons 2 marks; four priest vicars, one celebrating at the Cross, another in the Lady Mass, a third for Phillip Rufus, and the fourth for Master Alexander; all these were to attend all the hours in Choir.

"In 1637 (Hargrave MS. 246, 357; Hart. 2983, 4343; Benet. Coll. MS. cxx. 485) there were to be twelve vicars choral, and four subcanons, deacons, and subdeacons. There were two Diddlebury, two Holm Lacy vicars, a de Haye, a Cawkbridge, and an Agnes vicar, so called from their foundation; the four minor canons probably represented the four junior canons. They were required by weeks to say matins at 5 A.M. daily between Annunciation and September 1, and at other times at 6.30, on pain of a fine of 1d. a day, and of losing their whole share for a year in sportula sectæ chori if they did not attend lecture in their college chapel on all Sundays at 3 P.M. (Statutes 1583).

"Note.- The following Rubric occurs in the MS. injunctions of the Bishop of Worcester, commissioner to Cardinal Pole, issued to the Cathedral Church of Hereford, July 17, 1558:- At the naming of Jesus in singing or saying, every man shall give token of reverence with vailing their bonnets and bending their knees, and likewise when the verse 'Sit nomen domini benedictum' is sung, and the psalm 'Laudate pueri dominum'; also in the Creed at the saying of the verse 'et Incarnatus est spiritu'; and these words, 'Et Homo factus est".

94 Vicars Choral in the Choir of Hereford.

PREVIOUSLY TO THE CHARTER GRANTED BY QUEEN ELIZABETH.

YEAR OF ELECTION. - DATE OF DEATH.

The following names of those who were Chauntry Priests are attached to certain testamentary documents as witnesses,

A.D. 1271.-

Simon de Bosebury. Custos.
William de Evesham.
Richard de Barwe.
Robertus senior, dictus Le Graunt.
Robertus junior.

In a deed bearing date A.D. 1297 (Chapter Archives, No. 201), mention is made of "William de Lude, vicar of the great church of Hereford".

In 1372 Thomas de Breynton and Hugo Frene were witnesses to a deed of conveyance. (Rudder's Gloucester, 449.)

In 1396 Walter Thorleston was nominated Custos by the Crown, "pro hoc prima vice duntaxat".

In 1475 Richard Gardiner was Custos, when measures were taken for the erection of the present building.

John George appears to have been a Vicar before the year 1530. He was afterwards Sub-chanter. His will is recorded in the Chapter Act Book. He died. - 1582.

1530. Robert George. Vicar of Diddlebury 1535. Custos in 1580, which office he held only three weeks. - 1580.

In 1535 William Chell was Sub-chanter.

John Brown. Rector of St. Nicholas. - 1577.

Roger Carwardine "bequeathed 5s. to each of his brethren of the College, and his best gown and surplice to John Brown". - 1567.

Vicars Choral in the Choir of Hereford. 95

YEAR OF Election. - DATE OF DEATH.

William Burgess was expelled in 1571 for "abusing his brethren, by calling them rogues, knaves, and other opprobrious names". (D. and C. Act Book).

Thomas Yatton. - 1560.

Henry Mynde was Custos in 1566. An admonition was issued to him from the Dean and Chapter about women in College. Vicar of Hom Lacy 1579. The Mynde family continued to reside at Hampton Bishop until quite recently. - 1580.

1558. Richard Mason. Custos 1575 and 1580. - 1582.

1558. *Thomas Mason. Organist and Sub-chanter. - 1606.

1562. Robert Lovatt. - 1580.

1567. Henry Tanner. Mentioned in a deed, No. 232, in Archives, 1559. He was in 1576 "warned to depart his chamber and commons before Christmas day next following".

1567. Richard Maddox. Vicar of Blakemere and Prebendary of Inkbarrow 1581. - 1597.

1567. *William Vicary. Custos 1576-82. - 1594.

1568. Clement Lewis expelled 1579.

1572. *Bartholomew Mason, M.A. Sub-chanter 1595. Chaplain to James I. Elected to Worcester Cathedral 1601.

1572. *John White, B.A. Vicaf of Westbury 1580. Custos 1581, and in 1584 for life. - 1607.

????. Thomas Pember was admitted before 1575. - 1584.

1576. William Hawkins. Rector of St. Nicholas. - 1584.

1577. John Carless expelled 1579.

1578. *Richard Kyo. Vicar of Preston-on-Wye. Expelled 1588. - 1597.

1579. *Thomas Hosier, B.A. Appointed first Custos for life under the new charter. - 1599.

1580. Thomas Ganderton. - circa 1585.

1580. Thomas Lyde. A very troublesome and abusive individual. He was sconced four times in 1586, and was never allowed to hold any responsible office. He was expelled in 1587.

1580. John Williams.

1581. James Barkstead.

1581. *William Hosier, B.A. Vicar St. Mary Magdalen. - 1610.

1582. *William Davis. - 1604.

1582. *Luke Prosser, B.A. - 1603.

1583. William Evans, B.A. Deprived in 1601 "for laying violent hands on H. Western to the effusion of blood". Readmitted 1602. - 1625.

96 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

YEAR OF ELECTION. - DATE OF DEATH.

1586. *George Allen, B.A. Succentor 1601. Suspended in 1604 for twelve months, and fined. - 1616.

CUSTOS AND VICARS ACCORDING TO THE CHARTER OF QUEEN ELIZABETH.

THE Society consisted now of a Custos and twelve Vicars. Eleven of the preceding names* were included in the Charter, Thomas Hosier being the Custos.

1587. Richard Exton. - 1589.

1587. Thomas Maddox, B.A. - 1598.

1588(?). Philip Skynner. Vicar St. John Baptist. - 1609.

1592. John Farrant, also organist. He was sconced for "railing and contumelious speeches to Mr. Custos in the hall at supper time". He was not perpetuated.

1594. Thomas Boyce. Vicar Preston-on-Wye. - 1620.

1594. John Todd, B.A. - 1597.

1594. Stephen Boughton, M.A. Custos 1607. Successively Vicar of Westbury, Much Marcle, Dinedor. Also Reader at the Chapel Royal to James I., and Prebendary of Worcester. He was deprived of all his preferment in 1645, and died before. - 1660.

1596. Thomas Howells was rejected after causing the society much trouble. - 1606.

1598. Humfry Western. - 1610.

1600. William Watkins. - 1603.

1604. John Baughan. Succentor. Vicar St. John Baptist. - 1629.

1604. Hugh Davis, B.M. Organist of New College, Oxford, and of this Cathedral. He was Custos and Vicar of Holmer. - 1644.

1605. Cornelius Adderley. - 1617.

1608. Thomas Heynes. Resigned 1609.

1608. Francis Wybrow.

1609. William Adams. Rector of Putley. - 1625.

1609. Evan Jones. Custos 1629. Also Vicar of St. John Baptist, Putley, and Vowchurch. - 1637.

1611. Philip Reeves. Vicar of St. Peter's. - 1635.

1611. Samuel Matthews. - 1615.

Vicars Choral in the Choir of Hereford. 97

YEAR OF ELECTION. - DATE. OF DEATH.

1612. Michael Vascol.

1612. William Hayfold. Vicar of Breinton. - 1632.

1616. Richard Beckett. Vicar of St. Owen's. - 1635.

1616. Matthew White, M.D. Succentor and Rector of St. Nicholas. - 1641.

1616. John White Osgood, M.A. Vicar of Westbury. - 1657.

1620. Richard Hayfold. Rejected 1618.

1619. Richard Hosier. In 1621 was "pronounced contumacious".

1620. Guy Knowles. - circa 1660.

1621. Robert Taylor. - 1625.

1626. Christopher Hyde. - 1637.

1627. William Nicholls, M.A. - 1635.

1632. John Clerke. Custos 1660. Resigned 1664. - 1670.

1632. John Phillips, M.A. Custos 1644. Vicar of Norton Canon about 1640, where he resided and experienced gross ill-treatment from the Parliamentary soldiery. - 1659.

1632. Daniel Smith.

1633. William Broad, M.A. Vicar of Westbury 1660. - circa 1661.

1635. William Crane was College auditor in 1637.

1635. William Peyton, M.A. Chaplain of New College and Vicar of St. John Baptist. - 1679.

1637. James Harvey. Died during the wars.

1639. Henry Manfield. Succentor 1660. Rector of How Caple. - 1663.

1640. William Hosier. Succentor 1664. Custos 1691. - 1707.

1643. Richard Cox. Custos 1664. Chaplain of St. Giles Hospital, the chapel of which was rebuilt at his expense. He also gave the fine silver punchbowl still in the College, and the curiously-carved work now over the garden doorway. (See Dinely MS.). - 1684.

1643. James Read. Custos 1684. Vicar of Westbury. - 1686.

1644. Walter Carwardine. Died during the wars.

During the Commonwealth the College was in the custody of Colonel Rogers of Llan-vach, Monmouthshire. No records were kept for seventeen years. The Vicars were put to flight, and endured great privations and hardships. Some of them were assisted by the charitable bounty of Lord Scudamore. Seven members of the College survived to resume the choral duty in the Cathedral on the restoration of Charles II. to the throne.

1660. John Spratt. - 1681. 1660. Thomas Broad, M.A. Custos 1707. - 1709.

98 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

YEAR OF ELECTION. - DATE OF DEATH.

1660. Thomas Buckley. Resigned 1664.

1660. John Badham. Also organist. - 1688.

1660. John Chapman. Buried at Abberley. - 1690.

1664. Anthony Oakley. - 1668.

1664. Humphrey Fisher. - 1700.

1668. John Broad, M.A. - 1703.

1670. Robert Griffiths. - 1685.

1679. Henry Hall. Also organist. - 1707.

1681. Edward Broad. - 1704.

1683. John Finch. - 1705.

1685. Thomas Browne, M.A. Resigned 1686.

1686. Barnabas Alderson, B.A. - 1741.

1687. Thomas Gwillim, M.A. Resigned 1706. - 1726.

1688. William Harris, B.A. - 1715.

1691. Peter Senhouse, M.A. Resigned 1706. - 1760.

1692. William Husbands, M.A. Vicar of St. John's. - 1701.

1700. John Moore, M.A. Custos 1709. - 1737.

1701. Thomas Husbands, M.A. - 1728.

1701. John Withes, B.A. - 1707.

1704. John Dandridge, M.A. - 1711.

1706. George Phelps, M.A. Custos 1744. His portrait is preserved in the College common-room. - 1754.

1706. Thomas Rodd, B.A. - 1707.

1706. Richard Russell, B.C.L. Vicar of Westbury 1712. - 1739.

1707. Nathaniel Browne, M.A. - 1709.

1707. John Trapp, M.A. Resigned 1709. - 1715.

1708. Thomas Cholmley, M.A. - 1735.

1709. Francis Astrey, M.A. Rejected 1710. - 1754.

1709. William Lewis, B.A. - 1711.

1709. Richard Waring, M.A. Custos 1754. - 1769.

1709. Timothy Morse. - 1711.

1710. Joseph Territt, B.D. - 1724.

1711. Thomas Barnes, M.A. Resigned 1736. - 1757.

1711. Thomas Dew, M.A. - 1756.

1711. William Crowther, M.A. - 1766.

1711. Thomas Payne, M.A. Custos 1737. - 1744.

1716. Brian Turner. Resigned 1720.

1720. George Harvey, B.A. - 1760.

1724. Richard Lloyd, B.A. - 1735.

1728. John Guest, M.A. Resigned 1732. Vicar of Bromyard. - 1760.

Vicars Choral in the Choir of Hereford. 99

YEAR OF ELECTION. - DATE OF DEATH.

1734. Samuel Bird, B.A. - 1740.

1735. William Senhouse, M.A. - circa 1750.

1736. Isaac Donnithorne, M.A. Resigned 1765. In the College common-room there is a very fine life-size portrait of this Vicar, painted by the celebrated Gainsborough. He was paid 300 guineas for his work. It was presented to the society by the widow of the Rev. Adam John Walker, circa 1850. - 1782.

1737. John Woodcock, D.D. Resigned 1769. - 1782.

1737. Thomas Carpenter, M.A. Vicar of Westbury 1739. - 1763.

1740. Francis Lewis, M.A. Expelled 1751.

1740. Arthur Vaughan, M.A. - 1748.

1741. William Felton, M.A. Custos 1769. He was a superior musician, and a good performer on stringed instruments and the harpsichord. He composed some concertos, and the well-known "burial chant". Chiefly through his exertions the present hall was built. He was buried in the south-eastern part of the Cathedral. - 1769.

1744. Morgan Cove, M.A. - 1768.

1748. John Arnold, M.A. Resigned 1752. - 1775.

1750. Robert Shenton, M.A. Resigned 1757. - 1798.

1752. John Kidley, M A. Vicar of Westbury 1764. - 1797.

1752. John Stone, D.C.L. Custos 1769. - 1783.

1754. Joseph Guest, M.A. Vicar of Westbury 1763. - 1790.

1754. Richard Vaughan, M.A. Resigned 1764. - 1796.

1757. William Baylis, B.A. - 1774.

1761. John Pitman, M.A. - 1775.

1764. Henry Taswell, B.A. - 1796.

1764. Thomas Kidley, M.A. - 1813.

1766. Thomas Luntley, B.C.L. Resigned 1782. - 1799.

1766. Richard Underwood, M.A. Custos 1794. - 1819.

1768. David Carpenter, B.A. Resigned 1771. - 1784.

1768. Lewis Maxey, M.A. Subchanter. A good portrait of this Vicar is preserved at the College. - 1820.

1769. Richard Clack. Also organist. - 1779.

1770. Benjamin Winston, M.A. Custos 1783. - 1794.

1774. Benjamin Piddington, B.A. - 1775.

1775. Francis Woodcock, M.A. - 1818.

1775. Edmund Barry. - 1805.

1775. Morgan Cove, D.C.L. Not perpetuated 1776. - 1830.

100 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

YEAR OF ELECTION. - DATE OF DEATH.

1776. Richard Walond, M.A. Resigned 1791. - 1831.

1780. Thomas Spencer. Resigned 1789. - 1816.

1783. James Bullock, M.A. Resigned 1797. - 1815.

1783. William Jenkins. - 1797.

1792. Robert Pearce, M.A. Custos 1840. - 1850.

1792. Adam. John Walker, M.A. Resigned 1798. - 1839.

1792. Thomas Lloyd, M.A. - 1809.

1795. Matthew Hill, B.A. - 1847.

1796. James Garbett, M.A. Custos 1819. Resigned 1840. - 1857.

1797. Samuel Picart, B.D. Resigned 1807. - 1835.

1797. Thomas Watkins, M.A. Resigned 1802. - 1839.

1798. Charles Drake Isdell, M.A. Resigned 1800. - 1841.

1802. Gilbert Rice Hancock, B.A. Expelled 1807. - 1809.

1806. Christopher Jones, M.A. Custos 1850. - 1853.

1808. William Cooke, M.A. Resigned 1836. Vicar of Bromyard. - 1854.

1810. William Munsey, B.A. Not perpetuated 1811. Again admitted 1820. Vicar of Fownhope. - 1864.

1810. Edward Howells, M.A. Custos 1853. Vicar of Preston and Blakemere.

1810. John A. Montgomery, B.A. Not perpetuated. - 1842.

1812. John Birt, D.D. Resigned 1816. - 1847.

1812. William Watkins, M.A. Resigned 1818. - 1865.

1816. Thomas Hill, B.A. - 1849.

1818. Henry Pearce, M.A. - 1849.

1818. Thomas Forster, M.A. Resigned 1819. Not perpetuated. - 1867.

1820. Edward Bulmer, M.A. Rector of Moreton-on-Lugg.

1821. Thomas Gretton, M.A. Resigned 1853. He was appointed Subchanter a short time previous to his resignation. He was allowed by the Chapter to hold this office for the remainder of his life. - 1861.

1822. Albert Jones, M.A. Vicar of Holmer 1850. He died at Blisworth on November 8, 1868, and was buried at Holmer 1868 1823. John Hanbury, M.A. Resigned 1840. He was Vicar of St. John Baptist and Rector of St. Nicholas. - 1859.

1853. John Goss, M.A. Vicar of St. John Baptist 1860. Subchanter 1862.

1853. Francis T. Havergal, M.A. Vicar of Pipe and Lyde 1861.

1865. George Musgrave Custance, M.A. Resigned 1867, on his promotion to the Rectory of Colwall.

Vicars Choral in the Choir of Hereford. 101

The Choir is now augmented by the following Assistant Vicars Choral:-

1866. William Duncombe Vanderhorst Duncombe, M.A. of Brasenose College, Oxford.

1867. Alfred Robinson, B.A., St. Peter's College, Cambridge.

1867. John Robert Gleig Taylor, M.A., St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxford.

1869. Thomas Marsh Everett, St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxford.

1869. John Swire, St. Mary Magdalen College, Oxford.

1869. Alfred J. Capel, B.A., Trinity College, Dublin.

1869. Thomas Shakleton, B.A., Trinity College, Dublin.

The late Rev. William Cooke acquired an immense amount of information relating to the College and the Vicars in olden time. His biographical notices of them are most curious and amusing, giving a complete insight into the manners, traditions, and customs of the place. I was so fortunate as to be allowed to peruse his manuscripts during his lifetime, and to him I am indebted for much local Antiquarian information.

These brief notices may be brought to a conclusion with an extract from a manuscript in the British Museum (Lansdowne, 213, p. 333):-

"Relation of a survey of 26 counties in 1634, by a Captain, a Lieutenant, and an Ancient, all three of the military company in Norwich.

"Next came wee into a brave and ancient priviledg'd Place, through the Lady Arbour Cloyster, close by the Chapter House, called the Vicar's Chorall, or Colledge Cloyster, where 12 of the singing men, all in orders, most of them Masters in Arts, of a Gentile garbe, have their convenient several dwellings, and a fayre Hall, with richly-painted windows, Colledge like, wherein they constantly dyet together, and have their Cooke, Butler, and other officers, with a fayre Library to themselves, consisting all of English books, wherein (after we had freely tasted of their Chorall cordiall Liquor) we spent our time till the Bell toll'd us away to Cathedral prayers. There wee heard a most sweet Organ, and voyces of all parts, Tenor, Counter-Tenor, Treeble, and Base; and amongst that orderly shewy crew of Queristers our landlord guide did act his part in a deep and sweet Diapason".

102 Organists of the Cathedral.

"IN the XIII. century obituary of Hereford a clerk of the organs is mentioned".- Rev. M. Walcot's Cathedralia, p. 155.

The following names and dates of appointment are taken from the Act Books belonging to the Dean and Chapter and the Custos and Vicars.

A.D.

1581. Thomas Mason.

????. John Hodge (?).

1582. John Bull, M.D. December 24. The College Act Books record the terms on which he was admitted to reside in the College. He was one of the most famous musicians of his period. He took musical degrees at Oxford, and was the first professor of music in Gresham College. See Ward's Gresham Professors; Hawkins' History of Music (containing a portrait of him), vol. ii. 366; vol. iii. 318; Chappell's Music of the Olden Time, ii. 249-695. He was the reputed author of the National Anthem, but this opinion is rejected by most musical authors of the present time. He was undoubtedly a remarkable musician, and an ingenious composer. Further particulars are given of Dr. John Bull in Dr. Rimbault's introduction to Fantasies in Three Parts by Orlando Gibbons, which was published for the Musical Antiquarian Society in 1843.

1586. Thomas Warrock. September 30. [1]

1589. Thomas Mason. November 13. "To be organist for one whole year". (College Act Book.)

1592. John Ferrant or Farrant. March 22. Also a Vicar Choral. Resigned December 24, 1593.


[1] Anthony a Wood, in his Fasti Oxon., 278, states that Sir Philip Warwick, a well-known Royalist author, was the son of Thomas Warwick, organist of Westminster Abbey, who, among other things, composed a piece in Forty Parts. He was grandson of Thomas Warwick or Warrock of Hereford, who was descended from an ancient Cumberland family.

Organists of the Cathedral. 103

A.D.

1593. John Ffidow, "laicus". Elected December 24, but was dismissed by the Vicars February 22, 1594.

1595. ? Gybbs. On August 19 a resolution was passed by the Vicars about his commons.

1596. John Ffidow. Elected by the Vicars to be their organist.

1597. William Juglott (?). Appointed October 1.

1630. Hugh Davis or Davies, M.B., a Vicar Choral, afterwards Custos. On July 7 there is an Act in the College books relating to him, "that he be spared from the Choir so that he be ready in ye Organ loft to play before ye reading of ye first Lesson", etc.

1661. John Badham. A Vicar Choral.

1678. On April 27 John Badham "took to his assistance Mr. Robert Griffiths, one of the Vicars Choral".

1688. Sept. 15. Henry Hall. A Vicar Choral.

1707. Henry Hall jun. Died January 22, 1713.

1713. Edmund Tomson or Thompson.

1721. Henry Swarbrick. Buried June 23, 1754.

1754. Richard Clack, July 6. Resigned November 1779.

1779. William Perry.

1789. Miles Coyle.

1805. Charles James Dare.

1818. Aaron W. Hayter.

1820. John Clarke Whitfeld, M.D. Professor of Music in the University of Cambridge. He was buried in the Bishops' Cloisters, where there is a monument to his memory.

1832. Samuel Sebastian Wesley, M.D. Now organist of Gloucester Cathedral.

1835. John Hunt. His premature death was caused by a fall on the staircase of the College common-room, November 17, 1842. He was buried in the north choir aisle. A window and a brass plate were erected to his memory, through the exertions of the late Archdeacon Freer, in 1857.

1843. George Townshend Smith was appointed on January 5, 1843, and is organist at the present time.

Lay Clerks and other Choral Assistants.

PREVIOUSLY to 1840 the choral service of the Cathedral was sustained solely by the Vicars Choral and Sub-deacons. From 1842 to 1850 the services were entirely abandoned in the Cathedral, but were held in All Saints' Church and in the small College Chapel. In 1850 (Easter) the service was resumed in the Nave of the Cathedral. In consequence of the great reduction in the members of the College it became necessary to secure further vocal assistance. The Rev. J. Goss was selected to assist the Vicars Choral, and a staff of Lay Singers was at the same time engaged by the Dean and Chapter, the Custos and Vicars paying a fixed sum towards their stipends. The following is a correct list of all those who have been thus engaged:-

George Bickley, February 20, 1851-1855.
William J. Burville, 1851-?.
Thomas Lumley, 1851-1851.
Spencer Stephens, 1851-1855.
Francis M. Ward, 1851-1855.
William Taylor, 1851-1855.
James Barnby, 1851-1868.
Thomas Carpenter, 1855-1868.
Austin Herbert, 1855-?.
Joseph Plant, 1855-1855.
Robert Bradley, 1856-?.
William Dyson, 1856-1869.

The following Lay perions have rendered much valuable assistance to the choir, chiefly on Sundays and special occasions:-

William Phillips, 1860-?.
George Price, 1860-1865.
Alfred Jones, 1860-1862.
E. Bennett, 1860-1862.
J. Izzard, 1860-1861.
George Barter, M.A., 1865-?.
H. Magness, ?-1865.
F. Ruddle, 1865-1867.
E. Granger, 1865-1866.
J. Turner, 1866-?.
A.W. Bezant, 1866-?
J.A. Herbert, 1866-?.

Choristers.

THE ministration of children is indispensable for the performance of choral service. At Hereford the admission of choristers has been constantly recorded in the Dean and Chapter's Act Books for the last three centuries. Under the Statutes compiled by Archbishop Laud, five choristers were provided by the Canons, and two by the College. In 1821 Dr. George Cope bequeathed 200 to provide an eighth chorister. There are now eight choristers and four probationers, all receiving a good classical education in the Cathedral School. Arrangements have lately been made for the boarding of a portion of the choristers. In ancient times they were called "Clerks of the third form"; they began the antiphons on week-days and at funerals, and carried the cross, censers, and tapers. They were also taught to play the lyre and harp. The following is a list of those who have been admitted during the last thirty years:-

A.D.

1839-48. Edmund Bannister.
1841-51. Thomas Carpenter.
1842-47. James Byers.
1843-49. Alfred Jones.
1843-48. William Beavan.
1845-52. James Cole.
1843-52. William Robinson.
1843-51. Edwin Guy.
1847-53. James C. Vaughan.
1847-52. Joseph Cole.
1848-52. Thomas Sparkes.
1848-51. J.A. Morgan.
1848-54. Charles J. Merrick.
1849-56. Thomas Hewson.
1850-55. Frederic H. Rock.
1851-53. William Bayliss.
1852-56. Joseph Maddox.
1852-56. Edward Prior.
1851-54. Edward Garstone.
1852-58. Stephen Griffiths.
1852-56. John Jenkins.
1853-54. William Donne.
1853-57. Frederic Baylis.
1854-58. Charles Baylis.
1854-58. William Payne.
1854-61. George Bishop.
1856-59. James Troughton.
1856-60. John Guy.
1856-65. Thomas Martin.
1856-57. John Baynham.
1856-58. Elihu B. Smith.
1857-58. Thomas Barnes.
1858-67. William Henry Burville.
1858-67. Henry J. Griffiths.
1858-61. William John Chick.
1858-63. Herbert Stephens.
1858-67. George Henry With.
1858-60. Thomas Ingles.
1858-67. Alfred Robert With.
1859-59. Francis Prosser.
1860-68. William M. Wilson.
1860-64. John Stephens.
1860-66. Henry Magness.
1862 - Sidney Percy Barnby.
1862-69. William Edward Easton.
1862-69. James George Easton.
1863 - William Webb.
1865 - Charles Phillips.
1865 - William Bradley.
1867 - John Morris.
1867 - William Price.
1867 - William J. Baynham.
1868-68. Clement Havergal.
1868 - Thorold Manning.
1868 - Arthur Jeffreys.
1868 - Walter Compton.

Head-Masters of the Grammar School

ATTACHED TO HEREFORD CATHEDRAL.

THIS school has been established for nearly five hundred years, but as no record of the early masters remains, the following imperfect list has been compiled from the Act Books belonging to the Dean and Chapter

A.D. - OBIIT.

1687. Thomas Gwillim. Resigned 1689. He was Vicar-Choral, Treasurer, and Vicar of Lydney.

????. Richard Treherne. Rector of Dinedor. - 1717.

1731. Thomas Willim.

1748. John Stephens. Vicar of Kempley and Rector of Ode.

1762. Gibbons Bagnall, D.D.

1778. Abraham Rudd.

1784. Robert Squire, M.A.

1803. Samuel Picart, B.D.

1807. Charles Taylor, D.D.

1826. Charles Taylor jun., B.D. Prebendary of Moreton Magna in this Cathedral, 1836. Vicar of Lydney 1838-59. Now Rector of Great Cressingham in the diocese of Norfolk.

1839. William Henry Ley, M.A. Vicar of Sellack and King's Caple.

1842. John Woolley, D.D. He perished at sea in "The London", January 1866, on his outward passage to Australia.

1844. Thomas F. Laing, D.D. Vicar of Marden.

1851. Thomas Barratt Power, M.A. Prebendary of Moreton Parva, and Vicar of Upton Bishop.

1857. John Woollam, M.A. Vicar of Yarkhill 1868.

1869. Eric John Sutherland Rudd, M.A.

The College Act Books record the admission of two earlier schoolmasters to chambers in the College - Thomas Cooxy 1590, and - Povey 1595.

ANTIQUARIAN MEMORIALS.

Description of Plates.

PLATE I.

THE TITLE PAGE.

THIS consists entirely of faithful copies of or adaptations from MSS. in the Cathedral Library. The capitals and border are taken from the following MSS., which will be found more fully described subsequently. The border is a facsimile of the 154th leaf of one of the largest and finest volumes in the library - Decreta Gratiani, temp. XIV. cent. Library mark, P. IX. 2. Size in the original 12 x 4 inches. The upper part, it must be allowed, is not quite square, but any attempt to re-adjust the lines would be a violation of the very first principle which I have endeavoured to carry out - viz. to represent things as they are, and not as modern taste or individual fancy might suggest. The first four words are taken from a Commentary on the Pentateuch, or from the equally ancient fragments of other books inserted as fly-leaves in that volume. Date - latter part of XII. cent. Library mark, O. III. 6. The elaborate and curious letter M is taken (half-size of original) from Liber Johannis Chrisostomi super Epistolam Hebreos, written about the middle of XII. cent. Library mark, O.V. 11. The remainder of the words "Antiquarian Memorials" are taken entirely from Panormia, sive Dictionarium linguæ Latina, date circa 1170. Library mark, P. V. 5. The first letter of "Herefordensis" is taken from "Gregorii Magni Moralia super Job", date 1270-80; Library mark, O.V. 5; a work of great beauty, with extremely elaborate capitals. The colours have been imitated as far as it was practicable, but age has imparted a mellow tone to the originals which cannot be obtained by any modern process.

It has often been a matter of discussion whether Herefordensis or Herefordiensis be the more correct orthography of the word. The latter mode has been most popular during the last three centuries; but the former was almost invariably used in mediæval times, as may be seen by reference to deeds, inscriptions, MSS., and earliest printed books. For this reason, then, I have adopted the more ancient form.

110 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PLATE II.

ETHELBERT EFFIGY.

"GLORIOSUS ORIENTALIUM ANGLORUM REX ETHELBERTUS".

THE mutilated effigy here represented was worked in local stone some time in the fourteenth century, and is 62 inches in height. It is placed on a pedestal against the pier on the south side of the Sacrarium, close to the head of Bishop Mayo's tomb, as shown in the illustration.

This Bishop desired in his will to be buried by the image of King Ethelbert.

This image of course was removed and purposely mutilated when the edict went forth for the destruction of shrines and images. It was broken into several pieces, and used as building-material inside the Lady Chapel. In this state it was dug up in the last century, and then preserved in the Library until the oak panelling was removed from the Choir, when it was restored to its original position.

In 1827, Mr. W. Rees states, "On the surcoat appear to have been painted the arms of Ethelbert, and it has been illuminated in several places with ancient gilt characters; on the crown, surcoat, and robes, are the traces of rich gilding and colouring". Traces of colour still remain.

Originally there were doubtless various other representations of the patron saint.

I. On the tombs of Bishops Cantilupe and Mayo, Dean Frowcester, Archdeacon Rudhale, Præcentor Porter; and in colour, formerly on the walls of the Chapter House and the tomb of Johanna de Kilpec, etc.

II. In ancient glass recently restored. In a window in the south aisle of Choir.

III. In stone; carving over Bishops' Cloister door, and effigy formerly on the west front.

The latest representation is on the finely-carved spandril over the reredos.

There are also local reminiscences of St. Ethelbert which may be here alluded to.

I. The ancient arms of the See of Hereford were adopted from the banner borne by the Kings of East Anglia, and are still retained in the seal of the Dean and Chapter.

II. "Ethelbert's Camp", occupying a conspicuous position near Dormington and Stoke Edith.

III. "Ethelbert's Well", near Castle Hill. See Illustration.

There is another well in Marden Church, which was said to have sprung up miraculously when he was buried there.

IV. "Ethelbert's Hospital", in Castle Street, endowed about 1231 for the support of ten aged women.

The Mastership is always held by the Treasurer of the Cathedral if he be a Residentiary.

Plate II

Description of Plates. 111

The adjacent street, from an early date, has also borne the name of St. Ethelbert.

V. Ethelbert's Fair, formerly held on May 19, and eight following days. The charter for holding this fair in commemoration of St. Ethelbert was granted by Henry I. The fees formed part of the emolument of the See.

The fair was annually proclaimed, with much ancient ceremony, until the year 1828, when the Hereford Improvement Act effected many changes, and limited its duration to two days.

Much has been written with reference to King Ethelbert in the old chronicles, histories, and local works. Each writer appears to have added to, or improved upon, in some way or other, the scanty information which the earliest writers recorded.

It is impossible to say at this distance of nearly 1100 years from the time of his murder, how much reliance may be placed on the many interesting details that are given as to the life and death, the deeds and virtues, of this Christian prince and martyr.

I cannot perhaps do better than give some extracts from old authors, rather than attempt to discriminate between fact and fiction, monkish legend and modern addition.

I. Bede's Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, ranging from the earliest period to A.D. 1 154 (Giles' edition, p. 173), simply states:-

"This year, A.D. 792, Offa, King of the Mercians, commanded the head of King Ethelbert to be struck off".

II. Ethelwerd's Chronicle, circa 1090 A.D. (Bohn's Antiquarian Library) makes a similar statement: "A.D. 792. Moreover it was after five years (after the marriage of Bertric with Offa's daughter) that Offa, King of the Mercians, commanded the head of King Ethelbert to be struck off".

III. Florence of Worcester, who died A.D. 1118 (Forester's edition, p. 47), wrote thus:-

"[AD. 793.] Ethelbert, the most glorious and holy king of the East Angles, whose eminent virtues rendered him acceptable to Christ, the true king, and who was courteous and affable to all men, lost at once both his kingdom and his life, being beheaded by the detestable commands of Offa, the mighty king of Mercia, at the infamous suggestion of his own wife, Queen Cynefrith; but, though iniquitously slain, and deprived of his kingdom, the king and martyr entered the courts of the blessed spirits, while the angels rejoiced in triumph".

IV. William of Malmesbury, who died A.D. 1143, in his Chronicle of the Kings of England, says of Offa:-

"This same man beheaded King Ethelbert, who had come to him through the allurement of great promises, and was at that very time within the walls of his palace, soothed into security by his perfidious attentions, and then unjustly seized upon the kingdom of the East Angles which Ethelbert had held".

Chapter iv. p. 78. Recording the kings of the East Angles, he says:-

"Next came Berured. 'After him Ethelred, his son, was St. Ethelbert, whom Offa,

112 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

king of the Mercians, killed through treachery, as has already been said, and will be repeated hereafter".- Chap. v. p. 89.

"Offa, king of the Mercians, murdered many persons of consequence, for the security, as he supposed, of his kingdom, without any distinction of friend or foe; among these was King Ethelbert; thereby being guilty of an atrocious outrage against the suitor of his daughter.

"His unmerited death, however, is thought to have been amply avenged by the short reign of Offa's son.

"Indeed, God signalised his sanctity by such evident tokens, that at this very day the Episcopal Church of Hereford is consecrated to his name".- Book ii. chap. xiii. p. 238, Bohn's Antiq. Library, Giles' Translation.

"V. The Annals of Roger de Hovedon, Riley's Translation, Bohn's Antiq. Library, briefly mention the decapitation of Ethelbert by Offa's command.

"VI. Roger of Wendover (died A.D. 1236), a monk of St. Alban's, attempts to extenuate the guilt of Offa in murdering Ethelbert by the following corrupt version of the story.- See Giles' Translation of the Flowers of History, Bohn's Antiq. Library.

"A.D. 792. At the same time Athelbert, king of the East Angles, son of King Ethelred, left his territories much against his mother's remonstrances, and came to Offa, the most potent king of the Mercians, beseeching him to give him his daughter in marriage.

"Now Offa, who was a most noble king and of a most illustrious family, on learning the cause of his arrival, entertained him in his palace with the greatest honour, and exhibited all possible courtesy as well to the king himself as to his companions.

"On consulting his queen Quendritha, and asking her advice on this proposal, she is said to have given her husband this diabolical counsel. So said she:- 'God has this day delivered into your hands your enemy, whose kingdom you have so long desired; if, therefore, you secretly put him to death, his kingdom will pass to you and your successors for ever'.

"The king was exceedingly disturbed in mind at this counsel of the queen, and indignantly rebuking her he replied:-

"Thou hast spoken as one of the foolish women; far from me be such a detestable crime, which would disgrace myself and my successors; and having said so he left her in great anger.

"Meanwhile, having by degrees recovered from his agitation, both the kings sat down to table; and after a repast of royal dainties, they spent the whole day in music and dancing, with great gladness.

"But, in the meantime, the wicked queen, still adhering to her foul purpose, treacherously ordered a chamber to be adorned with sumptuous furniture fit for a King, in which Athelbert might sleep at night.

"Near the king's bed she caused a seat to be prepared, magnificently decked and surrounded with curtains, and underneath it the wicked woman caused a deep pit to be dug wherewith to effect her wicked purpose.

Description of Plates. 113

"When King Athelbert wished to retire to rest after a day spent in joy, he was conducted into the aforesaid chamber, and sitting down in the seat that has been mentioned, he was suddenly precipitated, together with the seat, into the bottom of the pit, where he was stifled by the executioners placed there by the queen; for as soon as the king had fallen into the pit, the base traitors threw on him pillows, and garments, and curtains, that his cries might not be heard; and so this king and martyr, thus innocently murdered, received the crown of life which God hath promised to those that love Him.

"As soon as this detestable act of the wicked queen towards her son-in-law was told to the companions of the murdered king, they fled from the court before it was light, fearing lest they should experience the like fate.

"The noble King Offa, too, on hearing the certainty of the crime that had been wrought, shut himself up in great grief in a certain loft, and tasted no food for three days.

"Nevertheless, although he was counted guiltless of the king's death, he sent out a great expedition, and united the kingdom of the East Angles to his dominions.

"St. Athelbert was ignominiously buried in a place unknown to all, until his body, being pointed out by a light from heaven, was found by the faithful, and conveyed to the city of Hereford, where it now graces the Episcopal See with miracles and healing powers".

VII. The following is a summary of the contents of two MSS. relating to Ethelbert, taken verbatim from a fine work published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls, entitled, Rerum Britannicarum medii avi Scriptores, Part ii. 1862.

1. MS. Cotton, Tiber, E.I., British Museum.

2. MS. Tanner, 15, Bodleian Library.

"Gloriosus orientalium Anglorum Rex Ethelbertus". Printed in Capgrave's Nova Legenda Anglia, f. 136.

SUMMARY.- His amiable character in his youth - he is advised by his nobles to marry - he asks the daughter of Offa - his friends are alarmed by portents for his safety - his vision - Offa's queen advises that he be put to death - is murdered in Offa's presence - his intended bride foretells the calamities of her father's house, and resolves to retire to Croyland.

Ethelbert's body is buried - a light from heaven rests upon it. Offa, alarmed at this, grants tithes of his lands to the church. The body is removed to Hereford, formerly called Fernley.

Some time after, King Milfrid, hearing of his miracles, founds a church of stone there.

This account is evidently derived from the same source with that given by Brompton (who died A.D. 1198).

It may be questioned whether there be anything really credible in the narrative, except the fact of Ethelbert's murder.

VIII. "Richard de Cirencestria (ob. A.D. 1401), in his work Speculum historiale de gestis regum Angliæ" (edition 1863, by J.E. Mayor), gives a fuller account than any other writer.

114 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

He mentions Gwinbert as the name of the man who beheaded Ethelbert.

After narrating the removal of his body to Hereford, he says:- "Caput vero beati regis et martyris Ethelberti solidum ac cerebro incorrupto plenum in ecclesia beati Petri Westmonasterii prope Londoniam in quodem pretioso scrinio argenteo et deaurato ac beryllis et aliis diversis lapidibus pretiosis operose insertis usque in hodiernum diem honorifice conservatur".

The foregoing are the chief authorities for most of the modern versions of the life of Ethelbert.

