Herefordshire Words and Phrases

Francis Havergal, Vicar of Upton Bishop in 1887, published a book on the words and phrases in use in Herefordshire. He did so to record their existence. He was part of a movement to record the dialects of England prevalent at the end of the 19thC. His book has been scanned, transcribed and published in web form.


HEREFORDSHIRE
WORDS & PHRASES.

HEREFORDSHIRE
WORDS & PHRASES,

Colloquial and Archaic,
ABOUT 1300 IN NUMBER, CURRENT IN THE COUNTY.

BY
FRANCIS T. HAVERGAL, M.A.,
Prebendary of Colwell in Hereford Cathedral and Vicar of Upton Bishop.

WALSALL: W. HENRY ROBINSON.
1887.

Subscribers.

The Society of Antiquaries, London
Mr. F. Hamp Adams, Upton Bishop
Captain E. Mynde Allen, Upton Bishop
H.G. Apperley, Esq., Hereford
J.H. Arkwright, Esq., Hampton Court, Leominster
B. St. J. Attwood Matthews, Esq., Pontrilas Court
Rev. A.C. Auchmuty, V. Lucton
Right Hon. Earl Beauchamp, Madresfield Court
Sir Joseph Bailey, Bart., M.P., Glanusk Park
Mr. John Baldwin, Upton Bishop
Rev. A. Bannister, Ledbury
Rev. J. Barker, V. Eardisland
Henry C. Beddoe, Esq., Hereford
Rev. S. Bentley, V. Bosbury
Miss Bernard, Overross
Miss Bodenham, Castle Street, Hereford
Mr. J.L. Brace, Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas
J.A. Bradney, Esq., Talycoed, Monmouth
Arthur H. Brown, Esq., Ross
Rev. J. Buckle, V. Stretton Grandison
Mrs. Bull, Harley House, Hereford
Rev. C. Burrough, R. Eaton Bishop
Rev. G. Balmer, V. Canon Pyon
Right Hon. the Earl of Chesterfield, Hom Lacy
E. Caddick, Esq., Edgbaston
Thomas Cam, Esq., Hereford
Rev. A.J. Capel, V. St. John Baptist
J. Carless, Esq., St. John's Street
Paul Chapman, Esq., M.D., Hereford
Mr. Edwin Chelake, Sutton
Mrs. Chellingworth, Grendon Court
Rev. W.S. Clarke, C. Bodenham
Mr. Robert Clarke, Hereford
Rev. G.H. Clay, R. Aston
Rev. Prebendary Cobbold, R. Ross
Rev. Canon W. Cooke, 6, Clifton Place, Sussex Square, W.
John Cooke, Esq., M.D., Warrior Square, St. Leonards
E.C. Cooke, Esq., 21, Masonic Institute, Croydon
Rev. G.V. Collison, V. Clodock
E.W. Colt Williams, Esq., Gate House, Hereford
J. Cranston, Esq., King's Acre
O.E. Cresswell, Esq., Morney Cross
Mrs. Dansey, Westmoreland Road, Bayswater
James Davies, Esq., Broomy Hill
Rev. H. Dew, R. Whitney
Rev. W.D.V. Duncombe, Custos of the College
W. Farrar Ecroyd, Credenhill
Rev. H. St. H. Evans, Fownhope
Rev. R. Firmstone, V. Kilpec
J.T. Owen Fowler, Esq., Thornton, Hereford
R.W. Gillespie, Esq., Walsall
Rev. A. Gray, V. Orcop
Rev. J.G. Graham, V. Cowarne
Rev. C.E. Maddison Green, V. Lyonshall
Right Rev. The Lord Bishop of Hereford
Hereford Free Library
Hereford Permanent Library
Mrs. Hamilton, Holcombe, Somerset
G.B. Hanbury, Esq., Castle Street
Sir Richard Harington, Whitbourne Court
Mr. Arthur Harrison, Anderton Road, Birmingham
W. Hebb, Esq., Ross
Colonel T. Heywood, Ocle Court
Rev. R. Hereford, R. Mordiford
Mrs. Hislop, Upton Bishop
Rev. W.W. Hill, V. Ocle
W. Hogarth, Esq., Upton Bishop
Rev. E.J. Holloway, V. Clehonger
Rev. S. Holmes, R. St. Nicholas
Rev. Michael Hopton, V. Canon Frome
Rev. W. Hulme, R. Brampton Abbots
W. Humfrys, Esq., Hereford
Arthur Hutchinson, Esq., Hagley
Messrs. Jakeman and Carver, Hereford
J. Gwynne James, Esq., Mayor of Hereford
Mrs. Jay, Lyde Arundel
Mr. Joseph Jones, Hereford
Rev. Prebedary Joyce, R. Burford
Rev. F.W. Joyce, R. Boraston
Rev. J.M. Kennedy, V. Rowlstone
Miss M.C. King-King, St. John's Street
Rev. G.H. Kirwood, V. St. Martin's
J.H. Knight, Esq., Vaga House
Rev. W.H. Lambert, R. Stoke Edith
Rev. A.C. Lee, V. Lugwardine
Mr. A.G. Levason, Hereford
Mr. Lippiatt, Upton Bishop
Edwin Lloyd, Esq., Leominster
Mr. James Lloyd, Kington
Mrs. Lloyd, The Broadgate, Ludlow
Rev. J.J. Lomax, V. Breinton
Manchester Free Library
Rev. H.B. Marshall, V. Norton Canon
C.G. Martin, Esq., Hereford
S.R. Mathews, Esq., M.D., Hereford
John J. Merriman, Esq., 45, Kensington Square
Harold C. Moffatt, Esq., Goodrich Court
Colonel E. Money-Kyrle, Homme House
Mr. James Morgan, Ashperton School
H.C. Moore, Esq., M.R.C.S., 26, Broad Street
Rev. Canon W.P. Musgrave, Hereford
W.G. Norris, Esq., Coalbrookdale
Nottingham Free Library
Rev. Sir F.G. Ouseley, Bart., Precentor and Canon Residentiary
Mrs. Oldham, Hampton Park Villas
Rev. Phipps Onslow, R. Upper Sapey
Rev. E. Orde Powlett, V. Eye
Rev. H.S. Oswell, R. Llandinabo
Miss Rebekah Owen, New York
J.D. Ozanne, Esq., Berkeley
T. D'Oyley Pain, Esq., Pontrilas
Rev. E. Palin, V. Linton
Major T. Palmer, Eardisley
Rev. C.S. Palmer, R. Eardisley
Mr. T.C. Paris, Hampton Lodge
Rev. E. Parry, V. Dulas
Mrs. Partridge, Farchynys, Barmouth
Rev. G. Pellew, R. Peterstow
Rev. Chancellor Phillott, R. Staunton-on-Wye
Mr. E.J. Pilley, Eigne Street
Mr. Walter Pilley, 2, High Town
Rev. Prebendary Poole, V. Hentland
Rev. Andrew Pope, V. Delbury
Rev. Prebendary Powell, Hinton Court
Captain K.M. Power, Ross
Courtenay C. Prance, Esq., Hatherley Court, Cheltenham
J.E. Prestage, Esq., Manchester
Rev. D. Price, R. Little Marcle
Mr. G. Alexander Prince, Upton Bishop
J. Pulley, Esq., Lower Eaton
J. Rankin, Esq., M.P., Bryngwyn
Rev. Prior Raynal, Belmont Priory
J.J. Reynolds, Esq., Hereford
Rev. O.M. Ridley, R. Bishopstone
J.A. Rolls, Esq., The Hendre, Monmouth
Mr. C. Rootes, Barroll Street, Hereford
Rev. W.H. Rushy, R. Felton
Right Hon. and Ven. Lord Saye and Sele, Hereford
T.J. Salwey, Esq., Guildhall, Ludlow
Rev. A.D. Saunders, R. Sutton St. Nicholas
Rev. W.J. Sawyer, Woodlands, Ross
Rev. T. Shackleton, Minor Canon, Hereford
Rev. W.R. Shepherd, V. Preston-on-Wye
Rev. Prebendary T. Ayscough Smith, V. Tenbury
Rev. Prebendary I. Gregory Smith, LL.D., V. Great Malvern
Rev. Canon S. Lidderdale Smith, Hereford
Mr. John Smith, Felhampton
Rev. G.L. Spencer, Hereford
Rev. Hon. B.L Stanhope, R. Byford
Mr. Edwin Stephens, Hereford
Rev. H.J. Stillingfleet, R. Hampton Bishop
Rev. H.F. St. John, Dinmore Manor House
Rev. F.S. Stooke-Vaughan, V. Wellington Heath
J.F. Symonds, Esq., Okeleigh, Hereford
Rev. J.H. Townsend, V. Hope
H.R. Trafford Esq., Michaelchurch Court
Mr. C.W. Tudor, Ledbury Road, Hereford
Mr. Theophilus Turner, Upton Bishop
E.M. Underwood, Esq., 29, Castle Street
R.V. Vassar-Smith, Esq., Mayor of Gloucester, Charlton Park
H. Vevers, Esq., M.R.C.S., St. Owen's Street, Hereford
Rev. A.J. Wake C. Eardisley
Mrs. Wakefield, Lansdown Crescent, Cheltenham
Rev. J.M. Ware, R. Ullingswick
Rev. Prebendary Warner V. Clun
Rev. M.G. Watkins, R. Kentchurch
Rev. Prebendary West, V. Fownhope
Rev. H.M. Whatley, R. Aston Ingham
Rev. Principal Whitefoord, Theological College, Salisbury
Rev. Philip Whitefoord, Ledbury
Rev. R.H. Williams, V. Bridge Solers
Rev. H.P. Williamson, V. Bredwardine
Rev. C.T. Wilton, V. Foy
Mrs. Wilson, Malvern Link
John H. Wood Esq., M.B., Tarrington
Rev. Matthew Wood, V. Kington
Rev. T. Woodhouse, Ropley, Hampshire
Alfred Wright, Esq., 36, Ladbrook Square, London
G. Yeld, Esq., St. Peter's School, York

NOTE.

The following Glossary contains words which are current in the County of Hereford.

The compiler makes no attempt to say which of them are peculiar to Herefordshire. The mention of a parish or district indicates the locality whence information was obtained for these pages.

The following abbreviations are adopted:-

Heref. The city of Hereford and vicinity.
W. or E. Her. West or East Herefordshire.
E. Eardisland.
G.V. The Golden Valley.
L. Ledbury and vicinity.
S.-on-Wye. Staunton-on-Wye.
U.B. Upton Bishop.

INTRODUCTION.

FEW persons have better opportunities of becoming acquainted with the peculiarities of speech in a district than the Country Parson who visits his people. Few besides the clergy take the trouble to note down the quaint expressions used by old and young in the course of their pastoral visits. Curious words and phrases may be heard at our Infirmaries, County Courts, Savings Banks, Markets, Railway Stations, and Auctions; and at other places where rustics congregate. But in all these places a great change has been gradually coming on; old customs are dying out, and many old words and sayings are becoming obsolete. The Vicar of ... truly and sadly remarks, "The old words are dying out and our modern education will destroy some pretty words as well as the irritating drawl of the county. Canna, shanna, munna, are only heard from the old, and boys no longer hesple one another. The bush is burnt on fewer hills year by year, and the incantation of 'old cider' I have not heard for forty years. And 'going a gooding' on St. Thomas' Day has almost come to an end". It has therefore been thought desirable to collect as far as possible all Words and Phrases peculiar to, or current in, the County of Hereford. Nothing has been done in this way since the production of a Glossary by the late Sir G. Cornwall Lewis, in 1839. Meanwhile our neighbours in Gloucester, Worcester, and Shropshire have produced excellent glossaries. The present collection is an attempt to supply, in a cheap popular form, what seems to be a local want. A learned friend thinks the attempt is too late by 40 years! But he admits "that there are still bits to be picked up". To pick up such bits has been my endeavour; for although some of the words may appear to be in general use, it is hoped that many of them may be found to be genuine Herefordshire productions. In 1886 a communication was sent to all the Clergy and Schoolmasters in the County of Hereford, and also to many of the Gentry, inviting co-operation. All the known collections of local words have been consulted or incorporated in these pages; and it has been my endeavour to indicate the parish or district where many of the words are used, or from which they were supplied for publication. It only remains for me to express my thanks to subscribers and helpers, with the hope that the perusal of this little work may afford them some pleasure and amusement during their leisure hours.

Upton Bishop Bishop Vicarage,
January 25th, 1887.

Words and Phrases.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

A

A, v. = To have. "Him a'gone awaay", i.e., "he has gone".
A, pron. = He, she, or it. "Whar be a", or "Where is a"? may mean "Where is he, she, or it?".
A, prep. = At or in. "A' were a church o' Sund'y". "Er's a bed mighty bad with a paay'n a top o' 'er yud".
Abear, = Endure, tolerate.
Abide, = Suffer, endure.
Able, = Well to do in money matters. "Mr. ... is an able man". G.V.
Aboove, = Above.
Aboove-a-bit or More than a bit, = A good deal, extremely. "I like that man aboove a bit".
Abuseful, = Abusive.
Accord, = Agree. Pronounced accard.
Ackern, = Acorn. A common proverb applied to many things. "As sound as an ackern".
Acquaintance, = A sweetheart. "They've been acquainted a good while".
Acting (of children), = Showing off. Ledbury.
Adland, = A headland. A strip of ground left for a plough to turn upon at the end of the furrows.
Adled, = Pronunciation of addled.
Adle or Adled, = Addled. "I be most afeared as the eggs be all adle".
Afeared, = Afraid. "I'm a'most afeared".
Afore, = Before.
Agin, = By or against. "He'll come agin Christmas". E.
Ahthern, = Hawthorn.
Aim or Haim, = To intend or endeavour. "You bain't haimin to muv". "I did aim to come".
All about, = In confusion, or light-headed. "Our 'ouse be all about just now".
All as is, = 1. All that there are. 2. Nevertheless. Common.
All-so, = Commonly used for except. "That row o' taturs was all rotton all-so these few". L.
Anent, anunt, or anenst, = Near or next to, over against. [1]
Anighst, = Near. "They never come anighst me".
Apern, = Apron.
Ara, = Any or ever. "Thee han't met ara bwoy?' "Hast got ara copper?". L.
Arc, = A peculiar cloud or cirrus across the sky, N. to S., seen in the morning and evening only on rare occasions. It is said to be "pointed, bright at the ends, and very pretty". I have found this word only in a low damp part of Upton Bishop among very old people.
Archert or Archat, = Orchard. See J. Phillips' Poem on Cyder.
Arg, v. = To argue, wrangle with. "He would arg me that it was so".
Argufy, = Signify. "It does not argufy". "What thee says don't argufy", means does not matter.
Arkard, = Awkward. "Maister be very arkard this mornin". G.V.
Arrand, = Errand. E.
As, = Used for 'that or which". "The man as told me".

[1] A genuine Herefordshire story is told of an old woman who went some years ago from Little Hereford Parish to the Sunday evening service at St. Michael's (Sir F.G. Ouseley's Church). She was asked next day how she liked it and whether she could hear well. "Oh I yes, I got there early, and took a front seat right up anunst the turkey!". The brass eagle Lectern being the object referred to. A friend remarks, "I have heard the Lectern in our Cathedral called a fowl, but never a turkey".

HEREFORDSHIRE.

Ashore, = Ajar, used of a door.
Askal, = A water animal, a kind of newt with rough hair like fimbriae.
Asplining, = Prancing about "Asplinin" and "brevettin". N. Her.
Atomy, = A skeleton. "He's gone to an atomy". E.
Attack, = Undertake. "I mean to attack the journey". Pronounced "attact". Archenfield.
Avoirdupoised, = In doubt about doing a thing. "I'm all avoirdupoised". E.
Away, = Endure. "I cant awaay with it". G.V. Sp. Comment. Is. i. 14.
Awhile, = To spare time for: a favourite expression, "Can't awhile". When "I can awhile", or "I did it awhile". E.
Axe, v. = To ask. Heref.

B

Backen, = To keep back or recede, as growth of crops.
Backwards and Forwards, = Not a word further. There's an end of the matter. Heref.
Badger, = A dealer in poultry, fruit, &c.
Baffed, = Stammering. See Buff. S.-on-Wye.
Bag, = 1. Of Wheat, 3 bushels, a sack being 4 bushels. 2. The udder of a cow.
Bag, v. = To cut peas and beans with a hook, called a "bagging huck", which is broader than a sickle and is not serrated at the edge.
Baggage, = A term of depreciation applied chiefly to women and beggars. "Go away you dirty baggage".
Bait, = A labourer's luncheon.
Ballywray or Ballyrag, = To abuse, scold coarsely.
Band-hay, = Inferior hay used for hay bands.
Bandy, = A game played with bent sticks, hence bandy legs, i.e. bowed legs.
Bank or Banky, = Sloping, uneven, undulating ground. "A bandy piece". Burford II.
Bannut, = A small kind of walnut.
Barberris, = Cruel, barbarous. E.
Barm, = Yeast.
Bat, = Great speed or pace. "Coming at a great bat". N. Heref.
Batch or Bash, = The palm of the hand. L.
Bathering, = 1. Of partridges roozling or ruffling in the dust. Peterchurch. 2. Shake or knock down, of fruit. L.
Bayly, = Bailiff.
Bearbine, = Wild convolvulus. Pronounced Beer-bine.
Bean for a pea, = Speaking to a bedridden man lately, "Your sister, I suppose, carries water and does some things for you". "Well, mighty little, her wont give a Bean for a Pea". Lanwarne.
Beetle, = A large wooden hammer used for driving wedges into wood.
[Ring-beetle, = The above with iron bands round the hammer.]
[Bot-beetle, = Used for beating up clods. Ashperton.]
Becall, = To rate or abuse. "Her becalled muh' sheamful".
Bed, = Floor of a waggon or cart.
Beer, = When a man is in a fuddled state it is said that "he is on the beer". Heref.
Benefit, = 1. A living, probably for benefice. N. Heref. 2. Trouble, as "I had a pretty benefit in getting them cattle whum".