One of the most pleasant accounts is given by Mrs. Matthew Hall, in her work, The Queens before the Conquest, 1854, vol. ii. p. 77.

The following is one of the best modern accounts that I have met with:-

Mr. Sharon Turner, in his History of the Anglo-Saxons (3 vols. 1852), gives the following account of Offa and his deeds:- "The basest action of Offa was the murder of Ethelbert, king of East Anglia. At the close of Offa's reign Ethelbert possessed the crown of East Anglia, a peaceful and intelligent prince, in the bloom of youth and beauty, interesting in his manners, and virtuous in his disposition. Invited or welcomed by Offa, he went to Mercia for the purpose of receiving the hand of Etheldritha, the daughter of the Mercian king. He travelled with a splendid retinue. Offa received him with that distinction which was due to the allotted husband of his daughter. But before the marriage was completed, Ethelbert was assassinated, and the father of his beloved commanded the murder. Though Offa had pledged his protection, had received the king of East Anglia as his guest, had introduced him to his daughter as her approved husband, and the nuptial feast had begun, Offa is represented as having procured his assassination. The favourable moment of annexing East Anglia to Mercia was a temptation which overpowered the feelings of the father and the man. The friends of Ethelbert fled in consternation. Offa invaded his dominions, and East Anglia was added to his conquests.

NOTE.- That Offa commanded the murder is expressly asserted by Ethelwerd, Hoveden, and eight other early chroniclers. Their united evidence does away the attempt of Matthew of Westminster, and the fabulous monk of St. Alban's, who want to fix it solely on the queen. Both of these apologists admit that Offa immediately seized East Anglia; and such an action, after such a catastrophe, is among the most forcible evidences of his guilt and its motive (vol. i. page 357).

Professor Morley, in his English Writers from the Conquest to Chaucer, p. 524, 2 vols. 1866), says:- "Gerald or Giraldus de Barri, who wrote a great work yet to be edited, the Speculum Ecclesiæ, wherein are lives of St. Ethelbert of Hereford, St. David, St. Caradoc, etc".

This volume is preserved in the British Museum, Bibl. Cotton, Vitellius E. vii.

It consists of seventy fragments of small-sized pages, much injured by the fire in 1731, when these MSS. were kept at Westminster.

The restoration and mounting of this and other burnt manuscripts has been accomplished in a marvellous manner.

Plate III

Description of Plates. 115

PLATE III.

OLD COLLEGE GLASS. ETHELBERT'S WELL. SAXON HAND-BELL. GOLD RINGS.

OLD COLLEGE GLASS.

This drawing of old glass, no longer remaining, has been copied by permission from the Dingley Manuscript, page 200.

The description there given is as follows:- "This figure of our blessed Lady is seen in the window at ye upper end of ye Colledge Library, belonging to the vicars of the chore of ye Minster".

Dr. Rawlinson in his Antiquities of the Cathedral, 1717, page 52, also describes it, and records the name of the donor. He observes:- "In this library, in the windows, are several mangled inscriptions and images; what I could make anything of is as follows:- In the uppermost light, on the left hand, is the figure of the Virgin Mary, bearing Christ in her arms, with the letters M.A. and R. frequent in the glass.

"Underneath is a person kneeling before a desk, holding a book before him; the other part of the window is adorned with variety of flowers.

"Under all is this inscription:- 'Orate pro dia Johis Kinge London ... hanc fenestram fecit'".

ST. ETHELBERT'S WELL.

From the same valuable manuscript is copied the only known drawing of this once celebrated well as it stood in the seventeenth century. It was situated between the College and the Castle Green.

The superstructure has long since disappeared, and the well itself is entirely excluded from sight by four brick walls and a vast accumulation of rubbish.

Stukeley describes this well as having a handsome stone arch erected over it; on each side of the modern doorway were key- stones ornamented with foliage, etc.

But the only object visible at present is the carved head of Ethelbert, part of the effigy which was originally placed on the west front of the Cathedral before it fell in 1786.

About fifty years ago a lady - Mrs. Whitmore - repaired the masonry of the well, and fixed the aforesaid remnants in their present position.

Many wonderful cures were said to have been effected at this well, and so lately as 1814. it was stated by Storer that the belief in its miraculous powers had not totally ceased.

That the water was of excellent quality there can be no doubt, as the supply still obtained in the vicinity is remarkably clear, cold, and pure.

116 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

The view here given has been taken from Sir T. Dingley's interesting manuscript of the well as it appeared before the year 1680.

A view of it was also taken by Stukeley before 1721 (vol. i. p. 71, edition 1776), and reproduced in the Anastatic Society's volume for 1855.

ANGLO-SAXON HAND-BELL.

This ancient bronze bell has been with much probability assigned to Anglo-Saxon times. Although there may be no distinct evidence to prove the precise date of this curious relic, the form and mode of construction show considerable antiquity, bearing no resemblance to any metal-work of a later age than that to which antiquarians have attributed it.

This bell is preserved in the museum at the Castle Green, Hereford, and was found in cleaning out a pond at Marden, about four miles due north of this city, in 1848.

It lay at a depth of 18 feet beneath the accumulated mud and rubbish of centuries. The pond is very near the church built on the spot where the body of King Ethelbert was buried, previous to its removal to Hereford.

The bell appears to have been made of a sheet of mixed metal hammered into shape. It has four sides, and resembles other ancient bells in Wales and Ireland.

There is a similar bell in a museum at Keswick. The plates are riveted together on each side. The clapper is lost, but there remains the loop inside from which it was suspended.

There is a tradition at Marden that there lies in the river Lugg, near the church, a large silver bell, which will never be taken out until two white oxen are thereto attached to draw it from the river. The glebe and great tithes, granted by Offa, are still held by the Dean and Chapter of Hereford. But few instances exist in this country of the tenure of property in the same hands for so long a period as 1070 years.

This ancient relic measures 15 inches in height including the handle. The sides are not of equal breadth, and the greatest diameter is 8 inches. An illustration and description of this bell appear in the Archæological Journal, No. 20, December 1848; also in the Penny Post for 1865.

NOTE.- An illustration of this bell is given in a valuable work on the Bells of Devonshire, 1868, by the Rev. H.T. Ellacombe.

For much curious information about the portable bells of the British and Irish Churches, see papers in Archc ologia Cambrensis, by Professor Westwood, vol. iii. 230, 301; iv. 13-167.

ANCIENT GOLD RINGS.

No. 1 is of pure gold, supposed to have been worn by a Knight Templar.

It was ploughed up near Hereford, but the exact locality has baffled all inquiry.

It was purchased by me as old metal in 1861, and was then so skilfully restored that it is now in a very perfect state.

Description of Plates. 117

It consists of three plates fused together. The device on the raised besel is a cross pattee in a square compartment, on each side of which are a crescent and a triple-thonged scourge.

Within the hoop is engraved in black-letter character "Sancte Michael". Date circa 1380. Rings of this class are very rare.

No. 2 is from the tomb of Bishop Mayew, who was buried on the south side of the High Altar A.D. 1516. This massive ring is set with a rough ruby of rather pale colour. On each side a bold Tau cross with a bell is engraved. These were originally filled with green enamel. Inside is engraved and enamelled "Ave Maria".

No. 3. A superb ring, containing a fine and perfect sapphire, from the tomb of Bishop Stanbery, on the north side of the altar. He died 1474.

Flowers and foliage are beautifully worked in black enamel on each side of the stone.

The motto inside appears to be "en bon an", but the last letter seems to differ in some degree from the form of the usual letter n, which, however, may not have been intentional. These Episcopal rings have been illustrated in Dean Merewether's interesting paper respecting them in the Archæologia, vol. xxxi. p. 249.

Weight of these rings:-

No. 1. 3 dwts. 21 grains.
No. 2. 13 dwts.
No. 3. 19, dwts.

Many other ancient rings have been found in this locality, and some of those now referred to were exhibited at the Bath and West of England Show, held in this city in 1865, and in the Cambrian Museum 1867.

Thirteen antique rings belong to Reverend E. Higgins, Bosbury.

Several others are in the possession of T. Cam, Esq., of this city; among them "a gold wedding or posey ring, with motto in early English letters, dug up near Mortimer's Cross"; also a silver ring from Stonehenge. A silver ring was found at Sutton Walls some years ago, and a bronze ring in the Castle Green moat.

A gold ring, comparatively modern, was found about 1837, at Castle Hill in this city, with the name of some former member of the Aubrey family inscribed upon it in black enamel.

A fine gold ring was discovered in Bishop Trilleck's grave in 1813, but was stolen in 1838 from the Cathedral. It was never recovered, nor the thief detected, although 30 were offered as a reward. An amethyst was set in it, and it was quite as massive as the other episcopal rings here described.

Mr. Bezant, of this city, also possesses a gold ring with a fine sapphire and white enamel, date circa 1600.

At Worcester, the ring which probably belonged to Bishop Walter Cantilupe (ob. 1266) is now in the possession of Mr. Binns, Porcelain Works.

118 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PLATES IV. AND V.

ANGLO-SAXON GOSPELS.

LATIN VERSION OF THE FOUR GOSPELS WRITTEN IN ANGLO-SAXON CHARACTERS.

THIS volume is one of extreme curiosity, whether we regard its antiquity, its sacred contents, or its interesting character and embellishments. It is the oldest of all the treasures preserved at Hereford, being not less than a thousand years old, and demands a careful and detailed description.

Plate IV. is a facsimile of the title-page to St. Matthew's Gospel - "Liber generationis Jesu Christi filii David(is)".

Plate V. is the title to St John's Gospel - "In principio erat verbum, et verbum erat apud Deum, et Deus erat verbum. Hoc erat in principio apud Deum. Omnia per ipsum (facta sunt).

I. Contents.- This MS. is written on stout vellum, and measures about 9 x 7 inches, It consists of 135 leaves. Three coloured titles remain, those to the Gospels of St. Matthew, St. Mark, and St. John. Two illuminated leaves are missing; those that would follow folio 1 and folio 59. The latter leaf contained the initial letter of St. Luke's Gospel. The former leaf probably contained the initial letter of the narrative of St. Matthew's Gospel; for in many Irish and British MSS. the Genealogy is treated as a separate section, and the Gospel is reckoned as beginning with verse 18, "Christi autem generatio". This lost page was like folio 102, the initial page of St. John's Gospel. Folio 5 has been misplaced after folio 7 in the binding, which is comparatively modern and worthless. With the exception of these two lacunæ, the MS. contains the whole of the four Gospels.

II. Date and place where written.- No exact date can be assigned, but several eminent authorities,agree that it is the work of the eighth or ninth century.

It does not exactly accord with any of the other well-known MSS. of that period; it has its own peculiar character.

From the evidence of the materials, it would appear to have been written in the country, probably in Mercia, and not at any of the great monasteries.

III. Orthography.- This MS. has the usual peculiarities of Irish manuscripts, and contains many errors depending on sound; e.g. adoliscens, missertus, etc. The single and double s are used almost indiscriminately. The constant but not universal use of pp for bb is worthy of notice; e.g. Rappi, Sappatum, etc.

IV. Text.- The text of this MS. is ante-Hieronymian, and offers a valuable example of the Irish (or British) recension of the original African text. Thus it has a large pro-portion of readings in common with the Cambridge Gospels, St. Chad's Gospels, the Rushworth Gospels, and the Book of Deir.

Plate IV

Description of Plates. 119

Characteristic readings will be found in Matthew viii. 24; x. 29; xiv. 35: Mark xiii. 18: Luke xxiii. 2; xxiv. John xix. 30; xxi. 6. It is probably the only MS. of the Irish recension which does not contain the addition in Matthew xxvii. 49. There are very few corrections. Of those which do occur, most are by the first hand. Sometimes two inconsistent readings are combined, as in Matthew x. 29. The colours of the title-page to St. Matthew's Gospel are much faded and time-worn, but the others are fresh and clean. Generally this volume is in an excellent state of preservation, with the exception of a few stains in St. Luke, and two pages very much stained in St. John vi.

V. Colours used in the title-pages.- Three colours only appear to have been used - red, body yellow, and a kind of claret purple. On the first page they are so discoloured that the red and claret, having changed to a dark yellow, can scarcely be distinguished from one another; but, by the aid of a magnifying-glass, the difference can be made out. The original colours have been adopted in the illustrations too bright as compared with the MS. in its present state, but not nearly so brilliant as the colours were when first applied to the vellum. On the authority of Professor Westwood of Oxford, [1] who has produced magnificent works on ancient art, I am enabled to state that the handwriting of our Hereford Gospels is as fine and good as in any known MS. of the period. The ink must have been made with no slight skill, as it is still dark and decided, excepting on a few pages, which have suffered from exposure to rain or moisture of some kind. The best writers among the Saxons flourished about the eighth century. Among the most remarkable MSS. may be mentioned the Durham Gospels (British Museum), The Book of Kells (Dublin), The Books of Durrow, Durnan, and Deir. In all these the Runic knot and interlaced animals are found intenvoven with wondrous intricacy and perfection of execution. But in no example of pure Irish illumination is any foliage found.

I now propose to add:-

VI. A few extracts from modern authors on Anglo-Saxon MSS. Of St. Ternan, an Irish saint of the fifth century, it is recorded that "his relics were preserved until the Reformation, together with his bell, and his copy of the Gospel of St. Matthew enclosed in a tystyr or case of metal wrought with gold and silver; for thus the saints of old testified their exceeding reverence for the word of God".- Preface to Missale de Arbuthnot, by the Bishop of Brechin.

Of St. Dunstan, Archbishop of Canterbury, it is said, that "among his sacred studies he cultivated the arts of writing, harping, and painting. The Saxon clergy were ingenious artificers in many other respects. Herman, a Norman bishop of Salisbury, circa 1080, could write, bind, and illuminate books".- Warton's History of Poetry, 1840 edition.

Nothelm, Archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 735.- "It was not to the highest branches of scholarship that Nothelm applied himself, although in the transcription of ancient manuscripts judgment in the selection of them was required, as well as artistic skill.


[1] See his Palæographia Sacra, 50 plates, 1845. Also his Miniatures and Ornaments of the Anglo-Saxon and Irish Manuscripts, with 54 superb plates, produced at a cost of 30 per copy.

120 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

The increase of learning occasioned, of course, a demand for books; and so indefatigable were the scribes in England, that our libraries soon became the most famous in Western Europe. The attention of a scribe was not directed exclusively to caligraphy; the illuminations which may be seen in manuscripts from the eighth century to the eleventh display both the mind and the art of the painter. These Anglo-Saxon MSS. are remarkable for the bold character of the writing and the richness of the illuminations. So highly esteemed was this branch of learning and art in combination, that the attention of men of science was directed to the method of preparing gold for the gold writing, and we possess more than one of their receipts. So eminent in this art did Nothelm become, that he was sent to Rome in order that from the manuscripts there he might enrich the libraries of his native land".- Dean Hook's Lives of Archbishops, i. 208.

"Nearly contemporary with the production of Virgil at the Vatican, we find a curious illustration of the zeal already excited in Ireland for the production of books. About 563, A.D., St. Columb or Columbkill, afterwards missionary to Scotland, finding a part of the Holy Scriptures in a book belonging to Finnian of Moville, set about secretly to transcribe it, remaining in the church privily after service, and so being shut in all night. This went on both night and day, till, when nearly finished, the original book was demanded by Finnian, who thereby discovered how St. Columb had been employed abusing his hospitality, and stealing (as he considered it) the treasures of his learning. He therefore demanded the copy as well as the original, and King Diermit, to whom the dispute was referred, gave the decision against Columb in words which became proverbial - 'To every cow belongs its calf; so likewise to every book its copy'.

"From this early day, for many centuries, the production of illuminated works was an honour to Ireland. Her missionaries carried such works out with them - St. Columb into Scotland, and Aidan into Northumberland. Many were conveyed to France, and are yet preserved; St. Columbanus, about 610, to Switzerland, where a fine specimen is yet to be seen in the library of the former monastery established by St. Gall, one of his assistants. The number still extant in this country and abroad certainly shows a greater activity and a greater perfection in the art than any other country exhibited at the same period".- Half-Hour Lectures on Art. W.B. Scott. 1867.

VII. On the concluding leaves of this volume there is an entry of a deed in Anglo-Saxon, made in the reign of Canute, of which a few particulars and a translation are herewith given.

In 1837 Dean Merewether appears to have sent a printed copy of the Anglo-Saxon deed to Sir Henry Ellis and Sir Frederic Madden, the great literary authorities of the British Museum. This manuscript was considered by them to be a very curious relic, but they also thought that the original scribe or the transcriber had made a few errors, or that the printer had made some of them. Nine instances of such errors are pointed out, and with these changes in the text the sense of the document would run thus:-

"Note of a Shire-mote held at Ægelnoth's Stone in Herefordshire, in the reign of King Cnut, at which were present the Bishop Athelstan, the Sheriff Bruning, and Ægelgeard

Plate V

Description of Plates. 121

of Frome, and Leofrine of Frome, and Godric of Stoke, and all the Thanes in Herefordshire. At which assembly Edwine, son of Enneawne (?) complained against his mother concerning certain lands at Welintone and Cyrdesley. The Bishop asked who should answer for the mother, which Thurcyl the White proffered to do if he knew the cause of accusation. [1] Then they chose three thanes, and sent to the mother to ask her what the cause of complaint was. Then she declared that she had no land that pertained in ought to her son, and was very angry with him, and calling Leoflæda, her relative, she, in presence of the thanes, bequeathed to her after her own death all her lands, money, clothes, and property, and desired them to inform the Shire-mote of her bequest, and desire them to witness it. They did so; after which Thurcyl the White (who was husband of Leoflæda) stood up, and requested the thanes to deliver free (or clean) to his wife all the lands that had been bequeathed to her, and they so did. And after this Thurcyl rode to St. Ethelbert's minster, and by leave and witness of all the folk caused the transaction to be recorded in a book of the Gospels".

From the same authorities it has been ascertained that Thurcyl the White, who is mentioned in the proceedings of the Shire- mote, is entered in the Doomsday Survey (vol. i. fol. 187, col. 2) as the holder of lands in Walintone and Credenelle (no doubt the same) in the time of Edward the Confessor. These lands, with others which had belonged to Thurcyl and to Leflet (probably Leoflæda his wife), the Conqueror granted, after he had got possession of the kingdom, to one of his followers of the name of Hugo Lasne, as whose property they are entered in the great survey.

The paragraph in this instrument which directs the proceedings of the Shire-mote to be entered in the copy of the Gospels accounts for the occasional entries found in other ancient copies of the Gospels of devises of lands, manumissions, and other legal proceedings.

From this document we may infer that the Shire-motes of the Saxon times kept no regular official registers of their proceedings. The entry of such an instrument in a copy of the Gospels - especially when deposited in the cathedral of the county - out of the reach of either of the parties concerned, was deemed a sufficient recognition of the transaction, and a record which could be at all times appealed to.

This curious entry adds greatly to the value of this manuscript, which is one of the most precious possessions of the Cathedral Church of Hereford.


[1] This document is also translated rather more copiously in Hickes' Thesaurus; also in Hallam's History of the Middle Ages, vol. ii. p. 393. In this translation the above passage is rendered thus:- "Then were seen in the mote three thanes, that belonged to Feligly (Fauley, five miles from Aylston) - Leofwin of Frome, Ægelwig the Red, and Thinsig Stægthman; and they went to her and inquired what she had to say about the lands which her son claimed". Hallam's translation is given at length in Mr. R. Johnson's Ancient Customs, 1868 - a valuable work of the utmost local importance.

122 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PLATE VI.

ANCIENT CHAIR AND FONT.

THE FONT

Consists of a solid block of stone 32 inches in diameter, curiously carved, with figures of the twelve apostles, which are 12 inches high.

With one exception only, the faces of all have been mutilated by barbarous hands, otherwise the details of the carved work are tolerably perfect.

There is considerable variety displayed in the treatment of the spandrils and pilasters. [1] The bowl of the font is large, lined with lead, and supplied with a drain.

There is no cover at present, but there are traces of the metal work which secured the lid. Anciently the latter was sometimes locked for fear of sorcery. [2]

Beneath are four very curious demi-griffins or seals, each 12 inches high, with bold features and fierce tusks. These are in an excellent state of preservation.

The whole stands on a modern plain circular base 80 inches in diameter.

It is remarkable that this font escaped destruction, although it was deeply buried beneath the ruins of the western tower which fell in 1786. At that time it was placed in the next bay to the west, not in the centre as at present, but against the pillar.

The font is still used, as it has from time immemorial, for the baptism of children born in the parish of St. John the Baptist. [3]

There are several fonts in this county remarkable for extreme antiquity and rudeness of formation. But those in the churches of Castle Froome and Eardisley are very fine specimens of early art.

The font in Old Radnor is very large and curious.

At Bosbury there is a fine late twelfth-century font. At this church, and also at Eastnor, the remains of fonts still more ancient are preserved.


[1] So varied that no two are alike. The T ornament round the rim was a favourite Norman pattern. There is a fine archway on the eastern side of the precincts of Canterbury Cathedral with this pattern on a large scale.

[2] "Fonts in the middle ages were kept under lock and key for fear of sorcery, though the manner of committing the offence does not appear".- Hook's Lives, iii. 182.

[3] This font is probably twelfth-century Anglo-Norman work, thought by some to be coeval with the nave.

The late Cardinal Wiseman, when visiting the Cathedral about six years ago, thought that it might be as old as the time of Bishop Athelstan.

Plate VI

Description of Plates. 123

THE EPISCOPAL CHAIR.

This ancient oak chair, whatever its age may really be, is an object of very great interest, especially to those who pay any attention to the study of old furniture, ecclesiastical or domestic.

I propose, first, to give a short description of the actual state of the chair, with some of its dimensions; Secondly, To quote the opinions of some of the most learned antiquaries on the point; and Thirdly, To give a few references to other ancient chairs, illustrations, or works bearing on this subject.

I. In the illustration great care has been taken to delineate faithfully every line or prominent feature of construction. The chair is now placed on the north side of the Sacrarium in the Cathedral. The extreme dimensions are - height 3 feet 9 inches; breadth 33 inches; front to back 22 inches; circumference of large circular pieces 9. The entire chair is formed of 53 pieces, not including the seat of two boards and the two small circular heads in front. Eight pieces are lost. The side shown in the illustration (taken from a photograph) is more perfect than the opposite side. The whole of the central back portion is gone; but as five circular holes remain in the lower part, and two in the upper, there can be no doubt that it was originally filled with four small pilasters precisely as the front and sides are treated. It is supposed by some that the small pilasters on each side, five in number, have been added at some later period; also that the plain board seat is more modern still. Such may be the case, without at all interfering with the great antiquity claimed for the framework of the chair. The finials at the back have been rudely cut off, so that no opinion can be formed of their original appearance. There is a groove in the lower front piece, in which a step or piece of wood must once have fitted. The chair generally is in a sound state, with only slight indications of decay, and is not disfigured by any modern paint. Traces of ancient colour - vermilion and gold - may still be seen in several of the narrow bands; other colours, if used at all, are now quite obliterated. In the Hereford Guide, 1827, page 153, it is stated that in the Ladye Chapel "is an antique chair removed from the Bishops' Palace, and supposed to be the ancient Episcopal Chair of the Diocese". But the date of its removal to or from the Palace is not recorded. [1]

An old tradition has been long cherished that King Stephen sat in this chair on Whitsunday A.D. 1142, but on what authority this rests cannot be stated. As so many local writers have alluded to the fact, it is at least worthy of mention once more.

Having taken considerable pains to collect information on the chairs of the middle


[1] The removal of the chair from the Cathedral to the Palace may have taken place early in the eighteenth century, when monuments were displaced and everything had to make way for pews and oak-panelling in the choir. At that time the whole of the stalls, throne, desks, and organ, were painted in a debased manner. No nails or screws were used in the construction of the chair; each piece of wood is let into an auger-hole of about an inch in diameter secured by wooden wedges. The seat is fixed in grooves, and consists of plain oak board.

124 Antiquarian Memorials at Hereford.

ages, the following opinions, so full of interest and research, are inserted in extenso by permission. Many other antiquaries have favoured me with their opinions. The whole evidence inclines strongly to establish the genuineness as well as the great antiquity of this chair, as being the oldest - or at least one of the oldest - wooden chairs in England.

It must be remembered that the adverse remarks in these communications were made by those who had never seen this chair, and consequently were not disposed to admit its claim to such great antiquity.

II. In a communication to J.F. Symonds, Esq., when mayor of this city, Mr. Thomas Wright, F.S.A., etc. etc., a learned writer on archæological subjects, remarks:- "You will find in the earlier part of my History of Domestic Manners and Sentiments, several figures of chairs, both of the Anglo-Saxon and of the Anglo-Norman periods, of the same style of work as the Hereford chair. It seems to have been the style of work used for furniture by the Anglo-Saxons and Anglo-Normans, the latter being probably a mere continuation of the style existing in England. It is a book you must have in some of your libraries, and contains a great deal of matter on all questions relating to domestic matters. Under these circumstances, I think Henry Shaw may be correct, who told Mr. Havergal he thought the Hereford chair was Norman. Those two round arches in the ornamentation in front could hardly have been made at a period later than the latter half of the twelfth century. In my Archæological Album, p. 73, I have given a chair something of the style of the Hereford chair from a MS. from the earlier part of Edward III., if not perhaps of that of Edward II. As a king is seated in it, it was no doubt intended for a chair of state.

"It would seem that this style of workmanship for furniture prevailed from the Anglo-Saxon period to at all events the fourteenth century; but it must have gone through variations which we cannot well trace without existing examples of the furniture itself, for the drawings found in the MSS. are mostly very rough sketches. It seems to have gone out of use before the time of Henry VIII., for about that time a similar kind of 'joined' work came again into use, and is stated to have been introduced into England from Flanders".

Mr. Henry Shaw, of Southampton Row, London, the author of valuable works on illumination and ancient furniture, says:- "Your Bishop's Chair, if Norman, is highly curious. You could not have a better authority with regard to its date than that of the architect to your Cathedral, Mr. George Gilbert Scott. I should be inclined to take his opinion respecting any example of mediæval carving before that of a whole society of ordinary antiquaries". [1]

In a subsequent letter he says:- "I am much obliged to you for the photograph of the Bishop's Chair, of the authenticity of which I cannot entertain a doubt. It is purely Byzantine in character, and may belong to any time from the ninth to the


[1] During the restoration of the Cathedral, 1857-63, Mr. Scott examined the chair very carefully, when he came to the conclusion "that it was genuine, and very old - one of the oldest he had ever seen".

Description of Plates. 125

twelfth century. I think the great probability is that it was made for the use of Bishop Reinhelm, A.D. 1107-15.

"In the earliest existing copies of the Gospels the figures of the Apostles preceding each book are commonly represented in the act of writing, and seated in chairs of the style of yours at Hereford. In the Harleian Collection of the British Museum is a magnificent example, the text being wholly written in letters of gold. It is of the ninth century, and the figure of St. Matthew seated in a chair, showing similar detail to yours, has been carefully copied in The Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages, by Henry Noel Humphreys. In the Monuments Inedits, pour servir a l'histoire des Arts, par N.X. Willemin, Paris, A.D. 1839, 2 vols. folio, you will find numerous examples. Among them are thrones and beds from a MS. in the Bibl. du Roi, in Paris, of the date of 886; a miniature of King David playing on the harp, from the Fonds de 1'Abbaye de St. Germain des Pres of the tenth century; a seated figure of Nicephore Bloniate, couroune en 1078, from a Greek MS. of the twelfth century, in the Bibl. du Maus. In my Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages is a marginal woodcut of a throne or chair of state of the ninth century, with similar ornamentation. All these examples are wholly gilt, with portions of the details picked in with vermilion. When these seats are placed on pedestals the dados are often enriched with jewels. Mr. Sims, I have no doubt, is mistaken in attributing the Hereford chair to the thirteenth century. It is possible he may find in MSS. of that date seats showing similar features; but if so, I should be of opinion that the illuminists had copied specimens still in existence, but of an earlier time. Had the one in question been fabricated at that time, it could scarcely have failed of showing some indications of the change of style which had then become so general in all works of an architectural character: the arches would have been pointed instead of round, or the mouldings would have been Gothic in their outlines; for although that style of art was then in its infancy, its features were all too strongly marked to be easily mistaken for any of its parents".

The Reverend Charles Boutell, M.A., the author of several learned works on heraldry, etc., says, with reference to this chair:- "I fear that but very few wooden chairs yet remain in England as early as the one in question; that very cautious, as well as very learned antiquary, the late Mr. Hudson Turner, says of the thirteenth century, 'one movable chair of the latter end of this century has been preserved - that called the Coronation Chair in Westminster Abbey.'"- Domestic Architecture of the Middle Ages, vol. i. p. 96. This chair is fully described, with a woodcut, by Mr. Burges, in Gleanings from Westminster Abbey; by G.G. Scott, R.A.; and others. Mr. Hudson Turner also gives a cut of the back of the chair. Chairs of wood were very rare even as early (or as late) as the time of Henry III. The seats (cathedra) of personages of importance were almost always of stone, or, if of wood, they were rather benches than moveable chairs; so that I should suspect a wooden chair of the Norman period to be a relic scarcely to be found still in existence. Illuminations, paintings in the earliest stained glass, and carved ivories, occasionally show chairs amongst the few other articles

126 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

of furniture that our early ancestors knew and used; but I think they generally were of bronze rather than of wood".

To my friend Mr. Sims of the British Museum I am indebted for much assistance and valuable information. Referring to the chair, he remarks in a letter:- "Since I saw you I have made occasional searches amongst our MSS. for illustrations of early chairs, but without discovering anything resembling the one in Hereford Cathedral. The earliest examples we have are those contained in copies of the Gospel, in which, as you are aware, the Evangelists are generally represented writing at desks. In most cases the seats are without backs or sides - in fact, flat wooden or stone benches more or less ornamented below. In some cases the seats have backs and arms, very like that in which the Pope is seated in the Hereford map. These are the earliest forms; below the fourteenth century the chairs become heavier, Gothic in form, and less resembling the workmanship of the Hereford chair than ever. Shortly after my return here, Mr. Shaw came and looked at some MSS. with me. He assigns great antiquity to the chair in question - much greater than any one here is willing to concede to it. Be this as it may, there are certainly no representations of such a one in this library". I must now pass on to:-

III. References to other ancient chairs, illustrations, and extracts bearing on this subject. In our celebrated old map there is a representation of the Pope seated in a chair so very similar to the chair now under consideration, that we may fairly presume that the artist of the map was quite familiar with it. The coincidence is so striking, that the inference is unavoidable that both the chair and the map were in or near the Cathedral at the same time, circa 1300 A.D.

The following are some of the most ancient wooden chairs now remaining, with the dates usually assigned to them:-

YORK MINSTER.- Richard II. In MS. Lansdowne, 213, an old writer observes:- "Mr. Verger shew'd us St. Peter's Chaire (which we made bold to rest on), wherein all the Archbishops are installed.

WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL.- Fifteenth century. The chair in which Mary Tudor sat when she was married to Philip of Spain. Illustrated in Murray's N.G.; also in Willis' Archæological Proceedings in 1846, page 40.

VENERABLE BEDE'S CHAIR (as supposed).- For a description and illustration of this very rude construction at Jarrow, see Cuthbert Bede's Medley, p. 26.

WESTMINSTER ABBEY.- Edward I. The Coronation Chair. Too well known to need any description. For illustrations see Knight's Pictorial History, i. 219; H. Turner's Domestic Architecture; G.G. Scott's Gleanings in Westminster Abbey, etc. There is another chair in this Abbey used at the cornonation of William and Mary, 1689.

COVENTRY.- St. Mary's Hall. Henry VII. or earlier.

EVESHAM.- The Abbot's Chair. In the possession of ? Rudge, Esq., of Evesham.

Description of Plates. 127

ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM, OXFORD.- Henry VIII. A triangular oak chair of turned work.

GLASTONBURY.- Henry VIII. This has been so generally adopted for church or library purposes, that its shape is now well known.

BUNYAN'S CHAIR.- Similar in workmanship to that at the Ashmolean, only square in shape. Where this chair is now preserved is unknown to me, but I possess a coloured illustration of it with this reference.- L.B. vol. i. p. 53.

ERASMUS' CHAIR.- Queen's College, Cambridge.

BAXTER'S CHAIR.- Unitarian Chapel, Kidderminster.

DRAKE'S CHAIR.- In the Picture Gallery attached to the Bodleian Library, Oxford. This was made in 1662 out of the timbers of the ship which made the celebrated voyage round the world.

SIR RHYS AP THOMAS' CHAIR.- Dynevor Castle, Llandilo. See Cambrian Arch. Report, 1847.

CORBY CASTLE, the seat of P.H. Howard, Esq., M.P. This is richly-carved seventeenth-century work.

Wooden chairs before the time of Queen Elizabeth are very rare. Genuine Elizabethan are not numerous; but those belonging to the seventeenth century, though too often called Elizabethan, are much more numerous. They are to be found in churches, castles, and mansions, all over the country. Sometimes good specimens are found in public museums, as at Keswick and Maidstone. The oldest domestic chair that I have found in this county is of Henry VIII. reign. [1] In my own family a fine oak chair is preserved which formerly belonged to Dr. Beke or Beck (1813 to 1837 A.D.), Dean of Bristol, by whom it was believed to have been one of a set not only of the period of, but the actual property of, Charles I. [2] On the north side of the nave of our Cathedral there is a seventeenth-century carved oak chair, not at all a bad specimen of that period. There are also two solid oak benches, which belonged to the belfry, that may fairly be assigned to the fifteenth century.

In Fosbroke's Archæology, ii. 835, the following references are given to MSS. containing illustrations of ancient thrones or chairs:- Royal MS. ii. A. 22; Nero, C. iv.; MS. Cotton; Claud, B. iv. (said to be of the eighth century). It is also stated:- "Among the Anglo-Saxons we hear of chairs of state of admirable workmanship and ornament. Accordingly, their kings, bishops, etc., are seated in rich curule chairs. They are all richly cushioned in ornamental patterns. In these too, and the succeeding ages, we find chairs of ivory, silver, cedar, and different metals curiously wrought, but there were ruder kinds. Cloths thrown over them in the Roman fashion were common, but it was a privilege of rank".

Dr. Hook, in his Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, states that there was a patriarchal chair at Christ Church, Canterbury, in the time of Cuthbert, A.D. 741-758, who had been promoted from this See. His successor Bregwin was consecrated on St.


[1] I have just secured this chair for myself (1869).

[2] There are five royal crowns carved thereon.

128 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Michael's Day, A.D. 759, and ascended the pontifical chair to rule the Church of God amidst the exultations of all. In vol. iii. 384, of the same work, we hear of a wooden Episcopal chair:- "Returning to the choir, from the shrine of St. Thomas, the primate (Winchelsea) took his seat, not upon his throne, for he was not yet enthroned, but on his wooden chair - a chair which was richly gilt (Somner, 93). An enthronisation at this time was regarded as a national event, second only in importance to a coronation".

In Domestic Manners of the Middle Ages, by Mr. Thomas Wright (1862, Chapman and Hall), Anglo-Saxon chairs are illustrated in Plates 28, 29, and 30. A faldstool, 66. Two chiefs seated, 67. A Norman settle, 68. A bedroom chair, 245. Chair of Duke de Nivemois, 297. Henry Eighth's chair, Plate 296, now in the Ashmolean Museum.

All these illustrations prove, more or less, that the Hereford chair belongs to, or at least is similar to, the earliest kind of furniture used in this country.

In Hudson Turner's Domestic Architecture there are early benches and chairs in pages 16, 17, and 18. On page 97 is one much like our Hereford chair, with three arches at the back, and side- pieces sloping downwards. He says that "every article of furniture was generally made on the spot by a carpenter". He mentions the Coronation Chair as the only one remaining of the latter part of the thirteenth century. In that magnificent work Les Arts au Moyen Age par A. du Somerard (4 vols. folio, British Museum, 1264 H), there are illustrations of chairs of every age, but none much like our Hereford chair.

An illustration of Dr. Busby's academical chair is to be found in a little work entitled Vulgar Errors in Grammar.

An illustration of a dark mahogany chair is given in the Gentleman's Magazine, October 1819, which formerly belonged to Gay, the poet of Barnstaple, Devon.

In Scotland I have seen at Alloa Park, the seat of the Earl of Kellie, two fine oak chairs which have been for many generations preserved there.

1. The Erskine chair, with a square richly-carved back, with crest and helm 20 x 15 inches, with the letters I.E., with this inscription, in fine raised letters, "Soli Deo Honor et Gloria".

2. The Countess of Marr's Chair, bearing the initials A.M., with a star pierced above. It was used by a former Countess of Marr, who nursed James I. of England and VI. of Scotland. It is 35 inches high, arms deeply carved, and projecting 18 inches. Height of seat only 12 inches from the ground. It is a well- worn but nearly perfect chair. The cradle and infant's chair used by this king are also preserved there, both in an excellent and nearly perfect state. The sides of the cradle are ornamented with inlaid work. Some of the original iron staples remain on the sides, indicating a mode of securing infants in their cradles totally unknown in modern nurseries.

Plate VII

Description of Plates. 129

PLATE VII.

COFFIN-LIDS, CAPS, ETC.

THE four coffin-lids here represented were found during the late restoration of the foundations of the Cathedral, 1857 to 1860, and are now affixed to the walls of the north-east transept.

No. I. was found under the Library staircase, the remaining portions being still there. It is a very rich piece of workmanship, the pattern being in relief, and bearing a strong resemblance to metal work of the thirteenth century.

Continental manufacturers have lately reproduced this pattern in lace for lappets, etc.

An illustration on a much larger scale would alone do justice to this elaborate design.

Nos. II. III. IV. Nothing whatever is known of the former position or history of these monumental stones; the shield on the former may be ranked with the earliest remains of heraldry in the Cathedral. It has been supposed to represent the family of "Hereford", which from an early period have possessed estates in this county.

There are other interesting fragments in this transept, especially one near the north-east corner, with the words "Ave Maria" inscribed on the margin. Other portions of this stone are still under the adjoining altar-tomb (No. 32).

There are several instances of these sepulchral stones being worked into the fabric, as on the south side of the Lady Chapel for a door-lintel, on the south side of the choir in the base of a buttress, and at the top of the staircase in the north-east angle of the central tower. Other fragments of early monumental stones are laid in the pavement of the cloisters. There is a portion of a plain coped coffin-lid in the chapter-house yard, and in the same place is an early coped stone underground, which has probably never been disturbed.

In the Canons' Vestry is a drawing (with description) of some ancient graves found in 1813 between the Cloisters and the Palace.

Nos. V. VI. VII. Rude Norman Capitals.- In the Bishop's Cloisters a large number of curiously-carved stones are preserved, of the highest interest to archæological students. Some have been dug up, others found during the progress of repairs, while some have been purposely, and perhaps injudiciously, replaced by modern masonry (before A.D. 1850). See also Plate V.

In the north-east transept are preserved the following antiquarian remains:-

Two altar-stones, nearly perfect, whereon are placed:-

Six mutilated effigies of unknown lay persons, probably buried in or near the Magdalen Chapels, but dug up on the south side of the Bishop's Cloisters, A.D. 1820, and brought inside the Cathedral A.D. 862.