WORDS AND PHRASES. 7

Beethy, = 1. Soft, easy to bed, applied to a cork drawn out of a bottle. Bodenham. 2. Limp or flabby as toast in cider. Orleton. 3. Wet and soft as hops "didn't like to pack when they were so beathified".
Bellocking, = Lowing of cattle. Orcop.
Belting, n. = Chastisement by using a belt for the purpose.
Bents, = Stalks of grass.
Bizzom, = Of birch or broom. "There's tricks in all trades except bizzom makin, and then you puts the short in the middle". L.
Bespoke, adj. = 1. As of a joint of meat. "That's a bespoke". Heref. 2. Marked for death. "I saw he was bespoke a month ago". Archenfield.
Bessy-coddle or Molly-coddle, = Said of a man who interferes with a woman's business. Archenfield.
Best, v. = Beat. To get the better of. "I bested him". Ashperton. "How do George come by that black eye?", "Oh, him and Joe had a bit of a turn about that young woman and fought a bit, but Joe bested him". Lanwarne.
Beyond, = Get the better of. "The doctor can't get beyond it no how".
Biff, = Beef. There is a general tendency in this county to turn e into i, as bist for beast. The proper name Beavan being pronounced as Bivan.
Bigsorted, = Proud, stuck up. "As big sorted as a ass". N. Heref.
Bilberry, = Wortle berry or whinberry in Herefordshire and Shropshire.
Bine, = Stem of hop plants.
Binna, = A negative form of "to be", as used by old-fashioned rustics. A remarks "Its could", B replies "Ay! it binna very warm". The following negatives are in common use:

Anna - am not.
Canna - cannot.
Dunna - does not.
Hanna or Havena - has or have not.
Munna - must not.
Shunna - shall not.
Tinna - it is not.
Wunna - will not.

Bird clacker, = A clapper to frighten birds.
Bishoped, = Being confirmed. E. [1]
Black-pole, = A long piece of unwrought timber, about as much as a man can carry.
Black-steer or stare, = A starling.
Blaggerd, = Pron. of blackguard, one addicted to low language.
Blast, = A local inflamation of some external part. Also called "felon" or Whitlow on the hand.
Blind, = Applied to blossom which does not come to fruit, or to a boil without a head. Common.
Bloody Butcher, = The deep purple wild hyacinth. N. Heref.
Bloody fingers, = Foxgloves. Kentchurch. Same as dead man's fingers. Hamlet IV. 7.

Called also "fairy gloves", which gives the real derivation, "folks' gloves", i.e., the little folks, the fairies.
"But our cold maids do dead men's fingers call them". Hamlet IV. 7.

Blow, = 1. Blossom (pronounced blauw). 2. Wind spoken of as "a cold blauw". U.B.
Blub or Blob, = To swell up. "Her face be blubbed up". L.
Blue Isaac, = Hedge sparrow. Sutton St. N.
Blue-tail, = A field fare.
Blunder out, = Puzzle it out. E.

[1] This has a second signification, viz., a horse that has had its teeth operated upon to make him appear younger than he really is. Query: Was this formerly practised on horses sent to Bishop's Castle great horse fair?

8 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Bock, = Back.
Bodge or Botch, = To fill up holes in a hedge with croppings called browse.
Bogie or Bugabo, = Ghost.
Bolting, = Bundle of long straw (14lbs.) tied with two bands. Pronounced bawten, or bowtin.
Bomboly or Bomely, = Awkward to fit. "Its a bomboly stone". E.
Bonds, = Twigs for tying up bundles of faggots.
Bone, as an intensive = Bone lazy, innately lazy. Leintwardine.
Boo, = Bug or louse. Bredwardine. Pronounced Bow. L.
Boosey, n. = 1. Pasture retained till May by a tenant quitting his farm at Candlemas. Golden Valley. 2. Also the gangway and trough in front of stall for feeding cattle. 3. Part of a cow shed for keeping hay in.
Bot, = To beat. Ashperton.
Bottle, = A small wooden keg for carrying a labourer's cider.
Bought, = Bought it off him, for "of or from him".
Boughten, = Said of bread or beer not made or brewed at home.
Bost, = To burst open, generally in an execrative sense.
Bottle-tit, = Long tailed Titmouse. So called from shape of nest.
Bound, = Obliged, e.g., "we be all bound to be sinners". S.-on-Wye.
Bountiful, = A man who looks fat and well, "quite bountiful". Orleton.
Bowk, = Nave or stock of a wheel.
Bowket, = Bouquet.
Bowler, = A boulder. E.
Box. The treasury of a club. "On the box", drawing an allowance from the funds of a club. U.B.
Brabble, = Quarrel.
Brags, = Boastings. "He made his brags".
Branter or Brandtail, = "a Kitty Brantail", a Redstart. E.
Brash, = Thin broken stone.
Brashy ground, = Coarse marley ground.
Brevit or Breveting, v. = 1. To pry or bustle about. "A' goes breveting about". S.-on-Wye. 2. Searching or gadding about.
Brenth, = Breadth.
Brea or Breese, = Gadfly.
Brontitis, = Generally (Bronchitis).
Brownkites, = Not seldom (Bronchitis).
Browntitus, = Once (Bronchitis).
Brot, n. = Loose straw. Kentchurch.
Brouse or Trouse, = 1. Brushwood, clippings off hedges. 2. Small wood remaining, after cordwood and faggots are cut from felled trees or underwood.
Browse line, = The height to which cattle can reach to bite. "Trim them apple trees, Jim, not too much, but just above the brouse line". Lanwarne.
Bruck, = Brook.
Brun, = A billet of wood. "Fetch in a bran". "They used to take a horse to carry in a brun on Christmas day". E.
Brusling, = Bushing roughly against. "The cow was kicking and brusling agen it". E.
Bucking, = A large wash of household linen. "Buck basket". Merry Wives of Windsor. Act III, scene 5.
Buckles, = Twigs of withy shaved flat and twisted, for securing thatch. Spoken of as buckle stuff.
Bud Bird or Budding Bird, = The bullfinch. Common.
Buff or Buffle, = To have an impediment in speech. "He do buff a bit". "He was a'way buffing in his talk". W. Her. To bother. Sutton St. N. Bosbury.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 9

Bugs words, = Boasting words. They occur in an old book written by Rowland Vaughan, a truly Herefordshire man.
Bullocking, = Joking a person, bullying. E.
Bum-baiiie, = Sheriff's officer. "The bums be in the house".
Bumlet, = A round stone used for filling up walls in building. E.
Bunch, = Bunch of cattle, i.e., a small drove. Hereford.
Bunchy, = Rank or coarse. Celery is spoken of as "bunchy busky stuff". E.
Bundation, = An abundance, such as heavy rain, fruit, &c. Common.
Bundle off, = Go away quickly. "He bundled off".
Bunt, = To butt or thrust with the head.
Bury, = 1. A store of roots covered with earth. 2. A rabbit hole or burrow.
Burying or Burial, = A funeral. "To fetch a burying", to accompany the corpse.
Burr, = The sweetbread or pancreas of an animal.
Burr-oak, = A pollard oak.
Busgy, = "The quick are busgy". Archenfield.
Bussock, = A donkey. G.V.
But just, = Just this moment.
Butty, = A fellow workman. Butty-collier used elsewhere. [1]
Bye blow, = A bastard. W. Her.
By tack, = A farm taken by a tenant who resides on another. Literally a Bye-take.

C

Cade, adj. = A cade lamb, one brought up by hand. N. Her. Also called tidling lambs until their tails are cut. Linton.
Caddie, v. = 1. To nestle, coddle, or pet. 2. To trifle or potter about. 3. To chatter.
Cadger, = A carrier. E. Heref.
Cadow or Caddis, = A poor creature, a simpleton. "Hers only a poor cadow". E.
Cag mag, = Bad meat.
Call, = Need. "Thee hast no call to take on that a way".
Canbottle, = Long-tailed titmouse. N.W. Heref.
Cant, v. = 1. To tell tales behind one's back, or gossip. 2. To tip up a vessel or bottle.
Cantle, = Applied to rounded margin of saddle.
Carpeted, to be = To be had in for a scolding.
Carrun, = Carrion, a worthless fellow. E.
Casn, Casna, or Canna, = Cannot. "Thee casn'st lick me".
Cast, = A second swarm of bees; the third is called a hob.
Castrel, = A labourer's wooden cider bottle. Ashperton.
Catching or Catchy, = Applied to weather, showery.
Caterpillar, = Cockchafer. Universal in N.W. Heref.
Caterpillar, v. = To plague or torment. "I was never so caterpillared in my life". Tretire.
Caults or Coats, = Colts. Very common.
Cauves, = Calves.
Caz'uity, = Casual, uncertain, as of the weather. "Its random cutting in the cas'ulty", was a response made in answer to a question about cutting hay in showery weather. (See word Nation.) Upper Sapey.

[1] In some trades the butty is necessarily the inferior man, as with sawyers, &c. But practically some very good workmen prefer working in pairs, as in draining, timber falling, &c., the butty being the younger man.

10 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Certain sure, = "I am certain sure of that".
Chark, = The coal or coke burnt in hop kilns. Kentchurch.
Charky, = Dry in mouth or throat.
Charm, = Noise of tongues. "What a charm you young 'uns keep". W. Her.
Chastise, = Find fault with.
Chats, n. = Chips.
Chat, v. = To gather chips. A common excuse for children not being at school. "Gone with mother a chattin". U.B.
Chatter, v. = To rebuke, reprove with anger (mostly of women). L.
Chawls, = Tines of a pike or fork. E.
Chear, = Chair.
Chimbley, = Chimney.
Chitlings or Chitterlings, = Entrails of pigs.
Christen, = To receive a privately baptised child into the Church.
Cheese, = Crushed apples in the hairs before pressing. Common.
Choir, = "Going to choir", i.e., attend the Cathedral Service. Heref.
Church, = Banns of marriage are said to be "asked in Church" when they are published for the first time, and "asked out of Church" when published for the third time. General use.
Churchman, = A clergyman who is a good reader of the service, or has a powerful voice is always called "a good churchman".
Churt or Tiert, = Sharp and keen. "It freezes very churt". E. Also of cyder which is sharp. L.
Clam, v. = To starve. "My hands be clummed with cold". Herefordshire proverb, "care clammed the cat".
Clem, v. = Famished. "I be that clemmed".
Clandestical, = Corruption of clandestine, "Live in that dirty clandestical manner". Archenfield.
Clats, Cleats, or Clet, n. = Quinnett, nails holding blade to handle of scythe. Munnow Valley. A wedge of wood or iron to tighten two parts.
Clavvy, = Shelf above the grate in kitchen. "I hung it on the clavvy". N. Heref. and Bishop's Frome.
Clay or Clee, = The claw of a bird or animal.
Clees, = Claws.
Clean forewell, = Clean gone away. "It's clean forewell". E.
Clench, v. = To clinch a nail or an argument.
Clever, = Good and right. "It was all very clever to my face", i.e., no fault was found, "but she said all manner of things behind my back". "He behaved very clever to me in that job", i.e., "he paid me handsomely". "A clever harvest".
Clier, = Clear.
Clomber, = To climb.
Clot, = Clod. A fragment, cloven, divided. A dot of blood; a clod of earth. Common usage indiscriminate. Archenfield.
Clout, = 1. A rough patch. 2. A smack on the head with the hand.
Clutch, = A hatch. "A fine clutch of chickin".
Cod, = A pod, as pea's cod. Also applied to the egg like projections at the corners of hop pockets
Coffer, = An oak chest on 4 legs. Much used in the western counties in XVII. and XVIII. centuries. Now largely superseded by chests of drawers.
Colin-bill, = A hedge bill with the addition of a hook on the back side. Ashperton.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 11

Collogue, = To be friendly or to butty. "They collogued". E
Colly, = Soot from a kettle or pot.
Collywist or Collywisth'd, = When a ladder does not stand straight on the ground. "It's Collywisth'd". E.
Come, = Butter is said to come when the cream changes to it in churning.
Comical, = Cross, unusual, unwell. "A comical stick", i.e., a queer tempered person. "A did behave very comical", i.e., in a rude manner, with a sense of the ludicrous implied.
Condoodle, = To get over. E.
Consarn or Confound, = Concern or take trouble about a thing. "Consarn your back, you a got Master Lawrence on ya", i.e., are lazy. "We don't consarn with them", have nothing to do with them. Clodock.
Consate, = To fancy or imagine. "I consated it was so".
Consisting of, = Concerning. "Consisting of this here business".
Contrary, = Contrary.
Contrive, = Find out. "We could not contrive the reason of it". Archenfield.
Coolth, = Coolness. St. Michael's, Tenbury.
Cop, = The first bout in ploughing a field is called "a cop". Ashperton.
Coppy, = A small coppice.
Cord, = A heap of firewood by measure 4 ft. high, 8 ft. long, by 3 ft. The usual mode of selling wood is by the cord. Pronounced Card. General.
Cord-wood, = Branches of felled trees too large for faggots.
Cornel, = Corner. Common.
Cosp, = See Plough.
Cosses, = Costs "It cosses too much". N. Her.
Cot, = The usual term for pig's cot.
Couch, v. = To squat, as a rabbit or hare(?). Pronounced Cooch. L. & E.
Coulter, = See Plough.
Curse, v. = To cowse or drive. "That blaggert dog's bin a cousin my ship". N.W. Heref.
Cowtyens, = Upright posts to which cattle are tied in sheds. Heref.
Coxy, = Irritable and quarrelsome. E.
Crank, = Clever, topping. "A crank farmer".
Cratch, = 1. A hay rack of any kind. 2. The tail board of a waggon.
Cratcher, = A famous good feeder.
Cress, = A ridge tile, a crest.
Crib, = A bin in into which hops are picked. General.
Crinks or Crinklings, = A little apple or a child is called "a little crink". E.
Croodle, = Creeping close together, as chickens under a hen. "The cattle croodled all of a heap". E.
Crope, = Crept. Burford & Leintwardine.
Crousty, = Ill humoured.
Cruds, = Curds.
Cub, = 1. n. A dog kennel or hen coop. 2. v. To confine in a small space.
Cuck-fist, = Awkward handed.
Cues, n. = The iron plates which were put on the feet of droves of Welsh or Irish cattle for their long journeys.
Cullens or Cullings, = Refuse, as of wheat, apples, potatoes. Or those left in a herd or flock after the best are selected.
Cur'ous, = Unusual, with a suggestion of ill temper. "Her be a cur'ous owd ooman".
Curse, = Swear. "He cursed me shockin", or with the addition "and swore", meaning a moderate objurgation.

12 HEREFORDSHIRE

Curst, = Sharp, clever, especially in mischief. "He's a pretty curst boy".
Custish, = Sharpish. "He is a custish sort of chap". E.
Cyder wring, = Cyder press.

D

D. This appears in a good many words without any apparent reason. "I'll shound you", "He's a good scholard". "Borned" for born. N. Her.
Dabbledy day, = When heavy rain falls. Orcop.
Dabbly or Draggly, = Wet, rainy.
Daddocky or Daddiky, = Rotten, unsound. S.-on-Wye.
Daffidowndilly, = Daffodil. A common Old English word, but used locally.
Dahnt, = Daunt, dishearten.
Dall or Dauze it, = Confound it, damn it. "I'm dauzed if I knows".
Dammock or Dommock, v. = to dirty clothes, e.g., "Her aint one to dammock her clothes". N.W. Her. See Mommock.
Danker, = An oath, also Drat, very common. Lanwarne.
Dannies, = A baby's hands. "Clap your dannies". Common 50 years ago. N. Her.
Dawny, = 1. Damp and not sufficiently made. "The hay was very dawny". 2. Not trustworthy. "A dawny customer". N. Her.
Dazed, = Puzzled, stupefied. "Ever since one day as the sun got hold on her a bit, our Jane has been dazed a deal". Lanwarne.
Dead, = Senseless. "I was dead ever so long", i.e., in a fainting fit. S.-on-Wye.
Dearn, = 1. Of weather, raw, cold. 2. Of a man, "so and so is a very dearn man", i.e., hard or severe". Sometimes pronounced as jearn. L.
Deawbeater, = A person who turns out the toes very much in walking.
Deawbit, = Slight early refreshment.
Deed, = Indeed. "Deed if I know", i.e., indeed I don't know.
Deck of Keards, = Pack of cards.
Deef, = Deaf. "Hard o' hearing". An ordinary term.
Deepness, = Cunning, sly. "He's a dep un". E.
Denial, = Disadvantage, injury. Loss of a limb or faculty is spoken of as "a great denial".
Depraved, adj. = Weakly, ill. "A poor depraved creature". Dilwyn.
Desacly, = Exactly.
Desperate. This word is in frequent use. To hit desperate hard, a desperate fine or tall man, &c.
Deuced, Deeowsid, or Djouced, = Deuced, very. Used merely for emphasis. "I feel deuced middling". Hereford.
Devil's rings, = Hairy caterpillars. N.W. Her.
Dewing, = Small rain, for deuing. "Its deuwing a little". Upper Sapey.
Disannul, = To turn out, do out. "They tried to disannul her of what she'd got". E.
Disfuglement, = Disfigurement.
Dithering, adj. = Shaky, confused, trembling. "He's a dithering ould man". W. Heref. "All of a dither". Aylton.
Djerned, = Determined or enthusiastic. "Very djeorned about it". See Dearn. Eardisland.
Djud or Dyud, = Dead.
Do, = A festivity, a fuss; pronounced doo. "Such a to do".
Doglogarum, = Nonsense.
Dolent, = Docile (?) or sharp and clever. A farmer praising his dog said that he was "uncommon dolent". Sutton St. N.