Two matrices of brasses; also a small one on the wall.

130 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

The wooden pulpit-very late Perpendicular work.

Two rich pieces of iron-work from Sir A. Denton's tomb.

The head of a knight or templar's effigy.

Several heraldic shields from monuments in this Cathedral- especially seven in alabaster, now placed against the east wall.

From the eleventh century down to the Decorated period, flat stone slabs were invariably carved, exhibiting a beautiful and endless variety of design in the shafted cross with foliated head.

Generally the cross was the only sculpture, inscriptions being rarely used. Symbols were sometimes placed on either side the shaft - a sword for a man, shears or a key for a woman, and a chalice for a priest, the arms only distinguishing the dead.

These early memorials are numerous in this county; in some places they have been respected, while in others they have been ignorantly cast aside or destroyed.

Very fine specimens are at Mansel Gamage and Weobley churches.

There are other specimens at Staunton-on-Wye, Dilwyn, Canon Frome, Upton Bishop, Bosbury, Ross, Aconbury, etc.

Plate VIII

Description of Plates. 131

PLATE VIII.

ALPHABET FROM TWELFTH CENTURY MSS.

THE alphabet here illustrated, consisting of thirty-two large and twenty-one small letters, is taken from a MS. volume in the Cathedral Library, marked P.V.5, entitled in the catalogue Osberni Monachi Gloucestrensis Panormia, sive lingua Latina Dictionarium, sive vocabulorum derivationes.

This volume is in an excellent state of preservation, and perfect with the exception of a leaf at the end. The oak boards were re-covered with leather within the last century. A complete alphabet of capital letters is rarely found in any of our old books; but in the present instance there is a large number of letters with considerable variety of treatment. Under the letter A, for instance, there are sixty-nine capitals, all so varied that scarcely any two are alike.

There are three classes of letters in this volume:-

1st. Largest: 1 inch and a half square, by 3 to 4 inches long, in two colours. These are not very numerous.

2dly. Large; generally of one colour. These are exactly 1000 in number.

3dly. Small; alternately red and green; too numerous to be counted. Of this size in letter A alone there are 710.

On the first leaf, facing the prologue, the writer (as I take it) has recorded his name, also the fraternity to which he belonged, in bold red letters, thus (small letters are here given in place of the contractions):-

"LIBER: MONACHORum: SCE (Sanctæ) MARiæ: VALL: DORE: Per: MANUM: JOHannis: BATHON:"

On the following page the book is dedicated "Venerabili Patri Hamelino dei gratia Glocestrensi Abbati".

This ecclesiastic was consecrated Abbot of Gloucester December 5, A.D. 1148, arid died March 10, 1179. The chief events that occurred during his rule were the settlement of a great dispute about property with the Church of York; and the burial of a boy, Harold, supposed to have been murdered by the Jews of Gloucester.

We are thus enabled to arrive at the actual date of this volume as having been written between the years 1150 and 1179. The whole is on fine vellum, each page being accurately ruled, so that on each side of a leaf are two columns consisting of forty lines.

There are 172 leaves, so that there are 28,520 lines altogether, not including numerous notes inserted in the margin, or more frequently at the foot of a page.

The pages are not numbered in an ordinary manner, but as follows:-

132 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

The whole is divided into twenty-one sections, the two first consisting of ten leaves; all the remainder of eight leaves. Large black figures near the bottom of the page are placed on the first and last leaf only of each section. Each page measures 12 X 8 inches.

No other colours are used besides vermilion and emerald green, very soft, and inclining rather to pale blue, both colours being marvellously clear and sound. The arrangement of this dictionary is very different to that now in use. The principal words under each letter are not arranged in strict order, but words which were more commonly used, or which required fuller explanation, formed the "tractatus primus", large capitals alone being adopted. But the "tractatus secundus" consists of the great bulk of other words, small capitals only being used.

Inquiry has frequently been made as to the probable time spent by the old illuminators over their manuscripts. It is impossible to give any satisfactory answer; but with the preceding statistics modern illuminators can form their own opinions.

It must be borne in mind that the old illuminators generally prepared their own colours and made their own brushes, and had none of those facilities which colourmen now provide.

Plate IX

Description of Plates. 133

PLATE IX.

CRYPT PORCH ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE LADYE CHAPEL.

ONE of our great architectural authors has observed:- "Nowhere on the Continent are such combinations to be found as the Five Sisters at York, the east end of Ely, or such a group as that which terminates the east end of Hereford". [1] Although this very beautiful portion of the Cathedral is constructed on a comparatively small scale, yet every portion abounds with proofs of the consummate taste and skill of the original builders. The east end, both externally and internally, is particularly rich in all the details. This part was entirely rebuilt under Mr. Cottingham, 1845-47. The north and south portions of the Ladye Chapel were restored by Mr. G.G. Scott, 1858-60, with the utmost care and fidelity. The porch, as seen in the illustration, was in an advanced stage of decay. The whole upper portion was taken down and rebuilt; so carefully was each stone replaced, that the closest examination is necessary to convince anyone that it has undergone restoration at all. The roof is of solid stone. This was often a feature in early buildings, but other examples in this county are very seldom met with. The cross is entirely new, but was copied from some remnants discovered during the progress of the works, doubtless the original cross for this porch. A flight of twenty steps leads to the crypt, which at present is light, dry, and spacious. It was utterly neglected, and nearly filled with earth and rubbish, until Dean Merewether excavated and cleansed it between thirty and forty years ago. There is another approach to the crypt from the interior of the church. Crypts of the Norman period were very extensive, as at Gloucester and Worcester. But in the west of England they were rarely constructed at all during the Early English period. So far as I am aware, this is the only instance of an Early English crypt attached to any of our cathedrals. It consists of a nave with aisles, of five bays all differing in width. In the centre the tomb of Andrew Jones and wife, with the incised alabaster slab, is in a fair state of preservation. The inscription has seldom been correctly given by any local writers. The following is an accurate copy of it as given by Mr. Gough Nichols:- [2]

"Hic jacet Andreas Jonis quodam mcator hui ciuitatis et Elizabet vxor eius qui hanc domii carnarie diu desolata de nono reedificauit et repluit erga festu oim scor anno d'ni Mccccxcvii. Eciam ad tuc bn et laudabilii ordinauit capellanum futuris temporibz in eade celebratur p aiabz benefactor et oim fidelium defuctor quor aiabz propicietur deus. Amen".


[1] J. Fergusson's History of Architecture, ii. 38.

[2] Preface to Dingley's History from Marble, pages 86 and 164. Published by the Camden Society, 1866-68.

Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford. 134

Scrolls proceeding from their mouths bear the following wholesome pieces of advice:-

Remember thy life may not ever indure,
That thou dost thiself thereof art thou sewre.

But and thou leve thi will to other men is cure
And thou have it after, it is but a venture.

DIMENSIONS.

Porch-Height to top of ridge, 18 feet.
Porch-Breadth, 15.4; projection, 13 feet.
Porch-Doorway, 5.4 broad; 10. 1 high.
Crypt-Height, 14.6; length, 48.5; breadth, 30.9,
Crypt-5 bays, all differing in width, 9.6 to 7.7.
Crypt-Outer walls, 4.8 thick; inner buttresses, 2.1 additional.
Crypt-External buttresses project 5.6.

Plate X

Description of Plates. 135

PLATE X.

TIMBER ARCADE AND ROOF OVER THE BISHOP'S PALACE.

THIS illustration gives a fair view of the actual state of the fabric above the Hall and Library of the Bishop of Hereford's residence. It is taken from the only accessible point in the attics. A considerable amount of explanation may perhaps be necessary to render this subject intelligible. The whole of the present Palace stands upon or within what was nearly Too years ago a magnificent hall. From time to time great changes have taken place, and rooms more or less modern have been constructed within this ancient fabric. This splendid hall originally consisted of five bays, 110 x 55 feet, standing north and south, in close proximity to the ancient chapels, cloisters, and other Cathedral buildings. The external walls were entirely of stone, but the whole of the pillars, arcade, and roof, of oak.

The following papers on the Halls of Hereford and Oakham were read by Mr. Clayton before the Royal Institute of British Architects on January 25, 1847. His original MS. has been most kindly lent to me by Mrs. Merewether. Mr. Clayton had prepared in August 1846 three large drawings (which are still preserved by the Bishop of Hereford). They were drawn with great skill and care; and it is to be hoped, that as Mr. Clayton investigated this subject with peculiar advantages, complete reliance may be placed on his drawings and papers. The drawings contain the following details:-

I. Ground-plan of the whole; ancient and modern work, with an elevation of the porch- -inch scale.

II. Longitudinal section of three bays, arcade and roof- -inch scale.

III. Transverse section-half as now existing, the other half as restored- -inch scale. Also a section of piers, arch, and cap, half real size.

The first bay occupied the space now taken up by the lobby and dining-room; the second bay by the porch and modern hall; the third and fourth bays by the libraries and drawing-room; and the fifth bay by the new buildings erected by Bishop Musgrave circa 1846.

Internally this hall consisted of a nave 23 feet in clear breadth, with side aisles, each 16 feet broad. The pillars were single pieces of oak, 16 inches square, with a circular projection on each side 9 inches in diameter. At 12 feet from the ground these circular projections facing the aisles terminated with carved capitals, either precisely as or similar to that marked E in the illustration. At 16 feet from the ground the great side arches sprang from similar but larger capitals, with a radius of ro feet. These magnificent timbers came from trees of extraordinary dimensions. As there is nothing but

136 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

heart of oak visible (and unless the timber was grown in a curved form), this arcade was cut out of planks 16 feet long, 2 feet thick, and not less than 4 feet 6 inches broad. Such gigantic timber is rarely used or seen in this age of iron and brick. From the capitals marked E, at 23 feet from the ground, the grand central arches sprang. From this point upwards the whole of the timber-work - all of oak - is of more modern construction. In 1866 the whole of the southern side was "stripped", the heavy stone tiling being replaced by slates. During the progress of the work I had a fine opportunity with some Antiquarian friends of measuring and examining the whole of this most interesting structure.

I have often heard it stated that chestnut was the timber used, and not oak, in the construction of this hall. But all efforts to find any chestnut wood have proved unsuccessful. Some fragments of the wood-work are still preserved in the palace. That these are oak cannot for a moment be disputed. Although there has been a vast expenditure upon alterations and improvements at this Palace during the last two centuries, the attempt at restoration does not seem to have been thought of, with the exception of the porch in the episcopate of Bishop Hampden. The late Bishop effected considerable improvements, and restored the entrance porch in a praiseworthy manner.

There is no record as to the name or exact date of the builder of the hall, but I will venture to express the opinion that Bishop Robert Ffolliott or Bishop William de Vere (i.e. between A.D. 1174 and 1199) was the builder of this truly baronial structure. Had it only been suffered to remain in anything like its original state, Hereford might have boasted that her Bishops' Hall was one of the noblest and most curious timber structures to be found anywhere in the West of England.

I cannot now do better than quote the description given by Mr. Clayton of the Hereford Hall, as read by him at the Royal Institute of British Architects, January 25, 1849.

DESCRIPTION OF THE REMAINS OF THE NORMAN REFECTORY IN THE BISHOP'S PALACE, HEREFORD.

It is a matter of considerable difficulty to find even amongst the numerous examples of Norman architecture which exist in various parts of the country a structure in which any vestiges of the original timber-work are preserved, either relating to the roof, galleries, or other portions which were of necessity constructed of this material.

The walls in many of these buildings being composed of stone of great durability, display all their original decoration in a remarkably high state of preservation, but the parts composed of timber being subject to greater forces, and withal more liable to decay, have, with few exceptions, long since disappeared, and have generally been reinstated in the various styles prevalent at the time such reinstatements may have been made. To these sources may be attributed the authority now frequently made use of for covering structures in the above style with a roof of a later period. So long, however,

Description of Plates. 137

as synchronism shall be deemed essential to beauty in architecture, this practice must be regarded as detrimental to the effect of those edifices where it may be employed.

It becomes, therefore, of considerable importance to investigate what the Normans themselves did in the treatment of their roofs, as it is by these means only that their works are likely to be successfully imitated.

In borrowing from them, however, it may be questioned whether in some measure their forms may not be adapted with advantage to the more scientific and economical modes of construction used in the present day; but whether any alterations may be made with advantage or not, still the utility of delineating from actual dimensions those few remains of Norman carpentry that now exist, can hardly be over-estimated, especially by those who are engaged in the erection or repairs of buildings in the style. For if the principles of construction employed by the Normans were inferior with respect to the science displayed, their roofs generally accorded better with the architecture of the period than modern examples do. These are points, however, too well understood by the profession generally to need further observation; and though the present communication may not offer much information, it will be merely necessary to remark, that it is with the above considerations that the accompanying drawings of the Refectory at Hereford have been made; and it is hoped, in giving this brief description, some interest may be taken in the subject.

It should here perhaps be stated, that although considerable portions of these remains have at different times been altered (as shown by the drawings), the restoration has been made simply by the repetition of forms that actually exist, and although these remains are much changed, still it is difficult at the present day to find an example of a Norman roof so perfect, or so replete with interest; and this, whether viewed merely as a specimen of the carpentry of the period, or as one of the earliest of those beautiful halls, to few of which was it inferior in respect to magnitude or grandeur of effect.

Perhaps no better idea of the spaciousness of its interior can be given than by mentioning the fact, that although little more than half the original roof remains, still this area is sufficient to shelter the principal apartments of the present Episcopal residence.

These rooms were erected upwards of a century ago, and occupy the spaces between the pillars which support the roof.

Above these rooms, which are lofty, and one storey high, are to be seen the upper portions of the pillars and roof generally (as shown by the drawings).

The original dimensions of this hall were 110 feet by 55 feet. It was divided into a centre and two side divisions by two ranges of columns, which likewise divide it longitudinally into five compartments.

The two end compartments or bays of the roof have been removed, but the three centre ones, extending across the entire building, remain. These remains comprise the wooden pillars and the three arches on either side which connect them longitudinally, together with a large beam or lintel above all, of Norman origin, the details of which are given on the drawings.

138 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

The arches are of 22 feet span, and are formed of two pieces only; they are jointed at the crown by a tongue inserted into the backs of the arches and beam above, and securely pinned. The mouldings on the arches consist of a torus, a fillet, and a hollow.

On the outside of the arch is a label moulding decorated with a nailhead ornament, and fixed to the backs of the arches.

The spandrils between the arches and beam above are filled in with a mixture of brick and stone, and plastered.

The dimensions of the beams over the arches are 16 by 14 inches, and on the backs of these are the ancient mortices, into which the heads of the rafters to side roofs were inserted and pinned.

The principals to centre portions have undergone the alterations shown by the drawings.

The timber is heart of oak, and is in a very sound condition. The surface is, however, considerably whitened by age, which gives to these timeworn remains a venerable appearance.

The walls have either been entirely removed or altered to accord with the apartments of the Palace; and the Porch, which still forms the principal entrance to the residence, is the only portion of the original stonework that now remains. (See Drawing of Elevation.)

When perfect it will be hardly necessary to observe that this Hall must have had a very imposing appearance, and that this effect was not derived from a multiplicity of parts, or from the richness of its decoration, but from its great simplicity imparting a massive grandeur - the peculiar characteristic of this early style; the sturdy wooden pillars, solid beams, and arches, being the most striking features of this spacious interior.

The light plastering to the spandrils of the arches, and the other parts filled in a similar manner, must have presented an agreeable contrast to the darker colour of the timber-work.

THE HALL AT OAKHAM.

ERECTED BY WALKELIN DE FERRERS, circa 1180.

Since writing the above description of the Hall at Hereford, having visited the town of Oakham, where there is another very beautiful Norman structure of the same class, I availed myself of the opportunity in taking drawings and dimensions of the Hall there. This structure is not of the magnitude of the Hereford Hall, nor does it possess the great peculiarity of having the roof supported by wooden pillars and arches; but it is nevertheless a building of perhaps equal interest on account of the very excellent state of preservation in which it exists.

In arrangement it is similar to the Halls of Hereford and Winchester, and to which

Description of Plates. 139

may be added the Hall of Rufus at Westminster (Mr. Rickman having stated his impression that the original roof to the latter example was supported on wooden pillars), being divided into a centre and two side aisles in much the same manner as a church.

The present building has two rows of stone columns (three of each), which support semicircular arches, decorated with the dogtooth ornament, which is likewise carried round the arches to doors and windows. This enrichment is known as a characteristic feature of the late Norman and early English styles.

The caps to the columns are richly decorated with foliage, and are crowned with an abacus of an irregular octagon shape, or perhaps may be better described as a square with the corners canted.

The extremities of the arches next the end walls of the apartment are supported on corbels of singular design worthy of observation.

The mouldings to the arches, which are of small span, are simple but effective. These mouldings have the peculiarity of springing from quaint figures which are seated on the caps.

The timber-work of the roof has been nearly wholly reinstated, but the new principals, occupying a different position, and occurring more frequently, have left undisturbed two of the original tiebeams, together with the spandrils and wooden corbels which supported them; these cannot fail to be interesting as throwing some light on the character of the original roof.

These tiebeams are cut camber, with a rise of about six inches on the lower side in the centre, where there is a pendant with a dogtooth ornament of slight projection carved out of the solid; the lower sides of these beams are ornamented with stars sunk and irregularly placed, and are supported at the extremities by a wall-piece standing on the corbel, and into which the spandrils are framed.

On either side of the tiebeams are two diagonal pieces, likewise ornamented with stars; a portion of the wooden corbel runs through the wall, and supports, by means of an upright wall- piece, the plate on which the upper ends of the rafters to side aisles rest; these plates are likewise sustained over the crowns of the arches by a stone corbel.

The old tiebeams being about 16 feet apart, it perhaps is doubtful whether the intervening spaces were covered by rafters framed as light principals are, or whether these portions were covered by a flat ceiling leaving the tiebeams and spandrils visible, and the whole painted as in many Norman examples, of which the nave of Peterborough Cathedral is a magnificent specimen.

In the side aisles the windows extend to within a short distance of the ground; they have flat heads under circular pointed arches, and are divided by a mullion or pier ornamented with shafts on the exterior, on which sides the arches are pointed.

In the west wall there is no opening visible, but the lower portion is much concealed.

In the east wall there is a window in the gable, and another a short distance below, both divided by piers.

140 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

On the ground two segmental arches are visible on the exterior, which appear to have been the principal communication with the adjoining buildings and offices.

The hall stands east and west, and was approached from the exterior by a doorway with a circular head. The centre of this arch is considerably below its springing from the top of the caps on either side. There is a smaller door opposite, but this may be a modern communication with the room adjoining, as the elevation of the interior corresponds with the windows with the centre pier removed.

This building, with the exception of a few portions of the boundary-wall and gateway, is the only part of the ancient castle that remains, and it stands in an isolated position in the centre of an open space or meadow which was formerly occupied by this fortress.

It now merely remains to mention, that the plan with part of the longitudinal section of the hall at Winchester is exhibited, which is a building of about double the area of this hall, and that it corresponds exactly in size and proportions with that at Hereford.

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES ON HALLS, DOMESTIC BUILDINGS, ETC., IN THE TWELFTH AND THIRTEENTH CENTURIES.

Many of the following remarks have been collected from various sources, but especially from the writings of that learned and cautious antiquary the late Mr. Hudson Turner, whose Domestic Architecture in England is too well known to need any commendation here. Manor-houses and palaces in the twelfth century were built on one uniform plan, which comprised a hall with a chamber or chambers adjacent. This hall was the only large apartment in the entire edifice, and was designed to accommodate the owner and his numerous followers; they not only took their meals in the hall, but they also slept upon its floor. In mediæval Latin this apartment is termed "aula"; thus the royal palace was styled "aula regis" in records and chronicles - in Anglo-Saxon "heall". In Domesday halls are frequently mentioned. When the hall was too large to be covered by a roof of single span, it was supported on one or more ranges of wood or stone pillars. The hall at Winchester, built early in the thirteenth century, is a very fine and perfect example. "The greater part of the episcopal palace at Hereford appears to have been originally a hall with pillars and arches of wood". Generally there was a porch or vestibule, court-yard, etc. At Appleton, Berks, the doorway of a Norman hall remains. Sometimes the hall was built on a different plan, with the lower storey vaulted as at Worcester, and an upper hall approached by an external flight of steps, as at Canterbury, Boothby, Pagnel, and Lincoln. Norman roofs had a considerable pitch or elevation, with very little external ornament. In the windows there were iron bars, wooden shutters, or lattices. Glass was a great luxury, which was found only in the halls of the most wealthy persons. We have no great amount of information respecting the internal fittings, but Mr. Thomas Wright, in his valuable History of Domestic Manners and Sentiments during the Middle Ages, and other Antiquarian works, has collected a vast amount of curious information on this subject. Furniture was of a rude substantial kind. The floors were strewed with sand, or with dried rushes in winter, and green fodder in summer, which custom prevailed to a late date. For some

Description of Plates. 141

time the rude manners of mediæval times tolerated the indiscriminate use of the hall as a sleeping apartment. The huge salt was the chief ornament of the board. In ordinary houses wooden bowls and trenchers were used. Spoons were common, but there were no forks. Tapestry was hung between the pillars to make small apartments. Decorative painting and polychrome were applied to the walls at the close of the twelfth century. Armour, banners, and implements of the chase, were the chief mural ornaments. The fireplace was usually in the centre. At Stoke Say Castle the stonework in the centre of the hall still remains in the floor undisturbed. A step was placed across the hall to prevent persons of inferior rank from advancing to the "high table". There were perches for hawks among the appendages of the hall. In the reign of James I. the "keeping halls" fell into disuse. The remains of the halls at the Red Hospital, and at St. Catherine's, Ledbury, should also be noticed. I will only add that a remarkably fine example of fourteenth-century timber- work is to be found in the hall at Brinsop Court, near this city, which has escaped the attention of authors on this branch of archæology. Also at Eaton, near Leominster, there is an interesting example of good timber-work. This county abounds with timber porches, houses, gables, etc., but in this city these interesting structures are fast disappearing. The old Town-Hall of Hereford might yet have remained as one of the finest objects in this or any other English city, had not the authorities, in their rage for improvement, ruthlessly destroyed it in 1861, without the least effort having been made to restore or rebuild it.

The Oakham Hall is 65 x 43 feet.

Stoke Say, Salop, 51 x 30 feet. A most perfect thirteenth- century example.

The Palace, Wells, 120 x 70 feet. Thirteenth century.

Acton Burnell, Salop, 50 x 24 feet. This hall was built by the Bishop who built that at Wells.

The Priory, Dover, 100 x 27 feet.

Other magnificent ancient halls - Westminster, Windsor, Winchester, and the once very beautiful Guesten Hall at Worcester.

142 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PLATE XI.

ANCIENT CHASSE OR RELIQUARY.

THIS most curious specimen of ancient art is in the possession of the authorities of this Cathedral.

It has generally been looked upon as a representation of the murder of St. Ethelbert, king and patron saint. Every local writer seems to have taken this for granted, and it is with regret that I feel obliged to discard the long-cherished traditional tale, preferring to adopt the opinion unanimously entertained by numerous archæologists of the greatest celebrity.

In 1812 the Reverend Canon Russell published an account of this "portable shrine", with an illustration by no means accurate in its details.

Duncumb, vol. i. p. 549, also gives an illustration and description of it, and says that "it was respected as a religious commemoration of the death of Ethelbert". Strutt, in his Manners, etc. of England, vol. i. plate xxv. also gives an illustration.

But the former writer allows that half-a-century ago some "supposed this to allude to the death and translation of Thomas Becket; but the martyr on this shrine has no emblems of episcopacy, which Becket would have had, but not a crown".

Since that time, however, considerable advance has been made in the study of ancient art in its various departments, so that persons of ordinary experience can now easily discern the difference between a crown and a mitre, episcopal vestments and royal robes. But rather more than twenty years ago it was boldly, and, as I believe, correctly stated, in the Picturesque Antiquities of the County of Hereford, "We venture to dispute the accuracy of this tradition, and to assert that the representation of the martyr-dom and burial thereon depicted in enamel are those of St. Thomas Becket rather than of the patron saint of Hereford".

With this opinion the late learned Dean Merewether and Mrs. Jameson, the accomplished authoress of several volumes on sacred art, fully concurred.

Such, too, is the opinion held by a host of antiquaries with whom I have conversed on the subject during the last fourteen years. This shrine was sent to the special Exhibition of Works of Art at the South Kensington Museum in 1862, where, when placed beside the other shrines which unquestionably did represent the murder of Becket, it was so similar in all respects, that without the label it was hard to say which was the Hereford shrine.

The following description was given in the official catalogue, page 70, No. 1076:-

Plate XI

Description of Plates. 143

"A Chasse or reliquary representing likewise the Martyrdom of St. Thomas of Canterbury; on the lower part the murder; on the upper the entombment of the Saint. This is very similar in style and decoration to the last Limoges work, early thirteenth century".

The following description, it is hoped, will be found correct. This reliquary consists of oak, perfectly sound, covered with copper plates overlaid with Limoges enamel. It is 8 inches high, 7 long, and 3 broad. The back opens on hinges and fastens with a lock and key, and the upper part is sloped so as to form an acutely-pointed roof; above this is a ridge-piece; the whole rests on four square feet.

FRONT OF SHRINE.- Here are two compartments; the lower one shows, on the right side, an altar, of which the south end faces the spectator; it is supported on four legs, and has an antependium. Upon the altar stands a plain cross on a pyramidal base, and in front of it a chalice covered with a paten. Before, or, technically speaking, in the midst of, the altar stands a bishop celebrating mass, having both hands extended towards the chalice, as if he were about to elevate it. He has curly hair, and a beard and moustache. He wears a low mitre without infulæ, a chasuble ornamented with circles inscribed in diaper, a fringed maniple with the ends of the same width as the upper part, and an alb with an apparel at the bottom, which has the same ornamentation as the chasuble.

In the top right-hand corner of the design, immediately above the altar, is a cloud, from which issues a hand, and part of the forearm; the former has the thumb under, and the middle fingers extended, and points towards the figure just described; the latter is clothed with a sleeve like that of an alb.

Behind (towards the left) stand three figures, each with the left arm erect; the foremost has just thrust the point of a large double-edged sword, with a plain cross-hilt, through the neck of the bishop from back to front

The second carries a battle-axe over his right shoulder, and looks back towards the third, who bears in his right hand a sword erect, of the same description as that in the hand of the first. Each of the three figures wears a short plain tunic, and a collar of plate-mail charged with circles. Interspersed between the figures are four hexafoils, six quatrefoils, and thirteen circles.

The upper compartment represents the entombment of the bishop. The middle of the design is occupied by an altar-tomb, into which the body, swathed in a diapered winding-sheet, and supported by a kind of bier, is being lowered.

The ends of this bier are supported by two kneeling figures, and turn up over their shoulders. The figures are placed one at each end of the tomb, and are habited in plain girded albs.

On the side of the tomb farthest from the spectator is a bishop or abbot without the mitre, having the face shaven, who points upwards with the forefinger of the right hand, while in his left he holds a pastoral staff; he wears a chasuble and an alb with an apparel at the bottom, and looks towards a figure on his right, who in return is looking

144 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

at him, and is dressed in a girded alb, and carries a tablet or open book, having two rows of words inscribed upon it. [1]

At either extremity of this panel stands a figure wearing an amice and a girded alb, who is occupied in censing the corpse with a circular thurible, footed, swung by three chains. The heads of the four latter figures are surrounded each with a circular nimbus. The background is ornamented with six quatrefoils and eleven circles.

The heads of all the figures in the two preceding compartments are raised, and the hair is invariably curly. The border of each compartment is formed by a double-invected pattern of gold and enamel. The ridge-piece is of copper perforated with eight keyhole ornaments. At each end, and in the middle, are three raised circles, having as many enamelled quatrefoils inscribed in them. The upper edge bears marks in three places of having been surmounted by some further device.

BACK OF SHRINE.- This is also divided into two compartments; the lower contains fifteen quatrefoils separated by cross-bars. It is pierced in the middle of the upper border by a keyhole communicating with a lock on the inside, and is connected at the lower border by two iron hinges with the bottom of the shrine. On each side of this door is a small upright plate ornamented with quatrefoil and invected work. The upper compartment contains ten larger quatrefoils similarly divided.

ENDS OR GABLES OF SHRINE.- The right-hand gable is occupied by the figure of a female saint, whose head is surrounded by a circular nimbus. She wears a kerchief over the head, and is dressed in a garment like an alb; carries a book in her left hand, and holds up two fingers (the thumb being out of sight) in the attitude of benediction. The background is formed of blue enamel, and is charged with six large and four small circles; across the field run two bands of green enamel. Outside the figure are two circular demi-piers, with capitals and abaci supporting a semicircular arch surmounted by a cupola-shaped pinnacle. The left gable is occupied by the figure of a saint with a circular nimbus round the head. He wears an alb with an apparel at the lower part; a book rests on the right forearm, the left hand being placed upon the book to steady it; the feet stand upon a semicircle, which may be intended to represent a rainbow. The background is identical with that of the other gable, except that it is charged with eight large circles and three small ones.

A border of small gilt quatrefoils, on a chocolate ground, runs round the margins of the two ends and four back plates. The whole design consists of nine plates of copper fastened to the oak with rivets.

Those parts of the copper plates which are not enamelled - viz. the figures and some of the circles, etc. - are gilded, while the colours used in the enamelling are blue, light-blue, green, yellow, red, chocolate, and white.

INTERIOR OF SHRINE.- In the interior, on that side to which the lower front plate


[1] Numerous attempts have been made to decipher this inscription. An eminent antiquary states that it plainly refers to the martyred archbishop in these words:- "Ecce tumulatis Sancti Tomasi".

Description of Plates. 145

corresponds, is a cross pattee fitchee, painted in red upon oak, which oak bears traces of having been stained with blood or some other liquid. The wood at the bottom is evidently modern.

This reliquary is said to have been originally placed upon the high altar. At what period it came into the possession of the Church of Hereford, or by whom given, is unknown. It appears to have been preserved by some ancient Roman Catholic family, until it came into the possession of the late Canon Russell. By him, if I am rightly informed, it was bequeathed to the authorities of the Cathedral, by whom it is greatly valued and carefully preserved.

As the body of Ethelbert was buried in the Church, and as all (or nearly all) relics of him were destroyed in the great conflagration of the last Saxon structure, it seems much more reasonable to suppose that this reliquary was brought from London, or the eastern portion of the kingdom, when the fame of Becket surpassed that of all other saints.

Nothing more attractive and valuable could have been added to the treasures of this Church than such a costly and beautiful gift, containing, as it doubtless then did, some relic of St. Thomas of Canterbury. The art of enamelling metals appears to have been introduced from Byzantium, through Venice, into Western Europe, at the close of the tenth century. After this time Greek artists are known to have visited this country, and to have carried on a lucrative trade in the manufacture of sacred vessels, shrines, etc.

In Caxton's Legenda Aurea, the life of this martyr was fully written; but such zealous' efforts have at some time or other been made to eradicate his memory, that few copies are extant which contain this portion of the work.

In the middle ages there were several statues and mural and glass paintings of St. Thomas of Canterbury in this Cathedral, some of which are still to be seen. [1]

Full particulars of his martyrdom are given by Dean Stanley in his most interesting work, Historical Memorials of Canterbury. In a volume by Mr. J.G. Nicholls, Allegorical Paintings in Stratford-on-Avon Church, there is a well-executed drawing of the martyrdom of St. Thomas, and at the end is an account of his murder.

In that splendid work, Somerard, Les Arts du Moyen Age, Paris, 1839, folio, there are several illustrations of similar reliquaries, vol. i. Plate xxxv.; vol. ii. Plate xxxix; vol. ix. Plate xii.; vol. x Plate xiii., assigned to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

Bart. de Cotton in his Chronicle writes thus:- "Anno gratiæ MCLXXI. passus est beatiis Thomas Cantuariensis in ecclesia propria ante altare beati Benedicti; in cujus martyrio multa notabilia concurrerunt. Interfectores vero fuerunt milites quatuor scilicet Willelmus de Traci, Reginaldus filius Ursi, Hugo de Morvilla, Ricardus de Brito".

At Kennet, near Alloa, is preserved a very fine ciborium and cover, of copper gilt, most elaborately enamelled. It has been at the South Kensington Museum for six years, and is fully described in various art-catalogues, and well known to those who take an


[1] See Appendix to Dingley MSS. p. clxxxix. J.G. Nicholls, 1868.

146 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

interest in this branch of art. It is considered one of the finest existing examples of the champleve process as practised by the enamellers of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. On the bowl or lower part, which is 6 inches in diameter, there are six subjects from Old Testament history introduced as circular medallions with gilt metal, on which are inscriptions. On the cover are introduced, likewise in similar medallions, six subjects from the history of our Lord, corresponding with the antitypes in the Old Testament series. On the cover is a knop like an apple, and inside is a half-length figure of our Lord with double cross; the face is gilt metal. Nearly twelve colours are used in this beautiful work.

Plate XII

Description of Plates. 147

PLATE XII.

FIGURES I. AND II.- These illustrations are reduced from a drawing made by Dean Merewether. This fine cross seems to have been discovered by the Dean in the groining of the central tower in 1841, when the dangerous state of the fabric rendered a careful examination absolutely necessary. In the Dean's deeply- interesting Statement on the Condition of the Cathedral in 1841, he writes, page 20:- "The floor of the belfry was then taken up, and it was discovered that the pockets formed by the walls of the tower and the vaulting were filled up with a sort of rubbish of a peculiar description, resembling oakum, placed there perhaps for the purpose of counteracting vibration. Two hundred and fifty cart-loads of this were removed, and in it were found two or three small crucifixes, and some curious fragments of carvings in alabaster, the remnants of some very gorgeous and elaborate shrine of the middle of the fourteenth century". From the original drawing it would appear to have been of silver in a tarnished state. Blue enamel was used as the groundwork of the three symbols of the evangelists. The lower symbol appears to have been lost, and the staff broken through in this part. No drawing remains of the reverse side. The height must have been rather more than two feet. A cross of very similar design, circa 1400, occurs as a frontispiece to Paley's Gothic Architecture, 1846.

FIGURE III.- This also is reduced from a drawing made by Dean Merewether. It was 20 inches high, and made of silver-gilt or brass. There is also a drawing of the back of this cross, with diamond-shaped pattern, and expanded cinquefoil flower behind the symbols of evangelists. I am unable to give any information as to the former or present whereabouts of this cross. [1]

FIGURE IV.- This exquisite remnant of stone, carved and gilded, 6 inches in height, is from a coloured drawing by Dean Merewether. He appears to have exhibited this, but neither the time nor place is recorded. It is with great regret that I find myself unable to give any further information beyond that which is written on the drawing:- "Sketch of back view of Stone Crucifix (gilt), found Sept. 1843, while digging in Castle Street, Hereford". [2]

FIGURE V.- Carved wooden head of pastoral staff, taken from the stone coffin of


[1] These crosses have long since been removed from Hereford. It is believed that Messrs. Cottingham obtained them, whether by purchase or otherwise it is not in my power to state. They are probably stored up in some private collections. About 1860 Mr. G. Gilbert Scott assured me that he had seen in London or its vicinity, at some architectural exhibition, one or other of these crosses, actually labelled, "From Hereford Cathedral". Perhaps some reader of these pages may be able to say where they are, as all my inquiries have failed to discover them.

[2] To Mrs. Merewether, widow of the Dean, I beg to express my grateful thanks for the loan of these interesting and valuable drawings.

148 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Bishop Swinfield on July 30, 1861. This is most delicately carved in soft wood, and gilded entirely; which gilding, on the day of removal, was as bright and fresh as when deposited there at this bishop's burial, A.D. 1316.

On one side is represented our Lord seated and crowned; the left arm is missing. On the other side is the Virgin with the Infant Jesus.

It is about 9 inches high, and is preserved in a glass case in the vestry. The scroll-pattern was beautifully picked out in white. Further particulars will be found in the paper on Chalices, etc.

FIGURE VI.- Pastoral staff-head from the tomb of Bishop Trilleck. In the vestry there is a glass case which contained the ring, staff, and bulla. The ring was stolen in 1838, and never recovered, but the staff and bulla are still to be seen - but whether they are the originals or merely copies I cannot say. The following description is there given:-

"These pieces of antiquity were discovered in digging a grave in the presbyterium or chancel of the choir on the 2d of August 1813, 2 feet 8 inches below the marble floor, in a vault, together with the remains of a corpse mouldered to dust, except the back part of the skull - on the left side of which was some red hair quite perfect, and a little curled. On the place of the right breast lay the head of the crosier, the staff crossing the body to the left foot; to the crosier was attached, by a skein of silk, in a perfect state, the bull of Pope Clemens the VI., as the inscription shows; to this, although no traces of it remained, was probably annexed the instrument which had appointed the deceased to the See of Hereford. A hand's breadth below the top of the crosier lay a gold ring, and near it a stone of the amethyst kind, which, on being replaced in the ring, was found to fit exactly. Some pieces of a silken texture were spread on the dust, but too much decayed to be removed. It is evident from Leland and other writers that these relics belonged to John Trilleck, forty-eighth Bishop of Hereford, who sate there sixteen years, died about Christmas 1360, in the reign of Edward III., and was said to be brother of Thomas Trilleck, Bishop of Rochester. The rude workmanship of the oaken slabs, which were merely placed by the sides and over the body, as no screw or nail holes appeared, favours their great antiquity.

"Clemens the VI. was made Pope in 1342, died in 1352, and was succeeded by Innocentius the VI., who died in 1362.

That the silk of the bull, and the slighter part of the wood of the crosier should retain their form and substance for 453 years, is wonderful and curious".- Cura Thomæ Russell, M.A.

On the back of the glass case the following handbill is to be seen:-

"Whereas, some evil-disposed person or persons have feloniously and sacrilegiously stolen, from the library of Hereford Cathedral, an ancient crosier, an episcopal ring having an amethyst set in gold, and the bulla or seal belonging thereto:

"This is to give notice that whoever shall give information which shall lead to the detection of the said offender or offenders, shall, on conviction, receive the sum of

Description of Plates. 149

30. Apply to Theophilus Lane, Esq., Chapter-Clerk, Registrar's Office, St. Owen's Street, Hereford. April 16, 1838".

FIGURE VII.- Drawing of a cast made by Dean Merewether of a portion of Bishop Mayo's pastoral staff. The details correspond with those on the sepulchral effigy.

The "baculum pastorale" was a most important and beautiful badge of the episcopal office, anciently curved at the top as a simple crook, but in the twelfth century it began to be ornamented, until gradually it was enriched with precious metals, jewels, and was of superb design. Mr. Bloxham, in his Monumental Architecture (p. 168), and Mr. Albert Way, in his Promptorium Parvulorum (p. 103), give most learned information on this subject. On the monuments in our Cathedral there are still remaining nine perfect and eight imperfect specimens of pastoral staves, as here specified:-

Perfect.

Bishop De Clive.
Bishop De Braose.
Bishop Trilleck (brass).
Bishop De Vere.
Bishop Robert Foliott (head of oak).
Bishop De Betun.
Bishop De Melun.
Bishop De Lozing.
Bishop Mayo.

Mutilated.

Bishop Booth (staff on right arm).
Bishop Thomas Charlton (staff on the left).
Bishop Cantilupe (traces of staff on slab).
Bishop Aquablanca.
Bishop Mapenore.
Bishop De Capella.
Bishop Reinhelm.
Bishop Stanbury.

For three centuries past our bishops have disregarded the staff altogether, and contented themselves with a most diminutive and almost contemptible silver mitre, height about three inches, the weight thereof somewhat under two ounces, perched on a stick of ebony. A visitor to Hereford writes as follows: "I well remember the wretched thing in the hall of the palace. It appeared to me to be the handle of a hearth-brush, with a mitre on the top of it!"

Vice-Chancellors and other university authorities have their gold and silver "pokers", and mayors and corporations have their insignia of office unlimited as to size and effect. Why should not all our Bishops have their Christian symbols of office, as substantially rich and beautiful as the taste and skill of the age can produce?

NOTE.- If there be one thing more than another that offends the mass of the English people, it is the display, in any shape, of cross or crucifix. Yet "every faithful Christian", says St. Chrysostom, as to his own days, "wears the cross suspended round his neck". St. Cyril of Jerusalem tells catechumens to trace the cross on their foreheads. "Make that sign", says he, "whenever you eat or drink: let it accompany every action of your life". "If", says St. Augustine, "we shall ask a catechumen, Believest thou in Christ? he answers, I believe, and signs himself with the cross". And as to the crucifix, even Dr. Arnold, his biographer, reminded us not long since, upheld the use of it, not only in churches, but in houses, or by the common ways. It is a curious fact, added the Dean (Stanley), that this advocacy of the crucifix was one main reason why he was not elevated to the Episcopal bench.- Extract from an Article on Ritualism, by Rev. 7. H. Abrahall.

150 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PLATE XIII.

THE drawing and ground-plan here given on a reduced scale is a most valuable and authentic memento of one of the most curious appendages to this Cathedral. It is quite lamentable to think of the barbarous and destructive proceedings which took place under the shadow of the Cathedral only 130 years ago. The very beautiful chapter-house, and these very ancient chapels, were first neglected, and then treated as stone-quarries, so long as material could be got from them. In spite of much remonstrance, the Episcopal edict went forth for the destruction of the chapels, and the protesting antiquaries had to content themselves with merely making such sketches and drawings as they could. The Society of Antiquaries in 1738 produced at considerable expense a handsome engraving of the building as it then stood. The following descriptions are given in the original:- "The western front of the Bishop's Chappel, call'd St. Magdalen's. A plan of the Chappel underneath St. Magdalen's. The pillars of this building were of one stone, the shafts above 12 feet high, the roof of Mortar molded in large squares, and arch'd over as of Stone".

All local writers ascribe a high antiquity to this structure. The greater part of the north wall alone remains (see ground- plan). Without venturing to assign any particular date to its erection, I cannot help regarding it as the oldest masonry remaining in our Cathedral precincts. Former writers tell us that this venerable pile consisted of two chapels, one above the other. The lower was dedicated to St. Katherine, and the upper to St. Mary Magdalen.

"The form, excepting a portico and choir (i .e. chancel), was an exact square; four pillars in the middle, with arches every way, supported the roof; the portico was com-posed of a succession of arches retiring inwards, and had a grandeur in imitation of Roman works; two pillars on each side consisted of single stones. There was a descent of a few steps to the lower chapel, which had several pillars against the walls made of single stones, and an octagonal cupola on the four middle pillars. The walls were much painted, and the arched roof was turned with great skill, and resembled the architecture which prevailed during the declension of the Roman empire".- (Stukeley, etc.)

It is also said that 20 would have put it in repair, and such was its solidity that the work of destruction was abandoned on account of the expense.

The author of the Picturesque Antiquities of Heriord mentions the existence of the doorway and two small windows in the remaining north wall. He proceeds to say:- "These are extremely interesting, as they pertained to an edifice which once stood on the south side of this wall, and is believed to have been the original church of St. Mary, the patron saint of the Cathedral before the translation of the body of St. Ethelbert. It was the parish church of St Mary, to which the residences in the Cathedral Close

Plate XIII

Description of Plates. 151

belonged. Transcripts of registers of marriages there solemnised so late as the year 1730 are existent in the Dean's Archives".

The patronage and small emoluments of this cure still belong to the Dean and Chapter, who have generally attached them to the vicarage of St. John Baptist. The curious and early carved stone capitals, of which five illustrations are here given, may have formed part of the demolished chapels; or if these did not, some of those ancient stones now preserved in the Cloister may surely be regarded as genuine remnants of this early Christian edifice. The subjects depicted are - The Teaching of the Cross, and The power of the Keys. Figures 2 and 3 are the two sides of the same stone. For want of a better resting-place, these fine specimens of early art are at present preserved in the south-east transept.

152 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PLATE XIV.

THE concluding page of the beautiful MS. volume, described more fully in another part of this work, and bearing the library mark O.V. 11, is a fine specimen of twelfth-century work. In this spirited composition, the Saviour is represented sitting within the vesica piscis, supported by angels. Immediately below appears the figure of an ecclesiastic, either prior or abbot, habited in canonicals, bearing in his right hand a book, and in the left his pastoral staff. On either side is a cherubim with six wings studded with eyes. At the foot are figures of two priests, shaven, each holding a book in the left hand, and looking upwards in an attitude of adoration. This drawing is of the same school as the Psalter at the British Museum, so well known as Queen Mary's Psalter. [1]

The other side of this plate contains facsimiles of our celebrated "Hereford Use", a fine and nearly perfect MS. of the thirteenth century, still preserved in Hereford Cathedral. Mr. Maskell, the learned author of a volume on The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of England, 2d edition, 1846, was not aware of the existence of this copy. He says, page cli.- "Of this Use no other copies are known to exist than two imperfect copies in the Bodleian, and one which may rather be called a fragment, so imperfect is it, in the library of St. John's College, Oxford".

Specimens of the writing and ornamentation are here given from different parts of the MS. A portion of the calendar for the month of August contains the curious record of the battle of Evesham:- "Hac die fuit bellum de Euesham, MCCLXIV". The next specimen is from the Psalter, Psalm xxvi. The only colours throughout are red, black, and blue. With the exception of one leaf containing the calendar for January and February, and about two leaves at the end, this book is perhaps perfect; for thus I


[1] In the History of our Lord, 2 vols., 1864, by Mrs. Jameson, continued by Eastlake, the following remarks (bearing on this subject) occur (ii. 354):- "In the scheme of Christian subjects, which had greatly increased in number by the tenth century, Christ, surrounded by a glory, and seated on a rainbow or on a throne, holding the book or sceptre in one hand and blessing with the other, and sometimes borne along by angels, will always be found next after the representation of the Descent of the Holy Ghost. With that the revealed history of the past terminates; with the Last Judgment the revealed prophecy of the future commences; this abstract subject of Christ in glory stands between them. Such being its position in religious illustration, there can be no doubt that this picture is intended to set forth the accomplishment of the great Christian idea, culminating in Chrises resumption of his divine state. This is frequently confirmed by the globe or sphere which our Lord holds in his hand, in the twofold character of Creator and Saviour. It is, in short, the embodiment of the belief that Christ has ascended on high, and entered into his glory, there to exercise all power in heaven and earth". This figure of Christ in glory was often carved or painted over the lintels of Norman church doorways. This composition agrees exactly with miniatures and MSS. of the same and earlier dates.

Plate XIV

Description of Plates. 153

am assured by most competent authorities. The following are copies of documents attached to the volume, which give all the information we possess as to its history. Size 10 x 7 inches. There are 365 leaves, all of the finest vellum. The binding is modern and devoid of interest. The first leaf appears to be a fragment of an earlier MS.

"The Dean and Chapter of Hereford purchased this book of Mr. William Hawes at the price of twelve guineas. It was bought by him some years since at a book-stall in Drury Lane, London, and attracted his notice from the quantity of music which appeared interspersed in it.

"The first two pages, the calendar, and the instructions in music beginning at the ninth page from the end, are particularly worthy of notice.- JOHN MEREWETHER, D.D., Dean, September 9, 1834".

Extract from a letter of Mr. J. Forshall of the British Museum to the Bishop of Llandaff, February 21, 1832:-

"It is a very curious book, and was evidently written for the use of the Cathedral of Hereford, as the kalendar contains the obits celebrated in that church. It is from this circumstance that we are enabled to fix the date of the writing to about 1270, the obit of Peter de Aquablanca being entered in the hand of the original scribe, and the obit of the succeeding Bishop, who was consecrated in 1269, and died 1275, being by another hand".

"The data given in the preceding letter having assigned the writing of the present MS. to a period between 1269 and 1275, it remains to ascertain a year within that term which will agree with the construction of the calendar, in which the first of March is Wednesday, and the Dominical letter A. This occurred in 1273, but not before since 1262, nor afterwards until 1279, so that the first may be considered as the probable year for which it was made; though it is worthy of remark that the feast of St. Richard, Bishop of Chichester, on April 3, is added in another hand, notwithstanding he was canonised in 1262. The MS. is of the kind called Antiphonars, which were chiefly anthem-books; though they contained the lections, invitations, collects, verses, responses, etc., said or sung in the choir during the seven canonical hours. The imperfect calendar contains brief entries of the obits of various benefactors to Hereford Cathedral; the names and bequests of whom may be found printed at length at the end of Rawlinson's History, etc., A.D. 1717".

As printed copies of the Hereford Missal are extremely rare, some account of the best copies known to remain may prove interesting.

At the Bodleian there is a very fine copy noticed in Mr. Macray's Annals of the Bodleian, 1868. It is a grand book, printed upon vellum.

There is another very fine copy at the British Museum, of which I am able to give full particulars. It is preserved in the "Large Room", where the choicest books are kept. No book is allowed to be removed from this room, not even into the general

154 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

reading-room. This volume, bearing the library-mark C35, i, has handsome new binding, with gilt edges. It is lettered "Missale ad usum ecclesiæ Herefordensis, Rothomagi, 1502". Inside are the following inscriptions:- "W. Maskell, 1858. I obtained this volume in the spring of 1858; it had been just found lying open on the floor in an old house in Bristol, among some hundreds of other books, which had belonged to the English Franciscans, and which had been brought by them to England from their convent in Belgium, during the troubles of the first French Revolution. W. M".

On the top of the title is written in an early hand, "ad usum Frat Minor". The title is as follows:-

"Anno incarnationis dominice Secundo supra quingentesimum atque millesimum, die 'vo prima mensis Septembris opera et industria M. Petri Oliuerii et Johannis manditier impressorum Rothomagi juxta sacellum diui aplor principis Petri comorantum. Impensa vero Johannis richardi mercatoris: hoc novum et egregium opus sacri Missalis ad usum famose ac percelebris ecclie Hereforden nuper instanti ac pervigili cura visum correctum et emendatum, Necnon auctoritate reverendi in Christo patris et dni ejusdem ecclesie epyscopi meritissimi. Ac dnor decani et capituli; est in propatulo venale facili pcio coram cunctis productum et exhibitum". The remainder of the title-page is filled with a fine woodcut of St. George in combat with a dragon, etc.

Page 2 has a list of festivals - "Secundum mandatum domini Symonis Archiepiscopi". In the Calendar the following occur:-

On the V. of the Ides of May - "Dedicatio ecclesiæ Herefordensis".

On XIII. of the Ides of May - "Sancti Ethelberti regis et martiris".

On the VI. of the Ides of May - "Octava sancti Ethelberti".

On VIII. Kalends of August - "Depositio sancti Thome confessoris epi Hereford".

On VI. Kalends of October - "Scti thome Hereford, epi".

There are four fine woodcuts, and several rich borders and capitals - viz., The Crucifixion. Our Lord surrounded by symbols of Evangelists. His Resurrection. Also a Priest officiating at the Mass. There is also the special service in commemoration of St. Ethelbert. Several passages have been effaced by black ink; a few pages have been torn, but all skilfully repaired. The whole volume is a beautiful specimen of black letter, with red capitals, etc., and contains 254 printed leaves. On the third leaf from the end is written - "Thys ys the boche of ye Church of Ou Bolynghop".

The following, all in red lettering, concludes the volume:- "Finis Missalis ad usum celebris ecclesiæ Hereforden summa cura ac vigili opera nuper impressi Rothomagi cum additione Accentuarii legentibus in ecclesiis valde utili. Et hoc impensis Johannis richardi ejusdem Rothomagi civis non imeriti juxta ecdesia divi Nicholai comoratis".

There are a few MS. notes at the end, and eight lines in Latin from various parts of the Gospels.

Plate XV

Description of Plates. 155

PLATE XV.

MURAL DECORATION FORMERLY IN THE CATHEDRAL.

THIS illustration is an exact copy, on a reduced scale, of a drawing made by Mr. Cottingham senior, during the restoration of the piers of the Central Tower, 1842-46. On the removal of several coats of whitewash from the archway of the South Transept leading to the aisle of the Nave, the varied and brilliant patterns here depicted were brought to light in a fair state of preservation. A large drawing to scale was at once fortunately made under the superintendence of that zealous antiquary Dean Merewether. Few persons ever saw the original colour as then displayed, as the whole of the surrounding masonry was taken down to the foundations. The whole was destroyed, no attempt being made to replace any of the old stonework.

I will not venture to assign any definite date to this work.

Some of the details are of fourteenth-century character, while some of the shields indicate the latter part of the fifteenth century.

In the original drawing these shields are assigned (in pencil notes) to the following families. No. 1. (commencing at the bottom of the arch on the right hand) Fitz Alan. 2. Pembridge. 3. Sudeley. 4. ?. 5. Harley. 6. ?. 7. Plantagenet. 8. Martin, Archdeacon of Salop. 9. ?. 10. Audley, Bishop of Hereford. 11. Clifford.

Through the kindness of Mr. G.E. Adams, Rougedragon, I am enabled to offer the following information on this unusual but effective heraldic display:-

No. I. Most probably Per pale, Or and Vert a lion rampant Gules, for Marshall, Earl of Pembroke; or, Or a lion rampant Gules, for Powis; or, Gules a lion rampant for the Earl of Arundel. All three coats were in the Cathedral in 1634.

II. Barry of 6, Or and Az., over all a bendlet Gules, for Pembridge.

III. Probably Paly, bendy, Or and Az., for Mountford.

IV. Or, 2 bars Gu. an inescutcheon Arg., charged with a saltire of the 2d, on a chief of the first 2 pallets between as many gyrons of the 2d, for Mortimer.

V. Arg. a manuch Gu., for Tony; or, more probably, Or a manuch Gu. for Hastings, who were connected with the Mortimers.

VI. Barry of 10, Arg and Az., over all a lion rampant Gu., for Stratford of Walford, as recorded in the Visitation of 1634.

VII. and IX. Plantagenet. The lions should be Or.

156 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

VIII. Barry of 6, Az. and Arg. for Mortimer, Lord of Wigmore, who bore the old coat of Mortimer, differenced by having an escutcheon Arg. and ermine.

X. Gules, fretty Or, for Audley.

XI. Chequy, Or and Az., a chevron ermine. This coat used to be in the windows for Warwick, but it may be Chequy Or and Az. a fess Gu., for Clifford.

Such a coat as No. III. "Arg. 2 bends Or", could never have existed; but it may be Sable, 2 bends Arg. on a canton Az. a bend Or, for Harford of Bosbury.

In the middle ages our Cathedral was magnificently ornamented with polychrome in nearly every part of the interior. During the recent work of restoration great facilities were afforded by the scaffolding then erected to examine many parts of the fabric now inaccessible. Traces of colour were found in all the groinings, string-courses, and other carved work. No less than 200 specimens were copied by Mr. Octavius Hudson, by whom the North Transept was so successfully decorated. The whole of the monuments were enriched with colour more or less. Few traces now remain, as most of the effigies have had whitewash or drab paint applied to their surfaces. These abominations have been removed, leaving only minute traces of the original colours. The following examples still remain:-

Monumental.- No. 1. Bishop Booth. 11. Bishop Aquablanca. 21. Bishop Stanbury. 41. Johanna de Bohun. 47. Dean Borue. 77. Alexander Denton. 84. Sir R. Pembridge.

On Walls and Groining.- North-East Transept. Wooden ceiling of Booth's porch. Bishop Audley's chantry. South Transept groining. Distinct traces of colour, chiefly vermilion and gold, were found on the canopies of the stalls, and on the ancient Bishop's chair. The only example found on the exterior of the Cathedral was in the medallions on the north side of the Ladye Chapel, where a red-ground colour served to assist the sculpture. The following fine examples, as described by local authors, have long since been destroyed

1. Doors and canopy of the map. [1]
2. Mural effigies near Cantilupe shrine. [2]
3. Mural decoration in the Chapter-house. [3]

In domestic buildings colour was extensively used, as may still be seen on the


[1] Dingley's History, clx.

[2] Idem, clxxxix.

[3] "The Chapter House there is very fayre on square built windows of antique worke in good colours. It is adorned on the walles with 46 old Pictures, curiously drawne and sett out - Christ and his 12 Apostles. The two sisters that gave 4 manours to that Church. Edward the Confessor and his Queene. The Earle of Pembroke that flourished in the time of the Barons warrs. St. Winefrid, St. Chad, and divers holy women".- Lansdowne MS., 213.

Description of Plates. 157

timber walls of the College, [1] and on the plaster adjacent to the ancient timber arcade at the Palace. Examples of mediæval colour have been found in many of our churches, but have seldom been preserved.

All Saints and old St. Nicholas' churches in this city.

Abbey Dore. Aconbury (interior restored throughout after ancient design).

Brinsop Church. At the Court-house, in this parish, there is some of the finest timber work, with polychrome in a very perfect state.

Eardisley.- When this church was rebuilt some very fine mural decoration was discovered. But, in spite of the efforts and remonstrance of the Rural Dean, the whole was destroyed before any drawings were made.

Kenderchurch.- Coloured screen.

Madley.- The general decoration of this church was once very fine.

Michaelchurch (near Brilley).

Moccas.

Rowleston.- Figure with a nimbus - very fine.

Stretton Grandison.- Part of mural figure over south door.

Upton Bishop.- Early scroll pattern about lancet-windows of the chancel.

The following extracts may be interesting to those who desire further general information on this subject:-

"During the former part of the Early English period - 1189-1216 - decorative painting made but little progress, and the extant specimens exhibit a similar mode to that formerly in use. Colours were used in masses, without distinction of detail. When painting was only partially introduced, as was the case in simple works - such as churches in rural districts - red was the favourite tint used in capitals and bases of columns. Few traces of colouring of much interest will be found prior to the accession of Henry III. The paintings in churches of an early character were often executed at a later period; and this may generally be suspected when no letters nor costumes are represented to determine the precise date. Such decorations as we have alluded to, with a few figures on the plaster of the chancel-walls, under the east window, and on the chancel-arch, painted in red or black outline, a few sentences and a ruder cross or two, are all that the art of the former part of the thirteenth century appears to have been capable of producing. A free and bold style of arabesque prevailed from the time of Henry III. until the close of Edward III. Bright and lively colours were applied in masses - the grounds covered with a composition of foliage and birds, animals, and human figures - sometimes in one tint, sometimes in varied colours". (Whishcord on Polychromatic Decoration.)


[1] Shortly after the destructive fire at the College in 1828, the supposed work of an incendiary, a text in old English was found on the wall near the spot where the fire commenced:- "The eyes of the Lord are in every place, beholding the evil and the good".- Prov. xv. 3. The colour generally used in this locality was a rich purple-brown. Most of our country churches were adorned with artificial colour. I have rarely seen a church under restoration without finding traces of such work. So lately as the last century texts of Scripture were frequently painted on the walls in a debased style.

158 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

"The degree to which colour was applied varies much. If it was intended to entirely colour the chancel or church, the lower part of the walls up to the string-course was often painted of some darker colour - as chocolate or Indian red - and the brighter tints reserved for the space above, up to the wall- plate or roof. Large surfaces of colour were always broken with deeper patterns in a lighter tint or gold. Thus, light green on dark, pink on maroon, gold on red, were very favourite combinations. Diapers - so called from the designs on napkins and cloths of Ypres - either extend in a continuous pattern all over a surface, or consist of many sprigs, flowers, and ornaments, spotted about in geometrical arrangement. These are more properly called powderings. The large diapers were broken and edged by borders of rich and elaborate composition round doors, windows, and openings. Borders also are generally found under string-courses, on wall-plates, and any position which it was wished to define particularly. In the older paintings, different mouldings were usually coloured without distinction; in later examples, however, we find many colours employed to get the effect of light and shade. Plain surfaces, however small - as those of small ornamental buttresses - are seldom left unornamented, and usually bear a pattern in two tints of the same colour. The roofs, whether of groined stone or of timber, received much attention and ornament. When groined, the roof was generally treated with arabesque, and flowing patterns of foliage in green, gold, and red, broken at intervals with medallions of blue bearing the heads or busts of saints, and sometimes angels with musical instruments".- (Goodwin on the Art of Mural Decoration.)

"Fresco is a process by means of which pictures are produced upon walls or other flat surfaces covered with plaster, while the plaster is wet. Wall-painting is a term by which any pictorial representation executed upon a dry wall is implied. And polychrome signifies surface-colouring in which various colours are employed. Whatever may have been the ancient practice, of the free use of colour during the middle ages, for the purpose of architectural decoration, we have the clearest proofs. Diapers, executed in polychrome, are found to have covered alike the vaulted ceilings, the timber roofs, the screens and canopies, the monuments with their effigies, and the surface of walls. The richest carvings, whether in wood or stone, were not considered complete without colour and gilding; and the same means were used to produce either the details of designs of which the principal features were sculptured, or complete designs. Thus, in sculptured effigies, the mail, or armour, or the various ornamental accessaries of costume, are constantly shown only by means of colour; and the inner surfaces of walls are found to have been thus adorned, as well in domestic and civil buildings as in the churches. In an early English bay of the crypt, and in the noble decorated Guesten Hall at Worcester, are remains of painted representations of sainted personages, with shields of arms. Other fine examples occur in the Chapter-House at Westminster, and in the Abbey itself. It was, indeed, a custom universally prevalent, to display pictorial representations of Scriptural events, with figures of sacred and saintly personages, upon the walls of churches, and probably of all other important buildings. Many examples are continually

Description of Plates. 159

discovered; and it has become apparent that these paintings were, in many instances, repeated, at different times, upon the same wall-spaces. Thus, a rude colossal St. Christopher, of the commencement of the sixteenth century, may be found to have been painted over some well-drawn similar figures of two centuries earlier. This system of surface-decoration by colour appears to have been prevalent in Norman times, and during the latter Gothic ages it was carried to excess. Among the subjects most commonly represented in churches is the Last Judgment, which it was the custom to place over the chancel-arch".- (Boutell's Manual of British Archæology.)

"It is generally during church restorations that mural paintings are found, and almost as surely as found are they within a short time obliterated, either by being scraped off, and the wall replastered, in which case they are lost for ever, or by the scarcely less damaging process of being re-whitewashed or coloured. In this way we have lost paintings valuable alike to the artist and the antiquary, which, had they been only found in Westminster Abbey, would have been considered priceless, and preserved most scrupulously. Occasionally we find exceptions to the rule of immediate destruction".- (Paper by the Rev. J. Budd, on Mural Paintings in West Somerton Church, near Yarmouth.)

At a meeting of the "Hereford Diocesan Church Building Society", the Rev. H.T. Hill made the following remarks upon the introduction of colour into churches:- "I cannot understand why that which abounds everywhere, and adds a beauty to everything, is to be banished from our sanctuaries. Look where you will, colour in a thousand forms meets and gladdens you. Colour is not only a result of art,- it is much more, it is a law of nature. We see it in the brown and red and yellow of our autumn woods; we see it in the buttercup, the pimpernel, and the blue-bell; we see it in all the green things upon the earth, in every grand old ruin, in the purple-headed mountain, in the rainbow, that:-

'Bridge of colours seven,
Builded in the heaven
Opposite the sun;'

and we see it in the red and golden glory of the west. Then why in our churches is the eye only to rest on white plaster or naked stone? The more we learn properly to distinguish between religion and superstition, between use and abuse, the more we shall adopt and approve a coloured architecture; and this we shall inevitably be disposed to do as the cultivation and love of high art advances, whether we do it by means of frescoes, or more simple patterns of diaper; or, as already in many instances, by various-coloured marbles and bricks, with the aid of the beautiful encaustic tiles which, to his own great credit and the credit of the whole county of Hereford, Mr. Godwin now manufactures in such perfection at Lugwardine".

In the west of England no church perhaps is decorated with greater skill and magnificence than the new church at Highnam near Gloucester.

160 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PLATE XVI.

THE CELEBRATED ANCIENT MAP OF THE WORLD PRESERVED IN HEREFORD CATHEDRAL.

AMONG the many Antiquarian and literary treasures preserved at Hereford, this highly-curious and ancient map may fairly be regarded as the "magnum opus" of them all. So widely has its fame extended during the last few years, that many visitors from foreign parts come expressly to see this interesting relic; and literary tourists "seldom speak of Hereford without mentioning its ancient map". During the last fourteen years it has been my great privilege to have it under my care and guardianship, doing what could be done for its preservation, and endeavouring to render it accessible to all comers.

Much has been said and written respecting its history and contents by some of the most learned geographers of the day. To their researches little can be added. Fully conscious, then, of the difficulty of the task, it will be my endeavour to give merely a condensed account of our Map for the use of general readers, rather than attempt any dissertation on or comparison of ancient maps in general. I propose to treat this subject under the following divisions:-

I. Dimensions and particulars of the Map.

II. The supposed date and author.

III. Its history and vicissitudes.

IV. Writers on the subject.

V. Inscriptions - Norman-French and Latin.

I. On a strong framework of ancient oak boards is extended an unusually fine sheet of stout vellum of irregular shape, 50 inches in breadth. The upper part forms two sides of a triangle, rising in the centre to the height of 65 inches. Above is a bold crocketed canopy surmounted by a large finial, all carved in oak, which still retains some of its ancient colouring. The total height is 8 feet, the breadth 53 inches. Plate-glass and oak-doors have recently been attached to protect the surface from further injury. The vellum is attached to the woodwork by copper bands and nails, as clearly shown in the photograph. The world, as known to our author, is described in a perfect circle, 51 inches in diameter. The space at the top is filled with a curious drawing representing the Last Judgment. In the two lower corners are representations on the right hand of the author as a traveller on horseback, attended by his page and greyhound; and on the left hand an emperor with triple crown delivering written orders to three philosophers to survey the world. The whole of the drawings and inscriptions are in deep black ink,

Plate XVI

Description of Plates. 161

but vermilion is generally used for initials and names of places. This colour has faded very much in some parts, adding greatly to the difficulty of deciphering. Gold-leaf was also applied to some large letters and ornaments. The rivers were certainly all painted with a rich mineral blue. The oceans may have been of some such colour, but the whole has so completely faded or changed to a deep umber, that the original colour has not yet been ascertained.

PHOTOGRAPH OF THE MAP - Plate xvi.

Many attempts have been made, with indifferent success, to photograph our map. The unevenness of the surface, and brown colour of the whole, are serious obstacles. The photograph here given has been expressly taken for this work (after much labour), with the aid of strong artificial light. Greater perfection could only be obtained, at considerable cost, by producing the map in numerous small sections. It has been thought preferable to have a portion of the map on a large scale, rather than the whole on a small scale. Our photograph comprises rather more than one-third of the map, representing the whole of Europe, Northern Asia, and Palestine. Jerusalem, as the supposed centre of the world, is consequently exactly in the centre of the map.- (See right-hand of photograph, 2 inches from the top.) Gibraltar, as the extreme west, is found at the bottom of the right-hand corner. With the aid of these two points, Great Britain will be found correctly placed midway between extreme north and west. Most of the inscriptions can be easily deciphered with the aid of a magnifying-glass.

II. Supposed Date and Author.- In the lower corner of the map, on the right-hand side, the author describes himself as "Richard of Haldingham and of Lafford, who has made and contrived it". [1] His real name was Richard de la Battayle or de Bello. [2] He held the prebend of Lafford, now Sleaford, in Lincoln Cathedral, up to the year 1283 A.D. He afterwards held the prebend of Norton in Hereford Cathedral. The date of his appointment is not exactly known, but he certainly held this stall in 1305. [3] He subsequently was collated to the Archdeaconry of Berkshire, where further traces of our author are lost.

In the absence of all positive evidence as to the real date of this map, it may safely be ascribed to A.D. 1300 (within a very few years). It may have been the work of several years, the inscriptions being inserted gradually as the author acquired his information. The manual work alone, displayed on 18 square feet of vellum such as this, was a great undertaking, requiring considerable time and patience for its accomplishment.

Several distinguished palæographers have expressed their opinion that, judging from the writing alone, this map is a work of the end of the thirteenth or the earliest part of the fourteenth centuries. It is clearly not so early as the reign of King John, as local


[1] The complete inscription will be found in division V. In all the previous copies of this inscription which I have met with, this has not been given with accuracy.

[2] As I was informed by Sir Frederick Madden, August 1855.

[3] Hardy, in his edition of Le Neve's Fasti, says that "he came in 1305".

162 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

guide-books used to assert. It may certainly have been completed about the year 1314, as the learned French geographer M. D'Avezac has elaborately argued.

III. History and Vicissitudes of the Map.- An opinion has often been expressed that our map "served as an altar-piece in one of the chapels in the Cathedral". This is not only probable, but, judging from the religious tone of the whole composition, it seems but a reasonable conclusion. But as to which of the many minor altars it was attached, history is altogether silent. Some say that it was "at one time fixed by the side of Bishop Mayo's monument in the south aisle, where may be seen the iron clasps by which it was attached to the wall". Local writers agree in stating that the map was secreted during troublous times in the sixteenth century under the wooden floor of Bishop Audley's chantry. That energetic and able antiquary, Dean Merewether, entertained this opinion, and with him I fully concur. So lately as 1858-60 the floors of both these chapels were of wood in an advanced stage of decay, so constructed that they were easily raised, and the secreting of the map in such a place was quite possible. It was fortunately brought to light again before it had become seriously injured, for that worthy herald, Thomas Dingley, made a note (circa 1682) of seeing our map in the Ladye Chapel. Page clx.- "Among other curiosities in this Library are a Map of ye World, drawn on Vellum by a Monk, kept in a frame with two doors, with guilded and painted Letters and figures". All accounts agree in describing it as being utterly neglected, torn, and covered with dust and dirt. In 1813 a visitor calling himself Camden, says- "I found a quantity of glass lanthorns sacrilegiously piled against the map - a curiosity of the highest order, equalled by nothing of the kind in Europe". About the year 1830 the map was removed from the Ladye Chapel to the Treasury Room. In 1855 it was sent to the British Museum, where, under the immediate care of Sir F. Madden, Keeper of MSS., etc., it was repaired and cleaned with great skill and judgment. In 1862 it was exhibited at the South Kensington Temporary Museum of Works of Art. This collection was one of the most valuable and important ever made in this country. It was also sent to the Manchester Exhibition in 1859; but whether the authorities could not find space for the map, or considered it insufficiently attractive, it was certainly returned without being exhibited. It was fixed in 1863 in its old position, in the south choir aisle, a sheet of plate-glass and oak-doors having been recently provided for its protection.

IV. Writers on the subject.- The only important writer on our map, of the last century, is perhaps Richard Gough, the well- known antiquary. In his British Topography, he first "directed the attention of the learned to this interesting relic of the past, and some notices scattered here and there in scarce books alone recalled at intervals a knowledge of its existence". In 1831 the map was "copied by Thomas Ballard of Ledbury from the original in the Chapter-House, Hereford Cathedral". This full- size copy is now in the possession of the Royal Geographical Society, 15 Whitehall Place, Westminster. From this copy another was made for the Royal Library at Paris. It was afterwards engraved at considerable cost by the French government through its geographical department.

Description of Plates. 163

The late Dean Merewether took much interest in our map, and gave a lecture on this subject before a local society about the year 1837.

In 1849 Mr. Saxe Bannister published A brief Description of the Map of the World, with a Specimen drawn by B. Tucker (15 x 20 inches.) There is much research as well as some useful references in these twelve quarto pages, but no quotations or actual transcripts are given from the map. In 1861 Mr. Thomas Wright produced a valuable paper on our map in his Essays on Archceological Subjects (vol. ii.)

The President of the Geographical Society of Paris, M. D'Avezac, read a very valuable paper before that society on November 30, 1861, which was translated and republished in the Gentleman's Magazine, May 1863. This learned geographer, however, only saw our map for the first time in September 1867. He mentions another writer, the Vicomte de Santarem, who produced "a lengthened notice, occupying fully a half-volume of his Cartography of the Middle Ages. I am unable to say what other continental writers have noticed our Hereford map.

V. Inscriptions.- The whole of the inscriptions and legends have been copied with all possible care and accuracy verbatim et literatim. They are so numerous that I am obliged to make a selection for the present purpose as follows:-

1. All the inscriptions in the three corners, and near the border.

2. All forming two circles round the map.

3. A few specimens of the legends, as seen in the photograph.

4. The whole of the places in Great Britain.

I. On the scroll, near the representation of our Lord, in the upper part of the map:- Ecce testimonium meum.

Above the figure of the blessed Virgin Mary:-

Veici beu fiz mon piz: dedenz la quele chere preistes:
Cef mamelertes: dont lei de uirgin quiestes:
Eyez merci de tous: si com nos memes deistes:
Ke m'ont seru: haut Sauveresse me feistes.

The following rythmical translation is given in the Gentleman's Magazine, No. ccxiv. 1863:-

Regard, my son, the flesh of which Thou'rt made:
Behold the breasts on which Thou once wast laid:
Oh all who worship us pray pity take:
Who me revere, me their Saviouress make.

On a scroll proceeding from an angel on the right:-

Levez, et montez a joie perdurable.
Rise, and ascend to eternal joy.

164 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

On the scroll borne by the angel on the left of the Blessed Virgin Mary:-

Levez, et allez en feu d'enfer estable.
Rise, and depart into the everlasting fire of hell.

In large letters, around the extreme edge of the map, commencing at + on left-hand side:-

A TEODOCO | SEPTEMTRION| ET | OCCIDENS| DIMENS | EST | A |
POLICLITO | MERIDIANA PARS DIMENSUS | EST | A | JULIO | CESARE |
ORBIS | TERRARUM | METIRI | CEPIT | A NICODOXO | OMNIS |
ORIENS | DIMENSUS | EST |

In the upper part of left-hand corner, above the figure of the Emperor:-

Lucas in euuangelio exiit edictu ab Augusto Cesare ut describeretur huniuersus orbis.

On the deed held out by the Emperor:-

Ite in orbem uniuersum. et de omni eius continencia referte ad senatum, et ad istam confirmandam huic scripto sigillum meu apposui.

This is written in black letter, but all the preceding inscriptions in Lombardic character. A contraction is used for "et", i is used for j, and u for v. The great similarity of the letters C and T throughout the map increases the difficulty of reading the inscriptions.

On the vesica-shaped seal attached to the document given above:-
+ S. Augusti Cesaris Imperaton.

Under the seal at the foot of the Emperor is the following Norman-French inscription:-

Tuz ki cest estoire out.
Ou oyront ou lirront ou ueront.
Prient a ihesu en deyte.
De Richard de Haldingham e de Lafford eyt pite.
Ki lat fet e compasse.
Ki ioie en cel li seit done.

In modern languages as follows:-

Tous qui cette histoire out
On ouront on liront on verront
Prient a Jesu en deite.
De Richard de Haldingham et de Lafford ait pitie
Qui l'a fait et compasse,
Que joie en ciel lui soit donne.

Description of Plates. 165

All who have or shall have or shall read or
shall see this history pray to Jesus in Deity
(that) he may have mercy on Richard of Haldingham
and of Lafford who has made and contrived it,
that joy may be given to him in Heaven.

The names of the three philosophers are written by the representations of them:-

NICHODOXUS. THEODOCUS. POLICLITUS.

The lower right-hand corner of the map is occupied by a representation of the author himself on horseback, attended by his page and greyhound. Above his head is inscribed:- Passe auant; also, Descriptio Orosii honesta mundi sicut interius ostenditur.

In each of the four corners of the map is placed one of the large gold letters of the word MORS. The last letter appears in the photograph near the philosophers.

II. The outer circle of the map contains only the four following words, originally gilded:-
Septemtrio. Oriens. Meridiens. Occidens.

The winds are described as follows (beginning at the west point), forming an inner band to the last-mentioned outer circle:-

I. Chorus qui et agrestis flans in oriente nubilosus . in yndia . serenus . ideo dictus chorus est . quod omnium ventorum spirit concludat.

II. Circius . qui et traceas facit nubes . et grandinum coagulacione . dictus est circeus: eo quod in circulo iungitur cum choro.

III. Septemtrio . a septem stellis nomen accepit . qui frigidus et siccus est . et facit arida frigora . et siccat nubes.

IV. Aquilo . qui et boreas dicitur gelidus et siccus . non discutit nubes . sed aquas stringit.

V. Wlturnus . qui et caleas dicitur . dissolvit cuncta . atq desiccat . dictus wulturnus; quia flans in alto habet potestatem quasi wltur.

VI. Subsolanus ventus . occidenti contrarius . subsolanus dictus; quia sub sole oritur . qui et appolites dicitur . qui temporales pluvias latissimas facit.

VII. Eurus contrarius choro . a sinistro volans subsolani . ideo dictus eurus: eo quo morbo afficiat . homines energendo in mortem . et extremam orientem nubibus irrigans.

VIII. Eurus nothus flat a dextris austri . callidus nimis . et aquas ex marmore fluere facit . et irrigat aquis omnia . et dissolvit contrarius circio: dictus nothus eo qod facit amictus.

166 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

IX. Auster contrarius septemtrioni uocatus ab hauriendis aquis . quarum pfusione terram mundat . qui est callidus et humidus . fulmineus . generans nubes et pluuias . et soluit flores.

X. Austeraffricus . contrarius aquiloni . dictus est austeraffricus . quod p affricam currit.

XI. Affricus . qui et lipsis dicitur . generans tempestates . et pluuias latissimas facit sonit tonnitriuum et fulgurum nisum impulsus.

XII. Fauonius dictus est . eo quod germina foveat et ad maturitatem perducat . hic et zephirus . rigor hiemis relaxat flores producit.

III. Jerusalem is in the centre of the map, and is inscribed:-

Civitas lerusalem - mons Calvarie.

Immediately above is a representation of the Crucifixion, where the following may still be faintly traced:-

I.H.C. nazareri rex iudeo.

To the north of Cana:-

Mons Cassius de quo videtur globs solis ad huc quarta vigilia noctis.

The Ark is drawn in five compartments - Animals, birds, serpents, and three human figures appear within it:-

Archa Noe sesit in montiba Armenie.

Above the fleece, which still bears traces of ancient gilding:-

Velus aureum propter quod iaso: a pelo rege . missus est.

Near the north part of the map is drawn an ostrich, with the following inscription:-

Ostricius capud aute . corp gruis . pedes uituli . ferru comedit.