WORDS AND PHRASES 13

Dollup, = A quantity. E.
Dolly, = An instrument used in washing the roughest clothes, before the introduction of washing machines. Ashperton.
Donate, = To give as a legacy. "The old gentleman is very bad, they dont think him'll get over it this time. I wish as him 'ud donate us sumthing". Lanwarne.
Doncass, = "Her was doncassing after him". An expression the reverse of elegant. Archenfield.
Done, = An old perfect like "taken". "I done it". So, known: "I known it very well" or "I knawed it". "You have done me", means "I have nothing further to say".
Dormant, = Confined to bed. Heref. Infirmary.
Dother or Duthering, = Din or confusion. A bothering din in the head. Tretire.
Doubles, = A bent state of body. "Down in my doubles", i.e., bent down. "Bent two double". Heref. and L.
Doubt, v. = Think. "There'll be more wet, I doubt".
Douce, = A blow on the face. Orleton.
Douk, = To lower or duck the head. Pronounced daouk. [1]
Doust, n. = Dust. v. = To put out, destroy. "When you're finished in the stable, mind you doust the dip". "Him hit Jack on his head, it nearly dousted him".
Dout or Do out, v. = 1. To put out or extinguish, as a candle or fire. 2. To die. "Ha drawed a sike (sigh) and then ha douted". N. Her.
Downhill. Applied (1) to wind, south - from the south. (2) Applied to a line on the downward slope.
Draggletail, = Dress trailing on the ground.
Drave, = Thrave of straw. See Thrave. [2]
Drawed, v. = Drew. "He drawed the beautifullest pictur as ever I did see".
Dreaten, = To threaten.
Dresh, = To thresh. D for Th is very common in Herefordshire.
Dreshel or Drashel, n. = A threshel. See Flail.
Drip or Grip, = A rut or little open drain in the road. Pixley.
Dripples, = Thripples.
Dripping bags, = Bags of canvass like inverted sugar cones through which cider is passed fresh from the cider press.
Drop night, = Night fall. "It'll drop night soon". Upper Sapey.
Drop out, = To fall out, quarrel.
Drow, v. = To throw.
Dub, = To bend or pull down.
Duff, adv. = Directly. "The ball struck him duff on the mouth". E. & L.
Dumb, = Animals always spoken of as "dumb animals" or "dumb things", as distinguished from human beings who are universally summed up as "Christians". The phrase is often used "Christians and dumb things".
Dumb-saucy, = Sulky. Sutton St. N.
Dummel, = A stupid creature. E.
Dunna, = Do not.
Dure, = To endure, particularly to last or wear a long time.
Dunch, = Heavily of a fair blow. "He hit him dunch on the ribs. E.
Dunching, = Poking against something. "The pole goes dunching agen it". E.
Dunny, = Deaf. Aylton & E.

[1] Ducks especially lower their heads when passing through a very lofty doorway, such as a barn door. Hence the term.
[2] Thrave of corn was two Shocks of six, or rather twelve sheaves apiece. Statute II, Henry 6, c.2. The word comes from the British dresa, i.e., twenty-four. Twelve sheaves make a Stook and two Stooks a Throve. T. Blunt's Glomographia, 1674.

14 HEREFORDSHIRE.

E

Eacle, Eqwal, Hecle, or Hickol, = A green Woodpecker. (Iceicle pronounced in same way.) Universal in Heref.
Ean or Yean, = (of ewes) to bring forth young. "Eaning time".
Earthly, adj, = Near death. "Dear, dear, how earthly the old man do look". G.V.
Edder, = Adder. Bredwardine.
Eimer or Eemer, = Near, nearest way. Also Eemest. N. Her.
Elmen or Ellum, = Elm trees. Other trees are spoken of in a similar way.
Ellern, = Elder, poplen - poplars, and oaken - oaks.
Empt, = To empty.
Ess, = Ashes. Aylton.
Etherings or Heatherings, = Rods of hazel or other wood used for weaving in and out of the tops of hedge stakes.
Ettles, = Nettles.
Ever or Hever, = Hemlock. G.V.
Ever so, = In any case. "Not if it were ever so".
Exempt, = Without a crop. "I'm quite exempt of damsons this year". N. Her.
Expressions in common use: "Come along in". No fear! = Never! Thankee, expressing surprise. "Was its so". E.
Eye, = To glance at "Her only eyed the letter".
Eye, = An old saying: "Blessed is the eye, That's between Severn and Wye". [1]

F

Faggot, n. = An ill behaved girl. E.
Fainty, = A weak faint state.
Falling weather, = When rain or snow may be expected. Open weather when the ground is not bound by frost.
Falter, = To fail in health.
Fancical, = Fanciful. L.
Fangles, = The teeth of a fork, i.e., fangs.
Fantigue, = Excitement.
Farden-piece, = A farthing.
Fatch, = Thatch.
Fatches, = Vetches. Common.
Favour, = To bear lightly on, to ease from pressure, as a horse may. "A' favours one leg more than t'other".
Favoured. Used in a bad as well as good sense. An old woman at Upper Sapey speaking to the clergyman's lady remarked with reference to a neighbour who had died of asthma, "Yes, mam, and her husband be wonderful favoured with it". But as the speaker came originally from Norfolk the expression may not be genuine Herefordshire.
Fearn and Vearn, = Fern. Universal.
Feature, v. = Resemble, as an ancestor. "Them do feature one another like two peas". W. Her.
Feg or Fag, = Long coarse grass.
Fer, Fur, or Vur, = Far.
Fetch, = 1. To deal as a blow. 2. To make butter by churning, when they are said to "fetch butter".
Fettle, = To set in proper order. To feed or "bed up" cattle, &c. From Victual?
Few, adj., = A good few: a good many. "There were a good few ship at the fair yesterday".
Fickledy, = Fickle. Archenfield.

[1] This seems to refer not to the human eye, but rather to the well watered country between Severn and Wye. Eye. or Eau Withington may mean Withy Town, by the water, showing that Eye refers to water. Eye is also parish and railway station in this county.

WORDS AND PHRASES.

Fidge or Fizzle, = The wriggling or twisting about of a child expected to sit still, to fidget. L.
Filbeard, = Not the Filbert. The husk is not so long as that of the filbert. Hereford.
Find of, = To feel.
Firebrand-tail, = A redstart. Sutton St. N.
Fitchet or Fitchuck, = A pole cat.
Fitmeal, adv. = By fits. Compare piecemeal.
Fittle, = Victual.
Flail or Threshel, = An instrument for separating grain from the husks, now fast going out of use. Its various parts are: Handstaff, that part which the workman holds in his hands. Nile, that which is swung round and beaten againt the straw. Capling, capling string, that which connects the hand staff and nile. Ashperton.
Flay. See Plough.
Fleam, = Phlegm.
Fleamy, = Loose, as a cough. F.
Flem or Flen, = Fleas. There is a place called Flen Cub. N. Her.
Flit, = To move from one house to another, not necessarily a "moonlight flitting".
Flizz, = Break or fly in pieces.
Flopperty, = Limp.
Fluish, = Weak of mind, as applied to a woman.
Flummox, = To get bewildered, to lose presence of mind.
Flump, = Plump, applied to falling.
Flush, = Fledged, applied to birds. "Um be all flushed and fled". L.
Fluttermouse, = A bat. N. Her.
Forrat, v. = Bring forward. "Your taters be too forrat". "This rayn will forrat the hai a good bit". Some farmers who had claret after dinner being asked how they liked it, replied, "Well no, they didn't get no forrader with it". Orleton.
For sure, = Certainly. N. Her.
Fould or Fauld, = Fold, the fold yard.
Fousty, = Fusty.
Frangy, = Restive, irritable. "Some ponies is so frangy". G.V.
Frale or Frail, = A flexible basket. General.
Frant, = Fretful, fractious. E.
Fraturn, = Expressive of facial likeness. "One brother fraterns another very much". E.
Free-martin, = When a cow brings twin calves, both females, one is believed to be always barren, and is called a "free-martin". Ashperton.
Fresh, = Not very drunk. "Only a bit fresh". "Just sprung a bit".
Fresh liquor, = Hog's lard without salt in it. Continually used in Herefordshire.
Fretchet or Fretchy, adj. = Cross, peevish, vexed, fidgetty. W. Heref.
Frighten, = To conquer, get through (a piece of work). N. Her.
Frightful, = Fearful, easily frightened.
Frit, = Frightened. "Is her frit?" E.
Fromward, pr = "The wind do come fromward the East". Compare inward, outward, toward.
Fruit, = In a special sense of Apples, the fruit of the country.
Frum, = Forward, well grown, as grass, fruit, or potatoes; also of hops. "We have picked the frummest". [1]
Fullaring, = The groove in a horse shoe.

[1] This word is derived from the German. Or Frummest seems to be a form of "foremost", and then the positive "frum" is invented from frummest.

16 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Fume, = Become inflamed, as a wound. S.-on-Wye.
Fume, = To get in a passion.
Fund, = Found. "I fund it".
Furness, = Distance (farness). Tretire.
Fut, = Foot.
Fit, = Feet.
Fyaou or Feow, = Pron. of few; ow pronounced as in how. "A good few" - a good many.

G

Gaffer, = Master; generally spoken of as "our gaffer".
Gain, = 1. Workmanlike, handy. 2. Nearer or more convenient "A gayner way".
Gall, = A spring in a field. Orcop.
Gallus, = i.e., fit for the gallows. Applied to mischievous boys; also to any high mettled horse or any cocky mischievous animals. Query: gallows, as a gallow's bird?
Gamble, = The crooked wood from which the dead carcase of an animal is suspended. Heref.
Gambo, Gamber, or Gambrel, n. = A cart with sides only; nofront or back. Rowlston and N.W. Her.
Gambol, = To climb (over a style). N. Her.
Games, = To make fun of any one.
Garment, = A chemise.
Gaum, Bygamm, or Gams, = Used for "by God".
Gaum, = To stuff and gorge. E.
Gaumed, = Stupid. E.
Gaun, = A small wooden ladle or bucket holding about one gallon.
Gawk, = Awkward. N. Her.
Gauche, = Left-handed.
Gawkey, = A gaping idler.
Gay, = In good order, well provided.
Geat, = Gate.
Get beyond, = Recover, cure, or control. Pronounced "beyand". "Er's mighty bad and oan't get beyand it this time".
Get the turn, = To pass the crisis.
Giglot, = A giddy girl.
Glat, = A gap in a hedge. Also called a shard.
Glatting, = Mending hedges. Very common.
Glemmy, = Hot, bright, as of the sun. "So glemmy". Hereford.
Glore, = Used as superlative, specially relating to fat or fire. Orleton.
Glum, = Gloomy.
G.O. Tack, = Ploughing with two horses abreast.
Go back, = To grow worse or lose ground.
Golden-chain tree, = Laburnum.
Good sorted, = Of good kind.
Gooding day. It was customary for the poor to go round to farm houses for gifts of wheat on St. Thomas' Day. A quartern measure was the quantity usually given to each applicant. Lyde.
Gompus, = To roam, or travel about on pleasure. "He's gompussing off somewhere". E. and L.
Gone dead, = Dead as a plant or tree. A child when shewn a "pothograph" of his father absent at sea, said "Why that's feather dyud and gone less". N. Her.
Good Evening, = Always said after Noon.
Goosemachick, = Gosling. N. Her.
Gorm, v. = Mess or make dirty. See Appendix.
Gorrells, = Young pigs. E.
Gosling. A patient recovering from illness makes use of this expression, "as useless as a midsummer gosling", the sun making goslings weak and staggering. West Heref.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 17

Gossips, = God-parents, sponsors. Much used in Yorkshire. Archenfield.
Gownd, = A gown.
Graft, = A strong narrow spade used for draining. Bredwardine.
Grassnail, n. = Iron tie from handle to blade of scythe, to prevent grass from clogging. Munnow Valley.
Great, = Familiar, intimate with. Pronounced "Greet".
Grip, = A narrow trench or gutter. "I would an had some lime, but they are so busy in hauling this tile (drain pipes)". "What to do". "Oh tile for grippin". "The horse fell at the grip in the road". Tretire.
A Groanin, = A confinement.
Ground ash, = A stick of ash growing direct from the ground, being very tough in consequence.
Guides, = Circular movable rest placed over front axle as bearing for bed of waggon.
Guleing, = Making game of any one. L.
Gull, = A young goose. Plural Gullets.
Gwaying or Gwy'in, = Going. A word in very common use.

H

Hackasing, = Playing the fool "What are yer hackasing at". Lyonshall.
Hackle, = 1. Conical thatch for beehives. 2. Sheaves inverted and spread on the top of others.
Hairs, = Hair cloths used in the cider press.
Half baptize, = To baptise privately.
Halfoaf moulsin, = A stupid person. W. Heref.
Half-strained, = Used of a woman half sharp. "She's a half-strained donkey". E.
Hangstree, = Head of a gate. Hardwick.
Hank, n. = Hold. "And a couldna get a hank on him".
Hanky-panky, = Cunning dealing. None of your hanky-panky". E.
Hanna, = Have not. "Hanna ye".
Haslet or Aslat, = Liver, &c., of a pig.
Haut, = Hold. "Let us have haut on it".
Haux, = Strolling. "Where are you hauxing off to". E.
Head stall, = A stout bridle for fastening a horse to the manger.
Heal, v. = To cover over seed sown by harrows, &c.
Heard tell, = Heard of. A common expression.
Heart-sick, = Out of spirits. N. Her.
Heartwhole or Heartwell, = Well as to appetite, or in good spirits.
Heaver, = A gate which lifts up. Golden Valley.
Hedge-bill, = A long handled hook for cutting hedges. It is also called a hook. Ashperton.
Heft, = 1. n. Weight. 2. v. To lift. 3. To do a thing leisurely. "At my heft". S.-on-Wye.
Hell-rake, = A large broad rake used in haymaking. Lit. Heel-rake.
Herds, = Tow.
Hermiting, = Keeping to oneself. E.
Hersking, = Hearse. Rowlstone.
Hespel or Huspel, = To run about, worry. "Don't hespel the pig". "Don't hespel yourself". N. Her.
Hice or Hoist, = Keep still. "A done, or be quiet, wull yer", as said to cattle. Orleton.
Hide, = To whip. "I'll give thee a good hiding".
Hiding, = Chastisement, probably from a piece of hide being used for that purpose.
Hile, v. = To toss. Said of a bull or mischievous cow.
Hiling, = Tearing. "The cow's hiling the hedge down with her horns". E.

18 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Hindersome, = Hindering (weather). E.
Hisht, adverb = Listen. Lanwarne.
Hit, = A good crop. "A good hit o' fruit".
Hives or Hoven, = Windy distension of belly in cattle.
Hobbing, = Hollowing, whooping, making a noise. Tretire.
Hobbledy hoy, = Neither man nor boy.
Hogshead, = The oak casks containing cider, usually 100 to 112 gallons. Always called "hogshut". All other vessels for cider are casks.
Hognel, = Uneven, awkward, surly. E.
Hogwelly, = Large, hoggish. "A hogwelly fellow". E.
Hollop, v. = To scope out the inside of an apple, turnip, &c. E.
Holt, = Hold. "Loose holt".
Homes, = Hames; the crooked metals surrounding a collar to which the traces are attached.
Hommoxing, = Messing food about. "What's the cow hommoxing with it". E.
Hone, v. = To beat, e.g., a boy speaks of honing another for getting him punished. Bredwardine.
Honesty, = Wild clematis.
Hooch. = To sit in a heap. "Hooching over the fire". E.
Hood or 'ood, = Wood. General.
Hoof, n. = Bullfinch. E. Heref.
Hoolety or Hooleting, = Like an owl. "A moping hoolety creatur". "Why can't you go by day light instead of hooleting about the country?" E.
Hoont or Woont, = A mole. "As slik as a hoont". Often applied to a well groomed horse. It is suggested that this word may be derived from "under" (ground).
Hoop or Cock Hoop, = A bullfinch.
Hoot, = To cry out. Specially applied to owls.
Hoosk, = A dry cough. E.
Hop dog, = A white striped grub which feeds on the hop leaf. Less commonly called ladies' lap dog. Aylton.
Hopples, = Apples.
Hoppowles, = Hop poles.
Horn, = A drinking cup, fast going out of use. Ashperton.
Horse block, = Stone steps from which to mount a horse, called the Skallenge block at Canon Pyon.
Horsestinger, = Hornet. Much Dewchurch.
Hoult, n. = The abode of a badger or otter. "You canna get at 'im, he's in 'is hoult". W. Her.
House-keepers, = The Bum-bailiffs. N. Her.
Housen, = Houses.
However, = In short, in any case. Generally used at the end of a sentence.
Howgy or Howgeous, adj, = Huge. "Did you ever see what howgy great stones the flood did bring down". Orcop, G.V., and L.
Howlet, = A stupid person. "A regular howlet". E.
Huck, = Hook.
Hud, = Husk or shells.
Hudjuck, n. = A mess. "The house be in such a hudjuck". N.W. Heref.
Hull, v. = To shell, as peas.
Humbug, = A dark coloured sweetmeat, much esteemed by children.
Humbuz, = A cockchafer.
Humersome, = Full of whims or fancies.
Hunkering, = Crowding, applied to cattle. S.-on-Wye.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 19

Hurd or Heref, = To store or hoard. Boys will say they have been hurding apples or nuts, i.e., storing. "There a bin herders in their family lung enough, - a wants a spreeder", i.e., a spendthrift. E.
Hurrysome, = Very hasty. "The rain comes hurrysome". E.
Hussock, v. = Pronounced Hoosuck. To cough in a peculiar dry way.
Hussock, n. = A bad cold. "I've got a hoosuck". G. Valley. E. and L.

I

If so be, = A common expression.
Ile or Hile, v. = A bull or cow iles with its horns in attacking anything.
Iles or Spiles, = Awns of barley, cone wheat, &c.
Illblained, = Ill disposed, unsociable. "He's so illblained". E.
Ill-blended, = Cross grained, irritable. "I never see sich an ill-blended ooman i' my life". Aylton.
Ill-convenient, = Inconvenient.
Imference, = Sauciness, impertinence. N. Her.
Improve upon, = Approve of. Archenfield.
Impudence, = Indecency, not impertinence.
Insense, v. = To inform, instruct, show how to do a thing. "I've done my best to insense him into it". Aylton and N. Her.
Inch mull, = All over. "His head is broken out inchmull". "I've searched the paper inchmull". Pronounced inchmeal. Germ. Mahl. Archenfield. So also Limb-mull.
Ind, = The inn, public house. This is only another instance of the termination d so frequently used, especially after the letter n. "Glass of wind, Rose and Crownd".
In himself or herself, &c. = A common remark as to general health of the speaker.
Inna, = Is not. "Pity it inna kept up". E.
Inoffensive, = Innocent, pure minded. N. Her.
Inons, = Onions. "A rope of inons".
Interceding, adj. = "An interceding man" is one who is a prominent person, ready to take the lead. G.V.
Iss, = Yes. "You shouldna say aye, Jemmy, you should say Iss". E.
Ivering or Overing, = Wavering in mind. N. Her.
Ivvy, = Ivy.

J

Jag, n. = 1. a small load. "I drawed three jag of tinnit". G.V. 2. A bit. "A tidy jag left yet". E.
Jaunders, = Jaundice. Heref.
Jawl, = To knock (anyone). "He jawled him against the bank". N. Her.
Jewel, = To put a ring in a pig's snout. E. [1]
Joggle, = To be unsteady. "The table joggles". E.
Jonnock, = Said of a man when he works pleasantly. One labourer would say to another, "come be jonnack", i.e., drink your share of cider, pay your share, do your proper amount of work. In use at Bishop's Frome 70 years ago. L.
Journ or Dearn, = Stern or surly. "A journ man". Rowlstone.
Jubbin, = A donkey. E. and L.
Justicing, = Going before the magistrates.
Justly, = Exactly. "I couldn't justly say".

K

Kag or Kyag, = A broken off bough. Same as Stoggle. "Every old kyag is come out in bloom".

[1] When about to ring the noses of pigs, they say they are about to "marry the pigs".

20 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Kay'old, = Keyhole.
Keagh or Keer. Used in calling to dogs and persons. Probably abbreviation of "look here".
Keards, = Cards.
Keck, = To be sick or nearly so. Very common. Tretire.
Kecks, = Hollow stalks of hemlock.
Keen, v, = To sharpen.
Keep, = To attend, as "to keep market or church". To keep a noise - to make a noise. N.W. Her. and other parts.
Kefful, = A stupid clumsy person. Probably from Ceffyl, a horse. Welsh. N. Her. and L.
Kelp or Kyowp, = The yelp of a dog; also applied to scolding or nagging. "She's kyowping at me all the time". E.
Kep, = Kept. "The peas would a' kep better if you'd picked em (or pucked) at the increase of the moon". E.
Kerf, = A large hoe used for moulding potatoes and hops. Pronounced kearf.
Kevin or Caving of Beef, = A part of the round. This seems to be peculiarly a Herefordshire term. Heref.
Kickle or Keckle, = Flighty, or weak, as the stomach.
Kid, = Faggot. N. Her. Also a boy or girl.
Kiddle, = To dribble, as children. "A kiddling bib for baby". Sutton & E.
Kinchin, = A little child. Evidently from the German Kindlein or Kindchen. W. Her.
Kind, = Good, favourable, as applied to man or beast, health or weather. Onkind, e contrario. S.-on-Wye. Rowlstone.
Kinowing, = Making up. "Kinowing up the fire". E.
Kipe, = A circular basket holding two or three pecks.
Kippin' crows, = Driving or keeping away rooks.
Kivest, = The ring dove or wood pigeon. Also called Queis or Quist. Bredwardine.
Knock, = Beat, punish. "When we don't learn (larn) our books they knock we and are quite saucy with us". K
Know to, = Said by boys when they know of a bird's nest.
Kyagging, = Ripping or tearing. "He kyagged his clothes all over". E.
Kyander, = Look yonder!
Kymet or Kimit, = Foolish. "He's a kymet". E.

L

Lace, = To thrash, beat.
Lady, = Used as a term of contempt.
Landshut, = Flood of water shot over land. W. Her.
Lantle, = Herefordshire people speak of "a lantle of bread".
Lantree, = Splinter bar on plough or harrow, to which the traces are attached. W. Her.
Lap, v. = To wrap up.
Lapesing or Trapesing, = "He trapesed the house all over". E.
Lapesy, = Sticky, dirty. "The roads are so lapesy". E.
Lamp, v. = To beat or chasten (same as tansel). E.
Lattage, = Hesitation in speech. Archenfield.
Lawter of eggs, = The number of eggs laid by a fowl or duck, &c., before sitting. W. Her.
Lawyers (laiars), n. = Long land briars. Dilwyn.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 21

Leaping block, = Horse block, from which to mount a horse. [1]
Learn, v. = To teach.
Leather, v. = To beat.
Leastways, = At any rate.
Leave me, = Give me leave.
Leer, = 1. Empty. "I feel very leer about the stomach". Heref. 2. It is usual at horse fairs to sell with a new halter; but when without it is said to be sold Leer. Horse dealing is called "Horse-lopin".
Leeze, Leaze, or Lease, = To glean.
Lennow, = Lissome, supple, active. N. Her.
Less, = The produce of leasing. S.-on-Wye.
Leuth, = Warmth, as an old garment worn thin. "The leuth has gone out of it". Sutton St. N.
Lick, = A blow. Usually thus, "I'll fetch thee a lick".
Lief, Liefer, Liever, or Lif, = As willingly or as soon, rather. N. and W. Her.
Ligger, n. = Seems to mean a stitch or thread. "I can't get a ligger of my clothes". "They haven't a ligger but what they stand up in". Tretire.
Lighten, = 1. To cheer up. 2. To shake up hay or grain. E.
Like, = Used at the end of a sentence to qualify the adjective before it. "Mopy like; downhearted like".
Likely, = Promising.
Litsome, = Bright or cheerful. Rowlstone.
Liverdy, = Soil not pulverising. E.
Logger, = A wedding ring. A well-known word in the district of Upton Bishop.
Lommaking, = Love making. Also idling, clumsy. Archenfield. Sometimes Shommaking is used.
Lonck, = 1. The groin. Heref. 2. A stage or resting place for vehicles on a public road. Bredwardine.
Lont, = Low lying land.
Look slippy, = Be quick. Sutton St. N.
Loose, = Unlocked or unfastened, as a gate. Upper Sapey.
Lost, = "To be lost for want". Famished.
Louse, = Enliven. Spoken of ale, "louse it up". E.
Lowk, = A heavy blow, as "I'll gee thee a lowk on thy yead". W. Her.
Lug, n. = A given quantity of wood.
Lug, v. = To draw or drag.
Lumbersome or Lombersome, = Heavy, awkward in moving.
Lunchy, = Stiff. "The mould turns up so lunchy". E.
Lunge, v. = To train and tame a horse with a long rein. N. Her.
Lungeous, = Unmanageable, vindictive. N. Her.
Lush, v. = To beat down with boughs, as wasps. L.
Luxrous, = Luxurious. Tretire.
Lye, = Water in which wood ashes have been steeped. L.
Lynen, = A large bundle of straw from the threshing floor. Kentchurch.

M

Mag, = To scold.
Magget, = A magpie.
Maggotty, = Said of a cross, fretful child.
Main, = Great or chief. "Cider's the main thing for a mon". N. Her.
Man, = In various stages - babby, young un, lad, chap, nipper, feller, mon. Archenfield.
Market-peert, = Slightly "fresh" or excited by liquor.

[1] Examples may still be found in some of our parishes, generally near the entrance to Churchyard. We have one at Upton Bishop.

22 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Marls, = Marbles; sometimes called marvels.
Mashes, = The threads of a screw. Kentchurch.
Master. Wives of farmers style their husbands "our master" or "the master". Labourers call their wives "the 'oman". Tretire.
Masterful, = Unmanageable, imperious. Heref.
Mat, v. = To mat potatoes, i.e., to stir the earth round them. Kentchurch.
Mattock, = A tool similar to a kerf with or without prongs instead of a hoe. Also called a tomahawk. Ashperton.
Mauk, = To mimic.
Maumble, = Doing anything in a messing way. "If she can't do one thing she can maumble on at another". E.
Maunch, = All to bits. "All to maunch". Connected with munch? - "manger". Archenfield.
Mawkin, = Scarecrow, often called a "deadman". Well known around Ross. See Ross Gazette, June 3, 1886.
Maythering, = Babbling as an imbecile. Bredwardine.
Maython, = A weed reputed poisonous locally applied. Heref.
Me. This is often used for me or for myself, as "I must get me a wife".
Meal, = 1. Implying division, as peace-meal. Thus, to tear a thing, limb-meal; a pain came on fitmeal (vitsmeal). 2. The quantity of milk that a cow gives at a milking.
Measter, = Mister or master.
Measure for warm suit of clothes, = Giving a lad a good hiding. An old well-known expression. L.
Meat, v. = To feed animals.
Meaty, = Rather fleshy than fat. Said of store animals.
Mednip, = Root of briony. "As I was stocking that ere hedge-but, I came across two uncommon big mednips". Lanwarne.
Meeuxing, = Messing anything about in the mouth. E.
Menagery, = A contrivance. "I never zeed such a menagery as that". N. Her.
Ment, = Mended. "Its just been ment".
Mergal or Mergle, = Confusion or mess. A crop of grain laid flat is said so be "in a mergal". E.
Mess, = A term of contempt for anything small or weak. "A mess of a thing".
Middling, = Not in good health, unwell. Very middling, very ill. Pretty middling, fairly well.
Miff or Tiff, = A falling out. "We 'ad a bit of a miff".
Mighty, = Very, or a large number of anything.
Mimmocking, = An epithet applied to a puny weakly child.
Minty cheese, = Cheese having mites in it.
Mishterful or Mischeevious, = Mischievous.
Miskin, n. = Mixen, or any heap of rubbish. L. and W. Her.
Misler, = Mistletoe thrush.
Mislest, = Molest.
Mistrust, = Distrust.
Mistiff or Mishtiff, = Mischief.
Misword, = Misunderstanding, blame, or quarrel.
Miss, n. = Want or loss. "He'll feel the miss o' good fittle".
Miss, v. = Fail.
Missus, = A man's wife. See Master.
Mix out, = Clean out. "Mix out the cow house". E.
Mixen, = A muck heap-midden. E.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 23

Moggy, = Pet name for a calf, and sometimes for a young donkey.
Moither, = Muddle or confusion. "I felt regularly moithered". E.
Moithered, = Confused or wandering in mind, muddled. Pixley.
Mommet or Mommel, = An effigy to frighten birds. See Mawkin.
Mommock or Mollock, = Confusion. "The place were ahl uv a mommock".
Moocher or Moucher, = 1. A truant from school. "Were is ...? Oh he's gone mouching". U.B. 2. Potatoes left in ground and coming up in succeeding year. Also called lurchers. Tretire.
Moolson, n. = An almost obsolete name of the donkey. Black Mountain.
Moonrakers, = Wiltshire men. [1] Llanwarne.
Moot, = To scratch up (of pigs, dogs, &c.) Kentchurth.
Mooter, = A plough that cuts a double furrow, used in sowing turnips. Kentchurch.
Mopple, = Said of an overgrown hedge. "In such a mopple". E.
Mortal, = Very. "I'm mortal bad". E.
Morthen, = A plant, probably the field Scabious. Orcop.
Mosey, = Gone soft, as apples, pears, or turnips.
Mote, = Moth. Sutton St. N.
Mothering Sunday, = Midlent. [2]
Moudgen, = The mesentery of a pig: the haslet. Cooked on a long skewer. Pronounced "Mudgen".
Mought, = Might be. "I Mought han said it". Tretire.
Moughten, = Might be. "Moughten be but it yant". E.
Mouster, = To pulverise. "The ground wants to mouster a bit' E.
Moutering, = Taking no notice of. "Go moutering along". E.
Mouzend, = The month's end after a funeral. Rowlstone. In N. Heref. they talk of the twelve months succeeding a death in the family as the "Deathzear".
Mowburnt, = Hay or corn burnt by heating.
Mox, = A state of decay. "The taters were all in a mox". E.
Moyle, = A hornless cow or bullock. Orcop.
Muh, = Used for me". You'll hurt muh". "Come and tell muh all about it".
Mullock, = A mess or litter. Mullocks also used as a noun. "That ere wench she's a regular mollocks". Peterchurch.
Mum, = Silent. "Quite mum". E.
Mum-ruffin = The long-tailed Titmouse or Bottle Tit.
Munch, = Steal household provisions. N. Her.
Muntling, = Wandering. "Where are going muntling off to". E.
Must or Mast, = The cake of apples after leaving the cider press.
Mye or Mow, = To place grain in a rick. "I must mye it properly". E.

N

Nag, = To worry with reproaches.
Nail-passer, = A gimlet.
Nanny, = A small three-wheeled cart. A dobbin.
Native or Natif, = Home or native country. "I never heard what his natif was". "There's her native when she's a wum" (home). S.E. Her.

[1] The Wiltshire men were formerly regarded by the Herefordshire men as fools.
[2] This is a great day in Herefordshlre for visiting relations. It is still the custom to use or send away mothering cakes, which are made specially at Hereford and towns in this county in large quantities.

24 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Nation, = Very. "Lugg's nation cazulty; when you think he's in he's out, and when you think he's out he's in". This is doubtless an abreviation of "damnation".
Near, = Mean or stingy.
Neen, = Near. "Neen road". E.
Neger, v. = To work very hard. Nauger in Lady V.H.'s copy. Tretire.
Nesh, = Delicate, weak, tender. "The sheep be doing fairish, but some of the lambs be very nesh this time". [1] Lanwarne.
Neuralgia, is often spoken of as "this new-ralgy".
Nibbs, = Handles placed on the snid to use a scythe with. That nearest the blade is called the advantage nibb, the other the straight nibb. Ashperton.
Nidget, = A pronged implement like a horse hoe. W. Her.
Nile or Ile, = That part of a flail which is swung round and beaten against the sheaves in threshing. Ashperton.
Ninted, = Anointed, in a bad sense, mischievous. "Hims a ninted yarb", i.e., a mischievous fellow. E. & L.
Nipper, = A youngster.
Nip wir, = A buzz and slap as from bees or wasps. "The bees came round my hat nip wir". E.
Nisgle or Nisgel (nest gull), = Undersized offspring, the youngest, weakest, the pet, the son kept longest at home. The smallest pig in the litter. L. and Kentchurch.
Nist, = Nest.
Nobble-peg, = No head piece. "He's nothing but a nobble-peg". E.
No danger, = No likelihood or probability. "Didn't he say as he would come here to day?", "No daynger".
No fear, = Never, not likely. E.
No gift, = Stupid, not quite there. "He's no gift". E.
Noggerly, = Thrifty. "A hard working noogerly woman she was". E.
Noggs, = The two handles on the sneed of the scythe. W. Her.
Nogman, = A clumsy workman. E.
None, = No time. "Hadna bin gone none when you come in". Sometimes pronounced like own.
Nonsical, = Nonsensical.
Nope, = Bullfinch. N.E. Her.
Nor, = For than. "Oh, don't he know better nor that". "He's no better nor me".
No two ways about it. A common phrase used to end an argument.
Nouker, = A sharp one. "He's a nouker". E.
Nub, = A lump of anything, a great stout boy. "A goodish nub of a girl". Tretire.
Nurra one, = Never a one, nobody. "Urra one", any one.

O

Oaf or Ouph, = The most bitter character that can be given of a man is by describing him as a prodigal half oaf or as a rogue oaf. Orleton. In other parts this word only means silly, stupid, half-witted. The bitterness of this expression would rather be in the word prodigal = proud. A man "half an oaf" = idiot, and a "rogue oaf" = a mixture of knave and fool. N. Her.
Oath, v. = To swear. "I'll oath it".
Objections. This word generally used in the plural number. "I've no objections". Tretire.

[1] Among a party staying at Llanwarne Rectory was a clever etymologist; the conversation turned upon the origin and derivation of words. Many words were duly handled with more or less success. The word nesh being produced, silence reigned, no suggestion being made. One after another exclaimed "I don't know". The individual alluded to exclaimed "I have it, as doubtless it comes from nescio". W.B.M.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 25

Obligated, = Obliged. Also used to express being much engaged. A man excused his absence from church by saying "I've been much obligated lately". Clodock.
Ockerd, = Awkward; contrary, when applied to weather or temper.
Oddmark. = The quantity of land which an outgoing tenant is allowed to sow with wheat, &c.; generally one-third of the arable land on the farm.
Oddments, = Odds and ends.
Odds or Odze, n. = A difference. "There's odds in childern".
Odds or Odze, v. = To alter, undo. "We must odds it a bit". [1] Llanwarne.
Off, = 1. A poor person is said to be "bad off". "How be y' of for apples t'year", i.e., this year. W. Her. 2. At a distance. "Where is your daughter now?", "Oh her's been on off now some time". Llanwarne.
Ognel, = Ugly, awkward, or disagreeable. E.
Olus, = Carelessly. Sutton St. N.
Omen or Ominy, = A fad or fanciful contrivance. "What new ominy's this?" N. Her.
Onbeknown, = Unknown. "It was done quite onbeknown to me".
Onfriends, = Unfriendly, not on friendly terms. U.B.
Oolat, = An owl. E.
Oont, = A mole. See Woont or Hoont.
Oontitumps, = Mole hills. Aylton.
Orchut or Otchut, = Orchard.
Ordain or Organize, = To give orders or instruction. "I'll ordayn y'u". Very common.
Orl, n. = The alder tree.
Oss, v. = To try to do well; said of a servant. A north country word. Canon Pyon.
Our, = Often put before the name of a member of a family, as our Tom, our Mary.
Over, = Very. "It's a cold morning". "Well, it aint over hot". E.
Overlight, = To alight from a horse or donkey, &c. W. Her.
Overseen or Overlooked, = 1. Mis-taken. "I was much overseen in that business". Tretire. 2. Guided by hidden power. W. Her.
Owny, = Lazy. An owny fellow. Dilwyn and E.
Ould, = Cross or strange. "E looked very ould at me". N. Heref.