Closely adjoining is the first letter of the word " Affrica", which, strangely enough, is inscribed over Europe, and vice versa. Asia alone is correctly placed.

Adjoining this is drawn an erect figure of a man leading a horse with red reins, and a human skin thrown over the back of the horse:-

Description of Plates. 167

Hic habitant griste homines nequissimi
na inter cetera facinora . ecia de cutiba
hostiu suor tegume ta sibi . et equis suis
faciut.

To the north of Great Britain the following is conspicuous in the photograph:-

Areno fluuio usq ad pireneum . et ab
oceano us ad montes tebentiam - et juga qui
bernarbonem sem galliam excludit . Longitudine
cccxxx passuum . latitudine cccxviii.
secundum agrippa regem.

One of the most popular legends in the middle ages was that of the Seven Sleepers. In the fourth century they are said to have been enclosed in a cave at Ephesus by the Emperor Decius, but were found sleeping and alive 372 years afterwards. The following inscription relating to them will be found to the north of Scotland:-

Sinus Germanicus in quo septe viri jacere feruntur. Inter tu esse quot t'pre sa qutum (quietum) ex habtui eor . cognoscitur Romani fuisse creduntur.

IV. Great Britain and Adjacent Islands.- A list of all the places and objects in this part of our map will now be given. Black-letter type represents the exact spelling adopted by De Haldingham, so far as it can be deciphered. It will be observed in the photograph that peninsulas or peninsular divisions are represented as being wholly insulated by water-channels. Mountains are represented in the north and west of Scotland, on the north-east coast of Ireland, and in central Ireland, near Kildare. The only hill in England to which a name is attached is the Clee Hill - Mo's Cleoe. The names in Scotland and Wales placed near hills or mountains indicate districts rather than mountains, as they are in red letters, according to a rule which the author seems to have observed throughout the map. The leading divisions of the British Isles are described under their Latin titles, and a few subdivisions are added, all in red letters.

Thus, we meet with Bridanie I'sul, Anglia, and three subdivisions:-

Cornubia - Cornwall. Lindeseya - Lincolnshire. Norhuba - Northumberland.

Wallia - Snawedon - The region of Snowdon.

Scocia - With two subdivisions, both very difficult to decipher.

Louyian, possibly for Lothian. Cauneth, possibly for Caithness.

168 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Hibernia, with a subdivision and two tribes:-

Uluest for Ulster. Velabri and Luceni.

The following rivers are represented, twenty in England and two in Ireland::-

fl: ene = The Avon, Hampshire.
Flu: Ave = The Avon, Somersetshire.
fl: nen = The Avon, Northamptonshire.
fl: colne = The Colne (Colchester).
fl:de = The Dee.
The Derwent in Yorkshire is represented but not named.
fl: don = The Don
fl: exe = The Exe.
Huber = The Humber.
Medey = The Medway.
use = The Ouse.
Sab'na fl. = The Severn.
sturi = The Stour.
fl: tamer = The Tamar.
fl: tamise = The Thames.
fluuie trenta = The Trent.
Tiede = The Tweed.
tin = The Tyne.
wie = The Wye.
wid = The Witham.

In Ireland the only rivers are:-

bande = The Banne.
Schene = The Shannon.

In England twenty-six cities and towns are noticed:-

Bathe = Bath.
beulac' = Beverley.
Cadan (I) = This town is placed between Winchester and Exeter, but cannot be identified.
Caturia = Canterbury.
Carlua = Carlisle.
Cestria = Chester
Colcest'a = Colchester.
Dobu = Dover.
Durem' = Durham.
ely = Ely.
Excestria = Exeter.

Description of Plates. 169

Glaston = Glastonbury.
Gicar (I) = Gloucester. This name is unlike any of the abbreviations usually adopted for this city. It can only be identified by its position.
H'ford = Hereford.
Lincoln' = Lincoln.
Kirc ham = Kirkham (Yorkshire).
Iondonia = London.
Cast'e nouo = Newcastle.
no ha'ton = Northampton.
Snotigha = Nottingham.
Oxon = Oxford.
Rocestria = Rochester.
Scobesoiri = Shrewsbury.
Winton = Winchester.
Wircest' = Worcester.
Eborac' = York.

In Wales three towns only are noticed:-

Carnaruon = Carnarvon.
Cunwey = Conway.
S' Daui = St. David's.

In Scotland six towns:-

Berwic' = Berwick-on-Tweed.
Aberdene = Old Aberdeen.
S' Andr' = St. Andrews.
Edenburgh = Edinburgh.
Rokesburgh = Roxburgh.
Civitas S' Joh' This unknown place may be identified by Scotch antiquaries. It may be Perth.

In Ireland four towns:-

Arhmata. civitas S' partt' = Armagh.
Civitas bencur = Bangor (on the east coast).
Civitas diuelin = Dublin.
Celdara civitas sce brigide = Kildare.

Numerous islands are placed in the British seas. Off the S.W. coast is a group of four islands.

170 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Olerin may represent Oleron, off the coast of Brittany.
Suilla, probably the Scilly Isles; while
Heccla and Vivencium cannot be identified.

The Isle of Thanet or Sheppey is depicted, but the name, which appears like "stene dos", is but partially legible.

The Isle of Man is placed between England and Scotland; also some mythical "Bird's island" - i'sula avium. Off the north coast of Ireland there is another doubtful island - Insula arietum. Off the north coast of Scotland the name Suilla again occurs, together with Ultima Tile, the "ultima Thule" of the ancients; Ysland and Farese denote Iceland and the Faroe Islands.

The Orkneys, Orcades . insulee traginta, are correctly described, the inhabited islands being about thirty.

Measures are now being taken for the reproduction of this remarkable Map, of the size of the original, in coloured lithography. It will be accompanied by a photograph of 15 inches in diameter, by which the critical accuracy of the copy may be perfectly tested with the aid of a glass. Letterpress will be added, which will contain all that is known of the author, copies of the whole of the legends in the Map, with explanations, and a critical examination of the Map and of its place in the history of cartography.

Plate XVII

Description of Plates. 171

PLATES XVII AND XVIII.

HERALDRY OF THE BISHOPS OF HEREFORD, WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE ARMS BORNE BY THEM, AND AUTHORITIES FOR THE SAME.

ANCIENT ARMS of the See of Hereford:- Gules, three Crowns, Or, in fess point a bezant.- Coles' MS., British Museum, Additional, 5798. Since the time of Thomas de Cantilupe, Bishop from 1275 to 1282, his Arms have been adopted for the See:- Gules, three leopards' heads reversed, jessant de lys, Or.

The Arms of all Bishops unnoticed in the following list are unknown. The earliest supposed shield is that of the:-

29th Bishop, Gerard, 1096-1100. Gules, on a saltier Arg., another humette of the field; in chief a mitre coroneted, stringed Or. MS. Rawlinson, 158 Bodleian.

33. Robert de Betun, 1131-48. Arg. two pallets Sable, each charged with three crosslets fitchy Or. Arms of De Betton of Salop.

34. Gilbert Foliott, 1148-63. Barry of six Arg. and Gules, a bend S. Heralds' College.

36. Robert Foliott, 1174-86. Gules a bend Argent. MS. Brit. Mus. Add. 12,443. Also a modern shield over his effigy in south choir aisle.

37. William de Were, 1186-99. Quarterly, Gules and Or, in 1st quarter a mullet Argent. Harl. MS. 4056. Also a modern coloured shield on his tomb in the Cathedral.

38. Giles de Braose or Bruce, 1200-16. Az., three bars vaire, ermine and Gules. Harl. MS. 2275; addl. MS. 12,443.

40. Hugh Folliott, 1219-34. Arg. a lion rampant double quevoe Purpure, crowned Or. Harl. MS. 5814.

41. Ralph de Maidstone, 1234-39. Arg. a lion rampant, Az. crowned with a coronet of four balls Or. Addl. MS. 12,443.

43. John le Breton, 1269-75. Quarterly, per fess indented, Gu. and Arg., in first quarter a mullet Sable.

44. Thomas de Cantilupe, 1275-82. Gu. three leopards' faces reversed, jessant de lys Or. Planche's Pursuivant of Arms.

46. Adam de Orleton, 1317-27. Three hogsheads, two and one. Gent. Magazine, viii. 238. The colour of the field is not known; the tuns were probably proper.

47. Thomas Charleton or Cherlton, 1327-44. Or, a lion rampant Gules. His official seal, but Addl. MS. 12,443 adds the mitre on shoulder. Formerly painted in several windows of the Cathedral.

48. John Trilleck, 1344-60. Arg. three bends Az. on a chief Gules, three fleur-de-lys Arg. Authority for colours from Mr. Henry Beddoe.

172 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

49. Lewis de Charleton, 1361-69. Or, a lion rampant Gules. This is the only remaining shield on his tomb, also on the White Cross. Rawlinson describes another shield as given by Bedford, which is now lost - Seme de cross crosslets fitche, a lion rampant Gules. Bedford gives no colours. The second and third quarters should be coloured as above.

50. William Courtenay, 1374-75. Or, three torteaux; on a label Az. three mitres of the field. MSS. Lambeth, 555.

52. John Trevenant, 1389-1404. Or, within a bordure engrailed Az. three lions' heads erased, Gules. This shield, formerly beneath his effigy in the South Transept, has been placed in error under the effigy of Dean Harvey in the S.E. Transept.

53. Robert Mascall, 1404-16. Sab. three mitres Argent (Or, according to Bedford). Heralds' College.

54. Edmund Lacy, 1417-20. Arg. three shovellers' heads erased, Or. Monument in Exeter Cathedral.

55. Thomas Polton, 1420-22. Arg. three mullets of six points, pierced, Sable.

56. Thomas Spofford, 1422-48. Az., two pastoral staves in saltier, and a mitre in chief, Or. Window in Ludlow Church, and stone vaulting of South Transept of the Cathedral.

57. Richard Beauchamp, 1449-50. Gu. a fess between six martlets Or; a bordure Arg. entoyre of six bells Sable. Other authorities give his shield quarterly. Monument at Salisbury; Lansdowne MS. 874.

58. Reginald Boulers or Butler, 1451-53. Or, a chief dancette Az.

59. John Stanbery, 1453-74. Az. two chevronels engrailed between three mullets pierced Arg. Tomb and chantry in the Cathedral.

60. Thomas Milling, 1474-92. Ermine, on a saltier engrailed Purpure five martlets Or. Ashm. MS. 8569.

61. Edmund Audley, 1492-1502. Quarterly first and fourth Gules, a fret Or; second and third Ermine a chevron Gu. MS. College of Arms. Roof of Lincoln College Chapel, Oxford. Screen of Chantry and glass in upper windows, Hereford Cathedral.

62. Adrian de Castello, 1502-4. Argent, three bendlets crenelle, Sa. Roof of Bath Abbey. Coles' MS. Addl. 5798.

63. Richard Mayo, 1504-16. Arg. on a fess Sa. between three roses Gu., a lily of the first. On his monument, and Audley Screen in Hereford Cathedral.

64. Charles Booth, 1516-35. Arg. three boars' heads erased erect Sa., a rose in fess point. Monument in the Cathedral.

65. Edward Fox, 1535-38. Quarterly 1st and 4th Arg. on a bend Gu. three dolphins . embowed Or. 2d and 3d Or a chevron between three foxes' heads erased Gu. Coles' MS. Addl. 5802.

Edmund Bonner, 1539. Quarterly Sa. and Gu. a cross sarcelle quarterly Or and

Plate XVIII

Description of Plates. 173

ermines, on a chief of the third a rose en soleil between two pelicans of the first. Harl. MS. 5846.

66. John Skipp, 1539-52. Az. on a chevron between three estoiles Or, two roses stalked and slipped proper. Coles' MS. Addl. 5798.

67. John Harley, 1553-54. Or, on a bend cotised Sa. a fleur-de- lys of the field, a bon dure engrailed Gules. Harl. MS. 1359.

68. Robert Parfew or Wharton, 1554-57. Gules, two arms and hands clasped in fess proper, between three hearts, Or. MS. Parl. Roll of Edward VI. A.D. 1553.

69. John Scory, 1559-85. Or, three pelicans' heads erased Sable, on a chief Az., a fleur-de-lys between two mullets of the first. Plate in Parker's Antiquities MSS. Brit. Mus. Addl. 12,443, gives it otherwise, on a chevron five cinquefoils. I have a MS. which states that "this bishop was descended from an ancient family, but being ignorant of his descent, he had assigned him for Arms, per chevron embattled Or and Sable, three pelicans' heads counterchanged, on a chief Az. a fleur-de-lys between two estoiles of the first. His own, which his family retook and bore, were Or, on a saltire Sable, 5 cinquefoils of the first". Duncumb gives, chevron crenelle between three pelicans' heads erased.

70. Herbert Westfaling, 1586-1602. The arms granted to this Bishop, Eliz. 24, were; Az. a cross between four caltrops Or. Formerly on his monument. Harl. MS. 4056.

71. Robert Bennett, 1603-I 7. Quarterly 1st and 4th Argent a cross between four demilions rampant Gu., 2d and 3d, paly of six, Arg. and Vert. (Arms of Langley.) On his monument in the Cathedral. Harl. MS. 4056.

72. Francis Godwin, 1617-33. Or, two lioncels passant Gu. on a canton S. three plates or bezants. Glass in window of Bodleian Library.

74. Matthew Wren, 1635. Arg. a chevron between three lions' heads erased, Gu. on a chief sable three crosslets of the first. A MS. of my own gives the lions' heads Sable. Blomefield's Norfolk.

75. Theophilus Field, 1636. Sable, a chevron between three garbs Or. Rawlinson, 2 x 7. Formerly on his monument.

76. George Coke, 1636-46. Gules, three crescents and a canton Or. Formerly on his tomb, but the shield is now on the west wall of N.E. Transept.

77. Nicholas Monk, 1661. Gules, on a chevron between three lions' heads, erased Arg., a mullet pierced for difference. MS. Ashmole, 8585.

78. Herbert Croft, 1662-91. Quarterly per fess indented Az. and Arg. in first quarter a lion passant guardant, Or. MS. College of Arms. Tombstone in Cathedral.

79. Gilbert Ironside, 1691-1701. Quarterly Arg. and Gules, a cross flore Or. Tombstone in Cathedral.

80. Humfrey Humphries, 1701-12. Quarterly, first, Gules, a lion rampant Arg.; second, three eagles displayed in fess; third, three lions passant; fourth,

174 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

three childrens' heads couped at the neck with a serpent proper. Rawlinson's Hereford. Tombstone in the Cathedral.

81. Philip Bisse, 1712-21. Sable, three escalops in pale Argent. Duncumb's History. I am informed that since 1848 these arms were in the hall of the Palace with the field Gules.

82. Benjamin Hoadly, 1721-24. Quarterly Az. and Or, in first quarter a pelican in piety Argent. Confirmation by Deputy Earl Marshal, 1716.

83. Henry Egerton, 1724-46. Argent, a lion rampant Gules between three pheons and a mullet Sable. Richardson's Godwin. Official seal.

84. Lord James Beauclerk, 1746-87. Quarterly first and fourth. France and England quarterly. 2. Scotland. 3. Ireland. Over all a sinister baton Gules, charged with three roses Arg., barbed and seeded Vert. Porny's Heraldry, 1787. On carved oak now in N.E. Transept, formerly in the Choir.

85. John Harley, 1787-88. Or, on a bend cotised Sable, a crescent for difference. Described thus by Bedford. His official seal bears quarterly first and fourth Or, a bend cotised Sable, second and third two lions in pale passant guardant; no crescent.

86. John Butler, 1788-1802. Gules, a bend between three covered cups Or. Official seal.

87. Folliott Cornewall, 1803-8. Quarterly first and fourth Argent, a lion rampant Gu., ducally crowned Or within a bordure Az. bezante; two party per pale Az. and Gules, three lions rampant Or; three Gu. a cross raguly between four lions' heads erected and erased ducally crowned Or. Official seal.

88. John Luxmoore, 1808-15. Argent, a chevron between three moorcocks proper. Official seal.

89. George Huntingford, 1815-32. Per fess Sa. and erminois, a fess per fess nebulee counterchanged, in chief three crosses patee fitchee, Argent, the base fretty Gu. College of Arms. Memorial window in Hereford Cathedral. [1]

90. Hon. Edward Grey, 1832-37. Gules, a lion rampant in a bordure engrailed Argent. Official and private seal.

91. Thomas Musgrave, 1837-47. Azure, six annulets in pile, Argent. Official seal.

92. Renn Dickson Hampden, 1847-68. Argent, four wands interlaced in saltier, between four eagles displayed, Azure. [2] Official seal.

93. James Atlay, 1868. Argent, a fess Sable between three crescents Sable. Official sea1. [3]


[1] Burke does not say anything about the counterchange.

[2] With the greatest regret, it must be acknowledged that this shield is wrongly given in the illustration. The wands should be four only in number instead of six. The error was pointed out, but unfortunately not heeded by my artist before the illustrations were completed.

[3] By his Lordship's kind permission a facsimile of his official seal, beautifully engraved by the great medallist Wyon, is given at the end of the Biographical Notices.

Plate XIX

Description of Plates. 175

PLATE XIX.

IN this illustration three tombs are shown of the highest architectural merit:-

A.D.
I. Base of the Shrine of Bishop Cantilupe - Obiit 1282.
II. Recumbent effigy of Dean Aquablanca - Obiit 1320.
III. Tomb and rich canopy of Bishop Aquablanca - Obiit 1268.

Although the Cantilupe Shrine, as it is popularly called, has been sadly neglected and mutilated, it is still a very rich and remarkable specimen of early art. It is indeed surprising that this shrine was not entirely removed after those strict injunctions to "take away, utterly extinct, and destroy all shrines, coverings of shrines, and all other monuments of feigned miracles, pilgrimages, idolatry, and superstition". It has been disturbed more than once. During the former part of this century it was placed against the eastern wall of this aisle. In 1859 it was taken down with great care, and reconstructed in the centre, which is admitted by all authorities to be its original position. The chamfered base is entirely new masonry. But the large slab on which the sides of the tomb rest was found to bear an incised cross of an earlier period, extremely simple but beautifully proportioned. There was no inscription or device. [1] Three sides of the tomb are enriched with military effigies in chain armour (six on each side, and two at the head), with dogs at their feet, each bearing a shield in as many different attitudes. These shields having originally been emblazoned; there is no trace or record of what they once bore. On the eastern end is fixed an interesting fragment, evidently belonging to this tomb, which was discovered in 1856 by Mr. O'Bryan, the highly-talented but short-lived pupil of our great architect.

The spandrels of the upper stage are exquisitely carved with a variety of foliage. A minute nail-head ornament is worked on all flat parts of the mouldings, and the carving generally requires close inspection before its beauty and fineness can be appreciated.

Within the arcade in the upper part of the tomb is another slab of Purbeck marble, formerly polished and inlaid with a half- length effigy of Bishop Cantilupe under a canopy. The whole of this most interesting metal-work has long ago been taken away, with the exception of the small piece shown in Plate xxi. The western end appears to have been


[1] Being present during the removal of this tomb, I was enabled to take a drawing and dimensions of this cross. It had been cut with great accuracy, indented like the letter V, with lines converging slightly towards the centre after the manner of a Maltese cross. I have never seen any other similar cross, although we have many specimens still remaining in the churches of this diocese.

176 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

constructed a few years later than the other parts of the tomb. The south side is in the most perfect state. The dimensions are:- height, 5.9; length, 7.10; breadth at ends, 3.6 and 2.6. [1]

II. Recumbent Effigy of Dean Aquablanca.- This early effigy, after several removals, was restored in 1860 to its original position. On removing the modern pavement, the ancient coffin was found immediately beneath, filled with dust and rubbish. It remains there undisturbed beneath the effigy.

III. Bishop Aquablanca's Tomb.- This beautiful monument is one of the largest and best in our Cathedral. In its original state it must have presented a gorgeous appearance. The effigy was elaborately coloured and gilded; several portions of colour may still be seen. [1] Metal bars above the effigy originally supported tapestry or other covering for its protection, and strong iron railing on the sides, removed but recently, secured the tomb effectually from all serious injury. With the exception of a few finials and pieces of tracery, it is in an excellent state of preservation. The whole is executed with much delicacy and skill, especially the bosses in the groining of the canopy and the external carving. Slender Purbeck shafts support a rich and sharply-pointed canopy in three divisions. The height is 15.8, and the length 10 ft. 10 inches. Some of the finials and crosses are of light-coloured stone, most of them being original. The finial in the centre of the south side is especially noteworthy. The position of this tomb is such that it cannot be seen to great advantage, but it is worthy of careful examination by those who are interested in the monumental architecture of the middle ages. The dimensions and details of this tomb were taken in 1868 by Mr. Charles Henman jun., whose drawings and notes (as the Pugin Student) on some of our most interesting


[1] There are good illustrations of this tomb in Gough's Sepulchral Monuments, Murray's Western Cathedrals, and Rev. S. West's History of Withyham. In this last-named work it is stated "that there is a representation of Cantilupe in glass at Snitfield, Warwickshire, where his family had property ... At the side of the window above is represented the consecration of St. Thomas as Bishop of Hereford, and below his tomb in Hereford Cathedral, visited by the sick and infirm. There is a service in the Hereford Missal formerly used on his festival". Representations of this Bishop may still be seen in the windows of Ross and Credenhill churches. For an etching, and much curious information relating to this Bishop, see pages clvii. and clxxxix. of the Dingley MS., published for the Camden Society, 1867.

Mr. Albert Way, in his learned and valuable work, Promptorium Parvulorum, page 157, refers to this shrine under the word feretrum:- "Among the appliances of a sacred nature there were feretra of two kinds; first the bier for carrying the corpse to the grave, etc. In its secondary sense feretrum signified a portable shrine, containing the relics of saints, and carried in processions on a frame similar to an ordinary bier; and also stationary shrines of similar fashion, but which it was not customary to display as gestatory ornaments, such as those of St. Cuthbert at Durham, or St. Thomas of Hereford in the Cathedral there".

[2] An attempt was made to restore slight portions of the coloured vestments by a most indefatigable amateur, circa 1860 A.D., who also made careful drawings of all the patterns then found on the effigy, which are in my possession, but will be preserved in the Library. This gentleman spent upwards of a year in examining the antiquities of this Cathedral and county, bringing many curious things to light, and doing much service to the Antiquarian cause in this district.

Description of Plates. 177

churches will be found in the Library of the Royal Institution of British Architects. He has favoured me with the following observations:-

"Supposing the tomb to have been erected immediately after the Bishop's death, it seems to be rather in advance of the other work of the same period in the neighbourhood. The heads carved on the sides of the slab are common in Italian work, but not very general in England or France. Perhaps the Bishop superintended it during his life, or it may have been executed by Italian workmen. They represent, it seems to me, different orders of society, as one is a bishop, another a noble - a warrior, a lawyer (?), a monk, etc. The great beauty of this monument consists, not so much in its general effect, as in the delicacy and refinement of its details".

178 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PLATES XX AND XXI.

BRASSES IN HEREFORD CATHEDRAL, CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED.

THE fragments of memorials in brass-work here given form but a tithe of those originally in this Cathedral, In number and beauty they were scarcely surpassed in any church in the western counties. Dineley, in his valuable MSS., has given illustrations of many no longer remaining.

I. Small effigy of King Ethelbert holding his head in his hands; from altar-tomb of Bishop Cantilupe, circa 1282 to 1300 A.D. The illustration, Plate xxi., is an impression of the original plate.

II. John Trilleck, Bishop of Hereford, A.D. 1360. This once fine brass is at present not so perfect as it appears in the illustration, Plate xx. The whole of the inscriptions, shields, and portions of the canopy, are now lost. Dineley gives a drawing of it (cxxiii.) with a further portion of the inscription, "gratus, prudens, pius". This bishop was buried in the centre of the choir, but was disturbed in 1813. See Plate xii. for further particulars. By the kind permission of Rev. Herbert Haines of Gloucester, the author of a most copious Manual of Monumental Brasses, 2 vols., 1861, I have been allowed to use the frontispiece of his work for the present illustration.

III. A Priest, probably Richard de la Barr, Canon 1386, in cope, within head of a floriated cross, finials lost. When the pavement of the Ladye Chapel was laid in 1862, this was supposed to represent Dean Harold, and it was laid as nearly as possible over the place of his interment. But the most competent authorities now assign this fragment to Canon de la Barr, who was buried a few yards north of the present position.

IV. A Civilian, 1394, inscription lost; also half the figure of a dog. Fixed, in 1866, to west wall of south-east transept.

V. Inscription to John Pratt, Canon 1415. West wall of retro- choir.

VI. Inscription to Edmund Ryall, Canon 1428. On the same wall as No. V.

VII. A Priest, in cope, circa 1430, head lost. Six Latin verses beneath nearly illegible. Perhaps for Thomas Downe or Edmund Ryall. West wall of south-east transept.

VIII. A Priest, in cope, 1434 (?) Much oxidised. Perhaps for John Stanwey. West wall of south-east transept.

IX. Richard Delamare, Esquire, 1435, and his wife Isabella, under a fine canopy. Vestibule of Ladye Chapel.

X. Inscription to Robert Jordan, Canon 1465, now fixed against west wall of retrochoir.

Plate XX

JOHN TRILLECK, 48TH BISHOP OF HEREFORD, A.D. 1360.

Plate XXI

PLATE XXI.

Saint Ethelbert, King and Martyr.

THE curious and interesting plate, of which an impression is here given, was taken from that portion of Bishop Cantilupe's shrine which was inlaid with brass-work circa 1290 to 1300. It was removed from the dexter side of the canopy by a chorister, A.D. 1819, who carefully preserved and restored it in 1865. King Ethelbert was generally represented with a sword and church in his hands. St. Denis and St. Alban were sometimes represented with heads cut off, mitred, but not crowned. This is the only known instance of King Ethelbert's martyrdom being thus represented. No other portions of the Cantilupe brasses remain; but so lately as 1846 a beautiful fleur-de-lis of brass was stolen from this shrine.

It is at present kept in a glass case in that part of the Cathedral now used as the Vestry.

May 2nd, 1868.

Description of Plates. 179

XI. Inscription to John Stanbury, Bishop 1474. Near his tomb in north choir aisle.

XII. Portions of Archdeacon Rudhale's brass, 1476. West wall of south-east transept.

XIII. A Priest, in cope, probably for Dean Chawndeler. Also part of inscription. South wall of south-east transept.

XIV. Sir Richard Delabere, 1514, with two wives, eleven sons, and ten daughters. Floor of south-east transept.

XV. Part of border-fillet to Archdeacon Webb, 1522. West wall of south-east transept.

XVI. Part of canopy and matrix of brass to Archdeacon Martyn (?) 1523. Floor of south-east transept.

XVII. Edmund Frowcetoure, Dean 1529, in cope and cap, under a triple canopy, inscription, etc. South choir aisle.

XVIII. Inscription to Richard Phelips, mayor, and Anne his wife, circa 1532. South aisle of nave.

XIX. Several fragments, including a bracket, shaft of a canopy, and two pieces of marginal inscription, fixed against the walls of the south-east transept.

XX. Inscription to William Plott, 1628. Wall of south-east transept.

XXI. XXII. and XXIII. Inscriptions to Catherine, Elizabeth, and Joyce, wives of Bridstock Harford, M.D., 1665, 1669, and 1680. South aisle of choir.

XXIV. Inscription to Canon Charles Morgan, 1789. Restored 1868, and fixed on the wall beneath Nos. V. and X.

XXV. Inscription to Mary Squire, 1802.

XXVI. Two plates - one mural, the other in the pavement - to Mr. James Hunt and nephew, ob. 1842. Erected through the exertions of Archdeacon Freer in 1858.

XXVII. Large slab with inscriptions and brass work, by Hardman, to Terry family, 1780 to 1852. Laid down circa 1861.

XXVIII. Small square plate in pavement, by Skidmore, to replace lost stone to John Philips, ob. 1708. Laid down by subscription 1861.

XXIX. Brass plate, with inscription to Joseph Bailey, Esq., M.P., on pillar behind reredos, to replace granite pedestal and marble bust removed to the Shirehall; ob. 1850. Erected 1861.

XXX. Brass plate to record the erection of stained-glass windows to memory of Archbishop Musgrave, 1862.

XXXI. Marble slab, with inscription by Hardman, to memory of Dean Merewether, ob. 1850. Laid down 1863.

XXXII. Large polished mural plates, by Hardman, with inscription to Archdeacon Freer, ob. 1863. Erected 1864.

XXXIII. Polished mural plate, by Moring, to replace lost stone inscriptions to Elizabeth Bissell, 1738, and Elizabeth Farington, 1747. Erected January 1867.

180 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

XXXIV. Inscription, etc., in four pieces, by Gawthorp, to replace ancient brass-work attached to Bishop Mayo's tomb; ob. 1516. Refixed November 1867.

XXXV. Polished mural plate, by Wailes, beneath window, to memory of Captain Arkwright, ob. 1866. Erected December 1867.

XXXVI. Small brass plate on south side of choir to mark the spot where Bishop Edward Grey was buried, 1837; also his son, the last person buried inside the Cathedral.

XXXVII. Brass plate on west wall of south transept, over vault wherein Rev. J. Adam Walker was buried, 1839. Plate by Gawthorp, 1868. Erected by his daughter.

XXXVIII. Brass plate in south-east transept, to record the removal of Bishop Ironside from London to this Cathedral, 5867.

BRASSES NOW LOST.

Sir Herbert Perrott, who died in 1683, desired his executors to engrave and erect a brass plate near Bishop Westphaling's monument to his grandfather Richard Perrott of Moreton on Lugg. Whether this plate was ever put up cannot be ascertained; but Herbert Perrott's will contains the inscription which he desired to be placed in the Cathedral.

In 1859 rubbings of two brass plates were found, with inscriptions to Bishop Bisse, 1718 (size 13 x 11 inches), and the Countess Dowager of Plymouth, 1718 (12 x 8 inches). Both plates lost. Mr. J. Gough Nicholls has in his possession certain fragments of brasses from this Cathedral.

1. Archdeacon Rudhall, 1476.
2. John Stockton, Mayor 1480.
3. Richard Burghehyll, 1492.
4. William Porter, Canon 1524.
5. William Hotale, Esq., 1432.

Mr. Nicholls has kindly offered to restore them to this church.

Brasses in this county were not important or numerous. They are still remaining in the following churches:- Brampton Abbots, Burghill, Clehonger, Colwall, Ledbury (four brasses), Ludford, Marden.

Matrices of lost brasses remain at Bromyard, Canon Pion, Dilwyn, Holm Lacey, and Westhide.

Plate XXII

Chained Books in the Library,- Hereford Cathedral.

Description of Plates. 181

PLATE XXII.

THE CATHEDRAL LIBRARY.

PHOTOGRAPH BY LADMORE OF HEREFORD.

THE Archive Chamber, on the east side of the north transept, is also used as the Library. It is approached by a winding stone staircase. When the transept was first built, access was obtained to this chamber (40 x 19 feet) either by a drawbridge, or some other moveable appliance, crossing the great north window. The chamber has three large circular restored windows, but no other part has been restored internally. The floor and roof are in a primitive and unsatisfactory state. Our photograph has been taken from the extreme north-east corner. There are one single and five double book-cases. The books are to a certain extent classified, and arranged in divisions, with a letter of the alphabet attached to each division. Divisions O and P consist entirely of MSS., filling both sides of the book-case seen in the photograph. All the MSS., and most of the oldest books, retain their original chains. Every chain is from 3 to 4 feet long, with a ring at each end, and a swivel in the middle. The rings are strung on iron-rods, which are secured at one end of the book-case by metal-work with lock and key. Since the photograph was taken (March 1867) another book-case has been erected, and the original oak desks refixed to the case containing the MSS. On the right is seen a cast of one of the bosses in the crypt, introduced to relieve the dark corner of the photograph. Adjoining the cast is a portion of a large oak chest with three locks, doubtless of the Decorated period, but the whole of the rich pattern has been recarved, to the great detriment of its value and interest. There are two other plain coped chests. Behind and above the chest are eighty capacious oak cupboards, which contain the whole of the deeds and documents belonging to the Dean and Chapter, of every possible size and description, the accumulation of eight centuries. This chamber derives abundant light and air from the large circular windows, which were restored with remarkable skill, under Mr. G. G. Scott's personal direction.

The Library in Mediæval Times.- In our early churches and monasteries books were kept in chests in well-secured chambers. But as bishops and other ecclesiastics from time to time bequeathed books to their church, it generally became necessary, about the fourteenth century, to provide a special place for their reception. It is said that our last Saxon Bishop, Ethelstan, bequeathed the ancient copy of the Gospels, and that Bishop Robert Folliott, A.D. 1186, gave "multa bona in terris et libris". Bishop Hugh Folliott left "several ornaments and books". Bishop R. de Maydenstan left "duo antiphonaria cum Psalteriis et unam Legendam". Bishop Lewis Charleton left several books:- "A Bible, Concordance, Glossary, Lira, and five Books of Moses, which he appointed to be chained in his Cathedral". Bishop Booth and Dean Frowcester left many fine volumes,

182 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

circa 1516-35. Bishop Scorie in 1559 left all his books, chiefly works of "The Fathers" (folios in division H).

Our mediæval Library was on the west side of the cloisters, and appears to have been abandoned in the sixteenth century. Walter de Rammesbury, in 1394, gave the sum of 10 "for making the desks in the Library". Doubtless our Cathedral Library, as it gradually increased (though never attaining any great size or importance), must have been a curious and beautiful collection of early literature. It seems to have fared much better in the sixteenth century than other libraries, which were visited by divers Commissioners in true John Knox style. [1] In the year 1589 the Library was removed to the Ladye Chapel, where it remained carefully kept under lock and key until 1842, when it was removed to some large vacant chambers in the north-west corner of the College. In 1856 the books were removed to their present resting-place - the archive-room - there being no other chamber suitable for their reception.

We must now return to the beginning of the seventeenth century, when the Library seems to have been recognised by the whole Cathedral staff as an important part of its constitution. Statutes and regulations were drawn up; new oak book-cases erected; the books re-arranged and classified; purchases made of others; and frequent gifts flowed into it.

Precentor Thorneton - whose monument is in Ledbury chancel - was the chief benefactor and promoter of these works. He also provided a large "Donors' Book", a most substantial and useful volume, from which the following list of benefactors and other particulars are taken:-

Munificentissimis atque optimis cujusvis ordinis, dignitatis, sexus, Qui Bibliothecam hanc libris, aut pecuniis numeratis ad Libros emendos, aliove quovis genere vel ampliarunt, vel amplificaturi sunt; Edwardus Doughtie, Decanus; Thomas Thometon, Milo Smith, Egidius Tomson, Thomas Singleton, Rogerus Bradshaw, et Franciscus Kerrie, Sacræ Theologiæ Professores, et Canonici Residentiarii Honorarium hoc volumen, in quod hujuscemodi donationes, simulque nomina Donantium ordine alphabetico singulatim referuntur, pietatis memoriæ, virtutisque causa dederunt et dedicarunt, Maii 10, Ano. Dni. 1611.

Thomas Apperley, M.D., 1720.
Adam de Elmeley.
George Allen, Minor Canon and Succentor.
Theophilus Alye, Generosi, 1686.


[1] "All MSS. ornamented with illustrations or rubricated initials were destroyed as Popish, and the rest exposed to indiscriminate injury and theft. ... We hear of MSS. burned or sold to tailors for measures, and to bookbinders for covers and the like, until not one remained in situ. An entry in the University Registers completes the record of the catastrophe. On January 25, 1555-6, the Vice-Chancellor, Proctors, with two Masters of Arts, were elected a delegacy 'ad vendenda subsellia librorum in publica Academia; bibliotheca, ipsius Universitatis nomine'. The very shelves and stalls of Duke Humphrey's treasure were, in the name of that seat of learning, condemned for firewood".- Extract from Saturday Review, July 25, 1868.

Description of Plates. 183

Edward Baskerville, Chancellor.
Thomas Bach, M.A., Canon.
Richard Bassett, LL.B., Canon.
Richard Becket, M.A., Vicar-Choral.
Robert Benett, Bishop of Hereford.
Thomas Bisse, Chancellor, 1721.
John Blakeway, M.A.
John Boson, Canon.
Charles Booth, Bishop.
Stephen Boughton, M.A., Custos.
Beriah Botfield, Esq., M.A. and M.P.
Richard Broughton, Rector of Aylton, 1629.
Hon. James Bruges, Comes de Caernarvon, 1716.
Roger Caple.
Edward Corbett, M.A., Domestic Chaplain at Hampton Court, Herefordshire.
Peter Daunser, "de Morton magna, Generosi".
Garnonsus Daunser, M.A., "de Morton prope Lugg".
Richard Dawes, M.A., Dean of this Cathedral.
Richard Dugard, S.T.B., Sid. Sus. Coll. Cambridge.
William Evans, D.D., Prebendary.
Harriett Lane Freer, 1866.
Edmund Frouceter, S.T.P., Dean.
Henry Garnance, M.A., Vicar of All Saints.
Patrick Gordon, S.T.B., Prebendary, 1618.
Robert Gregorie, M.A., Vicar of Fownhope.
Thomas Harley, Rector of Brampton Brian.
Maria Harries, widow.
John Hill.
Thomas Hodges, S.T.P., Dean.
Francis T. Havergal, M.A., Vicar-Choral.
James Howells, M.A., Prebendary.
Owen Lloyde, Canon.
Hugh Lloyd, Vicar of Holmer.
Robert Morgan, S.T.P., Canon.
Adam Ottley, S.T.P., Canon.
John White Osgood, M.A., Vicar-Choral.
Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, Bart., M.D., Præcentor.
Daniel Philips, S.T.P., Canon.
Richard Pede, Dean.
Morgan Powell, S.T.B., Chancellor and Canon.

184 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

William Plot, Generosi.
John Price, "Eques auratus".
Sampson Price, D.D., Prebendary.
"Rad' Arch"., probably Ralph, Archdeacon of Hereford.
Walter Rogers, A.M., Prebendary.
William Saint Barb, S.T.B., Prebendary.
John, Viscount Scudamore, High Steward.
Thomas Singleton, S.T.P., Canon.
Richard Smallbroke, S.T.P., Canon and Librarian.
Miles Smith, Bishop of Gloucester and Canon of Hereford.
Richard Smith, Custos of the Canons' Bakehouse.
Richard Spachford.
John Tyler, S.T.P., Bishop of Llandaff and Dean of Hereford.
Robert Fetlow, M.A., Vicar of Dewiswall.
Ferdinand Tereva, S.T.B., Canon or Prebendary.
Thomas Thorneton, S.T.P., Canon.
Giles Tomson, Bishop of Gloucester.
Richard Lane, alias Tomson, Proctor.
David Walker, Canon.
Richard Walweine, of Great Marcle, Gentleman.
Herbert Westphaling, Bishop of Hereford.
William Watts, S.T.B., Præcentor.
Edward Wynne, LL.D., Chancellor of the Diocese.

By these benefactors 49 MS. volumes and about 377 printed works were added to our Library. There is little doubt that other persons have presented books, though their names have not been duly recorded by former librarians.