P

Pachetty, = Denoting bad health. "A pachetty man, - a poor piece,- an ailing body". Archenfield.
Paggel, = Mend. "Paggel it up a bit". E. This word is also applied to digging carelessly done, or to fencing not thorough. L.
Pane, = A portion or division of a garden. See Lewis' Glossary, p. 76. [2]
Pank or Polt, = To knock apples off trees. Hence, Panking-pole. E.
Panking-pole or Fruit-lug, = A long pole for shaking apple and pear trees. L.
Partickler, = "Is that dog quiet?", "Well he aint very partickler". "I suppose I shall be all right going through that field?", "Well I don't know, Mam, that there cow as we call Lady Mary, her aint very partickler". Llanwarne.

[1] A well-known clergyman: Rev. J. Hanmer Underwood, Vicar of Bosbury, 1830-56, walking along a road, met a man. They mutually "passed the time of day", then made tracks for a few yards when each stopped and turned round. "I fancy I ought to know your face", says Mr. U. "Indeed I think you oughter, for only a twelvemonth ago I gave you a guinea to marry me, and now I'll give you two to odze it".
[2] The garden at The College, Hereford, is a good example of division into panes.

26 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Pass out, v. = Of the passing bell, to toll. "Send up to pass out the bell". [1]
Patch, = Piece. "Young squire aint a patch on the old un". W. Heref.
Patienate, = Patient. Sometimes pronounced like "passionate".
Partly true, = True in every part.
Pauson or Possun, = The parson.
Peaking, a. = Feeble or puny. "The chickens are poor little peaking things". E.
Peaky, = Bashful. "He's so peaky and shy". E.
Peal or peel, = Implement for drawing bread from the oven. W. Her.
Peck, v. = To tease. In Lady V.H.'s copy. Dilwyn.
Peerk, = A perch in land measure, hedging, &c.
Peert, = Lively, in good spirits or health.
Pell-necked, adj. = A sheep that has got the wool off its neck is a "pell-necked ship". Probably from the wool being peeled off. Monnow Valley.
Pentis, = Penthouse, the shed attached to a smithy where the horses are shod.
Perished, = Starved or half dead from cold.
Peruse, = Explore, the fields or woods. N. Her.
Pessum, n. = Peashaulm, dried stalks of peas. Kentchurch.
Physic, = As aperient medicine only.
Piefinch or Pierinch, = A chaffinch. Llanwarne.
Piece, = 1. A field. 2. An epithet of contempt, as "Eer is but a poor piece".
Piggin or Noggin, = A wooden quart used for carrying milk or toast and cider to workmen. Ashperton.
Pig-meat, = Parts of a pig eaten before being salted down.
Pinch-bar, = A crowbar. Kentchurch and L.
Pinianated, = Opinionated, obstinate, self conceited.
Pink, = A chaffinch. N. Her.
Pinsons, = Pincers.
Pionies, n. = Peonies.
Pip, n. = The blossom of the cowslip.
Pip, v. = To pull the blossom out for making wine.
Pirty, = Pretty. "A pirty set out", i.e , proceeding.
Pishty, = A term applied, 1. to a dog when the speaker does not know its usual name; 2. to a object of little value. This is common in Wales and near its borders. N.W. Her.
Pitch, n. = A point. "They always make a pitch of picking the hurden fruit". N.W. Her.
Pitch, n. = A hill.
Pitch, v. = 1. To pave. 2. To throw up, as hay or wheat on to a waggon. Rowlstone.
Plain, = Unassuming, friendly in manner. Pronounced as playn. "I likes them Miss J.'s, they be so playn". Said by an old woman of some young ladies who visited her.
Plants, = Young cabbage, brocoli, and other "greens".
Plash or Pleach, = To lay down a hedge.
Playcher or Plasher, = A pleacher or stem in a hedge, half cut through and bent down.
Pleck or Plock, = A plot of ground.
Plim, n. = 1. On the level. 2. Smoothly. It went as plim as could be". "How prim that's going". E.
Plim, v. = To swell. "The bacon plimm'd". N.W. Her.

[1] It is customary at Hereford (1) to give three times three strokes on one of the large bells or tenor for a Male. (2) To ring one bell for about 15 minutes. (3) Then to sound nine strokes on each bell, beginning with the treble bell. (4) To toll the last bell according to the age of the deceased. For a Female, three times two strokes. Six strokes on each bell after ringing the tenor.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 27

Plough, = A fall. "I went such a plough". N.W. Her.
Plough, = The various parts of a plough are:

Cosp, = That which is placed on the beam to regulate width and depth.
Coulter, = The part used for cutting the ground and easing the share.
Flay, = Used in skimming the surface of foul land and turning it over.
Share, = That part which bursts the soil in bottom of furrow.
Sheal-board, = That which turns the soil over.
Sock, = A ploughshare.
Throck, = Pronounced Drack, is the frame, now of iron, on which the share rests. Ashperton.

Poche or Pooch, = To prick a hole in anything. Tretire.
Pole-pitching, = Setting up poles in a hop yard.
Polering, n. = The ring or head of the scythe into which the snead is fitted. N.W. Her.
Ponger, = To wander. "His head was on the ponger all night". E.
Poon or Pounn, = To pound, punch, or knock, as "poon the door". Sutton St. N.
Poppy, = Said of a man who wants to pass as a gentleman. "Oh he can work well enough but is a bit of a poppy". U.B.
Pot, = A local measure (specially in Worcestershire) containing from 4 to 5 pecks of fruit or vegetables.
Potatoe stack, = A potatoe bury. Heref.
Pot fruit, = Eating fruit, fit for sale and not for cider, &c.
Pound, = Pond. "A mill pound", is often used in Herefordshire. Tretire.
Prawl, = To patch or mend clothes. Tretire.
Pretty well, = Do or say. "He did pretty well rate me".
Prills, = Purls in a stream.
Pimmerose, = Primrose.
Proceeding, s. = Commencement. "That was the first proceeding of the business". Tretire.
Prodigal, adj. = Proud. "He's a prodigal sort of man". N.W. Her.
Prompt, adj. = Fresh, of a horse. "That coult be so prompt that I canna hould 'im".
Proper, = Nice. "That's proper". Heref.
Public, = A public house.
Puck, v. = Past tense of to pick. "I like them shoes best as I puck out first". Used also by hop pickers. "We've puck the frummest on 'em". Ashperton and Kington.
Pug, = 1. To pull, as a hay rick. 2. To pluck poultry. 3. Used metaphorically. "He pugged his father dreadful", i.e., squandered his substance.
Pulver, = To pilfer. Tretire.
Punishment, = Pain.
Purgatory, = The receptacle for ashes under a grate. Upper Sapey.
Purgy, = Cross, surly, quarrelsome, and often stuck up.
Pure, = Well or sound in health. "How is your wife?", "Her be pure thank 'e Sir". Sutton St. N.
Put about, = To vex or worry. "That put me about aboove a bit".
Puther, = To be disturbed, agitated, vexed, troubled. Pronounced like Mother. L.
Put up, = As at an Inn.
Put up with, = Bear patiently.

Q

Quabble, n. = Confusion. "My head's all of a quabble". E.

28 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Quacked or Queecked, v. = Squeeze. "He quacked him against the wall". "I quecked him right and sharp". N.W. Her.
Quakers, = Stich wort or quaking grass. Kentchurch.
Quarter time, = Quarantine. N. Her.
Quat, v. = To squat or crouch down. Common.
Quell, v. = Of a hen crushing her chickens. "That ere black hen did quell most of her chicks in the nist". G.V.
Quick, = 1. Hasty tempered. 2. Young hawthorn.
Quiet, = Well behaved, civil. Has a larger signification than "silent" in commending a person's character. "A very quiet body".
Quietly, = Gradually. "It mends very quietly", i.e., there is very little improvement. Tretire.
Quining. Corruption of coigning = Coign. Hence the name of the apple, Quining Apple. Or a mispronunciation of Queening (Apple). L.
Quinnett or Quinel, n. = The wedge or nail fastening the blade to handle of a scythe. Ashperton. Monnow Valley.
Quist or Quice, = Woodpigeon. There is a common saying in Herefordshire, "Thee bist a queer quist", i.e., a queer fellow. See Kivest. W. Her.
Quithering, = Talking or chattering low, whispering. N. Her.
Quop, = Throb with pain.

R

Racket, = To stand the racket. "Wool you do your work better or stand the racket", i.e., take a good beating. Said by a farmer to his boy. E.
Raddle, = Red earth to mark sheep. There is a red-soiled hill near St. Michael's, Tenbury, called "The Raddle Bank". N. Her.
Rail, = To reel about.
Rainified, = Like rain. "It blows rainifed". E.
Raisty, = Rancid, as bacon.
Rangle, = A wound, fester, or a wearisome rankling pain. "My arm rangles so". Orcop.
Rare, = Underdone meat.
Reaming, = Very fine. "A reaming bed of onions". E.
Reasons, = Senses. "Out of his reasons". Tretire.
Reck staddle, = Rick stool.
Recruit, = Mend (of a gate). N. Her.
Reens, = Furrows, or the interval between the ridges of ploughed ground. When there is no necessity for such drainage the ridges are much wider and are called "lands". Ashperton.
Refuse, = Refusal. Used particularly with reference to sales. .
Remeddy, = No help for it.
Remetic, = An emetic.
Rick barton or barten, = The fold yard. Canon Frome.
Ridiculous, = Scandalous and disgraceful. Tretire.
Riff, = Skin disease. Heref.
Right, = Ought. "Farmer A has a right to pay his tax". Tretire.
Right, = Downright. "Er's right ill this time".
Ring-beetle. See Beetle.
Rip or Rype, n. = A four-sided strop for putting a fine edge on the scythe, fastened on the sneed. W. Her.
Ripping, = Sharp, cutting, frost or cold.
Road, = The right way or manner to do anything.
Roamish, = 1. Smelling or tasting unpleasantly. Tretire. 2. Active, adventurous. "I feel much better, I feel quite roamish". Heref. Infirmary.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 29

Robble, = In confusion or twisted. "It was all in a robble".
Ronk, = Rotten, as timber, or far gone in growth, rank. [1]
Roosling, = Covering, as a hen her chickens. E.
Ropy, = Stringy. Applied to bread and cider.
Roughet, = A rough breaky meadow. Archenfield. Or a field with bushes, bracken, or briars. L.
Rubber, = A whetstone for a scythe.
Ruck, = 1. A heap. 2. A rut of a road. Pronounced "rowks". 3. A fold or crease. Tretire.
Rudge, = A ridge in a ploughed field.
Ruination, = Ruin.
Rumbly. This word is in Lady V.H.'s copy, without any explanation.
Rump, = A young rabbit. Kentchurch.

S

S. The addition of the letter S to names of places, and to all kinds of names, is very general, as Dillins Church, Uptons Church, or objections.
Sa, = For save. "Thirty sa one", i.e., 29.
Sag, = To bend downward as a weak beam.
Sallet, = Salad of herbs.
Sally, = 1. A willow bough. 2. The lower end of a church bell rope.
Sally-bed, = A plantation of willows.
Sarcle, v. = To weed corn fields. Canon Frome.
Sarvant Sir, = Old men when meeting a gentleman often used this form of salutation, taking off their hats and making a low bow.
Sauce, v. = To abuse. "He sauced me shocking".
Scallenge, Skallage, or Skallynge, = A lich-gate or bench therein at entrance of a churchyard. See Penny Post, 1880, p. 307. Noticed in Parker's Glossary of Architecture. Canon Pyon and S.-on-Wye.
Scheme, v. = To contrive or arrange. Pronounced Skame. Aylton.
Sclem, n. = A hungry thievish animal. Applied also to overeaching persons. Bredwardine.
Sclem, v. = To thieve, taking anything sneakingly. E.
Sckelt, = Worthless. "The fellow's a regular sckelt". E.
Scolloping, = Draggling. E.
Scoat, = To rush, hurry along. "Her scooted up to chap-pel". Aylton.
Scoot, n. = A swath of grass. N. Her.
Scoot, v. = To slide. Kentchurch.
Score, = The weight of pigs used to be reckoned by the score of lbs. Now in some parts by the stone.
Scorting, = Scornful, in sense of high and mighty.
Scoutch, Coutch, or Scutch, = Couch grass.
Scout, = Used in Herefordshire cricket fields, "to scout out": To field out. N. Her.
Scrat, = Scratch. "A regular scrat". E.
Scratchings, = Refuse of lard when boiled.
Scrawl, = To crawl. Also in Breconshire and West W. Kentchurch.
Scroudge, = Crush. Old fashioned School Master loquitur. "Dunna scroudge boys".
Scrowl, = Scrape, difficulty. "Get into a scrawl". Tretire.

[1] A father speaking of his son, aged four years, "E's the most onforbiddenist ronkest, young dog as ever I came across, onless it was myself when I was 'is aage". N. Her.

30 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Scythe, = For the various parts see Grass nail, Nibbs, Quinel, Snathe, and Sneed.
See, = Find. "I see it very hard". Archenfield.
Seeds (sids), = Clover.
Segs, = Rushes.
Seggen, = Made of segs.
Selfish, = Self conceited.
Set, = To let, or find a tenant for, a house or land.
Seven coloured linnet, n. = The goldfinch. E. Her.
Shambling, = Awkward in gait. "A shambling, wambling, walloping oaf". Archenfield.
Shard or Shoard, = An open place or gap in a hedge. Ashperton.
Share. See Plough.
Shatter, = To shed about.
Sheal, v. = 1. Shed or scatter. A term used in ploughing. "Dont sheal it". Common about Ashperton. 2. To shell peas or beans.
Sheal-board. See Plough.
Sheeler, = A machine used to extract clover seed. There is also a "bosser". Kentchurch.
Shift, = To move from one house to another.
Shingling, = Sprinkling, as of fruit on a tree. U.B.
Ship, = Sheep.
Shirgle, = Shirk. "You want to shirgle out on't".
Shirty, = Short tempered. "He was rather shirty in the business". E.
A Shivering (of gravel), = A light sprinkling. Orcop.
Shop, = A smithy; a blacksmith's shop.
Shore back, = To hang or draw back, as a led horse. Tretire.
Shown or Shownd, = Show. "I'll shown you".
Shuck, = Pron. of shake. "Shuck the tree".
Shud, = Pron. of shed.
Shut on or off, = Get rid of. "I was that glad to get shut on 'im".
Shut off work, = Leave off work.
Sicking, = Sighing. Pixley.
Sideland or Sidelong, = Sloping, as a sidelong piece of ground, or a farm on the slope of a hill; ground by the side of a hill. E.
Sideways, = On the side or direction of. "He lived sideways Ross". Tretire.
Siers, = Scions or shoots.
Sight of, or more, = A great quantity of anything, much or many more. [1]
Silgreen, = Houseleek.
Silent or Silence, = Asylum. Tretire.
Silly, = Weak, poorly. E.
Silly-green, = Houseleek, a plant. Kentchurch.
Simple, = Ill, weak, half-witted. Common on Welsh border.
Single out, v. = To thin out, as turnips and other roots are treated.
Sinners, = Sinews.
Suity, = Regular or alike. "A suity crop of potatoes".
Sir or Surrey, = 1. A form of address between familiar and contemptuous, i.e., a farmer to one of his labourers would say, if work was not over well done, "I say, Surrry, how about this here job". N. Her. 2. Not as a term of contempt. One lad calls another "Surrey". Surrey is a young man. So in Staffordshire it is "Cum here surrey-lad". L. 3. Probably from the old term "Sirrah".
Skeel, = A shallow wooden tub.

[1] A parishioner, on his return frorn the County Asylum, May, 1886, informed me that he was "a sight better off there that he was here". This word is in common use.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 31

Skew wiff, = Aslant.
Skewer wood, = Dogwood or elder.
Skillet, = A long-handled saucepan, large and shallow, of copper or brass.
Skelting, = Wandering off. "He went skelting off". E.
Skilling (of a roof), = Its ups and downs. Kentchurch.
Skip or Whisket, = A shallow basket made of oak laths (in Shropshire), with rounded bottom and ends.
Skirme, = As in mowing when crop was light. "He just skirmed it over". In Heref. County Court, March 26, 1886. (Marden.) Or of digging.
Sklenn, = A greedy and indiscriminate feeder.
Slad or slade, = A bank or hollow side of a hill. L.
Slatted, = This is said of peas when the blossom has developed into pods. Heref.
Slether or Slither, = To slide.
Slick or Slike, = Smooth and shiny, as of ice or hair. "As slick as a hoont".
Sling, = A strip of field (or Slang in Tithe Maps). N. Her.
Sliver or Sliving, = A slice cut off.
Slob, = Pron. of Slab. The outside cut of a tree.
Slommock, = Slatternly; woman or man untidy in dress. L.
Slurring, = Sliding.
Smacker, = A big thing. "It was a smacker". E.
Smackle, = To throw out sparks from wood fire. Archenfield.
Smart, = Good or well. "A smart lot".
Smock frock, = A labourer's strong hempen garment with shoulder lappels much gathered in and plaited. Rapidly falling into disuse.
Smoozed, = Smoked, as ale by fire side.
Snack, = Slight repast.
Snaggle, = To notch or cut badly. "He snaggled it something awful". E.
Snawp, = A smart tap on the head or other part. "Snawp I had him my lord".
Sneed or Snid, n. = The long handle of a scythe.
Sniping, = Sharp or biting, as of frost or wind.
Snirpt, = Pinched. "All snirpt with the cold". "Snyrbynge" in Prompt Pav. reprehendere, vol. III. 461.
Snob, = A cobbler.
Snobbing, = Shoe mending. "Feather's gone a snobbing".
Snoosling, = Creeping. "Snoosling to me". E. Or rather, nestling. L.
Snorty, = Proud, haughty (? sniffing). N. Her.
Snug, = Comfortable, easily pleased. "A very snug child". Archenfield.
Snowler, = A heavy blow, as on the head.
Sock. See Plough.
Solid, = Solemn.
Sollar, = An upper floor room. Kentchurch.
Sore, = Very great in bad sense. "A sore torrel, a sore oaf". N.W. Her.
Sough, = A small boggy spot, generally covered with green moss, on the eye of a spring. Lanwarne.
Sould, = Soul.
Spaggled, = Ript or torn; as the branch of a tree. E.
Spare rib or Sparrib, = Piece of bacon pig, including the hinder or false ribs.
Spawl, v. = To split off in wood or stone.
Spawl, n. = A splinter of wood. Kentchurch.
Spet, = Spit.