As money accumulated from installation or entrance-fees, books were purchased for the Library. Lists are given of the purchases in 1598, 1610, and 1618, amounting to 87 works. In 1672 there was another purchase of nine folio volumes. There is no further record in the Donors' Books of gifts or purchases, so that we have to refer to Chapter account-books for further information. From these it appears that several costly works were from time to time acquired. During the past fifty years very few books have been either purchased or presented. The concluding portion contains a classified list of the books according to their old arrangement. But of the manuscripts there is no old catalogue; but two pages printed at Oxford in 1697, inserted in the Donors' Book, give a list of 206 volumes as being then in this Library. At present there are about 236 manuscripts, not including several modern compilations, and about 900 different printed works; altogether perhaps 2000 volumes.

The Catalogue.- About the year 1780 one Michael Reynolds was paid 27 "for regulating and adjusting the Library". A new catalogue was then prepared, of which

Description of Plates. 185

two copies are still in use; a third copy is missing. They are written in a clear good hand. In 1782 a "Rev. Mr. Spencer was paid two guineas for transcribing the catalogue".

The Librarian is always a member of the Chapter, appointed annually, though the office is usually held by the same person for three years. The care of the Library appears, for some time past, to have been practically in the hands of the sextons or Chapter-clerk. Since 1854 it has been my privilege to hold the honorary office of sub-librarian. With most limited funds the Chapter have enabled me to repair or bind most of the old books that were in a deplorable state, though there are many still requiring attention. In all cases of rebinding, the utmost care has been taken to preserve every ancient feature, especially the tooled leather sides, the margins, clasps, etc. The books are entrusted only to skilful hands at Oxford and the British Museum. Frequent inquiries are made on literary subjects, and applications to view our Library are still more frequent.

CONTENTS OF THE LIBRARY.

Bibles.- In various languages, about twenty-four editions.
Bibles, Welsh, 1567-1690.
Bibles, English, 1611-25, 29, 35, 40, 60, and others later.
Breviaries.- 1556-89, 1626.
Chronicles.- Cooper, Fabian, Hollinshed, Hardyng.
Concilia.- Binii, Merlini, Chemnisii, Labbæi, Beveridge, Harduin, Wilkins.
Concordantiæ.- Eight editions from 1521 to 1718.
Classics.- Several authors; old editions only.
Dictionaries and Lexicons.- More than thirty editions.
Geographia.- Per Bochartum, Ptolomæi, Strabonis, De l'Isle.
Histories.- Various, upwards of forty works.
Musical Works.- Handel's works, Arnold's edition, 39 vols.;
Kircheri Musurgia universalis, 2 vols., 1650; Sir John Hawkins'
History of Music, 5 vols., 1776; a few old organ books;
Barnard's Church Music, 1641, 10 volumes. [1]
Patres, and other copious Writers.- A large collection of the
works of St. Augustine, Ambrose, Bellamine, Bernard, Calvin,
Chrysostom, Cyril, Erasmus, Eusebius, Fabricius, Gregorii
(John Magni, et Papa IX.), Jerom, Ignatius, Luther, Strype,
Suarez, Tostatus, etc. etc.

NOTES ON SOME OF THE MANUSCRIPTS AND EARLY PRINTED BOOKS, WITH DATES, LIBRARY-MARKS, ETC.

The whole of the A division consists of Bibles in various languages, and works on Biblical criticism:-


[1] Only two or three perfect copies of this valuable work are known to remain. Eight volumes belong to the Custos and Vicars, and are placed in this Library by general consent. Two volumes have been added by Mr. John Bishop to make the work complete. Full information will be found inserted in these books.

186 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

A vi., 4. Latin Bible, 5 vols. folio, 1485, by Nicholas de Lyra.- The printing of this work must have been a tremendous undertaking, each volume having 700 closely-printed black-letter pages. The covers are of oak, with richly-stamped leather; five brass studs on each side have materially tended to their preservation. On the last cover of each volume is a small strip of parchment covered with horn, bearing the donor's inscription:-

"Ex dono M' Edmundi Frowcet' sacre theologie professoris, ac istius ecclie' quond' decani. Cujus animæ p picietur deus".

There was an old saying with reference to this book:- "Si Lyra non lyrasset, Luther non saltasset".

E ii. 10. Zabarda super Clementinis.- A fine folio volume, much in the same state as when possessed by Bishop Boothe, who bequeathed it to the Library. Red and blue capitals, fine clean margin. Oak boards, with curious stamps, clasps, and chain. Fragments in a perfect state of an early service-book, are pasted on the two covers - size 16 x 11 inches. Writing bold and clear, capitals all vermilion. An ink drawing of the Crucifixion of our Blessed Lord occupies half of the page at the end of the volume, full of mediaval character and deep feeling. Figures of two holy women stand on either side. I cannot help regarding this as one of the most noteworthy fragments in the Library.

H iii. 2. One of St. Chrysostom's Works, more especially remarkable for its well-stamped binding. It is a small quarto, date 1523. The arms of Philip and Mary occur on each cover:

1. Two portcullises and chains at the base, shield supported by greyhound and griffin, surmounted by a large crown. Above is a large rose, with an angel in each corner with long scrolls.

2. Two angels erect supporting a large shield, with numerous quarterings, all clearly defined. A crown and flowers adorn the upper part. Size of these beautiful impressions 5 x 3 inches.

K v. 6. The Golden Legend, printed by Caxton.- Entirely the first edition of 1483. Size 13 x 9. No perfect copy of this once popular work has yet been discovered. Only about thirty-six copies are known. This volume is in a fine clean state, fifteen leaves only are missing. The original binding, metal-work, and chain, are in a good state. The letters H R, roses, portcullises, and other patterns, are stamped on the sides. On the outside may be still read, "To Mr. Phillips of New Colledge, Chapleyne". All the capitals are inserted in red paint. The woodcuts of saints are very quaint. The life of St. Thomas of Canterbury is entirely gone, for "this has been a special object of destruction, being, in nearly every instance, torn out of the volume". To Mr. W. Blades, the learned author of a most valuable work, The Life and Typography of William Caxton, 2 vols. 4to, 1861, I am indebted for much information and literary assistance.

L i. 10. Polycronycon, by Ralph Higden, with additions by Caxton, 1495.- I am informed by Mr. W. Blades that "this is a very rare edition, printed by John Treveris of Southwark, whose mark is at the foot of the title-page". There is a fine woodcut on

Description of Plates. 187

the title-page of St. George and the Dragon, also other curious woodcuts and capitals. This copy is in a good clean state, and appears to be perfect, with the exception of the concluding colophon.

L iv. 8. Historia Oloi Magni Gothi Archiepiscopi Upsalensis de gentibus septentrionalium.- Contains a map of northern Europe, and 490 curious woodcuts. Basilicæ, MDLXVII.

L v. 5. Theviti vitæ illustrium virorum, folio, two vols. in one. Date 1584. A fine work in French. Title lost. The gift of John Hill, Mayor of Hereford 1662. Contains 220 fine portraits of every period. Among them our Hereford Prebendary Polydore Vergil.

L viii. 5. Nonius Marcellus de proprietate sermonum, 1476.- A truly beautiful book, perfect, clean, and with a broad margin, printed at Venice by the unrivalled Nicolas Jenson. All the capitals are inserted by hand in red and blue. Original wood covers and chain. Two illuminations on the first page of the text, with the arms of some former possessor.

L ix. 8. The Nuremberg Chronicle, folio, size 12 x 18. Completed July 1493.- There are two copies in this Library, both imperfect, but, excepting five leaves, a perfect copy could be made up. This copy has a finer margin than the other - L ix. 10.

I cannot do better than quote some passages bearing on this curious volume from a Treatise on Wood-Engraving, by J. Jackson, 1839:- "Albert Durer is generally but erroneously supposed to have been the best wood-engraver of his day. He studied as a painter, and not as a wood-engraver. In the Nuremberg Chronicle he is represented as having superintended the execution of the woodcuts contained in that book. Those cuts, which are frequently referred to as excellent specimens of old wood- engraving, are in fact the most tasteless and worthless things that are to be found in any book, ancient or modern. This book serves as a landmark to superficial inquirers, who are perpetually referring to it as containing woodcuts designed, if not engraved, by Durer's master; and such, they conclude, must necessarily possess a very high degree of excellence. It may perhaps be necessary to say that the literary portion of this work is pronounced by Thomas Hearne, of black-letter memory, to be extremely 'pleasant, useful, and curious'. With the woodcuts the Rev. Dr. Dibdin appears to have been equally charmed. The work called the Nuremberg Chronicle was compiled by Hartman Schedel, a physician of Nuremberg, and printed in that city by Anthony Koburger in 1493. In the colophon it is stated that the views of cities and figures of eminent characters were executed under the superintendence of Michael Wolgemuth and William Pleydenwurff, 'mathematical men', and skilled in the art of painting. The total number of impressions in this work exceeds two thousand, but several of the cuts are repeated eight or ten times"; for instance, to quote again from Jackson, a "head, which the owner appears to be scratching with so much earnestness, first occurs as that of Paris, the Lover of Helen, and it is afterwards repeated as Thales, Anastasius, Odofredus, and the poet Dante. In a like manner the economical printer has a stock-head for kings and emperors, another for popes, a third for bishops, a fourth for saints, and so on. Several cuts representing

188 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

what might be supposed to be particular events, are in the same manner pressed into the general service of the chronicler". In spite of Mr. Jackson's depreciatory remarks, I venture to say more than one evening may be spent very pleasantly over the pages of the Nuremberg Chronicle.

M i. 1. Petrus Lombardus Magister sententiarum, Venice, 1489.- A fine clean volume. Black letter. Boards, chain, and well-tooled sides.

M ix. 8. Opera Richardi de Media Villa, small 4to, 1512.- Black letter. The title-page is most quaint, consisting of small rude blocks of saints, bishops, etc. A fine fleur-de-lis, and letterpress curiously arranged, make up this most interesting page.

N 1. 5. Leonardi Arctini in libros morales Aristotelis, A.D. 1475.- One of our earliest printed works; in fine condition, with broad clean margin. Bound up with another de Officio Missæ.

N vii. 12. Destructorium viciorum.- A fine and clean black- letter volume. No date. Contains a fine woodcut on the title- page, and numerous good capitals. On the first fly-leaf there is a fine fragment of Richard Pynsons. The stamped leather binding is one of our best specimens.

M vi. 1. Liber de proprietatibus rerum Bartholomei Anglici. Impresses Argentine, A.D. 1485, finitus in die sancti Valentini.- A fine perfect copy, slightly injured by damp. There is another edition (without date or place) in the College Library, printed by Wynken de Worde, doubtless at Westminster, in Caxton's house, shortly before his death. This work was the Encyclopedia of many ages, and was frequently reprinted. When perfect it is one of the handsomest books printed by W. de Worde. It was the first book printed on English-made paper.

On a fly-leaf at the end occurs the following:-

Decem præcepta Decalogi.
1, 2. Unum crede Deum - nec jures vana per ipsum -
3, 4. Sabata sanctifices - habeas in honore parentes -
5, 6, 7, 8. Non sis occisor - fur - mæchus - testis iniquus -
9, 10. Alterius nuptam - nec non cupias alienam -

O i. viii. Latin Gospels, thirteenth century.- A small but remarkably fine volume. The initials are very beautiful. At the end of the second Gospel there is a curious symbolical representation of St. Mark seated, and engaged in writing. The smaller coloured letters are not less than 1000 in number. The style of art is similar to that known as the Malmesbury school.

O i. xiii. Gulielmi de sancto amore.- A small volume, with two illuminated pages. On the title-page is written, "H. Latimer, burned in Q. Maries dayes". Also, "Liber eccli'æ cathedralis Heref. ex dono Roberti Gregorie in Artibus Mri. et vicarii de Fownehope".

O ii. 3. Hugonis Cardinalis Comment. in Apocalypsin.- A fine English-written MS. in first half of fifteenth century. The binding has been renewed at the British Museum, 1868, with great judgment and skill. The title is finely illuminated. Inside the upper

Description of Plates. 189

cover is this entry: "Anno domini 1546, 28 die Januarii obiit Henricus Octavus et fuit sepultus 16 die mensis Februarii anno prædicto apud Wyndesorem cum magna pompa. Eodem anno Edwardus sextus suus filius ac hæres regni Anglia fuit coronatus 20 die mensis Februarii cum magna exaltatione Anglorum, viz. cleri et populi".

Pretium xvis viiid. There is also a memorandum on the first fly- leaf, dated 1400 A.D.

O iii. 6.- Late twelfth century, circa 1170.- Lining of upper cover is a portion of a service-book, tenth century. Begins:- "Via salutis incedat et beati Johannis precursoris hortamenta sectando ad eum quem pra dixit secura perveniat".

At the foot:- "Venerabilibus patribus et amicis nostris canonicis de L'edes Adam in omnibus". ? If the commencement of a charter (thirteenth century).

Fly-leaf, and the leaf fastened to the cover at the end, are fragments of a service book, end of twelfth or beginning of thirteenth century, apparently a portion of the offices for the dead.

Between two columns is written (thirteenth century):- "Iste liber conceditur fratribus minoribus Herford' pro anima domini Stephani le Banastre". "Allegorica Expositio Ysidori Episcopi, super Pentateucho, Josue, Judicum, Ruth, Regum et Esdra".

First page:- "Incipit prmfatio Ysidori Episcopi super quinque libros Moysi".

O iii. 14. Concordantiæ Bibliæ.- This volume, very closely written, with six columns in a page, may have belonged to Bishop Lewis de Charleton. Autograph cut off fly-leaf.

O iv. 2. Constitutiones Clementine.- A beautiful folio, rebound 1855 in calf, original oak boards. It contains a large number of illuminated capitals, with foliated ends, fourteenth-century character. Gold very bright and fresh. Purple much used for fine line-work. Eighty-eight leaves.

O iv. 11. Translatio Psalterii.- Rather late English MS. illuminated title. Near the end of the volume there are curious illustrations of musical instruments.

O iv. 14. Legenda Sanctorum. Vita Thomæ Becket.- A fine well- preserved MS., probably written in the south of France, about the year 1300. The text is in double column. The art poor Italian. The title is curious, and there are a few specimens of gilding. On the fly-leaves there are numerous scribblings in Latin and English, chiefly fifteenth century, of which the following are specimens:-

"Quatuor precones ante diem Judicii.
Thenke that ded is the before
And for thy sinne thou myht boe lore
Thyn juggement wol boen fol strong
And thyn peyne wol boen fol long.

Prima dies celum format, creat altera lucem
Prebet aquam pelago, tertia gramen humo
Sub quanta lumen, sub quinta pisces avesque
Sub sexta fit Adam, septima complet opus.

190 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Jhesus that he bred brac, To hys diciplys there he sat,
In hys holy sene, Blesse now owre mete,
And alle that therof ete, and schylde us from
sorwe and tene". [1]

The wooden covers of this book were utterly destroyed and reduced to dust by worms or insects. New covers have been supplied (1868) at the British Museum; every fragment of ancient writing has been most carefully respected and replaced.

O v. 5. A splendid example of a thirteenth-century MS., written in France-upon soft silky vellum, in a clear Gothic character - broad margins, numerous graceful initials in gold, and colours of the best art of that period. Original binding, etc., in a good state.

O v. 11. A beautiful MS., in splendid preservation, written upon stout rough vellum by a French hand, about the middle of the twelfth century. The charmingly-executed letter M at the commencement has been adapted to the title-page of this work. Other initials, simpler in form, occur throughout the volume. The title of contents has been written along the back, but the ink has faded, leaving the outline of the words alone visible.

O vi. 3. A beautiful MS., in an excellent state of preservation, written in England towards the close of the twelfth century. The text is in double columns, the character large and clear. On the lower cover of the MS. is written:-

Liber Ecclesiæ Herefordensis Ierarchia et speculum Ecclesiæ, pretium xs, valet x iijs. iiijd. (13s. 4d.)

The colours of the initial letters are extraordinarily brilliant and well preserved. The binding is a fine specimen of early fifteenth-century work. It has been cleaned at the British Museum (1868), and enclosed in a case, for the better preservation of the binding.

O vi. 12. Psalterium glossatum. Late twelfth century. Contains a splendid initial letter B, entirely in gold and cobalt. Other capitals, though smaller, are full of interesting details. [2]

O vii. 1. Wycliff's Bible.- The following description of the Hereford copy is given in Sir F. Madden's preface to his valuable reprint of this version; Oxford, 1850. "Vellum, large folio, two columns, written about 1420; in parts much mutilated, torn, and soiled. Probably presented by Dr. Robert Bennet, Bishop of Hereford from 1602 to 1617, whose name occurs in a note partly destroyed on the first leaf of the volume. The books of the Old and New Testament, in the more recent translation, with prologues to Genesis, Joshua, 1 Kings, 1 Paral., Isaiah, Baruch, and the books of the New


[1] "Sorwe", i.e. sorowe - dolor, meror, tristitia. "Tene", in old English, means anger, pain, trouble, or fatigue - angustia, tribulacio.- See Mr. Albert Way's Promptorium Parvulorum.

[2] The initial of Psalm 109, "Dixit Dominus", is a bold and ingenious composition. At the end of the volume is an entry (apparently by the same scribe) of a compact between Bishop Robert Foliot and Hugh de Lad, with the date MCLXXVIJ. 111 Non Junii.

Description of Plates. 191

Testament. It commences with a table to find the lessons, etc. Immediately after the 150th Psalm follows a brief explanation of the first six Canticles of the church. Then follow the names of the books of the Old Testament thus far, with the number of chapters in each. In the early books it has numerous marginal glosses. The textual glosses are everywhere carefully scored with red. A hand, about 1500, has made numerous small notes, both in Latin and English, sometimes merely to draw attention to particular passages, at other times to explain the translation. An example of this last kind is Ecclus. xl. 14, An unjust man shall be glad. Over against these words, in the side margin, is written- 'sicut justus, etc. These twey wordis, sicut justus, is not in sum Latyn book, and therefore me thinketh the Englis shude not be drawen with reed". The eight principal lacuna are then specified.

P ii. 10. Fairly written, probably in Germany, late in the twelfth century; in fair preservation. The writing on the covers is in similar characters to the celebrated Durham Book at the British Museum, but by no means so fine. Several Anglo-Saxon letters are introduced.

On reverse of last folio, at top:- "Hystoria Ysidori pro iij s" (3s.) (Either purchased or pledged for that sum.)

On lower cover:- (Allegorica ?) "Exposicio Ysodori Episcopi super Penthateucum [Josue] Judicum, Ruth, Regum et Esdra. A. 1538. JOHN BARNES".

This is a well-written MS., and well preserved. Probably written in Germany, circa 1170. Initials not fine. The fly-leaves belonged to a fine MS., as likewise the leaf pasted inside the cover. Original binding.

Leaves pasted down on covers at each end, beginning of eighth or ninth century. Begins:- "Dominus autem descendisset de monte secutæ sunt eum turbæ multæ".(Matth. viii. vers. 1-4.)

A sermon or homily upon this text follows thus:- "Ecce iste leprosus que de voluntate interrogavit de virtute non dubitavit, et dominus dicit volo mundare quod pro imperativo legendum est, cui velle facere", etc. etc. Reversing the volume, the fragment ends thus:- "ut vitia fugiant et virtutes veniant, sanatus est puer quod qui conversus fuerit et ingemuerit salvus erit".

Inside first fly-leaf are some lines in pencil, nearly obliterated. They are copied below by a later hand:-

"Bisextum sexte Martis tenuere Kalende
Posteriore die celebratur festa Mathie.
Post Martis nonas ubi sic nova luna requiras
Inde dies domini tertia Pascha tenes".

Notes upon Scripture, nearly illegible, occur upon the next page.

Text begins:- "Parabole Salomonis secundum Hebraicam Veritatem Translate ab Eusebio Jeronimo presbitero petente Cromatio et Heliodoro Episcopis". Gloss contemporary with text. Notes (theological) upon last fly-leaf, of no moment.

192 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

P iii. 4. Officia ecclesiæ.- This curious and well-worn volume appears to have been written circa A.D. 1400. It evidently belonged to some Welsh church, perhaps Kilpec. There are numerous MS. notes in English, Welsh, and Latin, too copious for present insertion. Near the middle of the volume is a curious charm for the toothache (the fourth word in the first line cannot be clearly deciphered), as follows:-

"Maria sedebat super ... Ihesus venit
Ad eam et valde tristis mater mea quare hic
Sedes, illa tamen die fili me dentes mei
dolent quod non possum dormire nec vigilare
Dicit ei Ihesus surge et vade et amplius non nocet
Te nec alicui homini qui ista verba super se portaverit.
+O+E+C+G+R+
A+W+A+T+C+N+"

The old English form of betrothal in the marriage-service is full of interest. The following form accompanied the giving of the ring (rubric within brackets):-

"Wyth this gold ryng y ye wedde . gold a' siluer ich ye zene . a' with my bodi ich ye worschep . a' with al my wordelych catel I ye hounoure (Ad primum digitum) In noie patris . (ad secundum digitum) et filii (ad trinum digitum) et spt' sancti (ad quartum digitum) Amen".

This form does not agree with either of the Salisbury, York, or Hereford uses. It may be a copy of the Bangor use. It is bound in oak boards and plain leather, and contains 116 leaves. Size 9 x 6 inches.

P iv. 3. A fine clean MS., with three columns on each page, containing a few illuminated capitals, with colours bright and fresh.

P iv. 13. Prophetæ minores glossatæ.- A well-preserved volume. Early thirteenth century. The initials are most brilliant - the crimson colour being remarkably fresh and clear. Oak boards and sheepskin cover, clasps, etc.

P v. i.- Early twelfth century.- At top of first page of text, Walterus Herbert (sixteenth century). Contents by a later hand:-

1. Divini cultus consuetudines monachales, &c., per Lanfranc. 2. Augusti c[ontra] Felicianum. 3. Hist. Angliæ ecclesiastica Bedæ.

The commencement of the Introduction to Bede's History is cut away.

At the end of the volume, after the epilogue, and upon the last page:- "Quot annis archiepiscopi Cantuarienses presiderunt cathedre pontificali ab Augustino qui primus fuit usque ad presens tempus".

On fly-leaf (sixteenth century):-

Whegrwr pater uxoris meæ
Wheger mater uxoris meæ
Daw maritus filiæ meæ
Gweydd uxor filii mei.

Description of Plates. 193

Huic Gildæ sapientis libellum inscriptum sit. Incipiunt Gesta Britonum a' Gilda sapiente composita. Excepi ego Joannes Prise et misi Londinum ad Willelmum Sac famulum meum ut ipse cum libellum conferret et examinaret cum libello ejusdem Inscriptionis quem videram in Camera domini Mautravers in aula dom. Regis apud Westmonasterium, anno dom. 1550.

Reverse of fly-leaf.- "Helpe hand I have no land, quoth John Weynsland to his suster when she laye in the stockes at Hamptone".

Last fly-leaf.- Fragment of a copy of the four Gospels, written in the fourteenth century; fine character. Begins:- "Abraham. Fili recordare quia recepisti bona in vita tua, et Lazarus similiter mala". Ends:- "Quia crucior in hac flamma. Et dixit illi".

This is a well-preserved MS., written upon stout vellum, in a German hand of the early twelfth century. Brown ink. Initial letters poor. Original binding. Fly-leaf at the end has formed part of a fine MS.

P v. 4. A very clean volume, written in a bold hand, with two uniform columns on each page. There are a few fine initials, rather stiff and erect.

P v. 10. Several works bound together in one volume, chiefly thirteenth-century work. Initials all in red and blue. The rubricated work is executed with marvellous delicacy and minuteness.

P v. 15. A beautiful MS. excellently written (probably in England) in the early part of thirteenth century. At the head of each chapter is a large and beautiful illuminated letter, resplendent with burnished gold, and of most delicate execution. Numerous small initials throughout this volume, with peculiarly long scroll-work, embellish the text, which is written in a fine bold hand in double columns. This is the only specimen of its kind in our library.

Within the upper cover is written:- "Iste liber constat ecclesia Herford. Reparatus per Ricardum Pede decanum ex gratia et pro usu".

The large initial letter I, which is beautifully illuminated, is made to extend the whole length of the column. It contains the seven days of the Creation, exemplified within circles. There is another very fine letter M in the middle of the volume.

P vi. 4. Latin Bible.- A fine and well-preserved MS. beautifully written (in England) in a minute character, and in double columns of fifty-seven lines each column. Broad margins, but ruthlessly clipped at the top. Date second half of thirteenth century. The fly-leaves at the beginning and ending have been cut from a fine English service-book of early fifteenth century. Well-executed initials of the usual English character. On the first page is the autograph of "Stephen Boughton". A great number of beautiful illuminated initials in blue and vermilion, with the usual filigree ornament, embellish the text. Binding sixteenth century.

P vi. 11. The whole of this large MS. is written in a bold clear style. The chief initial is very fine both as to design and delicacy of colouring. There are other bold initials in plainer work. The marker, unquestionably the original one, is a simple but ingenious contrivance; and, so far as my observation extends, quite unique.

194 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

P ix. 2. Decreta Gratiani.- This is one of the largest and finest volumes in the library. It consists of 396 closely- written leaves. Numerous initials are executed with great skill; there are also several pages entirely covered with very rich colouring. The gilding throughout is very bright. The first leaf has become much soiled by the careless and ignorant application of the hundreds of fingers and thumbs of visitors to our library in bygone times. This celebrated work, the Decretum Gratiani, or the Concordia discordantium canonum, made its appearance in the twelfth century. The work is said to abound with errors, some of which still exist in the edition published by authority at the Council of Trent. Our Hereford copy is bound with plain leather, oak boards, etc. The usual donor's inscription, on a slip of parchment covered by a piece of horn, is attached by nails to the boards. It was the gift of Wilkin Loid or Floid. For a description of the contents of this work, see Du Pin's Ecclesiastical History, vol. x. 174, 1698 edition.

Illuminations will be found in many of the earliest printed works. Good specimens occur in E vi. 1 to 10, date 1487, folio; E ii. 8, which also contains a very fine printer's colophon at the end, B T in a circle surmounted by a double cross on a red ground; L viii. 6. An early edition of Terence; also in numerous other instances.

There are 110 large folios, consisting of Foedera, Proceedings in Chancery, Reports, Parliamentary Writs, Rotuli, Statutes at large, etc.

Miscellaneous Notes.- Several books are gone from this Library, such as Duncumb's History of Herefordshire, The Messiah, and Beriah Botfield's work on The Cathedral Libraries of England. It has been my great pleasure to have recovered upwards of twenty volumes. The Dean and Chapter appear to have subscribed the large sum of seventy-two guineas in twelve instalments for Dr. Holmes' Collections. No such work can be now found in the Library or the catalogue. All my inquiries have failed as to the nature of this work.

The Hereford Times, September 22, 1849, contains a communication respecting this Library.

The old Act Books state that three shillings was the usual fee for the use of the Library-key. A resolution is also recorded that "none are to have the key save the members and officers, without the Chapter consent, and that consent not to be given but to one who gives 10s. value to the Library".

Plate XXIII

Description of Plates. 195

PLATE XXIII.

I. Specimens of letters and ornaments on the Cathedral bells.

II. Ancient chalices and paten.

III. Early carved woodwork.

IV. Effigy of St. John the Baptist.

Church bells have been used in this country since the time of the Anglo-Saxons. The peal of bells is a comparatively modern invention. The more important churches had generally a small number of large bells. Before the sixteenth century there were very few peals of six bells, but in later times the number of bells was largely increased and their weight reduced. Nothing is known of the earliest bells placed in the central tower of our Cathedral, which tower was completed during the former part of the fourteenth century. The inscriptions prove the existence of at least three large bells. When Dingley visited Hereford (circa 1680), there were six bells, with the following inscriptions. He gives the following inscriptions in his History from Marble, CLXIV.

The treble to the sixth hath:-

1. + Sum rosa pulsata mundi Katherina vocata.

Another hath:-

2. Laudate DEO in simbalis sonoris. MDCXXII. I.P. God send me to sing Guliers Stephan' me fecit.

3. St. John's bell, cast at Leominster town in this county, is circumscribed:- Soli DEO immortali sit gloria.

4. Another:- Gloria DEO IN EXCELSIS.

5. The fifth bell, otherwise called St. Richard's bell, hath:-

WILHELMUS WARWIKA CONSTRUXIT ME IN SANCTE TRINITATIS HONOREM. +

6. The sixth bell hath:-

+ SANCTE CVTHBERTE ORA PRO NOBIS.

In the year 1697 the peal was increased to ten bells, and two of the larger bells were recast. In consequence of the dangerous state of the tower, the peal and chimes were no longer heard after the year 1839. The clappers only were used on a few special occasions, until the whole peal was restored by public subscription in 1865-66. The fifth bell had been cracked many years ago, and attempts were made to prolong its usefulness by

196 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

boring holes and inserting cramps. But in August 1863 a muffled peal was sounded - the bells being quite out of ringing order - on the evening of the burial of the Archdeacon Lane Freer, when this bell became hopelessly injured. In the recasting, all the ancient letters, stops, devices, and mouldings were reproduced with great care, and in such admirable tune that perfect harmony with the rest of the peal was secured.

At the present time the bells bear the following inscriptions:-

I. We were made Ten in the year 1697.

II. God prosper this Church, and all the members. 1698.

III. T. Wootton-T. Rogers-W. Watts-A. Oatley-R. Bulkeley, Canons. 1698.

IV. God prosper the Church of England. A.R. 1697.

V. Sum rosa pulsata mundi Katerina vocata.

This bell recast by Mears and Stainbank, London, and the peal rehung by White and Sons, by subscription, A.D. 1865.

VI. Stephanus Banastre me fecit.

VII. Let us ring prosperity to the Church of England. A.R. 1697.

VIII. Johannes Tyler, Decanus Herefordiensis. A.R. 1697.

IX. Gulielmus Warwike construxit me in sanctæ Trinitatis honorem.

X. Sancte Cuthberte, ora pro nobis.

The diameter of the tenor bell is 60 inches; its exact weight is not known, but it is estimated at two tons. Its tone is C according to the pitch of the Cathedral organ, the sound being peculiarly soft and agreeable when tolled. The peal is chimed before service on Sundays, and rung on special occasions. The singers practise on Tuesday evenings during the winter months. Good peals are not numerous in this county, four to six bells being the usual number. The bells of Ross church may be ranked among the best. There are several ancient bells in the turrets of our smaller village churches, but they have not been examined or described so completely as in other counties. The following extracts and references may be acceptable to those who are interested in campanology:-

Notes and Queries, February 1869, p. 137, gives references to some of the best books on bells. Its History and Uses, by Reverend A. Gatty, 1848. An Account of Church Bells, Rev. W.C. Lukis, 1857. The Church Bells of Sussex, by A.D. Tyssen, 1864. Several works by the Rev. H.T. Ellacombe, who has now in the press a large work, well illustrated, which will be a valuable contribution to bell literature. The Ecclesiologist for 1867 contains a paper on German campanology. To these I would add, A Chapter on Bell Incriptions, by Rev. J.T. Fowler of Hurstpierpoint. The Bells of Wiltshire. Sottanstall's Campanologia, a work principally on change-ringing. Church Bells, their Antiquities and Connection with Architecture, by Rev. J.H. Sperling. History and Antiquities of Bells, by Rev. Abner W. Brown. First Steps in Bell-Ringing, reprinted from Church Work, 1866; also a work lately brought out by Mr. Troyte of Huntsham Court.

Description of Plates. 197

"The use of bells in churches for the purpose of assembling the congregation appears to have been introduced into England at a very early period. The inscriptions upon bells are mostly pious aspirations, frequently addressed to the patron saint in whose name the bell, or the church containing it, had been consecrated. Saint Katherine appears to have been regarded as an especial patroness of bells, as the inscription 'Sca Katerina ora pro nobis', or something similar, is of frequent occurrence".- J.H. Parker's Glossary.

"In the middle ages, brief precatory legends, often addressed to the patron saint of the church, were wrought upon the bells. In some instances these legends commemorate the donor of the bells, or the founder, or some great benefactor of the church. These inscriptions, with the heraldic and other devices which accompany them, afford curious illustrations of early sentiments and usages. It will be observed that the inscriptions are often written in the first person; and the sentiment which they convey is thus supposed to be uttered by the bells as they sound. Different names were given to bells of various sizes, and used on different occasions. St. Katherine appears, from many bell- inscriptions, to have been the patroness of bells".- Manual of Archæology, by C. Bontell.

"At feast and at festival, at mourning and at meeting, its iron tongue has now always something to say. No heir can be born, but the bell must take notice of his arrival; no marriage can be solemnised, but the bell must pour forth its noisy congratulations; human breath cannot quit the body, but the bell must intrude its notes of mock condolence; nor is the worship of God attended without a summons from the bell. In the well-known monkish couplet, no vain boast was put forth:-

'Laudo Deum verum, plebem voco, congrego clerum,
Defunctos ploro, pestem fugo, festa decoro'.

And in addition to these offices, we can show on the part of this busy instrument, a monopolising interference with the minor affairs of the world which may surprise those who have not fully considered the subject".- History of the Bell, by Rev. A. Gatty.

"Could one travel in an hour from Berwick to Penzance, one would never be out of the sound of the church bells. The joy they diffuse is confined to no age, to no rank, to no creed; some sour fanatics, indeed, may prate about superstition, but their voice is unheard; no discord mingles with those melodious chimes Of all this joy the bells are the harbingers and the heralds; their music is loved befoi its purpose is understood, and increase of understanding invests it with associations, the dearest and holiest of which humanity is susceptible".- Trevor, a Tale for the Times, 1847, P. 41.

II. The chalice and paten, with the cross tapers, were found in the grave of Gilbert de Swinfield, Chancellor of the Choir, who died A.D. 1297. I cannot do better than give the late Dean's own description

198 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

EXTRACT FROM A PAPER BY DEAN MEREWETHER, READ AT HEREFORD (circa 1844) ON ANCIENT GRAVES IN THE CATHEDRAL.

"Another grave was situated in the north aisle of the choir immediately opposite to Bishop Stanbury's monument. The stone which covered it had been carved, or rather etched, in lines, apparently representing an ecclesiastic in robes, but the constant wear of those who for centuries passed over it, had almost obliterated the whole, and at that time it was not found practicable to decipher the inscription which remained from the position of the stone. At about two feet from the surface the progress of the workmen was impeded by the obstruction caused by a very large and thick stone which covered the whole extent of the grave, and was cemented down with a very tenacious mortar. It was, however, determined to ascertain the contents of this tomb, and, accordingly, after considerable difficulty, the stone was raised, when the first object which met the eye was a chalice and paten of pewter, having on the top of it the decomposed remains of a square silk covering, upon which had been placed a taper in the form of a cross, partially burnt at each of the four ends, and exhibiting still the remains of the wicks.

On taking off the top of the chalice, there was observable a mark round the sides, near the bottom, which had evidently been caused by the evaporation of the consecrated fluid it had contained. It was placed near the right shoulder of a skeleton, which was tolerably perfect. The hands had been placed over the breast in the attitude of prayer, but the ligaments had long since deserted the bones, and they had collapsed in a confused heap upon the breast, which had been decorated with a plaiting of gold lace, surrounded by an embroidered band, part of which is now produced, and which had passed round the neck. Another piece of broader gold lace extended from this at right angles down to the feet, and in some places yet adhered to the fragile remains of a silken texture, which, though now brown, had once been evidently black, and which had descended to the feet. These were covered on the upper part with the leather of shoes, the soles of which were gone, although the holes of the stitches which had connected them were still visible ... In this case it was evident that no coffin of any kind had contained the body, from the still visible mark which had been left on the side of the grave by the pressure of the arm giving the outline of its form when shrouded. The hair was perfect, as were also the finger-nails, which were remarkable from the filbert-like form which they retained, and the precision with which they seemed to have been cut. But the presence of the taper is the most striking feature in this instance, which to me is unique But the other remains are still enclosed in their resting-place of 500 years and upwards with as little disturbance as possible".

The following objects connected with Chancellor Swinfield are still preserved in the Cathedral Library:-

1. Drawings of the chalice, and of the vault, as seen when opened.

2. The chalice, paten, and tapers in a perfect state; also the leather soles of the shoes.

Description of Plates. 199

The other chalice and paten here depicted were taken from the stone coffin of Bishop Richard de Swinfield, who died A.D. 1316. On July 30, 1861, while the restoration of the north-east transept was proceeding, it was deemed advisable to lower the stone coffin in the recess of the archway of the north wall. I must confess that I never saw any necessity for interfering with this tomb, which had been undisturbed for five centuries and a half, as the result clearly proved. But as orders were given by those in charge, the work proceeded accordingly. The workmen, finding their task not an easy one, proceeded to raise the upper slab of the coffin to reduce the weight in lowering the remainder. The Bishop's body was encased in lead with feet erect. The pastoral staff had been laid over the left shoulder, the delicately-carved and gilded head being perfectly bright and fresh. On the right side of the head the chalice and paten were found in excellent preservation, with traces of the consecrated elements. The Bishop had evidently been buried in vestments of finely-woven texture, now reduced entirely to dust, and covered with cobwebs. The metal spike of the staff was also seen. The above-mentioned objects are preserved in a glass case in the vestry, and the remains of several other chalices of inferior metal are preserved in the library. The following are the dimensions of the coffin, which had been prepared with great skill out of a faultless block of fine grey stone:-Height, 2 feet -inch; length, 8.1; sides, 3 inches thick; slab, 5 inches thick; 2.9 broad at head; 2.4 broad at the foot. Facsimiles of the chalice and paten have been manufactured by Messrs. Skidmore, Coventry, and Pratt and Sons, 14 Sussex Street, Pimlico.

III. In the south aisle of the choir, in the second bay from the east, is the massive stone effigy assigned by an erroneous modern inscription to Bishop Raynelm. This error was noticed soon after it was painted a century and a half ago, but it has never yet been corrected. It is believed, however, that Bishop de Lozing was buried in this place, and Bishop Raynelm in the north choir aisle. Over the effigy there is an arch with ball- flower ornament, and at eight feet above the ground the masonry terminates, whereon is fixed the beautiful woodwork here depicted. It is of oak, in a fair state of preservation, but not securely fixed. It is at present covered with drab paint, restoration not having been attempted. It appears to be fourteenth-century work, earlier than the choir-stalls, and consequently some of the earliest remaining woodwork. On the wall of the southeast transept there is another similar piece of carving, unpainted and sound. The twelve apertures may have contained effigies of the Apostles or other saints, but proof is altogether wanting.

IV. The small effigy or image of St. John Baptist, now preserved in the south-east transept, was discovered about thirty years ago, when the old church of St. Nicholas was taken down. He is represented as clothed in the skin of a wild beast, with a girdle of leather. There are traces of ancient colour. The heads of the Baptist and of the lamb in the left hand, were restored in plaster by Dean Merewether. They were preserved in a local museum until 1864, when they were removed to the Cathedral.

200 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PLATE XXIV.

THE VICARS' CLOISTER.