32 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Spit, = Depth of a spade in digging, hence double digging is "two spit deep".
Spittle, = Spade tree - spade handle. Spittle making is a Herefordshire trade. "Spittle deep", as applied to digging.
Splite, = A laughing stock. "You are making a splite of me", i.e., making game. Kentchurch.
Splotches, = Blotches. W. Her.
Sporrocks, = Steel sprigs in boots. N. Her.
Spotting, = As of rain when slight. "It's spotting". Heref.
Spreed, = Spread.
Spreeder, = A stick placed horizontally to keep the traces from horses legs.
Sprowse, = Loppings of branches, &c., used to mend a glat. W. Her.
Spry, = Active.
Spud, = A grafting or draining tool.
Spurt, n. = A shoot or sprout, as of potatoes.
Spurt, v. = To take off such sprouts or spurts. Lanwarne.
Spurtle, = Sprinkle. E.
Squat, n. = An oblong piece of wood with a handle, carried in wagons to scotch the wheel. Also as a verb, to "squat the wheel".
Squawk, = To squeal or cry out.
Squilt, = A little pimple or raw wound. Kentchurch.
Squob, = Settled down, as a rick. "All in a squab". E.
Sriek or Skriek, = Shriek. N. Her.
Srink, = Shrink.
Stammerer, n. = One who has a lattige (or lettage) in his speech. Pixley.
Stand to a child, = To be sponsor.
Stank, = To dam or block up water. Hampton Stank. Old saying, "stank afore it", i.e., eat before drinking.
Starky or Starchy, = Said of stuff hard to work with a needle. Archenfield.
Starve, = To be cold. N. Her.
Steamer, = A traction engine. Pronounced Stemmer.
Steen, = An earthen pan used for washing or baking. Ashperton.
Steeve, = An ox. Also name of Pole (attached to collar) between the oxen when at work. L.
Steere, = A starling. Sometimes Black Steer.
Stemming, = Said of boys or others employed with agricultural steamers. "Gone stemming". Linton.
Stick, = A piece of timber. A general term. A tree often called a "good stick". E.
Stither, = A small bit of anything. "Not a stick nor a slither". N. Her.
Stived, = Kept in too close a place.
Stock, = To peck as a bird. To grub up a hedge is to "stock it up". Said of a pigeon, "er stocks the cat". N. Her.
Stockaxe, n. = A mattock.
Stockeagle, = The Green Woodpecker. Probably from Hickol or Eqwal, a bird that "stocks" the trees.
Stoggle, = An old gnarled tree with a large mis-shapen head. Orcop.
Stogwell, s. = A pollard tree, as in case of sallies, and hence is not timber, and belongs to the tenant, not to the landlord. Llanwame.
Stonen, = Made of stone. "A stoners floor". Tretire.
Stop-glat, = Stop gap.
Stonier, = Story telling. Lady V.H.'s copy assigns this to Aymestrey. I think it is commonly used among children.
Straddling, = A term of dislike or contempt. To "go straddling about".

WORDS AND PHRASES. 33

Strike or Strike-less, = A piece of wood for striking level the contents of a bushel measure, in distinction to heaped measure. In Flintshire this strike is a measure of corn or potatoes.
Stripe, = Strip.
Struck all of a eap, = Too much astonished to act or speak. Aylton.
Stub, = 1. The butt of a tree in the ground, or a prop at the bottom of a post. 2. v. = To stock up.
Stump, = Square iron implement made of parallel bars close together, with wooden handle, used to separate awns or iles of barley from the seed.
Stun, = Stone.
Successfully, = Excessively. "It rained successfully".
Sufferable, = Painful. Archenfield.
Sugger, = Sugar.
Suity, = Pretty regular, as a farmer travelling about to local fairs, or as plants in a garden, "pretty suity". Orleton.
Summut, = A small thrashing. "You say that again, you shall have summut, or one or two". A N. Her. man observed that "summat be summat, but nuffin ha got no smell to't".
Sump, = To push along a heavy weight. Kentchurch.
Sup, = 1. n. = A drop. "A sup o' cider". 2. v. = To swallow. 3. v. = To supply with supper.
Suppose. An expression usual when the speaker is describing what he knows for certain. "What is your name?", "John Price, I suppose". Tretire.
Surbated, = Foot sore, as a woman said of her daughter who had walked 30 miles to see her. "When her came her was fine surbated".
Sure to, = Sure to be.
Swarm, = Climb up.
Sweetly, = Well, as when a knife has been sharpened, it "cuts sweetly".
Swill, = To cleanse a barrel by water, or a ditch by flooding.
Swapson, = 1. Sprawling. "A great wide swapson of a rick". E. 2. A bad woman. L.
Swealing, = Guttering of candle when burning.
Swinge, = Pron. of singe.

T

Tack, = 1. Hired pasture for animals. 2. Worthless stuff. "Its wretched tack". N.W. Her.
Tack, Spoken of cider when it has some particular taste about it. Orleton.
Tag, v. = To make brown, the effect of high wind and rain on hops. Aylton.
Tagged, = Out of condition as a horse, unhealthy looking. Tretire.
Tagraling, = Courting. E. Abusing. L.
Tail-cratch, = The rack at the back of waggons.
Tail wheat, = Broken or small grains of wheat used as food for poultry.
Taken, = For took. "I taken it away".
Take on, v. = To pretend or feign. Aylton.
Take to, = To like, as school, trade, master, &c.
Take after, = To resemble an ancestor.
Take for, = To go towards, e.g., "The fox took for Westhide wood".
Taking, = A whitlow is called "a taking".
Tallat, Tallet, Tollit, or Tallant, = A loft used for hay.
Tally, = A piece of wood by which account is kept of each hop-picker's work, notches being cut thereon.

34 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Tang, = To beat pans when bees swarm. [1]
Tansel, = To beat. "I'll tansel your hide for you". E.
Tansilooning, = Beating. E.
Tap shoes, = To put new soles on old shoes. Heref.
Taunt, = To beg for, to tease. Archenfield.
Tay, = Tea.
Teart, = Sharp, smarting, painful.
Teater, = Not steady. "All on the teater". E.
Ted, = To toss and spread mown grass for hay.
Tempest, = Storms or thunder.
Terrify, = To irritate (as of flies). N. Her.
Thank you, = An expression brought in when narrating stories, making a denial more emphatic. Orleton.
That, = So, so much. "I was that glad". "I was that ill". "E's got that fat I must be to kill 'im soon".
That's all about it, = That is the very point in question.
The, = Used as for the demonstrative pronoun this? "T'year", lately or this year. "T'week". "T'day". G.V. and Archenfield.
Them, = For those.
Them or Theirn, = "Are all these your children?", "Och, not all on 'em, our naibour, him's got a lot, most on 'em be theirn". When a recent Bishop of London, with a family, married a widow also with a family, and there came yet another family, the juveniles were distinguished as His'n, Her'n, and Their'n. Llanwarne.
These, = This.
Thesun, = These.
Thickun, = For this or that one. Canon Pyon.
Thickun, = This one. Th soft as in Thee.
Thiller, = The shaft horse in a team.
Things (meaty things), = A term applied to cattle and sheep.
Think on, = To remember.
Thrashel, = A flail. E.
Thrape, = To kill small birds. Of an absent Sunday scholar. "He's gone thrafing". N. Her.
Thrave, = Twenty-four boltings of straw. See Drave.
Thripples or Riples, = Moveable rails on a cart or waggon. Lit. Three poles. Aylton.
Throck. See Plough.
Thunder Berries, = The large heavy drops that fall from a thunder cloud. Sutton St. N.
Thurn, = Thorn.
Tice, = To entice.
Tid, = A horse who prances about, is restive. Also of a child who will not sit still. A Pixley woman said to her child, "Don't be tid".
Tiddle, = 1. To make much of, to fondle. 2. To kick gently, as at football.
Tidler, n., or Tiddly, adj. = A tiddly lamb is one brought up by hand. Common.
Tidy, = Respectable; also good or well. "A tidy chap". "A tidy lot o' currans".
Tilter, = A form of tilt, "as a tiltering table". Archenfield.
Tilth, = A freshly turned furrow.

[1] Tanging Bees. At the time of swarming it is usual for the owner to tang his bees. This performance is supposed to confer upon the owner a right to follow them should they migrate. "I could follow them", said an Ashperton man lately, "even if they went into the Queen's drawing room". J.M. But if this noise be not made the claim of the loser is not admitted by others on their own premises. This old practice is rapidly passing away.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 35

Time a gone, = Common expression. Heref.
Tine, v. = To mend a gap or glat, or bind up a hedge. G.V.
Tines, n. = Teeth of harrows.
Tinnit, n. = Stuff to mend a gap in a hedge. G.V.
Tissucking or Tussiky, = Dry and hacking, as applied to a cough. Archenfield.
Tisty tosty, = Child's ball of cowslips on worsted.
Titter, = To be shaken up and down as on the bough of a tree, or to totter. Titterstone, Totterhill.
Tittering, = A swing (the act of). "Come and have a tittering". Sutton St. N.
Tommy, = Food, lunch. "Bill, what ha' you got in your frail?", "My tommy". Of Welsh "tamad", a bit. Pronounced tummy.
Tomsarah or Timsarah, n. = A light gambo or cart. W. Her.
Top-and-tail, = To take off roots and tops from turnips, &c.
Top up, = To finish a rick at the top.
Torrel, = A simpleton, same as cadow. E.
Tosticated, = Intoxicated, puzzled, or confused. Tretire. Also tossed about, disturbed in mind.
Tot, = A small mug or cup. U.B. and Sollershope.
Towtree, = Horse chestnut. The Towtree is the sign of an inn at Burghill.
Towardly, = Well behaved. "A uncommon towardly pony; some is so frangy and untowardly". G.V.
Traffic, = A track or passage made by rats or game.
Traipse, = Tread in, tramp. Hence a dirty tramping woman.
Tram or Tramming, = A framework for supporting casks.
Tremenduous, = Tremendous. Heref.
Trig, = A gutter or small ditch. N. Her.
Trig out, = To mark out as in defining boundaries.
Trolly, = A low four-wheeled waggon, without sides.
Trow, = A pig's trough.
Trowse, n. = Loppings of trees, hedge stuff with which to mend a hedge. W. Her.
Tugers, = Rods used in thatching. Kentchurch.
Tump, n. and v. = A heap of anything, as tumps of soil on the road side; or earthworks of considerable size, as the Tumps at Wormbridge, Backbury, King's Caple, or Gallow's Tump near Belmont. There is also a place called Turkey Tump at Llanwarne. [1]
Tun dish, = A funnel or tun pail.
Tup, = A ram.
Turmits, = Turnips.
Turn, = "To get the turn", to pass the crisis or shew signs of amendment. "Er's got the turn on it now". Hence they say "to be on the mending hand".
Tush, = To drag or push along with difficulty, as timber. Bredwardine.
Tussock, = A tuft of dry or coarse grass.
Twerten, = Stir up. "Get a bit of a twig and twerten him up". E.

[1] There are some old traditionary lines:-

Luston short and Luston Long,
At every house a tump of dung,
Some two, some three,
The dirtiest place you ever did see.

Also another set:-

Hope under Dinmore and if Dinmore should fall,
The Devil will have Hope and Dinmore and all.

36 HEREFORDSHIRE.

Tweselty, = Poor looking. E.
Twirty, = Saucy. "He was quite twirty about it". E.
Twivelling, = Ploughing for the first time. Tretire.
Twy-bill, = A tool like a pick axe, cutting two ways with ends three inches broad; one cuts in a line with the handle and the other at right angles to it. Ashperton.
Twy-fallow, = Cross ploughing. Orleton.
Tyndton, = A place bound up, fenced in. Archenfield.

U

Ulster throat, = Ulcerated throat. N. Her.
Unaccountable, = Very, uncommonly, surprisingly. The first syllable is pronounced on.
Uncommon, = Very much. A boy remarked of a girl whose charms he felt, "She takes my eye uncommon". Sutton St. N.
Undeniable, = Excellent, good.
Underminded, = Apparently a combination of the two notions of underhanded and evil minded. Archenfield.
Unforbidden, = Wilful, unruly. "An unforbidden child", "The most onforbiddenest ronkest young rascal as ever was". L. and Heref.
Ungainly, = Unhandy, inconvenient, awkward. Lady V.H.'s copy.
Unhonest, = Dishonest.
Unket, = Lonely, solitary. L.
Unkind, = Bad, unfavourable. Specially as of crops or fruit.
Unlucky, = Troublesome, mischievous. N. Her.
Unproper, = Indecent.
Untidy trick, = A dishonourable action.
Up, = To get up; signifying activity or vigour. "He upped and got him a stick", "He up and hit him". L. and N. Her.
Up-hill, = North, specially applied to wind.
Upperter, = Taller, as of women. Canon Pyon.
Upon times, = Now and then.
Uprit, adj.= Upright, i.e., a proud man.
Upsides with, = Tit for tat.
Urchin, = A hedgehog.
Uvvermost, = Uppermost

V

Vally, = 1. The felloe of a wheel. 2. A litter of pigs. Clodock.
Vails, = Perquisites. In former times when a man was hired as a cowherd, he arranged with his master to have a fee or tip (vail) when he took a cow or a pig from home; it was his recognised perquisite. L.
Veldey-bird, = A field fare. Sutton St. N.
Vessel, = A cider cask.
Vitrous, = Inveterate, bitter, implacable.
Void, = Empty, of a vacant house. N. Her.
Ventur'some, = Adventurous.

W

Wad, = A small heap or cock in the hay field.
Wallies or Wollies, = Ridges into which hay is raked before being put in cocks and then carried. Possibly from "Valium". Upper Sapey.
Wallowish, = Faint or sickly tasted.
Wankling, = Weakly. "A little wankling child". Tretire.
Warm, v. = To beat. Pronounced like arm.
Warmship, = Warmth. St. Michael's, Tenbury.

WORDS AND PHRASES. 37

Warned, = Warrant. "I warn'd you". E.
Wassail, = Messing; spoken of fowls messing mowing grass. E.
Water-sweet, = Washed clean. Tretire.
Wave, v.= To fail. "The poor 'ooman do wave sadly". G.V.
Weany, = 1. Said of a sick, weakly child. Archenfield. 2. Weeny from Scotch wee. Heref.
Welk, = Withered. "The baby seems very poor and welk". Heref.
Well-ended. A term applied to hay ricks which have been closely pulled and neatly finished. Hay of the best quality is usually described thus in Western Counties.
Welly, = Well nigh or nearly. "The field is 13 acres welly". Weobly and N. Her.
Wench, = A girl. In general use.
Went, = Gone. "I'd a' went myself".
Werrit or Worrit, = One of an anxious fidgetty disposition.
Wesh beetle, = A wooden article, spade shaped, used to beat wet linen with on washing block. W. Her.
Wesh, = Wash. The receptacle for pig's food is usually called "the wesh tub". Tretire and U.B.
What for, = A sound threshing. Used as a substantive. "If ever thee dost that again, depend upon 't I'll give thee what for". Llanwarne. E.
Whipstitch, = As when apples or quick are planted in a careless irregular manner. U.B. and L.
Whisket, = A gardening basket
White fellums (a disease)= White films. Kentchurch.
Whosen, = Whose.
Whossuck, = Cough. "Her whossucked and ridded wonderful", i.e., coughed up. Heref.
Wig. An old fashioned cake or bun. Leominster was famed for wigs. [1]
Wik, = Week. "Last Wednesday was a wik".
Wild, = Rough; said of a rough coarse-grained lump of stone. Orcop.
Windering, = Not doing well. "The onions come thin and windering". E.
Winnow, = A sound given forth by a horse when expecting or wishing for food or water.
Winter stuff, = Borecole, savoys, and other greens.
Wires, = The runners of strawberry plants or of hops.
Withies, = Osiers or cuttings from willow trees. In some parts withies mean bands cut from the Mountain Ash for thatching or tying up faggots. Orleton.
Wollop, = To beat. Lacing or belting also in use.
Woolly-bears, = Caterpillars; bears or oollies if hairy, and "grubs" if smooth.
Wombling, = Clumsy and irregular motion in walking. Archenfield.
Woont, Want, or Hoont, = A mole.
Woot, = Wilt thou. "Lend me thy knife woot", or 'oot, or 'ootl. W. Her.
Word, = To "word a person over", is to reprove him. Tretire.
Worsen, = To grow worse.
Wound, = A sore on the body. Pronounced as round.
Wozzle, = To twist. "Wozzled about". E.
Wum or Oaum, = Home.
Wyzzel, = Top ridge of straw in thatching a rick. Kentchurch.

[1] Wig. Cakes. These cakes are still made at Hereford and Leominster. Formerly they were held in great repute, but are now enquired for only by old-fashioned folk. Messrs. Bomford and Lee (formerly Alcott, or Husbands), 46, Commercial Street, Hereford, make them. Also Mr. Beard, School Lane, Leominster.

38 HEREFORDSHIRE WORDS AND PHRASES.

X

 

Y

Y. is very commonly prefixed as:
Yap = Heap;
Yent = Are you not;
Yent it? = Is it not.

Eardisland = Yersland.
Eardisley = Yersley.
Eardishope = Yarsop. E.

Yander, = Yonder.
Yar, = Hair. [1]
Yarb, v. = To cut roughly. "Its badly yarb'd". E.
Yarbs, n. = Herbs.
Yarning, = Staring. "Stand yarning there". E.
Yars, = Hares.
Yat, = A gate made of interlaced twigs. Thus a local riddle:-

It opens like a barn door,
And shuts like a yat.
You may riddle all the day,
And canna riddle that.

Answer - A pair of stays.

Yaup, = To yelp as a dog.
Yen't, = Are you not. Yent it? Is it not? E.
Yocksing, = Stomach heaving. "He suffers so from yocksing". Sutton St. N.
Yon, = That or yonder. "Turn down by yon house".
Yonk, v. = To skulk, sneaking off as a fox. E.
Yop, = Nape. "He's got the dog by the yop of his neck". E.
Yow or Yoe, = Pron. of Ewe.
Yud or Yead, = Head.
Yumbuk, = Hymn book.

Z

Zeedum, = I saw them. W. Her.
Zummut, = Something.

[1] From High Lane, Bromyard. A person in this neighbourhood told me that he was once so frightened by a Ghost while going through a Churchyard at night that every "Yar on his yead stud an ind". The ghost turned out to be a sheep.

APPENDIX.

Also, = All but. "Have you finished?", "Yes, also that", i.e., all but that. Used frequently in W. Her. and Letton.
Buff, = To stammer. "Buffing Billy", "Er buffs a bit". L.
Blouse, = Pollen of grass, or the mites in old cider. Kentchurch.
Blunderbush, = A stumbler. "I am such a blunderbush in the dark". N. Her.
Brageant, = Bombastic, a whiffling fellow. "A mighty whiffler goes before". Shakespeare.
Caffle, = A ravel of silk or worsted. Kentchurch.
Cag, = The broken stump of a bough. Kentchurch.
Chiming, = Of a barrel, the projecting ends. Kentchurch.
Chin-cough, = Whooping cough. N. Her.
A Chip out, = A quarrel, a fall out. "A drop out". N. Her.
Compayable, = "Your dog isn't compayable till Jan. 1". N. Her.
Cruddly, = As of a mackerel sky. "A cruddly sky means twenty-four hours neither wet nor dry". Monnow Valley.
Cutten, = Adj. of cut. "A cutten foot". N. Her.
Dwarfs' money, = Term applied by the common people to ancient coins found at Kenchester and elsewhere. W. Her.
False, = Not good bottomed. "A false horse that sweats at the sight of the collar". E. Also of a lazy man.
Fear, = To frighten. E.
Flidgeter, = "Going a flidgeter", i.e., taking a flying leap. W. Her.
Ford, = Words terminating thus are pronounced as "fut", thus:-

Hereford - Herefut.
Mordiford - Mordifut.
Ludford - Ludfut.
Whitefoot - Whitefut.

Hard heads, = Burnett, a plant. Kentchurch.
Hardistraw, = A shrew, i.e., earth shrew. Kentchurch.
Hard nap, = A shrewd, clever fellow.
Hay. Town of Hay is frequently spoken of as "the Welsh Hay".
Hone, = "Thee hast got the hone", i.e., you are lazy. Heref.
Kippin Crows, = Is sometimes called "bird squelling". E.
Leathering bat, = The general name for the common bat.
Liars, = Lawyers.
Lout, = A lazy, drunken, scamping, good for nothing fellow.
Lukestet, = Luke's-tide. The season of St. Luke's Day in October. Lukestet Fair at Bridgnorth. N. Her.
Lunge, = To ill-treat animals by throwing stones or beating with sticks. N. Her.
Nibby, = A foal or colt. E.
Ninetedum, = Corruption of Anointed one, as applied to a "gallus" fellow. L.
Nogman, = Clumsy, awkward, fumbling, when at work.

40 APPENDIX.

Oaf sometimes means merely stupid. There is an amusing local story of a young man who walked a considerable distance to see his sweetheart; she failed to keep his appointment. He was wearing a pair of creaking boots, and when describing his return journey said "I did fancy as um kept a saying Oaf! Oaf! all the very way".
Overlight and Overnight, = The night before, between the evenings, i.e., at the close of afternoon yet before twilight has fairly commenced. U.B.
Overlight, = To descend from a vehicle or horse's back, to alight.
Peerk. The true perch is 5 yards, yet local hedgers reckon seven yards, even at the ploughing matches. U.B.
Polly Ann, = Polyanthus, a common flower in cottage gardens.
Poultnessing, = Poulticing. N. Her.
Punks, = Knots cut from crab trees. L.
Ran thread, = Whitey brown thread used in strong sewing.
Roosling, = Partridges dusting on the road or hedgeside.
Skip, = Also means a beehive.
Sprite, = As of a dog, lively. U.B.

An old woman who had been harshly treated by her landlord, on being advised to keep in with him, observed "yes you must hold a candle to the devil if you burn your fingers". Another who thought she would be a loser by leaving her lodging and taking a cottage, said "a little house has a large mouth".

In the neighbourhood of Ledbury it is said that cows are never named until after the arrival of the first calf; hence, perhaps, "Fill-pail," &c.

In this collection "Tretire" has contributed a fair number. These contributions have been derived not from any person now in that parish, but from the MS. notes of the late Rector, Rev. John Webb, ob. 1869, or those of his son, Rev. T.W. Webb, Vicar of Hardwick and Prebendary of Hereford, ob. May, 1885. Both these learned men contributed largely to the collection formed by Sir G. Comewall Lewis in 1839.

Names of farm horses in Herefordshire.

The following list contains the names of horses which are in general use. Every team in the County has some of them.

Blackbird
Bonny
Bounce
Bowler
Boxer
Brandy
Burt (Albert)
Captain
Charley
Darby
Diamond (pronounced Diament) [1]
Dobbin
Dragon
Duke
Flower
Gilbert
Jerry
Jolly
Lion
Lively
Short
Smiler
Snipp
Spanker
Surley
Tommy
Venter
Whitefoot

The following names are not so generally used:-

Alexander
Ball
Beauty
Blossom
Brawn
Buck
Buntin
Butter
Chieftain
Colonel
Doctor
Farmer
Goodbird
Jack
Julia
Jarbie
Jewel
Lester
Major
Merryman
Mettle
Miller
Piert
Poppet
Prince
Punch
Queen Ann
Ranter
Rattler
Rock
Rose
Rufus
Scot
Sharp
Strawberry
Tippler
Traveller
Virgin
Willing

[1] See Dr. Trench "English Past and Present, 1859". Diamant is the old spelling (and preferable) to the modern diamond.

42 Miscellaneous Phrases and Sayings.

Local Sayings.

Dirty Cowarne, Wooden Steeple,
Crack'd bell, Wicked people.

Lusty Tarrington, Lively Stoke,
Beggars at Weston, Thieves at Woolhope.

There is another version:-

Dirty Tarrington, Lousy Stoke, &c.

Acton Beauchamp, the poorest place in all the nation,
A lousy parson, a nitty clerk, and a shabby congregation.

Bells.

"A Dish and a Spoon", say the bells of Bish Frome.
"Trip a Trap a Trencher", say the bells of Lemster.
"Come old man and shave yer beard", say the bells of Bromyard.
Poor Weobly, proud people, low church, high steeple.

A Herefordshire comparison:-

"Shines like Worcester agen Glos'ter".

There is a saying formerly used at the time of the Triennial Festival Meetings, to the effect that each city is distinguished for:-

GLOUCESTER - RANK.
WORCESTER - WEALTH
HEREFORD - GOOD MUSIC.

A burden mother is better than a golden father. Hurden, a coarse holland. So a rough hard working mother.

May day - pay day.

As long as the Oak and Ash grow. Proverbially, Always.

Let Easter come early or let it come late,
It 'ull sure to make the old cow quake. Proverbially, Easter a critical time.

"Give the time of day", or "pass the time of day". A common expression, denoting that the speaker had merely wished "good morning or evening", or used a few civil words without further parley.

Expressions from Orcop.

A murrainous smell - observation made to a medical man.

They're sore scholars - said by an old woman who had been teased by the school children.

Hark at she - said to a young lady who had been telling a ridiculous story.

He's a romancer - spoken of a butcher who praised his meat extravagantly.

Its gone abroad - spoken of a carriage, the head of which had given out.

We're all in a mullock - house dirty and disorderly.

MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SAYINGS. 43

An old woman in Pixley was asked how her daughter was going on. She replied, "I think she's on the mend, for the doctor's drugs are beginning to embrace her".

In thanking one for their hospitality they say "thank you for my good place". Rowlston.

Old phrase:- "Such an one would cut big thongs out of another's leather," i.e., be generous out of the Parish Rates, or out of another's pocket. This refers to times before the introduction of the new Poor Law. C.C.P.

Old saying at Upton Bishop with reference to the short days getting longer after Christmas, that on New Year's Day the increased length is only a cock's stride, but at Candlemas an hour's tide. James Webb, Crossington, ob. Jan., 1886.

Proverb:- The earliest crow sometimes gets the latest breakfast.

Proverb:- A thin dog for a long hunt. P.W. Ledbury.

Rain on Good Friday or Easter Day, A good crop of grass but a bad one of hay.

Proverb:- "A good contriver is better than an early riser". This proverb well illustrates the primitive idea of a good rhyme which still prevails. Compare the host's answer after a public dinner, "If you are satisfied I am gratified". This sentiment is always regarded as more or less of a pun.

To man re-stacking a mound of earth (overheard):- " What are you doing there?", " What be I at? What says Tommy, the whistler, turning a bury o' sale", i.e., of soil.

To woman:- "What are you doing?", "Widdocking the wit". Weed- hooking the wheat.

"Sure as lection" - possibly survival of Puritanical phrase.

"Man appints, the Almighty disappints".

Might be had for the picking up - Of a person who has fainted, swooned.

One sided - Like the Bridgnorth election.

An old lady 96 years of age in Ledbury Union has more than once said that she expected a visitor because her eyebrows itched.

The late Mrs. Webb, of Ledbury, who lived to be more than 100 years old, used for many years to have an extra knife, fork, and plate placed on her table for "the Lord whose coming she looked forward to daily". H.V.

A lady with poor figure and plain face, was described as "a bad 'un to meet or to foller".

A Herefordshire joke - of a boorish husband - "Her'l never want for bacon for her's allus got a "hog" in the house".

To illustrate quickness of quotation in the way of proverbs. A local postman to children who jumped out of a hiding place hoping to startle him, "I was born too near a 'ood to be frightened of such little owlets as you".

To illustrate popular prejudice against:-

Conjuring, "It's very wicked".

Photography, "It's all a charm".

Works of Fiction, When Charles Dickens died - "Well, William! Dickens is dead". "He's a many lies to account for!".

44 MISCELLANEOUS PHRASES AND SAYINGS

Misuse of Personal Pronouns.

A schoolboy at Upton Bishop met with a slight accident through climbing a tree after a bird's nest, and on being asked for an explanation of the cause of the accident, reported:- "We had fund a blue Isaac's (hedge sparrow's) nest in the hedge, and then Bill G...y see a mistletoe thrush's in a tree, and him did want 'un but durstna get un, so him told I as him 'ud give we three mar'les if we ud".

Misuse of Word. "The pedigree of the Clock". Archenfield.

A Gloucestershire Bunch of Negatives.

At Arlingham, in 1870, a boy was raising potatoes, when a crusty old gardener kept on telling him he was doing it all wrong. The "bunch" was the boy's reply, which was overheard by the Curate. "If no feller had'nt never taught no more nor you, did'nt no feller w'dnt never had'nt known nothing". A.D.S. Sutton St. N.

There is a familiar story illustrating the rudeness of Herefordshire boys. A lady, riding, came to a gate. A little boy ran forward and opened it. "Thank you, my boy. I'm sure your'e not a Herefordshire boy". "Thee'rt a liard, I be!".

To illustrate the few and far between nature of Herefordshire conversation. A gentleman was driving from Croft to Coombe's Moor, when he picked up a lad into his dog cart. Only two remarks were passed the whole way, with nothing to lead up to or explain them. (1) "Measter's got 17 on 'em out a yacorning", i.e., pigs in the woods. Then after several miles in silence, (2) "Them be hard dogs, them down in Combe's Moor's bottims". (The inhabitants of Coombe's Moor are said to be long lived.)

A certain mother thought her son should be a butcher because he was "so fond of animals".

"Can you tell me of any one who would mend my watch here?", "Well there's ould Green. He's reckoned a pretty good 'un up agin a clock. I dunna know what a' might be agin a waatch".

Cholera. " What do you remember of the Cholera?", "Well my son- i-law was took, well and hearty, and died in 13 hours, and they buried him afore ever pullin' his shoes off. Them as lived over 12 hours was mostly right". No case of cholera has occurred in the County of Hereford. There were a few cases at Worcester and other towns when it was prevalent about 40 years ago.

Old Saying. "The Cuckoo always comes to Orleton fair". Thirty years ago when curate of Pipe and Lyde, I heard this saying. I was told that the first sound of the cuckoo in Herefordshire was generally heard near Wellington or Dinmore Wood, because he was sure to be at Orleton on the next day. On enquiry in 1886 at Orleton it was found that the saying was well known, and that the fair is still held on St. George's Day which is the 23rd of April. F.T.H.

A learned Q.C. of this County, lunching many years ago at a London Coffee House, demanded another supply of bread. "Robert" brought a loaf in his hands, much to the customer's distaste. The learned gentleman thus reproved the astonished waiter:- "Waiter, if it was in my county we should say, "Dunna gorm the loaf". According to Sir Cornwall Lewis, to "gorm" means to smear, to dirty.

MISCELANEOUS PHRASES AND SAYINGS. 45

A worthy peasant who had worked all his life on the same farm, touched his hat to his master and mistress, wore the old elaborately worked smock frock, and evinced many qualities which a modern school of politicians would denominate serfdom, took unto himself a wife of full age. Collins always spoke in a gruff independent way, and scraped his throat before making a lengthened observation. The parson asked as usual "Wilt thou have this woman to thy wedded wife?". Collins, with the preliminary scrape, replied, "Hw'm I b'liv' I brought her heer with that intenshun". On the bride being asked a similar question, "Wilt thou take this man", &c. She appearing to hesitate, Collins, to hasten matters, exclaimed", "Sa-ay I wool, wench, and a'dun ooth it!".

Orcop and Pershore.

"Orcop God help us". A saying based on the poverty of the district referred to, and "analogous to" Pershore God help us", when there has been a bad year of plums. Whereas in a good year of cherries or plums an inhabitant of Pershore, on being asked where he comes from, says, "Pershore, where d' ye think". An old man used to come to the Savings Bank at Hereford, who, when asked where he came from in winter would reply, "from Orcop God help"; but in the summer his reply would be "from Orcop the Lord be praaysed".

Old Saying. "A Plum year is a dumb year. A Cherry year is a merry year".

Superstitions and Customs. Doing the Churches

A man had finished a year's imprisonment for manslaughter, when, on coming out of gaol he went the round of all the Churches, probably some 8 or 10 within a few miles of his ovm parish, and it is said to the Chapels also! This must have been meant as a kind of public expiation, or to publish the fact that he had finished his year's imprisonment. A relic evidently of some old custom.

Holy Thorn.

In Ledbury Union, several of the inmates have assured me that a shrub, which they call the Holy Thorn, and which has a little pink blossom, on the 4th of January (old Christmas day) blossoms at twelve o'clock at night for one hour, and at this hour and on this day only. One man assured me that he had been to Colwall and had witnessed the phenomenon. A parishioner at Pixley tells me that the shrub is to be seen at Stoke Edith. [Local adaptations of the Glastonbury legend.]

Cure for Warts.

A parishioner has assured me that when about 14 years old, his right hand was covered with warts, that a "gipsy woman" volunteered, for a small sum, to cure him. That his mother having given her a trifle, she gathered some ears of wheat ripe, and with her hand full of corn crossed the warts several times. This done she wrapped up the corn into a packet, like a one oz. packet of tobacco, and dropped it where three roads met. He is certain that the warts disappeared at once, and that the person who picked up the packet of wheat is now the sufferer.

An Eastnor man tells me that he cured his warts by first rubbing them with a large black slug, and then fixing the slug on a thorn in a bush. As the slug pined away so his warts disappeared. I may add that I remember, as a boy, hearing of a similar cure in Shropshire, on the borders of Hereford.

46 SUPERSTITIONS AND CUSTOMS.

Charms.

P.W. questions J.M., of Pixley.
P.W. "Well, J., what can you tell me about charms?"
Jane "My mother charmed for burns. It was Thomas Pullen who could charm for bleeding of the nose".
P.W. "What did she do? Did she read anything over the patient?"
Jane "O lor, Sir, why she was no scholar. She couldna read her book. She wasna an aged ooman. It was all sayings".
P.W. "Did not you or your sister try to pick it up?"
Jane "No, her never would let us learn it off her. Her said we must learn t as she learned it - off a man. Her did chiefly do it in the way among children".
P.W. "What was the usual result?" Jane "It did backen the fire".