THIS richly-carved and interesting roof can only be seen to advantage in the morning, when the sun shines strongly upon it The western wall is perfectly plain, bearing only a few mortuary tablets. The eastern wall is pierced with three light windows of late character. Small niches are placed between the windows, all in an advanced stage of decay. Externally this wall was underpinned and restored, and new buttresses erected between each of the windows, at the cost of the Custos and Vicars, in 1862; but no attempt was made to replace the parapet and pinnacles, which once occupied the place of the present projecting roof. Should this work ever be carried out, a very great improvement will be effected, adding greatly to the picturesque appearance of the cloister. Many old Vicars are buried within this cloister. Some inscriptions remain, but most of them are fast decaying. The whole of the roof is of oak, the wail-plates, purlins, and rafters are richly moulded, and the tie-beams and principals are richly carved on both sides with various patterns and devices. The panels between the rafters are plain cleft oak. Although the roof is in a fair state of preservation, it would be all the better for a careful and general restoration. It is 108 feet long, 8.2 feet broad, and 15 feet high internally. One more bay at the southern end connects this cloister with the College Porch. Nine of the central figures only remain, and all the bosses beneath them are gone with one exception. The carvings on the beams are as follows:-

1. The compartment over the south-east transept door was restored in 1861, the whole of the original work having disappeared long since. The patterns were copied from other portions of this roof.

2. Birds and foliage-large winged monster pursued by a boar. Large knot and patterns. Reverse, large ox, with human hands and arms extended over same. Human head, with spray of foliage issuing from mouth on each side. (See illustration.)

3. Foliage entwined round thorny staff-patterns, and a large bird. (See illustration.) Reverse, the same slightly varied. Both central shields are perfect The only remaining carved boss is on this beam.

4. Patterns only on each side. One central shield.

5. Foliage and flower. Human head and drapery. Full-length nude figure. Thorny foliage. Two shields.

6. Wild boar pursuing a squirrel. Foliage. Two shields. Foliage. An owl and mouse.

7. Pattern. Large knot, with shield in centre, illustrated in Dingley MS., page 181. Same on the reverse. Both shields perfect.

Plate XXIV

Description of Plates. 201

8. Stag pursued by a small dog. Fir-tree and foliage. Swine and acorns.

9. Large knot. Human figure reclining, with flowing hair and drapery. Same on reverse, slightly varied.

10. Large salmon and smaller fish. Two male figures bearing a pole on their shoulders, on which a sack is suspended. Small scroll and foliage. Boar with saddle, stirrups, etc., on its back. Large fish swallowing a smaller fish.

11. Foliage pattern. Three erect feathers - same on both sides.

The remaining beams near the College Porch are ornamented with various patterns of foliage or diaper.

There are eight three-light windows, and seven carved stone niches with canopies.

202 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

PLATE XXV.

ANCIENT CROSSES.

THE earliest known representation of the Preaching Cross formerly in the area of the Bishops' Cloister, occurs in the Dingley MS. 198. It is there drawn without any regard to the rules of perspective. In the illustration an attempt has been made, with the aid of the view from Taylor's Map, 1757 A.D., to give a correct idea of its former appearance. This curious "pulpit cross" fell into a decayed state in the latter part of the last century, when no attempt was made to restore it. On the removal of a large quantity of soil from this cloister, A.D. 1830-40, the foundation of the Cross was disturbed, and "there was a dome of masonry, with a circular stone in the middle, which on being removed was found to have been worked to answer the purpose of a key-stone, and closed the aperture to a sort of well of some considerable depth, the walls of which had been formed with great skill and exactness".- Picturesque Antiquities of Hereford, p. 15.

BLACK FRIARS' PREACHING CROSS.

THE illustration shows this cross as it now stands. It has been the subject of numerous views, as, previously to its restoration in 1864, it was an extremely picturesque object. The Cross was then in such a tottering state that any great storm might have reduced it to a shapeless mass of ruin. The whole was carefully taken down and rebuilt at considerable cost, which was defrayed by John Arkwright, Esq., of Hampton Court in this county, and to whose estate this hospital is appended. With a slight exception [1] the whole has been restored with the utmost care and fidelity by Mr. G.G. Scott, R.A. Dingley gives a view of the Cross (page ccxxix.), with the remains of a tall shaft, and the information that there were "six steps of ascent".

The following description is given in the Picturesque Antiquities of Hereford:- "It is hexagonal, open on each side, and surrounded by a flight of steps gradually decreasing in their ascent. In the centre is a base of similar form, with two trefoil arches on each side, supporting the shaft of the cross, which, branching out into ramifications, forms the roof, and passing through it, appears at the top in a mutilated state. The upper part of the pulpit is embattled, and each angle is supported by a buttress".

This interesting object stands in the midst of the gardens attached to Conningsby's Hospital, on the north side of this city. Every trace of the fine church which formerly


[1] The panels at the base of the buttresses have been so restored, that there is no access whatever to the inner or covered part of the pulpit. I have no hesitation in expressing the opinion that five sides of the cross were originally filled with stone-work, but one side must surely have been left open for the entrance of the preaching friar.

Plate XXV

Description of Plates. 203

occupied this site is entirely swept away. Portions of the prior's lodgings remain in a state of ruin, but the well-kept paths and sward bear abundant and pleasing proof that every effort is made to respect and preserve these venerable remnants of mediæval piety and skill.

THE WHITE CROSS.

THIS fine cross is on the side of the great highway leading to Wales, one mile to the west of Hereford. Without attempting to settle a question which has so often been the subject of controversy and debate in local publications, I venture to think that although it was erected by or through the influence of an ecclesiastic, yet it was intended to be used for the secular purpose of a market-cross. Such crosses were erected in almost all the towns which contained a noted religious house. But tradition has preserved the following story, amongst others, with regard to the origin of this Cross:-

About the year 1349 the entire country was ravaged by a great plague, known as "The Black Death", by which not less than 50,000 persons died in London alone.

The history of this period is replete with accounts of comets and other strange sights. All intercourse between the citizens and country people was suspended, and the market was removed to this spot, where Lewis Charlton, afterwards Bishop of Hereford, erected or contributed largely to the erection of this cross. Each panel of this hexagonal cross bears a shield similar to one formerly on his tomb in the Cathedral (No. 50), semee of crosslets fitchy a lion rampant. It seems highly probable that this may be the true origin of the White Cross. It also may have been used by itinerant friars or preachers from religious houses, who often addressed the multitudes assembled on festivals or fair-days. The ancient stone-work is in excellent condition, after an exposure of more than five centuries. Some of the steps were displaced and out of repair, but the whole of the lower part was made good by Lord Saye and Sele, Canon Residentiary about 1850 A.D. In 1864 the lofty shaft was replaced at the expense of the same generous nobleman, from designs by Mr. G.G. Scott, R.A. This does not profess to be a restoration, as no illustration or drawing is known to exist which could give any idea of the shaft or cross in its original state.

In an old book of rents, etc. (A.D. 1581), belonging to the See of Hereford, is the following entry:-

"A.D. 1349, Anno 23, Edward III., there died in Bosbury, Colwall, Coddington, and Cradley, 158 Tenants".

The Black Death raged throughout Europe from 1348 to 1350, fatal alike to man and beast.

Churchyard crosses were general in Herefordshire, but perfect specimens are now very rare. They consist chiefly of four, six, or eight sides, with a large stone for a base elevated on a few steps. Niches are frequently found cut in the western face of the block. The slender shafts were generally carried to a good height. The cross at Much Marcle, an octagon, must have originally been very fine. Eight feet of the shaft still remain on

204 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

the base, which is well elevated. At Putley there is a small but highly-interesting cross, with sculpture on either side, in a perfect state; this cross has been described in the Gentleman's Magazine, lxv. 461. Part of a similar cross was found during the restoration of Tedstone Delamere Church, and it is now attached to the masonry of the lichgate. At Bosbury, Clehonger, Holmer, Mordiford, Sellack, and many other churchyards in this county, some portion of the old crosses may still be seen. In some instances they have been restored, as at Weobley, etc. The base of an old cross is on the roadside at Old Gore, and at Wilton Bridge there is an ancient cross with a tall shaft in a private garden near the western bank of the Wye. Most successful photographs of the Hereford crosses have been taken in various sizes by Mr. Ladmore of this city.

List of Books. 205

A LIST of BOOKS relating in whole or in part to the HISTORY and ANTIQUITIES of the CATHEDRAL, the CITY, and the COUNTY Of HEREFORD.

Allen, Lieutenant Francis. Ross Guide. 1827, Hereford.
Allen, John. Bibliotheca Herefordensis. A descriptive catalogue of books relating to the county of Hereford. Royal 8vo, 25 copies only printed. 1821, Hereford.
Allen, John. Collection of Tracts.
Allen, John. Charter of Hereford.
Allen, John. Collectanea Herefordensia, being 32 pages from Hereford Independent. Post 8vo. 1825, Hereford.
Annual Reports of the Hereford Philosophical and Antiquarian Society, founded in 1837. Hereford.
Amott, J. History of the Meetings of the Three Choirs'; continuation of Lysons. 8vo, 1865, Gloucester.
Anonymous Works:-
G.S., Worthies of England; first published in 1660; another edition 1684.
Antiquarian and Topographical Remains in Great Britain. 2 vols. 8vo. 1816, London. Contains beautiful illustrations of Ludlow Round Church and Hereford Crosses.
Life and Gests of St. Thomas Cantilupe, collected by R.S. (Richard Strange). 333 pages. 1674, Ghent.
Parish Register Abstract. Folio, 1831, London. In the Cathedral Library, E ix. r r. The Topographer, 4 vols. 8vo, published 1789-9r. Contains Collections for the History of St. Guthlac's Priory, and Black Friars' Monastery.
Picturesque Antiquities of the County of Hereford-no date-about 1842. 4to.
Old Meg of Herefordshire for a Mayd Marian. Reprint (1). 1609, London.
Archæologia. Contains papers on Bishop Aquablanca's Tomb. Vol. xviii.
Archæologia. Roman Pavement at Bishopstone. By T. Bird. Vol. xxiii. Append. 417.
Archæologia. Inscription at Kenchester. By Lysons. Vol. xv. 391.
Archæologia. Bishop Swinfield's Roll. Vol. xviii. 427.
Archæologia. Account of Discovery of Episcopal Rings. By Dean Merewether. Vol. xxxi. 249.
Description of Ancient Chalice at Leominster. By Octavius Morgan. Vol. xxxv. 489.
Archaologia Cambrensis, see letter C.
Anastatic Drawing Society. Five annual volumes, 4to, published circa 1856. Ipswich. Anderson, John C. History and Antiquities of Shropshire. Large 8vo. 1864.
IB. (probably John Bradley). Herefordshire. Orchards a pattern for all England. 8vo - 1724 London.
Bannister, S. Brief Description of the Ancient Map of the World. 4to. 1849 Hereford.
Beattie, W. Castles and Abbeys of England, 2d series. Royal 4to. 1857 London.
Bedford, Rev. W. The Blazon of Episcopacy. 8vo. 1858 London.

206 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Black's Tourists' Guide. Several editions. 1844, 1860, and 1865 Edinburgh.
Bloomfield, R. The Banks of the Wye. A poem, 12mo. 1811 London.
Bloxam, M.H. Monumental Architecture, 8vo. 1834 London.
Bonner's Copperplate Perspective Itinerary. Vol. ii. 1798.
Botfield, Beriah. Cathedral Libraries of England. 1849 London.
Brande's Popular Antiquities. By Ellis.
Britton, J. Dictionary of Architecture, royal 8vo. 1831-38 London.
Britton, J. History and Antiquities of the Cathedral, 4to. 1836 London.
Britton, J. Picturesque Antiquities of English Cities, 4to. 1828-30 London.
Britton and Brayley's Beauties of England and Wales (vol. vi. contains Herefordshire), 8vo. 1805-18 London.
British Traveller.
Brooke, R. Visits to Battlefields of England. Contains an account of Mortimer's Cross. Royal 8vo. 1857 London.
Camden's Britannia. Various editions. 1695, etc.
Carter's Ancient Architecture, folio. 1795 London.
Clayton, John (Architect at Hereford). Ancient Timber Edifices of England, folio. 1846 London. This fine and scarce volume was published by M`Lean, 26 Haymarket, London.
Coningsby, Right Hon. Thomas, Earl of. Collections concerning the Manor of Marden, 700 pages folio, no date. Circa 1720 London.
Cooke, G.A. Topographical Description of thCiraanty of Hereford, 24mo. Circa 1830 London.
Cottingham, N.J. Description of the Merewether and Bailey Memorials, 8vo. 1852 London.
Charity Commission Report.
Cathedral Commission Report.
Archæologia Cambrensis. Contains numerous valuable papers or local interest by the undermentioned authors:
Davies, James. British and Roman Encampments in Herefordshire. Read in 1849-1850.
Davies, James. Parochial Churches in Herefordshire dedicated to British Saints. 1854.
Davies, James. Herefordshire under Britons, Romans, and Saxons. 1853.
Freeman, E.A. Ground-plan, etc., of Leominster Church. 1853.
James, Henry. Account of the Churches of Abbey Dore, Kilpec, Allensmore, and Holmer.
Wright, Thomas. Treago and the large Tumulus at St. Weonards. 1855.
Wakeman, Thomas. Account of Pembridge Castle.
Cotton, Bartholomaus de. Historia Anglicana, edited by H.R. Luard, Esq., under the direction of the Master of the Rolls. 1859 London.
Comb. Narrative of the Discovery of a College of Jesuits at a place called Comb, in the county of Hereford. 1679 London.
M. D'Avezac. Note sur la Mappemonde Historiee de la Cathedrale de Hrford, 8vo. 1862 Paris. This valuable paper was translated by Rev. G.F. Townsend, and published in the Gentleman's Magazine for May 1863.
Davies, James. Account of Hereford Priories, reprinted from Hereford Times of March 20. 1850 Hereford.
Davies, James. Handbook to Blackfriars' Monastery. 1855 Hereford.
Devereux, J. Ledbury Guide, and Description of its Neighbourhood. 1824 Ledbury.

List of Books. 207

Devlin. Helps to Hereford History. 1848.
Devlin. The Mordiford Dragon and Aged Aunt Bess. 1848.
Directories of Herefordshire, by Cassey & Co. 1858 Preston.
Directories of Herefordshire, Post-Office Directory, by Kelly & Co. 1863 London.
Directories of Herefordshire, Littlebury. 1868.
Doomsday Book, by Sir Henry Ellis, folio, completed. 1783.
Doomsday Book, Facsimile of part relating to Herefordshire. 1862 London.
Dugdale's Monasticon, iv. 1286, vi. 1210.
Duncomb, Rev. John. History and Antiquities of the County of Hereford, 2 vols. royal 4to. 1804 to 1812 Hereford. The first part of volume ii. terminated at page 318, and an appendix of two pages. Duncomb carried it on to page 358. W.H. Cooke, Esq., Q.C., has continued the Hundred of Greytree as far as page 398 in 1855 and 1866.
Dingley, Thomas. History from Marble, compiled in the reign of Charles II. Printed in photo-lithography from the original in the possession of Sir T.E. Winnington, Bart., with an introduction by J. Gough Nichols, 4to. Camden Society 1867 London.
Daniel, Rev. W.B. Rural Sports, 2 vols. 4to. 1813 London.
Ecton, Rev. J. Thesaurus Rerum Ecclesiasticarum, 4to, 1742 and 1763 London.
Edmunds, Flavell. Etymology of Names of Places in Herefordshire, 12mo. 1849 Hereford.
Edmunds, Flavell. History of St. Catherine's Church, Aconbury. 1850.
Edmunds, Flavell. The Battle of Mortimer's Cross. 1851.
European Magazine. 1782-1826.
Fielding, C.V. Picturesque Description of the River Wye. 12 coloured views, 4to. 1841 London.
Fosbrooke, Rev. T.D. Encyclopedia of Antiquities, 2 vols.
Fosbrooke, History of City of Gloucester, 4to. 1819 London.
Fosbrooke, Wye Tour, 8vo. 1818-1826, and 1841 Ross.
Fosbrooke, Ariconensia, or Archeological Sketches of Ross and Archenfield, 12mo. 1821 Ross.
Fuller's Worthies, by Nicholls. Vol. i., pages 455 to 466. 1811.
Garbett, Rev. T. Ancient and present state of the Cathedral, 8vo. 1827.
Gibson, Rev. M. Present and ancient state of the Churches of Door, Holme Lacy, etc., 4to. 1727 London.
Gilpin, Rev. W. Observations on the River Wye. (There have been several later editions.) 8vo. 1770 London.
Godwin, Francis, Lord Bishop of Hereford. "De Præsulibus Anglia". 1601 and 1616 London.
Gough. British Topography. fol. 1796. Vol. i., p. 71, contains account and illustration of the Map preserved in this Cathedral; Seals, etc.
Gough. Sepulchral Monuments. fol. 1786 London. Contains several fine illustrations of Cathedral Monuments.
Gurney, Daniel. Record of the House of Gournay. Privately printed, 4to. Circa 1852. 2 Vols. and appendix, containing pedigrees of Cantilupe family.
Grose, Francis. Antiquities of the County of Hereford, 4to. 1797 London.

208 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Grose. Provincial Glossary, with a Collection of local Proverbs and popular Superstitions. 1811 London.
Grose. Republished, with a Supplement by Francis Pegge, F.S.A. 1839.
Gentleman's Magazine contains many papers on this locality; among them are the following:-
Abbey Dore. Vol. lxii.
Abbey Dore. Notes on, by Sawyer, 1829. Part ii. p. 497.
Aconbury Church and Farmhouse, lvii. 949.
Bacton, Description and View of. Vol. for 1795.
Burghope House, with a view, lxi. 787.
Cantilupe, Bishop, Life of. Vol. for 1824.
Hampton Court, Pictures at, vol. xcv. p. 18. 1825.
Hereford Cathedral, Sketches of; lvii. 459 and 579.
Hereford Cathedral, View of North Porch. Part ii. 9. 1824.
Hereford Cathedral, Removal of Tombs in Churchyard, lxvi. 607.
Hereford Cathedral, School, lxxxviii. p. 488.
Hereford City, Description of; xxxiv. 11.
Herefordshire. 1819. Part i. 109.
Herefordshire. Topography of; lxxxvii. Part ii. 10.
Holm Lacy, Pictures at, in 1785, xcv. Part ii. 134.
Kilpec Church, lix. 78r.
Ledbury Church, Notes from, lxiii. 911.
Longworth Chapel and the Whitecross, lxii. 298.
Map, Ancient, Translation of M. d'Avezac's Paper on, ccxiv. 583.
Marden Church, Description of lxi. 9.
Pencombe Church, etc., and Risborough Camp, Notices of. Vol. 12, newseries, 246. Powell, William. Memoirs of a Tragedian born at Hereford, 1735, xxxlx. Putley, Churchyard, Cross at, lxv. 461.
Tedstone Delamere Church, lxxxi. 429.
Wassailing, Ancient Ceremony of; lxi. 116, and xc. part ii. 418.
Weobley Church, Monuments in. x827. Part ii. 306.
Hackett. Account of Cathedral Schools, Choristers, etc. 1827 London.
Haines, Rev. Herbert. Manual of Monumental Brasses. 1861 Oxford.
Hallam. View of the Middle Ages. Vol. ii. 393, 479.
Havergal, Rev. F.T. Visitors' Hand-guide to the Cathedral. Three editions and Appendix. 1863-65 and 1869 Hereford.
Havergal, Short account of Principal Objects of Interest, with
Havergal, Ground-plan of Cathedral, by J.S. Walker. 1865 Worcester.
Havergal, Hereford Diocesan Church Calendar. 1865-66 Hereford.
Heath, C. Excursion down the Wye, 8vo. 1826 Monmouth.
Heather, Rev. Dr. Hereford Cathedral, History and Restoration of. Two editions. 1863-5 Hereford.
Heylin, Peter. Help to English History, with list of all the Bishops, 24mo. 1674 London.
Hollis, G. Monumental Effigies of Great Britain. A beautiful work produced between 1839 and 1844, but never completed. Seven plates refer to the Cathedral, Clehonger, and Pembridge family. 1844 London.
Hall, Mrs. Matthew. Queens before the Conquest, 2 vols. 8vo. 1854 London.
Howitt, W. & M. Ruined Abbeys and Castles of Great Britain, with Photographic Illustrations. 1862 London.
Horton, J. Nell Gwynne. An historical play. 1828 Hereford.

List of Books. 209

Ireland, S. Picturesque Views on the River Wye, royal 8vo. Contains 31 tinted views. 1797 London.
James, J.H. "Herefordia". A poem, with several illustrations 186? London.
Jebb, Rev. John, D.D. The Choral Responses and Litanies of the United Churches of England and Ireland. 2 vols. fol. 1847 & 1857 London.
Johnson, Richard. Ancient Customs of the City of Hereford, 12mo. 1845 Hereford. This work has been enlarged, revised, illuminated title, etc. Published by Nicholls & Son. 1868 London.
Jones, Joseph. Handbook for Hereford, 12mo. 1840 Hereford. And several later editions. 1856-1867.
Jones, Joseph. Guide to the Cathedral, 12mo. 1863 Hereford.
Kippus, Biographia Britannica. Contains the lives of Bishop Croft, Devereux family, etc. 1780 London.
Knight, C. Old England, 2 vols. folio.
Knight, C. Land we live in, 4 vols. 8vo.
Knight, T.A. Pomona Herefordiensis, 4to. 1811 London. This beautiful work contains 30 coloured engravings of the old Cider and Perry fruits of this country. The original illustrations (by Miss Matthews of Belmont) are in the possession of J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq.
Lee, J.E. Selections from an Antiquarian Sketch Book, 8vo. 1859.
Leland. Itinerary. By Hearne. 1770.
Le Neve, John. Lives, Characters, etc., of Post-Reformation Bishops, 8vo. 1720.
Le Neve, John. Fasti Ecclesiæ Anglicans, fol. 1716.
Le Neve, John. By T. Duffus Hardy, 8vo, 3 vols. 1854 Oxford.
Lewis, Sir George Cornewall. Glossary of provincial words used in Herefordshire, 8vo. Published by Murray. 1839 London.
Lewis, G.R. Illustrations of Kilpec Church, small folio, 40 pages and 28 plates. 1842 London.
Church of Shobdon illustrated and described, folio. 1852 London.
Lloyd's Thesaurus Ecclesiasticus, 8vo. 1796.
Lodge. Topographical History of Herefordshire, 8vo. 1793 Kington.
Lyson's Herefordshire, from Magna Britannia. 44 pages and a Map relate to this County. 1731 London.
Lyson, Rev. D. History of the Meetings of the Three Choirs, 8vo. 1812 Gloucester.
Malcom, J.P. Excursions in Herefordshire. Five good plates, 8vo 1807 London. Contains an account of the Cathedral, Leominster, Dore, Thruxton, and Kingston.
Marshall. Rural Economy, 2 vols. 8vo. The second volume relates to this county. 1796 London.
Merewether, Very Rev. John, D.D., late Dean of Hereford. Statement of the condition and circumstances of the Cathedral Church, 8vo. 1842 Hereford.
Merewether, Very Rev. John, D.D., Proceedings at the County Meeting, held October 12, 1847, containing a further Statement. 1847 Hereford.
Merewether, Very Rev. John, D.D., A Lecture delivered November 1847 on a Manuscript in the British Museum, entitled "Hereford Cathedral described, and a Survey of 26 Counties in 1634".- Lansdowne MS., No. 213, pages 319 to 351. 1847 Hereford.

210 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Moule. English Counties delineated, 4to. 1830 London.
Murray's Handbook to the Western Cathedrals, 8vo. 1864 London.
Murray's Tourists' Guide-Book to the Counties of Worcester, Gloucester, and Hereford. 1867 London.
Meyricke, Sir S. Ancient Armour at Goodrich Court, 2 vols. folio. 1830.
Nash, Charles. Goodrich Court Guide. 1845 Hereford.
Nicholls. Ancient and present state of Herefordshire, 8vo. 1834 London.
Nicolson (Bishop of Carlisle). English Historical Library, folio. 1714 London.
Noake, John. Monastery and Cathedral of Worcester. 1866 Birmingham.
Parry, Richard. History of Kington, 8vo. 1840 Kington.
Phillips, John. "Cider", a poem, with copious notes by C. Dunster on the Families and Antiquities of the County. 1791 London. This is the best edition, and now very scarce.
Phillips, R. Biddulph. Letter to the Landowners of the Diocese of Hereford, 37 pages 8vo. 1847 Hereford.
Piggott. Topography and Gazeteer of England. Vol. vii. contains 16 pages, a map, and illustration. 1838 London.
Price, John. Historical Account of the City of Hereford, 8vo. 1796 Hereford.
Price, John. Historical Account of Leominster, 8vo. 1795 Ludlow.
Price, Robert. Life of one of the Justices of the Court of Common Pleas, 8vo.
Price, Uvedale. On the Picturesque. A very scarce work. 1734 London.
Pugh, David. "Erginfield", an Antiquarian Fragment, 16 pages. 1789 London.
Rawlinson, Dr. R. History and Antiquities of the City and Cathedral of Hereford, 8vo. 1717 London. Published anonymously; 250 copies printed.
Rees, Rev. W.J. Hereford Guide, 8vo. 1806, 1808, and 1827 Hereford.
Ritchie, Leitch. The Wye and its Associations. 1839 London.
Roberts, Rev. G. Account of Llanthony Priory, with a Life of Bishop Betun (a translation of Wharton's Anglia Sacra), Pickering, 8vo. 1847 London.
Robinson, Rev. C.J. History of the Castles of Herefordshire and their Lords. 1869 Hereford.
Russell, Rev. Thomas. Description of the Metal Shrine, and account of Bishop Trilleck's Coffin, 8vo. 1830 Hereford.
Rutger, Hermann. Britannia Magna, folio. 1661 Amsterdam.
Roscoe's South Wales.
Salmon. Survey of England, 8vo. 1729 London.
Sawyer, W. Cathedral Church of St. Ethelbert briefly described, 8vo. Privately printed, circa 1830-40. Awlescombe. This work is very rare. The only known copies at Hereford are in the Permanent Library, and in the possession of Miss A. Parry of Warham Court.
Shirley, Evelyn. Deer Parks of England. 1867 London.
Shirley, Evelyn. Noble and Gentle Men of England, 4to. 1860 London.
Smith, T. Sherwood. Tourist's Guide to the Wye, 8vo. 1855 London.
Speed, John. History of Great Britain, folio. 1632.
Speed, John. Theatre of Britain, two leaves, and a fine Map of the City and County, folio. 1610 London.
Stephenson, Rev. Nash. History of Llanthony, Grosmont, Dore Abbey, etc., 8vo. 1865 Hereford.

List of Books. 211

Strong, George, M.D. History of Fownhope Church, a Lecture delivered before the Hereford Philosophical Society. 1849 Hereford.
Strong, George, M.D. Heraldry of Herefordshire, imperial 4to. 1848 London.
Strong, George, M.D. Handbook to Ross and Archenfield. 1863.
Storer, J. & H.S. History and Antiquities of the Cathedral, 4 vols. 8vo. 1814 London.
Strutt. Manners and Customs. 1814 London.
Stubbs, Rev. W. Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum. 1858 Oxford. A most valuable and learned work.
Stukeley. Itinerarium Curiosum, folio. 1724.
Stothard, C.A. Monumental Effigies of Great Britain, royal 4to 1817 London.
Tanner. Notitia Monastica, folio. 1787 Cambridge.
Taylor. History of Gavel Kind, folio. 1683.
Taylor, James. Catalogue of the Heralds' Visitations, etc. 1825 London.
Taxatio Ecclesiastica, P. Nicolai III. Heref. dioc. A.D. 1291. Folio. (In Cathedral Library.)
Townshend, Rev. G.F. Town and Borough of Leominster, with illustrations, 8vo. 1862 Leominster.
Townshend, Rev. G.F. The Sieges of Herefordshire during the Commonwealth, 8vo. 1866 Leominster.
Upcott, W. Bibliographical Account of English Topography, 3 vols. 1818 London.
Walcot, Rev. M. Memorials of Hereford, 8vo. 1867 Ludlow.
Walcot, Rev. M. Cathedralia. A Constitutional History of Cathedrals, 8vo 1865 London.
Walcot, Rev. M. William of Wykeham and his Colleges. 1852 London.
Walpole. The British Traveller, folio. 1780 4 London. Contains a map of the County, and a view of the City.
Webb, Rev. John. Roll of the Household Expenses of Bishop Swinfield. Camden Society, 2 vols. 1855 London.
West, Hon. and Rev. Sackville. Historical Notices of Withyham Church, Sussex, 4to. 1857 London.
Westall's Album, 8vo. 1833 London ?
Wharton, H. Anglia Sacra, 2 vols. folio. 1691 London.
Williams, Rev. J. The Leominster Guide, 8vo. 1808 Leominster.
Wilkins, Rev. D. Concilia Magnæ Britanniæ, 4 vols. folio. (See vol. i. 761). 1737 London.
Willis, Brown. Survey of English Cathedrals, 4 vols. 4to. 1742 London.
Willis, Brown. Mitred Abbeys of England. 1719.
Willis, Rev. Professor R. Report of a Survey of Hereford Cathedral, 8vo and 4to. 1842 Hereford.
Winkle. Account of English Cathedrals, 3 vols. 1836 to 1839 London.
Wright, J.P. Walk through Hereford, 1 2mo. 1819 Hereford.
Wright, Thomas. Essays on Archeological Subjects, 2 vols. 8vo 1861 London.
Woolhope Club. Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club. Established 1851. The volumes for 1866-67 and 1868, edited by Rev. W.H. Purchas, contain numerous photographs and a large amount of local information. Hereford.

212 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

MISCELLANEOUS REFERENCES.

IN the Bodleian Library there is a small 4to of 10 leaves:- "Gough, MS. Hereford I", containing memoranda relating to parishes of Eardisley, Ledbury, Kinnaston, Leominster, Allensmore, Huntsham, Kilpec, with an alphabetical list of benefices in this diocese; also presentations, ejectments of clergy, etc., from 1604 to 1753.

"Collectanea Topographica et Genealogica", by Sir F. Madden, 1834, 8 vols., contains a grant to the Almshouses of St. Ethelbert in Hereford, by Isabel Cantelupe.

Sketches of Ross and Archenfield. Lincoln College Library-U a, 85.

Residence and Garden of John Kyrle. Woodcuts in vol. lvi., p. 97, of the Monthly Magazine.

Hearne's History of Glastonbury, 1722, pp. 309 to 326, contains:- "Formula antiqua nuptias in iis partibus Angliæ quæ Ecclesiæ Herefordensis in ritibus ecclesiasticis ordine sunt usæ celebrandi, etc.

Description of Herefordshire, with a Map. Kitchen. London Magazine, 1754, P. 151.

Antiquities of Hereford and Monmouth. By E. Kennion, 1784. Part i. only published.

Excursion through parts of Herefordshire, 1821. European Magazine, vol. lxxx. p. 528.

Herald and Genealogist (the), published by Nichols, 1862, contains several papers on Herefordshire families, and upon the landed gentry of the county.

A few years ago Mr. T. Kerslake of Bristol offered for sale "An ancient Latin and English Dictionary, published at Hereford by John Gachet, May 31st, 1517, 4to, original stamped calf; wooden covers, fine preservation". This edition is totally unnoticed by the book recorders and annalists of the press. This rare, and perhaps unique volume, may still be found in Mr. Kerslake's warehouse. A high price is asked for this work.

There is an interesting collection of prints, drawings, and extracts, relating to local antiquities, in the Hereford Philosophical Museum at the Castle Green.

The Permanent Library (St. John's Street) is the only other public institution containing works on local antiquities.

Architectural Pictures. 213

Many valuable communications on local history and antiquities are to be found in Hereford newspapers of the past century.

Among the most important private collections of local works are those belonging to:-

Henry Beddoe, Esq., Hereford.
W.H. Cooke, Esq., Q.C., Recorder of Oxford.
T.T. Davies, Esq., City Magistrate.
Mrs. Merewether, late of Lugwardine, now of London.
G.T. Smith, Esq., Organist of the Cathedral.
W.H. Vale, Esq., Maidstone.

ARCHITECTURAL PICTURES.

Numerous views of the Cathedral and the neighbourhood of the City have from time to time been taken. There are several of great interest and value in the possession of present or former citizens. With their permission a list is here given of those which are more especially interesting to the architect or antiquary:-

Thomas Cam, Esq., alderman, possesses a water-colour, by David Cox, of the Old Butchers' Row in the High Town.

Miss Loveday Walker also possesses a similar view by Varley.

J. Gwillim, Esq., solicitor, possesses a fine and rare water- colour drawing by G. Samuel, of the Old Widemarsh Gate, as it appeared A.D. 1800.

Also a similar view of Bye Street Gate of the same date, and by the same artist. Mrs. Merewether possesses the original drawing of the Ancient Hall at the Palace, by Mr. John Clayton, architect, of this city. 1846.

J.J. Reynolds, Esq., solicitor, possesses a very fine coloured drawing of the Old Town Hall (as it might have been restored), by John Clayton. 1850.

G. Townshend Smith, Esq., organist of the Cathedral, possesses a water-colour drawing of the Nave of the Cathedral, with the Organ, etc., as it appeared A.D. 1833. Artist, Corner.

Miss Loveday Walker of Hereford possesses an interesting water- colour of the south side of the Cathedral, taken from the College Porch by the celebrated artist Turner in the year 1793.

VIEWS OF THE CATHEDRAL.

The earliest known illustration of the Cathedral is in Dugdale's Monasticon, 1665.

The most valuable and extensive drawings of the Cathedral and Churches in the city and county were made by Thomas Dingley - temp. Charles II. The recent reproduction of this work is a triumph of modern skill, and may truly be regarded as the most important addition to the library of the local antiquary.

The following are some of the principal illustrations not occurring in the preceding list of books or maps:-

1. A View of the West End, as it stood in 1724, published August 1792 in the European Magazine.

2. A North View, engraved at the expense of Chancellor Bisse, circa 1730.

3. A North-west View, 5 inches square-date not known.

214 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

4. North-west View by R. Wild, circa 1760-70.

5. A View in Boswell's Ruins of Ancient Buildings. Circa 1770-80. Published by Alexander Hogg, Paternoster Row.

6. South-west View, taken above the Bridge, 1776. Engraved by Sparrow.

7. The same reduced. Published August 1784.

8. South-east View by F. Jukes. 1798.

9. A fine West View (15 x 11 inches). Date not known. Circa 1720.

10. Fine North-east View (24 x 18 inches), by J. Buckler. 1810.

11. Four Views of Hereford, drawn by G. Powle. 1778.

12. South-west View (including the Bridge), by D. Jenkins. 1780.

13. Four Views drawn by James Wathen in 1788:-

(1.) View of the West Front, taken on the morning of its fall, April 17, 1786.

(2.) View of the Ruin (from West), taken the day after its fall.

(3.) View from North-west of Arches, Triforium, etc.

(4.) North View of the Church, with the Ruins.

14. View in South Aisle of Choir, 1821. By Coney.

15. Buckler, Views by, 4to. 1822.

16. South-west View above the Bridge, 1827. By Jeavons.

17. North-west View, 1832. By M. Child.

MAPS OF THE CITY OR COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

Anonymous. A fine Map, printed at Amsterdam circa 1650, with Seven Shields of Local Families.
Anonymous. A Map of the County, in an 8vo volume. Geography and Antiquities of England. London, 1740.
Blome, R. A Generall Mapp of the County with its Hundreds. 1672.
Bowen. Large Map of the County (28 x 21 inches). No date. circa 1760.
Bryant, A. Map of the County, 1835. Size (64 x 64 inches), with large view of Cathedral.
Carey, J. New Map of the County, divided into Hundreds. 1801.
Curley, T. Map and Geological Sections of the City of Hereford, made for the Improvement Works. 1858.
Duncumb, Rev. J. Maps of the County and City included in his History. 1804.
Grose, F. Small Plan of the City, in his Antiquities. 1797.
Jones, Joseph. Map of the City, with all recent improvements. circa 1858.
Langley. New Map, small folio. 1817.
The "Ordnance Map". 1831-2.
Price, C. Map of the Diocese of Hereford, divided into Deaneries. 1828.
Price, C. Map of Herefordshire, 2 folio sheets. Scale one inch to a mile. 1817.
Price, C. The same, reduced size. 1819.
Speed. Map of the County, with a Plan of the City, 1610; another edition. 1650.
Stukely. Plan of "Magna Castra".
Taylor, Isaac. Large Map of the County, with small Plan of the City. The margin is filled with a large number of shields of county families.
Taylor, J. Map of the City, with illustrations of all the Churches, Crosses, Arms of See, and City, with a Table of the Population. 1757. This is one of the most important local maps.
Vernor and Hood. Small Map of the County. 1805.
There are several other maps of the county, of more or less importance, in various Gazetteers, Encyclopa dias, Directories, etc., as in Bell's Gazetteer of England and Wales.

Manuscripts. 215

MSS. RELATING TO THE CITY AND COUNTY OF HEREFORD AT THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

Add MSS.

5827, ff. 194 b. Notes by T. Baker, B. Willis, and W. Cole - Religious Houses.
6354, p. 47. Domesday Book relating to.
5832, f. 181. List of Sheriffs, 1647-1653.

CITY OF HEREFORD.

6693, p. 29. Siculer (Nicholas le), Extent of his lands in Sutton, Hereford, Din more, and Wystanton, 1 Edward I.
6693, p. 21. Grant of, in fee-farm to the men of Hereford, 17 John.
6693, p. 277. Grant of land there, 7 Edward VI. Speech of Lord Coningsby to the Mayor, etc.

CATHEDRAL AND OTHER CHURCHES.

5506, f. 72. Liber statutorum ecclesim cathedralis.
{5827, f. 69 b. Notes by B. Willis and W. Cole relating to the Cathedral.
{5830, f. 206,3b.
5811, f. 103 b. Grant to it, from Ric. de Puteo, of land in Bibesworth.
5811, f. 102 b. Cathedral notes, with drawings.
6693, p. 293. Grant of the Hospital of St. John, 6 Elizabeth.
6693, pp. 550, 599. Decree in Chancery, etc., concerning Coningsby's Hospital, 22 Charles II.
5841, p. 37. Letter concerning the Chapel of St. Mary Magdalene, 1738.
B. xxx. 6. Brief for rebuilding St. Peter's Church, 30 Geo. III.

DIOCESE OF HEREFORD.

6165, p. 179. Extenta temporalium, 43 Edward III.
6165, p. 165. Inquisitio de temporalibus apud Whytyngton, 5 Henry IV.
6262, f. 56b. Notes from the Episcopal Register of Hereford by Dr. Tanner.
5827, f. 95b. Notes of Dedications of Churches and Bells.

BISHOPS OF HEREFORD.

6693, p. 163. Bisse (Philip) Bishop of Hereford. Brief in a cause in which he is a party.
6165, p. 179. Charleton (Lewis de) Extenta temporalium post mortem ejus, 43 Edward III.
6729, f. 101. Equeblank (Peter de), Monument of. Hoadly (Benjamin), Bishop successively of Bangor, Hereford, etc.
6117, p. 27-41. Letters of Archbishop King relating to Bishop Hoadly's Sermon and the Convocation, 1717.
6216, f. 34. List of Works in his Controversy with Dr. Sherlock on Test Act.
6116, pp. 31, 95, 110. Allusions to his Works (Bishop Hoadly), in Letters of Bishop Nicolson, 1716.
6117, p. 66. Letter of Archbishop King concerning his late publication, 1717.
5831, f. 158. Copy of Summons from him as Chancellor of Order of the Garter, 1724.
6210, f. 7. Dedication of a Work addressed to him, and signed Philaretes.

216 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

5831, f. 171b. Letter to the Duke of Newcastle.
5791, f. 50. Letter to him on a Sermon preached by him, 8th August 1717.
5841, p. 17. Anecdote relating to Bishops Hoadly and Sherlock.
6165, p. 165. Trevenant (John) Bishop of Hereford: Inquisitio temporalium episcopatus, capta post mortem ejus, 29 Mart. 5 Hen. IV.
6044, f. 4. Wesphaling (Herbert) Bishop of Hereford: Note of his Benefactions to Jesus College, Oxford.
11,053. Papers relating to City of Hereford.
11,057. }
11,058. } Herefordshire. Pensions to Monasteries in, and Receipts, 32, 38, Hen. VIII.
11,059. }
11,051. Scudamore (James), List of Freeholders of Hereford who voted for him, 1715.
11,050. Musters, etc., for Military Affairs in 1560-1691.
11,051. Papers relating to Public Taxations in Hereford.
11,052. Papers relating to Bridges in Hereford.
Add. Roll, 372. Persons objected to as Voters in Hereford.
15,023, p. 26. List of Bishops of Hereford to 1776.
14,820. Maskell (Robert) Bishop of Hereford: Letters of Hen. IV. to the Duchess of Burgundy relative to him, 1404.
Add. Ch. 5868. Swinefelde (Richard de), Bishop of Hereford, Grant of Indulgence to Contributors to the Building of St. Paul's London, 1294.
12,506, f. 37. Westfaling (Herbert) Bishop of Hereford. Letter to Sir J. Cæsar, 1598.
14,027, f. 136. Do. Case of Dilapidations against the Executors of his predecessor Bishop Scory, 1586-8.
15,645. Wren (Matthew), Bishop of Hereford, and afterwards of Ely. Commission to the Bishop of St. David's to consecrate the Parish Church of Dore Abbey, 1635.
Eg. 1048, f. 24. Do. charges against him by the County of Cambridge, 1641.
19,815. Visitation of Herefordshire, 1586.
17,331-2. Papers relating to H-shire.
Lansd. 446, 34. Hereford, Inquisitions relating to Lands in.
Lansd. 259, 15. Bishops of Hereford.
Lansd. 814, 57. Charters relating to Herefordshire.
Lansd. 855, 3. Knights of do.
Lansd. 905, 9. Rents of Lands in do.
Lansd. 905, 10. Charters relating to do.
Tit. C vii. 122. Catherine, Countess of do., her death, 1567.
Vit. C x. 216. Notes concerning Hereford.
Reg. 10 A xi. 2. Herefordensis Ecclesiæ Statuta (imperfect). Thirteenth century.
Reg. 8 C vii. 20. Vitæ breves Sanctorum Francisci, Thomæ Herefordensis Episcopi, et aliorum. Fifteenth century.
King's MS. 47. Coningsby's Hospital at Hereford. Copy of the Foundation Deed, 1st July 1617.
King's MS. 47. Copy of a portion of Sir F. Coningsby's Will relating to the Hospital, 10th August 1616.
King's MS. 47. Rules hung up in the Chapel there.
King's MS. 47. Form of Prayer used in the Hospital during Thanksgiving.
Harl. 700. Value of the Estates of the Earl of Hereford.
Harl. 6856. Domesday Book of Hereford.
Harl. 1667. Hereford (County), Compotus de.

Manuscripts. 217

Harl. 4131. }
Harl. 6695. } Hereford Crown Lands, Rentals and Grants of.
Harl. 5013. Hereford Survey of.
Harl. 5223. Hereford Descriptio Hundredorum.
Harl. 6726, 6868, 7189. Hereford Collections for its History and Antiquities.
Harl. 259, 2122. Hereford High Sheriffs, etc., Lists of.
Harl. 1192, 762, 6720, 6765. Hereford Knights' Fees, and Tenures in.
Harl. 6766, 6767. Hereford Valuation of Estates.
Harl. 1192. Hereford Military State of.
Harl. 595, 1087. Hereford Bishops, Succession of.
Harl. 1850, 5223. Hereford Taxation of.
Harl. 469. Hereford Accounts of.
Harl. 4056, 7032. Hereford History of.
Harl. 7043, 6203. Hereford Extract of Register.
Harl. 4046. Hereford (City), History of.
Harl. 606. Hereford Lands, Notes on.
Harl. 2041. Hereford Mayors, etc., Lists of.
Harl. 695. Hereford Cathedral, Catalogus MSS. in Bibliotheca.
Harl. 6203. Hereford Extracts from Register.
Harl. 396, 4343. Hereford Statuta.
Harl. 4833. Hereford Acta.
Harl. 6748. Hereford (Canon. de) Cartæ.
Harl. 607. Hereford (Chantries), Demises of.
Harl. 4343. Hereford Ethelberti (S.) Hospitalis Statuta.
Harl. 2983. Hereford Ordinale Ecclesiæ Herefordensis.

HEREFORD, BISHOPS OF.

Arundel, 19, f. 31 b. Breton, John, Bishop of H., ob. 1275. Licentiæ pro ecclesia de Wollastone et capella de Alvington confirmatio per eum; in Chartulario de Tinterna.
Arundel, 19, f. 31 b. Bruse, Ægidius de, Bishop of H., ob. 1215. Licentiæ pro ecclesia de Wollastone et capella de Alvington confirmatio per eum; in Chartulario de Tinterna.
Arundel, 19, f. 31 b. Equeblank, Peter de, Bp. of H., ob. 1268. Licentiæ pro ecclesia de Wollastone et capella de Alvington confirmatio per eum; in Chartulario de Tinterna.
Arundel, 19, f. 31 b. Mapenore, Hugh de, Bp. of H., ob. 1219. Licentiæ pro ecclesia de Wollastone et capella de Alvington confirmatio per eum; in Chartulario de Tinterna. Mayew, Richard, President of Magd. Coll., Oxford, Bp, of H., ob. 1516. Epistolæ ad eum.
Arundel, 249, f. 81. H.G. Scholasticus Collegii Magd. Oxon. temp. Hen. VII. Epistola ad Richardum Mayew præsidem Collegii Magdalensis.
Arundel, 249, f. 83. Stokesley, John, President of Magd. Hall, Oxford, Bp. of London, ob. 1539.
Arundel, 249, f. 83. Epistolæ ejusd. ad Richardum Mayew, Archd. Oxon. et Hen. VII. elemosinarium.
Arundel, 249, f. 83 b. Epistola ejus ad Richardum Mayew Harfordiæ episcopum.
Arundel, 149, f. 82. Epistola ejus ad præsulem quendam.

218 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Arundel, 249, f. 82. Epistola anepigrapha, sed fortasse Johannis Stokesley, ut versaretur scriptor in curia Arthuri Principis.
Arundel, 249, f. 82 b. Epistola ejus alia.
Arundel, 249, f. 84 b. Epistola ejus querens de Cancellario, et de scholasticis suis in carcerem commissis. His proposed journey to the Pope mentioned.
Arundel, 151, ff. 169, 179 b. Guinucci, Hieronimo de. Letter to Henry VIII. on the proposed journey of Stokesley, Bp. of London, to the Pope, in order to argue the King's cause. Dat. 2 Febr. 1530. Orig. in cipher, with a transcript. Latin.
Arundel, 19, f. 31. Vere, William de, Bp. of H., ob. 1199. Licentia ejus pro ecclesia de Wollastone et capella de Alvington; in Chartulario de Tinturna.
Burn. 325. Hereford; Communitas fratrum Minorum apud Herefordiam possedit olim, ex dono J. Ledbury, codicem.
Harg. 246, 357. Hereford, Statuta Eccl. Cathedralis Herefordensis.
Harg. 313.8 Do. Excommunicatione Civis Heref. A.D. 1227.
Harg. 193. Do. Deanery of Hereford.

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES.

PORTRAITS OF BISHOPS OF HEREFORD.

Gilbert Ffolliott.- At Ledbury Hospital there is a portrait of this bishop - half-length - on a panel, late sixteenth-century work. It may be a copy of a much older picture.

Herbert Westfaling.- An undoubted original half-length portrait in the Hall of Jesus College, Oxford.

Kyrie Collins, Esq. of Ross, purchased a picture at Rudhall which is supposed to be an original portrait of this bishop.

Herbert Croft.- Sir Herbert Croft, M.P. for this county, possesses an original crayon portrait of his episcopal ancestor. Thomas Evans, Esq., Moreton Court, possesses a small portrait in oils.

Gilbert Ironside.- Original portraits of this bishop are at Wadham College, Oxford, St. Briavel's, and at Cheltenham, in the possession of Mrs. Bax.

Philip Bisse.- A fine portrait in the Hall of New College, Oxford.

Lord James Beauclerk.- Original portraits are in the possession of his descendant Lord Armelius Beauclerk, London, and Thomas Evans, Esq.

George Huntingford.- Portraits at the Palace, Hereford, and the Hall of New College, Oxford.

Thomas Musgrave.- At Moreton Court there is a large and excellent portrait.

R.D. Hampden.- A good portrait of our late respected bishop, by an eminent artist, is in the possession of his family.

The following is an extract from the London Times, February 1867.

"A BISHOP'S GRAVE IN A CLOSED CITY CHURCH.- The removal of the first church closed under the Bishop of London's Union of Benefices Act, that of St. Mary Somerset, Thames Street, has made it necessary to provide for the re-interment of the remains of a bishop who occupied no unimportant position in

Miscellaneous Notes. 219

the history of his time. Gilbert Ironside, D.D., Warden of Wadham College, Oxford, was Vice-Chancellor of the University in 1687, when James II. seized upon the venerable foundation of Magdalen College, and sent his Commissioners to Oxford to expel the Fellows. The Vice-Chancellor, whose replies to the king are still preserved in MS. at Oxford, while preserving towards his Sovereign a perfectly respectful and courteous tone, showed a firm and resolute spirit in defence of the rights of Oxford. With the Royal Commissioners, however, Dr. Ironside was not disposed to stand on any ceremony. They invited him to dine with them on the day of the Magdalen expulsion. His refusal is graphically described by Lord Macaulay:- 'I am not', he said, 'of Colonel Kerke's mind. I cannot eat my meals with appetite under a gallows'. The brave old Warden of Wadham was not left to 'eat his meals' much longer in his beautiful College Hall. William III., almost immediately after his accession, made him Bishop of Bristol, whence he was translated to Hereford, and, dying in 1701 at the London residence of the Bishops of Hereford, in the parish of St. Mary Somerset, was buried in that church, where a gravestone in perfect preservation marks his resting-place. It is understood that the Warden and Fellows of Wadham have expressed to the rector and churchwardens of the parish their wish that the remains of Bishop Ironside may, if possible, be intrusted to them for re-interment in the chapel of the College over which he presided during twenty-five eventful years".

"The Warden and Fellows of Wadham College, on March 20, expressed a further opinion 'that Hereford Cathedral would be the proper resting-place for the remains of Bishop Ironside'. On March 25th, the Dean and Chapter of Hereford consented to a proposal that the remains and marble slab of Bishop Ironside should be removed to the precincts of their Cathedral, but, having no funds for this purpose, they were unable to undertake the expense connected therewith".

The church of St. Mary Somerset, was dismantled, and the dead removed from the vaults, in the autumn of 1867. The remains of Bishop Ironside were found encased in lead only; no traces of an outer coffin were seen. This circumstance is easily accounted for. A tradition had always been current that this bishop was buried in a silver coffin; but whatever the metallic ornaments originally were, it was clearly proved on opening the vault that they had some long time ago been disturbed, and the whole of the outer coffins removed or stolen. The lead coffin was opened by the Burial Board authorities in London for the purpose of identification. So perfect were the remains, that the skin was not broken, and the features of the placid-looking bishop were undisturbed. This was immediately secured and transferred by railway to Hereford Cathedral, when, on December 24, in the presence of the Dean, Archdeacon, and Præcentor, the remains of Bishop Ironside were laid in a vault specially prepared in the south-east transept. The original black marble slab, which is in excellent preservation, marks the spot. The expenses were defrayed by public subscription, of which a complete record will be found in the "Donors' Book" in the Cathedral Library.

The binding of this volume is a facsimile of one of the books in the Cathedral Library. Destructorium Viciorum, date 1516. N. vii. 12.

Note.- Page 165, line 10.- Part of this inscription is so indistinct that the correct reading appears to be:- "Descripcio Orosii de ornesta mundi". "Glearum" is the correct reading for Gloucester. During the copying of the Map there have been peculiar facilities for deciphering the indistinct parts - June to September 1869.

Cathedral Archives.- The Dean and Chapter possess a large number of ancient deeds. Eleven hundred and forty of them have been catalogued, while a much larger number are still in confusion. I have once been favoured with a sight of this catalogue, but having had no access to the documents (with the exception of a small number), much valuable and important information may have been lost to me. These MSS. are generally in a very sound and perfect state, with splendid seals, etc. - a perfect mine of wealth to future writers on the antiquities of Hereford Cathedral.

The collection of music in the Cathedral and College is too valuable to be passed over in silence. In the choir there are nearly 500 volumes of music, in a much better state than choir- books are generally found. In the College there is a good collection of glee-music, and the Choral Society has an excellent library of orchestral music.

220 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Conclusion.- Having already exceeded the prescribed limits of this work, I find myself obliged to lay aside several papers on matters of local interest, such as the following:- Cathedral ornaments and gifts, ancient and modern; notes on episcopal vestments; legend of the apparition of a demon in A.D. 1290; notes on Registers and Act Books, etc. etc. To the subscribers generally my best thanks are due, as without their substantial aid no local work of this description could be produced except with risk and loss. I would ask for indulgent criticism on these pages, which have doubtless many defects, and are put forth with much diffidence. My sincere thanks are specially due to those many friends and correspondents who have so kindly supplied information whenever it was sought.

THE END.

List of Subscribers. 221

Right Hon. The Earl Beauchamp, Madresfield Court.
Right Hon. The Earl of Kellie, C.B., Alloa Park.
Right Hon. and Venerable Lord Saye and Sele, D.C.L., Broughton Castle.
Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Hereford.
Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Worcester.
Sir Richard Baggallay, Q.C., London.
Sir Harford J. Brydges, Bart., Boultibrooke, Presteign.
The Rev. Sir George Cornewall, Bart., Moccas Court.
Sir Herbert Croft, Bart., M.P., Lugwardine Court.
Sir William Guise, Bart., Elmore Court, Gloucester.
Sir Stephen Glynne, Hawarden Castle, Chester.
Rev. Sir Frederic Arthur Gore Ouseley, Mus. Doc., Bart., St. Michael's College, Tenbury.
Sir Edwyn F. Scudamore Stanhope, Bart., Holme Lacy.
Sir Thomas Winnington, Bart., Stanford Court.

The Very Rev. the Deans and Chapters of the following Cathedrals:-

Canterbury. Lichfield.
Durham. Lincoln.
Ely. Manchester.
Exeter. Norwich.
Gloucester. Worcester.
Hereford.

Rev. J.C. Murray Aynsley, Great Brampton.
Rev. Charles Awdry, M.A., Rector of Worthen.
Rev. K W. Benson, D.D., Wellington College.
Rev. E. Bulmer, M.A., Rector of Moreton-on-Lugg.
Rev. T. Canning, M.A., Rector of Tupsley.
Rev. D. Capper, M.A., Lyston.
Rev. R. Cattley, M.A., Minor Canon of Worcester Cathedral.
Rev. A.W. Chatfield, M.A., Vicar of Much Marcle.
Rev. J.E. Cheese, Vicar of Bosbury.

222 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Rev. E.G. Childe, M.A., Vicar of Cleobury Mortimer.
Rev. Archer Clive, M.A., Whitfield Court.
Rev. J. Clutton, M.A., Prebendary of Norton.
Rev. W. Hayward Cox, B.D., Rector of Eaton Bishop.
Rev. G. Custance, M.A., Rector of Co1wa1L
Rev. G.H. Davenport, Vicar of Yazor.
Rev. James Davies, M.A., Moor Court.
Rev. Richard Davies, M.A., Holmer.
Rev. Robert Dixon, M.A., Head Master of the High School, Nottingham.
Rev. E. Du Buisson, M.A., Vicar of Breinton.
Rev. W.D. V. Duncombe, M.A., Hereford.
Rev. W. Dyke, M.A., Rector of Badgington.
Rev. H.T. Ellacombe, M.A., Rector of Clyst St. George, Devon.
Rev. John Evans, M.A., Hereford.
Rev. W.E. Evans, M.A., Canon of Hereford Cathedral.
Rev. W.B. Gale, Rector of Willersey.
Ven. J. Garbett, M.A., Archdeacon of Chichester.
Rev. J. Goss, M.A., Vicar of St. John Baptist, Hereford.
Rev. W.H. Gretton, M.A., late of Goodrich.
Rev. G.C. Guise, Rector of Pulverbatch.
Rev. Herbert Haines, M.A., Gloucester.
Rev. Edward Hampden, M.A., Rector of Cradley.
Rev. John Hanbury, M.A., late of Hereford.
Hon. and Rev. Arthur Bateman Hanbury, M.A., Rector of Shobdon.
Rev. W. Heather, LL.D., Vicar of Dilwyn.
Hon. and Very Rev. George Herbert, M.A., Dean of Hereford Cathedral.
Rev. J.W. Hernaman, M.A., Great Malvern.
Rev. H.T. Hill, M.A., Rector of Felton.
Rev. John Hopton, M.A., Vicar of Canon-Frome.
Rev. W.P. Hopton, M.A., Vicar of Bishop's-Frome.
Rev. W. Hulme, M.A., Rector of Brampton Abbots.
Rev. E. Jacson, M.A., Rector of Thruxton.
Rev. John Jebb, D.D., Rector of Peterstow.
Rev. Christopher J. Jones, M.A., Vicar of Westbury-on-Severn.
Rev. J.H. Jukes, M.A., late of Withington, Hereford.
Rev. J.M. Kennedy, Vicar of Rowlstone.
Rev. W.R. Lawrence, M.A., Vicar of Ewyas Harold.
Rev. H.R. Lloyd, M.A., Vicar of Kennington.
Rev. E.S. Lowndes, M.A., Cleobury Mortimer.
Rev. W.E. Lumb, M.A., Vicar of Halford.
Rev. H.W. Maddock, M.A., St. John's Wood, London.

List of Subscribers. 223

Rev. W.K. Marshall, B D , Rector of Panton with Wragby.
Rev. W.N. Milman, M.A., Sion College, London.
Rev. W. Peete Musgrave, M.A., Canon of Hereford Cathedral.
Rev. H.W. Phillott, M.A., Rector of Staunton-on-Wye.
Rev. W. Poole, M.A., Vicar of Hentland.
Rev. W. Powell, M.A., Hinton House.
Rev. T.B. Power, M.A., Vicar of Upton Bishop.
Rev. John Purton, M.A., Rector of Oldbury.
Rev. F.R. Raines, M.A., Vicar of Milnrow, Rochdale.
Rev. W.F. Raymond, M.A., Rector of Stockton.
Rev. F. Reavely, Rector of Kinnersley.
Rev. C.J. Robinson, M.A., Vicar of Norton Canon.
Hon. and Rev. H. Rodney, M.A., Vicar of Eye.
Rev. Eric J.S. Rudd, M.A., Head Master of Hereford Cathedral School.
Rev. J. Sansom, B.A., Rector of Buslingthorpe, Lincoln.
Rev. W. Sparrow Simpson, M.A., Minor Canon of St. Paul's Cathedral.
Rev. Isaac Gregory Smith, Rector of Tedstone Delamere.
Rev. T. Thistlethwaite Smith, Hereford.
Rev. B.L. Stanhope, M.A., Rector of Byford.
Rev. Charles Taylor, B.D., Rector of Great Cressingham, Norfolk.
Rev. W. Thorn, Worcester.
Rev. Charles Underwood, M.A., Vicar of Diddlebury.
Rev. Richard Underwood, M.A., Vicar of All Saints, Hereford.
Rev. R.B. Vaughan, Prior of St. Michael's College, Belmont.
Ven. and Rev. Archdeacon Waring, M.A., Rector of Burwarton.
Rev. J.M. Ware, LL.B., Rector of Ullingswick.
Rev. T.W. Weare, M.A., Rector of Isfield, Sussex.
Rev. T.W. Webb, M.A., Vicar of Hardwick.
Rev. T. West, M.A., Vicar of Fownhope.
Very Rev. T. Williams, M.A., Dean of Llandaff.
Rev. R.H. Williams, B.A., Vicar of Bridge Sollers.
Rev. H.O. Wilson, M.A., Rector of Church Stretton.
Rev. C.T. Wilton, M.A., Vicar of Foy.
Rev. J.R. Wood, M.A., Canon Residentiary of Worcester Cathedral.
Rev. F. Wood, M.A., Vicar of Newent.
Rev. J. Woollam, M.A., Vicar of Yarkhill.

G.E. Adams, Esq., Heralds' College, London.
G. Anderson, Esq., George Street, Edinburgh.
Charles Anthony, Esq., Mayor of Hereford.
John Arkwright, Esq., Hampton Court, Leominster.

224 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Arthur Armitage, Esq., Dadnor, Ross.
George Bagnall, Esq., The Promenade, Cheltenham.
John Bagnall, Esq., The Moss, Lichfield.
Alfred Baldwin, Esq., Bewdley.
Thomas Balston, Esq., Chart Hill, Staplehurst.
R. Banks, Esq., Kington.
George Barter, Esq., M.A., Hereford.
Henry C. Beddoe, Esq., Hereford.
F.L. Bodenham, Esq., Hereford.
John Bosley, Esq., Lower Lyde.
W.C. Brangwyn, Esq., Bruges, Belgium.
Henry G. Bull, Esq., M.D., Hereford.
Thomas Cam, Esq., Hereford.
G. Carew, Esq., Crowcombe Court, Somerset.
E. Chadwick, Esq., Puddlestone Court.
E. Chance, Esq., Great Malvern.
Henry Chellingworth, Esq., Grendon Court, Ross.
W. Chick, Esq., Hereford.
J.H. Cleave, Esq., Hereford.
J. Clowes, Esq., Burton Court.
Kyrle Collins, Esq., Wilton Dale, Ross.
William Cooke, Esq., Q.C., Judge of County Courts.
Henry Crane, Esq., Oakhampton, Stourport.
W. Daggs, Esq., Leominster.
W. Corner Davis, Esq., Liverpool.
Mr. John Davies, East Street, Hereford.
T.T. Davies, Esq., Hereford.
F.T. Dolman, Esq., London.
J. Bickerton Evans, Esq., Whitbourne Hall.
Thomas Evans, Esq., Moreton Court.
Edmund B. Ferrey, Esq., Charing Cross, London.
Lieutenant-Colonel Fielden, V.C., Dulas Court.
J. Fleming, Esq., Q.C., 25 Old Square, Lincoln's Inn Fields.
W.F. Forsyth, Esq., Denham Green, Edinburgh.
J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq., Hereford.
James Gardiner, Esq., Hanover Street, Edinburgh.
F. Garrard, Esq., Suffolk Street, Pall Mall, London.
Charles Gresley, Esq., Lichfield.
Hon. W. Grey, Cheltenham.
Colonel F.D. Grey, Ireland.
C.C. Whitney Griffiths, Esq., Worcester.

List of Subscribers. 225

H.F. Groves, Esq., Clapham Common, London.
Edwin Guest, Esq., LL.D., F.R.S., Master of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.
Messrs. Hardman and Company, Birmingham.
W. Harrison, Esq., Holmer Hall.
W.H. Hart, Esq., F.S.A., Roupell Park, Streatham.
Charles Henman jun., Esq., Bedford Villas, Croydon.
Dr. C.W. Henry, Haffield, Ledbury.
I. Anderson Henry, Esq., Hay Lodge, Trinity, Edinburgh.
Richard Hereford, Esq., Sufton Court, Hereford.
W.P. Herrick, Esq., Beau Manor Park, Loughboro.
E.S. Hutchinson, Esq., Longworth, Hereford.
William Jay, Esq., The Highway, Lyde.
Richard Jones, Esq., Blisworth.
F. Kempson, Esq., Hereford.
A.R. Boughton Knight, Esq., Downton Castle.
J.H. Knight, Esq., Castle Street, Hereford.
Colonel Ernley Money Kyrle, Homme House, Ledbury.
Mr. Ladmore, Hereford.
John Lambe, Esq., Hereford.
John Lambert, Esq., Mayfield, Clapham.
Theophilus Lane, Esq., Hereford.
J.W. Laycock, Esq., Keighley, Yorkshire.
C. Lingen, Esq., Hereford.
J. Lloyd, Esq., Huntington Court.
A. Lockwood, Esq., Regent's Park Road, London.
T. Marshall, Esq., Leominster.
Colonel Martin, late Bengal 57th Native Infantry.
C.G. Martin, Esq., Hereford. W. Mason, Esq., Leintwardine.
W. Miller, Esq., Hereford. Henry Moore, Esq., Leominster.
J.D. Niblett, Esq., Tuffley, Gloucester.
J. Gough Nicholls, Esq., Parliament Street, Westminster.
T. Nicholson, Esq., Hereford.
J. Nott, Esq., Great Malvern.
W. Watkins Old, Esq., Monmouth.
R.F. Onslow, Esq., Newent.
F.A. Paley, Esq., Cambridge.
Gambier Parry, Esq., Highnam Court, Gloucester.
Mr. E.J. Partridge, Ludlow.

226 Antiquarian Memorials of Hereford.

Evan Pateshall, Esq., Allensmore.
Major Peploe Peploe, Garnston.
Mr. J.C. Powles, Hereford.
Edward Prestage, Esq., Manchester.
G.S. Prout, Esq., Ilfracombe.
James Rankin, Esq., Bryngwin.
J.J. Reynolds, Esq., Hereford.
John Rocke, Esq., Clungunford House.
T.A. Rogers, Esq., Hanover Square, London.
J.E. Rolls, Esq., Monmouth.
George Gilbert Scott, Esq., R.A., Spring Gardens, London.
G. Townshend Smith, Esq., Hereford.
Josiah Smith, Esq., Q.C., Judge of County Courts, Hereford.
J.F. Suter, Esq., Hereford.
Colonel Symonds, Pengethley, Ross.
Frederick Symonds, Esq., Hereford.
Thomas Tandy, Esq., Ely Place, London.
Arthur Thompson, Esq., Hereford.
H.F. Thompson, Esq., Baltimore, Maryland.
Richard Underwood, Esq., Castle Street, Hereford.
Thomas Usborne, Esq., Ecclestone Square, London.
G.J.A. Walker, Esq., Norton Villa, Worcester.
J. Severn Walker, Esq., Worcester.
R. Ward, Esq., Leominster.
Albert Way, Esq., Wonham Manor, Reigate.
T. Wakeman, Esq. (Executors of the late), Monmouth.
S. Wilson, Esq., Hereford.
R. Woof, Esq., Worcester.
L.R. Wrightson, Esq., Kingston-on-Thames.
Right Hon. The Lady Mary Windsor Clive, Oakley Park.
Right Hon. The Lady Emily Foley, Stoke Edith Park.
Right Hon. The Lady Frances Harcourt, The Homme, Weobley.
Right Hon. The Lady Heywood, Doveleys, Derbyshire.
Mrs. Stackhouse Acton, Acton Scott, Salop.
Miss Atwood, Worcester.
Mrs. Burlton, Lower Lyde Court.
Mrs. Bouchier, Hereford.
Miss Cam, Hereford.
Mrs. J. Cooke, Moreton House.
Mrs. J.C. Cooke, Newent.

List of Subscribers. 227

Mrs. Crane, Oakhampton, Stourport.
Mrs. Delamain (late of West Malvern).
Mrs. Lane Freer, West Malvern.
Mrs. Farrar, Willow Brook, Windsor.
Miss Ellen Gethen, Hereford.
Hon. Mrs. E. Grey, Cheltenham.
Miss Guthrie, Pool House, Hereford.
Mrs. Wren Hoskyns, Harewood.
Miss F.R. Havergal, Leamington.
Mrs. Huntingford, Great Malvern.
Miss Hampden, Eaton Place, London.
Mrs. Johnson, The Steppes, Hereford.
Miss M. King, St. John's Street, Hereford.
Mrs. Marshall, Worcester.
Mrs. Merewether (late of Hereford and Lugwardine).
Miss M.A. Morgan, Thorpe Lubenham, Market Harbro'.
Miss Nott, Leamington.
Miss Ann Parry, Breinton.
Mrs. Phillips, Ludlow.
Mrs. Ranken, Cargilfield, Edinburgh.
Hon. Miss Rushout, Burford House, Tenbury.
Miss Stanley, Hereford (late of).
Mrs. Giles Shaw, Winterdyne, Bewdley.
Mrs. Alexander Shaw, Stoke, Guildford.
Miss Stokes, Hereford.
Mrs. John Underwood, Hereford.
Miss Webb, Chesham Place, Belgrave Square, London.
Mrs. A. Wilson, St. Anne's, Cheltenham.
Miss Eleanor Williams, Ethelbert House, Hereford.

The Society of Antiquaries, London.
The Royal Institute of British Architects, London.
The Custos and Vicars, Hereford.
The Permanent Library, Hereford.

Plate XXVI

GROUND PLAN OF HEREFORD CATHEDRAL

References to Ground Plan of Hereford Cathedral.

A.A. Extent of Nave before the fall of the Western Tower on Easter Monday, 1786.
B. Inner North Porch with Parvise. Decorated period.
C. Outer Porch built by Bishop Booth, circa 1520-30.
There is carved on the head of a small external Doorway, "Anno Domini 1519".
The North Transept was dedicated to St. Katherine.
D. Bishop Cantilupe's Aisle.
E. Bishop Stanbury's Chantry, circa 1470.
F. North-east Transept.
G. South-east Transept.
H. Vestibule of Lady Chapel.
J. Stone Staircase to Crypt.
K. Porch and external entrance to Crypt.
The Lady Chapel has been used as the Parish Church of St. John the Baptist since 1863.
L. Bishop Audley's Chantry, circa 1500.
M. The Treasury, now used as the Canons' Vestry.
N. Chapter House, formerly very beautiful. Decorated period. Foundations and part of south side only remaining.
O. "The Ladye Arbour". A small fifteenth-century Chamber over vaulting of Cloister.
P. Remains of northern wall of ancient Norman chapels dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene and St. Katherine.
Q. Site of ancient stone cross. Beneath is a curious well.
R. The Palace. Residence of the Lord Bishop.
S. The College. Residences for the Vicar's Choral.
T. The School attached to the Cathedral. Residence of the Head Master, &c.
V. The Deanery. Enlarged and improved 1868.
W. Site of ancient Library and Grammar School, on which a large Music Room stood from 1760 to 1836.

MONUMENTS.

1. Bishop Boothe. 1535.
5. Bishop Westfaling. 1601.
6. Bishop Thomas Charleton. 1343.
8. Bishop Thomas de Cantelupe. 1282.
9. Bishop Theophilus Field. 1636.
10. Dean Aquablanca. 1310.
11. Bishop Peter de Aquablanca. 1268.
*14. Bishop Hugh de Mapenore. 1219. This and the other effigies marked thus * are fourteenth-century productions.
*16. Bishop Geoffrey de Clive. 1119.
18. Bishop Robert Bennett. 1617.
*19. Bishop Giles de Braose. 1216.
21. Bishop John Stanbury. 1474.
*23. Bishop Richard de Capella. 1127.
*25. Bishop Raynelm. 1115.
30. Bishop Richard de Swinfield. 1316.
32. Altar Tomb ascribed to Bishop Purfey, alias Warton. 1557.
35. Tomb unknown. Effigy of a layman.
35b. Incised slab, Gilbert de Swinfield, Chancellor. 1299.
36. In Crypt. Incised alabaster tomb to Andrew Jones and wife. 1497.
37. John Merewether, D.D., Dean. 1850.
40. Sir Peter de Grandison. Circa 1358.
41. Tomb of Johanna de Bohun. 1327.
47. Dean Borne. 1462.
50. Bishop Lewis de Charleton. 1369.
51. Bishop George Coke or Conk. 1646.
56. Slab and Marble Bust of Mr. James Thomas. 1757.
57. Marble slab to Canon Hugh Morgan. 1809.
Marble slab to Bishop Humphrey Humphreys. 1712.
59. Slab to Dean Benson. 1692.
Slab to Bishop Herbert Croft. 1691.
Slab to Bishop Gilbert Ironside. 1701. Removed to this spot December, 1867.
60. Effigy of Bishop Augustine Lindsell. 1634.
61. Dean Harvey. 1501.
*69. Bishop William de Vere. 1199.
*70. Bishop Robert Foliot. 1176.
*71. Bishop Robert de Betun. 1148.
*72. Bishop Robert de Melun. 1167.
*73. Bishop Robert de Lozing. 1095.
Bishop Philip Bisse. 1721. Also, his lady the Countess of Plymouth.
Bishop Hon. Edward Grey. 1837. Also, his son Arthur, Lieut. R.N. 1854.
77. Alabaster Tomb, Sir R. Denton and lady. 1566.
78. Bishop John Trevenant. 1404.
79. Monument to Bishop Tyler (of Llandaff), Dean of Hereford. 1724.
82. Effigy of an ecclesiastic - unknown.
83. Effigy. Fourteenth century. A Treasurer - unknown.
84. Tomb, Sir Richard Pembridge. 1375.
100. Monument to Colonel Matthews. 1826.
101. Monument to Bishop Edward Grey. 1837.
102. Monument to Bishop George Huntingford. 1832.
103. Monument to Dr. Clarke Whitfield. 1836.
Monument to Dr. John Clutton. 1838.
107. Monument - public memorial to R. Jones Powell, Esq. 1834.
109. Dean Dawes, place of burial. 1867.

There are eighty-seven mural monuments in the Bishop's Cloisters.

References to Ground Plan of Hereford Cathedral.

MEMORIAL AND OTHER STAINED GLASS WINDOWS.

2. Window of two lights, by Warrington, 1862. Rev. Canon Clutton, D.D.
4. Magnificent window of six lights, by Hardman, 1864, to Richard Lane Freer, D.D., Archdeacon of Hereford. Erected as a public memorial.
7b. Window of three lights, by Wailes, 1867, to memory of Captain Henry Arkwright, 84th Regiment, lost on the Alps, Oct. 13, 1866.
17. Window of two lights, by Clayton & Bell, 1862, to John Hunt, Organist of this Cathedral, 1842.
24. Window of four lights; and two small windows in Stanbury Chantry, by Warrington, 1862, to the memory of Archbishop Musgrave, 1860.
34. Window of four lights, fourteenth century, restored by Warrington, 1864.
42. Five windows, by Charles Gibbs, 1852. public memorial to John Merewether, D.D., Dean of this Church.
43a. Six windows on north side, and two windows on south side of Lady Chapel to various members of Canon Morgan's family. By Charles Gibbs, 1807.
45. Fragments of original glass in upper windows of Audley Chantry. Two windows in lower part, the gift of Charles Gibbs, 1868.
46. Two windows, ancient glass. Restored circa 1848.
53. Window of four lights, by Warrington, 1863, to the memory of Bishop Hunting-ford, 1832. Erected at the sole cost of the Venerable Lord Saye and Sele.
65. Ancient glass, four lights, restored by Warrington, 1864.
97. Six windows of two lights, by Castell, 1848. The centre east window, an anonymous gift in 1851, by Hardman.

BRASSES.

3. By Moring, 1867, to Eliz. Bissell, 1738, and Eliz. Farington, 1747.
4. By Hardman, 1864, to Archdeacon Lane Freer, D.D.
7b. By Wailes, 1867, to Captain Arkwright.
8. Small fragment from this tomb, preserved in the Vestry.
12. By Skidmore, I862, to John Phillips, 1708.
17. Two inscribed plates to John Hunt and nephew, 1842.
20. Bishop John Trilleck, 1360.
21. Latin verses on brass plate. Bishop John Stanbury, 1474.
24. Inscription to Archbishop Musgrave (ob. 1860), erected 1862.
31. Brass, by Hardman, 1860, to Terry family.
37. Brass plate, by Hardman, 1863, to Dean Merewether, 1850.
38. Fine brass to Richard Delamare and lady, 1435.
48. Fragment of brass, Canon Richard de la Barr, 1386.
49. Inscription to Joseph Bailey,Esq., M.P., 1850,
52. Portion of brass, Archdeacon Martyn (2), 1483.
58. Brass, to Sir R. Delabere and family, 1513.
59. Brass by Gawthorpe, 1868, to Bishop Ironside.
62. Dean Chaundeler, 1490.
63. Brass to Canon Charles Morgan, 1789. Restored by Gawthorp, 1868. Fragments of several ancient brasses.
66. Brass to Dean Frowcester, 1529.
67. Brass-work to the tomb of Bishop Mayo. Restored by Gawthorp, 1867.
74. Brass plates to Harford family, 1669-80.
79. Brass to Rev. Adam Walker, 1868.
80. Brass to Richard Philips, 1532.
92. Brass, by Gawthorp, to Bishop the Hon. Edward Grey, 1837.

MISCELLANEOUS OBJECTS OF INTEREST.

7. Stone Coffin, thirteenth century.
28. Shields and fragments of early Coffins.
27. Incised slab prepared (as supposed) for Sir John Devereux (ob. 1394), and his Lady, daughter of Sir John Barre.
28. Five stone effigies of unknown lay persons.
29. Matrix of fourteenth-century brass to an Ecclesiastic.
32. Temporary position of old Oak Pulpit.
43. Fifteenth-century Encaustic Tiles.
54. Ancient image of St. John the Baptist.
55. Curious early Capitals.
68. Map of the World, restored 1856 and 1868.
75. The Organ, built circa 1686, rebuilt 1864.
76. Glass case containing miscellaneous ancient objects.
81. Carved Door Head. Old Colours of 36th Regiment.
85. Norman Font.
88. Oak Pulpit, temp. James I.
87. Brass Lectern, 1852, by Potter.
88. THE SCREEN, by G.G. Scott, R.A., manufactured by Skidmore, of Coventry, 1863.
89. Large metal Corona, by Skidmore.
91. The Bishop's Throne, and ancient carved oak Stalls, altogether sixty in number.
92. Ancient stone Effigy of Ring Ethelbert.
93. The Bishop's ancient oak Chair.
94. Oak Altar Table, rich modern Cloths, Fittings, &c.
95. The Reredos. Public memorial to Joseph Bailey, Jun., Esq., M.P., 1850.
96. Richly carved Spandril over Reredos.

* (Asterisks to Ground Plan). Positions of the Stoves erected 1867.

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