Charm for Toothache.

A charm for the toothache, given in 1886, in the parish of Crasswall, written on a small piece of paper and sealed with pitch. "Crist met with Peter and saide unto him Peter what is the mater with the. Peter saide lorde I am tormented with the paine in the tooth the worme shall I)ie and Thou shalt live and thow that shalt have this in wrightin or in memory shall never have the Paine in the tooth the worme shall Die and thou shalt live and thou that shalt have this in memory or wrightin shall never have the paine in the tooth Therefore believe in the lorde youre God". The charm did not take effect as money, 6d., was paid for it. E.W.C.W.

Charm for Fits. In three separate cases in two years the writer was asked for a Sacrament Shilling, to be made into a ring, to be worn as a charm against fits.

A cure for Fits. Sacrament shilling ring to cure fits. The shilling melted down. A sick child made healthy by Baptism. Archenfield.

Cure for Toothache. A favourite remedy for tooth-ache is a little bag of unts feet (mole's feet) hung up over the mantel- piece. Thence in case of tooth-ache they are fetched down and worn round the neck.

Funeral Fees. If the parish clerk is asked at a churchyard for change by the undertaker or other person in paying the funeral fees, it is believed that there will be a second death in the family of the deceased within a year.

New Moon.

The nearer to twelve in the afternoon the drier the moon; The nearer to twelve in the forenoon the wetter the moon.

Never kill your pig in the waning of the moon, or the bacon will waste away with the moon. Keep your pig till the new moon.

When the Harvest Moon is high, the price of bread will be high. When the Harvest Moon is low, bread will be cheap.

Lanterns.

No farmer ever puts his lantern on the table, else their cows will cast their calves. The lantern must always be put underneath the table. "The reason our cow calved a month too soon was because the master puts his lantern alway on the table". The old-fashioned lanthorns, made of tin with horn plates for the sides, are falling into disuse. They were very generally used in stables and farm buildings.

Smoking Chimney. To put a bottle in a smoking chimney. (Perhaps the idea is taken from the Psalms, "I became like a bottle in the smoke".)

SUPERSTITIONS AND CUSTOMS. 47

Wassaling. Ancient custom observed at Tretire.

During the twelve days of Christmas the bows (yokes) were never put upon the necks of the oxen, in commemoration of our Saviour's birth in an ox stall. Then upon twelvth eve at night, the servants of the family repaired to the stalls provided with a large cake and ale. In the centre of the cake was a hole through which it was placed on the horn of one of the favourite oxen. If the beast became restive and dislodged it, provided he threw it behind him, the cake was said to belong to the boys; if he cast it to the ground in front of him, it was reputed to belong to the bailiff. But in any case, whether thrown off or not, it was shared among them. They then drank the health of each ox severally, reciting the following stanzas (not recorded). J. Webb.

Two other accounts of Wassaling at Bishop's Frome and elsewhere have come before me. The stanzas referred to by my old friend Mr. Webb, consisted of aspirations for the welfare of the Master, Mistress, and family, and also for a fruitful harvest of corn and apples. F.T.H.

Wassaling.

It was also customary on 12th Night, 70 years ago, to burn small bundles of straw at the end of twelve ridges in the corn field. The workmen sang a bit of a ditty, in which they would put the Master's or Mistress's name. Cider was always provided for the assembled persons. P.W.

Eclipse of the Sun.- Old Custom. It was formerly the custom to fill a bucket with water, place it where the sun's reflection could be seen, and thus watch the course of the eclipse.

New Year's Day.- Old Custom. It was the custom to strike work on the afternoon of New Year's Day. No one was permitted to carry on his avocations then. He who persisted was forcibly interfered with by the idle gang, raised on a ladder, and carried shoulder high to the nearest public-house, where release was obtained by spending a fine of sixpence in drink. Collins loved his work and his duty. One wintry New Year's Day he was at his usual calling in the farm cider cellar. It was in vain that he hid himself among the large hogsheads and remonstrated with his pursuers. They pulled him forth, chairing and fining him in the usual way.

Scottering. Old Herefordshire Custom.

At the termination of harvest it was customary to carry lighted wisps of straw or pessum round the ricks. This was done by one, four or six lads (unmarried only) who danced round the ricks crossing each other on right and left sides alternately, accompanied by singing. This seems to point to some ancient rite.

Cider cups with pins or pegs inside. The use of these large goblets or cups gave rise to several expressions. A man who would take his utmost share of cider would be said to "nich the pin"; while a quiet person who took less than his share would be described as "a man who will let you go under the pin". This information was derived from a fine specimen of an English yeoman who died in 1883, aged 95 years. C.C.P.

Hoving. Easter Monday and Tuesday were called "heaving Monday and Tuesday," because on those days they would go round "hoving". On Monday they hove the women. A party would go round to the farm houses and cottages, the youngest wench carrying a bunch of flowers. Entering the house the party would sing "Jesus Christ is risen again". Then seize the women one by one, and putting them in a chair turn them round, while the girl with the flowers would dip them in a basin of water and sprinkle with them the women's feet. On Tuesday the men were "hove". The custom, however, degenerated into wickedness and is now discontinued. See Shropshire Folk Lore, by Miss Burne.

48 SUPERSTITIONS AND CUSTOMS

Cowsing.

The thorough going fox hunter looks upon his sport as the noblest of amusements. Accordingly any slight cast upon it is peculiarly grating to his feelings. In the Herefordshire vernacular "towsing" means driving or scaring away, as pigs out of a garden or a donkey from forbidden pasture. A country squire and devout follower of hounds meeting a citizen friend (who usually rode a more intellectual hobby) proceeded to enlarge on the sport of the previous day. "Found Reynard at home in the C- Woods, and a capital run we had", "Indeed", said his friend; then raising his voice to ensure a good hearing from one somewhat deaf, continued, "and where did you cowse him to?". The indignation of the sporting man may be pictured.

New Year's Day Custom at Eardisland as late as ten years ago.

The people at Eardisland, and throughout Herefordshire, it is said, are still wont to usher in the New Year with an ancient and curious custom. On the first of January, very early in the morning, between five and six o'clock, or even sooner, the labouring men and boys employed at the different farm houses meet together in some field upon the farm, and having tied some bundles of straw together on a high pole, set the straw on fire, and while it is in full blaze the bystanders shout aloud, "Old Cider! Old Cider!! Old Cider!!! Brave Old Cider!!!! Three times three, Hurrah!". A man then runs over twelve lands of growing wheat with the pole and stops on the thirteenth; cider is then drunk. Should the straw cease burning before the man who runs with it reaches the thirteenth ridge of land it would be considered a bad omen for the crop. It is also customary the same morning to take down the mistletoe bough and hawthorn bush which have hung in the farm houses during the last year, and put fresh branches of each to remain for the next twelve months. Care is always taken in procuring and preparing the mistletoe, and the hawthorn branch is made round by being burnt in the fire. Of course men and boys are afterwards entertained at breakfast and no work usually is done that day.

Twelfth Night Custom at Eardisland in olden times.

A cake was made and placed on a bullock's horn in the stall, and, on the bullock being pricked with a prong and tossing his head, if the cake was thrown into the boosey before him it became the property of the bailiff, but if it fell behind the bullock then it belonged to the boys. A bucket of cider was then drunk and wassailing held, each drinking the master's health in the following verse:-

"Here's to the champion, to the white horn, Here's God send the master a good crop of corn, Of wheat, rye, and barley and all sorts of grain, If we live to this time twelvemonth we'll drink his health again". Communicated by old John Roberts, of Eardisland.

I have also an addition to these verses:-

"Thee cut thy oats and I'll drink my cider,
And God send us all a Happy New Year".
Mr. Bray, Haven.

Another toast:-

"Here's to the plough, the fleece, and the pail,
May the landlord ever flourish,
And the tenant never fail".

Sometimes the cake would be placed on a heifer's horn, then the verse ran:-

"Here's a health to the heifer (or Darling),
And to the white teat,
Wishing the mistress a house full of meat,
With cruds (sic.), milk and butter fresh every day,
And God grant the young men keep out on her way".

SUPERSTITIONS AND CUSTOMS 49

Local Sayings.

"Pencombe God help!". A local expression relative to the unfortunate position of the place.

"Heart of Oak is stiff and stout,
Birch says, if you'll keep me dry I'll see it out".

"Who sets an apple tree may live to see its end,
Who sets a pear tree may set it for a friend".

A labourer drinking my health said:-

"My best respects, Sir".
"Bread when you're hungry, drink when you're dry,
Rest when you're weary, and heaven when you die".

"A February spring is worth nothing".

"Never come Lent never come Winter"; that is, not sure of Winter being over till Lent was.

"Easter come soon, or Easter come late, it's sure to make the old cow quake"; that is, cattle will always be affected by the season, and often weakly in spring time.

"March will search, April will try, May will tell if you'll live or die".

"If the birds sing before Candlemas, they will cry before May".

"The Cuckoo comes to Orleton Fair to buy a horse, and goes to Bron (Brampton Bryan) to sell him".

"They are gone to Bron Fair", when peas and other crops look weakly or not doing well.

"If Christmas Day is bright and clear, There'll be two winters in the year". E.

Hop Sayings.

"If it were not for the hops, the farmers would have to hop themselves". "Hops are a constant care but uncertain profit".

A N. Herefordshire Pauper.

An old man who thought he had been badly treated by the Relieving Officer expressed himself thus:-

(1)"I'se sure I dunna wish no 'arm to no mon.
(2) But I do ope as the Lord 'ooll pinch 'im 'ard.
(3) And 'ur ooll too!".

Observe here not only the peculiarly strong sentiments expressed, but also the logical position on which the whole pious wish is based.

1. The general justification of life and heart.
2. The real wish of the heart asserts itself.
3. The expression of feeling is justified by the prospective fact.

Or, as another correspondent remarks: be pleased to follow the sequence of thought,

1. Self assertion of Christian Charity.
2. Real outcome of the mind.
3. Retreat under the shelter of Divine Omnipotence.

50

Proposed English Dialect Dictionary.

In bringing this compilation to a close I cannot do better than draw the attention of my readers to a letter which has just appeared in London Papers from Professor W. Skeat, recommending a scheme for the production of a magnificent work at the Cambridge University Press. See London Standard, April 9, 1887. A leading article on this subject expresses so well the value and use of humble collections, such as the "Herefordshire Words", that I gladly record a portion of that article in this place. "The dialects of these Islands form a curious and interesting problem, and they have hardly received all the attention they deserve from English scholars. A French Prince and a couple of German professors have devoted some study to them, but there remains a great deal to be done in classifying and elucidating the whole subject. Such books as Mr. Smythe- Palmer's "Folk Etymology" and Canon Isaac Taylor's "Words and Places" have been multiplying of late years; but they are only preliminary exercises for the full and scientific examination of our dialects, which will not become possible until the new Dictionary has been compiled. Still, they have served to bring home, even to the general reader, the extent and influence of provincial and local differences in grammar and vocabulary. They have, it may be hoped, dissipated the old notion that every kind of departure from the recognised standard of literary English can be contemptuously dismissed as a mere vulgarism. Nothing, of course, can be more erroneous. Professor Freeman and Dr. Morris, and Mr. Skeat himself, with many other etymologists, have taught us that the common speech of the common people is often no more than good old English, which has been preserved substantially unchanged for centuries. The real vulgarism is frequently the locution or the gramatical usage which has been adopted by "society", because it seems more respectable and distinguished, and so has become stereotyped in literature. Sometimes the older expression, which retains its hold outside books, schools, and drawing-rooms, is the more exact, as well as the more energetic and lifelike variety. The Oxford Professor of History has taken some trouble to point out that the particular form of dialect which we call "Americanism" is often only a reproduction of the English which was current over a large part of Southern Britain two centuries and a half ago, and is still familiar enough to those who mingle with the peasantry of East Anglia. And everybody knows that certain of the grammatical errors, which half the School Board teachers in the country find themselves constantly called upon to correct, are to be found in Chaucer, and even in Shakespeare. The dialects, indeed, are in most cases nothing but survivals of the successive languages which have been spoken in these Islands; or, if we like to look at them in another way, they are examples of the linguistic results which can be obtained by mixing, in varying proportions, the ingredients out of which modern classical English has been compounded".

Extract from Schiegel's History of Literature, Sec. 10.

"The care of the national language I consider as at all times a sacred trust and a most important privilege of the higher orders of society. Every man of education should make it the object of his unceasing concern to preserve his language pure and entire, to speak it, so far as is in his power, in all its beauty and perfection A nation whose language becomes rude and barbarous, must be on the brink of barbarism in regard to everything else. A nation which allows her language to go to ruin is parting with the last half of her intellectual independence, and testifies her willingness to cease to exist".

51

Notes on Dictionaries, Glossaries, etc.

It may be useful to give some information in these pages relating to the English language past and present.

1. Rev. J. Bosworth, 1868, Anglo Saxon and English Dictionary.
2. Mrs. Chamberlain, 1882, Glossary of West Worcestershire Words, with glossic notes by T. Hallam. Published by Trubner & Co., Ludgate Hill, as No. 36 of Original Glossaries for the English Dialect Society.
3. Rev. T. Lewis Davies, 1881, Supplementary English Glossary. Published by Bell, London, large 8vo.
4. Ducange Anglicus. The Vulgar Tongue, being two Glossaries of Slang, Cant, and Flash. Quaritch, 1857.
5. Fairford Windows. Description of Gloucestershire Dialect by the late old Parish Clerk. Scarce, very humorous, 1873. Published at Cirencester.
6. J.O. Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words, in 2 volumes. Published by J.R. Smith, 1847. Later Edition 1865.
7. C.H. Hartshorne, Salopia Antiqua, 1841, London.
8. W. Hone, Table Book, 2 Vols., 1827-28.
9. Rev. R.W. Huntley, Glossary of Cotswold Dialect. Published by Russell Smith, 1868.
10. Miss Jackson, 1879, Shropshire Word Book. Published by Trubner, London. A splendid and valuable work.
11. Rev. R. Lawson, 1884, Upton-on-Severn Words and Phrases. Published by English Dialect Society, No. 42.
12. G. Cornewall Lewis, 1839, Glossary of Provincial Words used in Herefordshire and some of the adjoining Counties, 8vo. Published by J. Murray. This appears to be the earliest publication of this scholar and statesman, who was Chancellor of the Exchequer 1855-58. He died April, 1863. See public Memorial in front of Shire Hall, Hereford. He states in his Preface:- "The Herefordshire dialect is not so remote from the literary language, and does not contain so many provincial expressions as some other local dialects, as Lancashire or Exmoor. It contains few words borrowed from the Welsh; though it contains more words of Welsh origin than the dialects which are altogether removed from this contact, as Norfolk or Suffolk". His Glossary contains 132 pages and about 720 entries.
13. Archdeacon Nares, Provincial Glossary, several editions, 1790. Also a Supplement by Samuel Pegge, 1814. 4th edition, 1822. Also 2 thick volumes, 1859. This is said to be "by far the best and most useful work we possess, explaining and illustrating obsolete language, customs, and manners", and is full of "fast fading recollections of bygone days".
14. T.L.K. Oliphant, 1878, Old and Middle English. Published by Macmillan and Co. In this volume we have information about one of the earliest local authors. In the chapter on East Midland Dialect, about A.D. 1280 (pages 349-352), we read, "The first Mercian poem that I shall notice is the piece called the "Harrowing of Hell", the earliest specimen of anything like an English dramatic work. There are three different transcripts, one a Herefordshire, A.D. 1315". On page 478 a specimen is given of a Herefordshire poem, circa 1300, in ten lines, and reference made to Percy Society, vol. IV., 26. See preface to this volume, where the writer of this poem is proved to be a Herefordshire man who mentions the Wye. In this MS. there are some Herefordshire poems which seem to belong to 1270, and some Lyric poems and Political Songs, A.D. 1290. Piers Ploughman wrote not far from Hereford.

52 NOTES ON DICTIONARIES, Etc.

15. T.K. Oliphant, 1873, Macmillan, small 8vo. The Sources of Standard English. This work has many references to the Hereford MS. of 1310.
16. Rev. A. Smythe Palmer, 1882, Folk Etymology, 8vo. Bell and Sons, Covent Garden. 664 pages.
17. Rev. A. Porson, 1875, Notes of quaint Words and Sayings in the dialect of South Worcestershire. James Parker & Co. The title of this curious and scarce work is misleading, the author being the Rev. Charles Allen.
18. Quarterly Review, No. 110 for February, 1836.
19. Ray's Collection of English Words not generally used. Newly edited by Rev. Walter Skeat, 1874. Published by English Dialect Society.
20. Dr. Peter Roget, x863, 15th edition. Thesaurus of English Words. Longmans.
21. C.H. Savoury, 1877, Cirencester. Legends, Tales, and Songs in the dialect of the Peasantry of Gloucestershire.
22. Rev. Professor Skeat, 1884, 4to. The Etymological Dictionary of the English Language. This fine work contains a comprehensive list of Dictionaries and Glossaries. Page 25.
23. Albert Way, 1865, 4to. Promptorium Parvulorum. Published by Camden Society.
24. H. Wedgwood, 1872, Dictionary of English Etymologies.
25. Thomas Wright, 1857, 8vo. (1040 pages), Dictionary of Obsolete and Provincial Words. Published by Bohn, London.
26. Herbert Coleridge, Dictionary of the oldest words in English Language, London, 1862.

There is an interesting local work worthy of mention in this place, and of notice by local book collectors. Glossographia: or a Dictionary Interpreting Hard Words, by Thomas Blount, of the Inner Temple, Esq. London, 1674. He resided at and was owner of a good estate at Orleton. He was buried there, and his neat inscribed tablet remains. Many other members of his family are buried there, and his descendant, Mr. Archibald Blount, is the present possessor of the estate and Manor of Orleton.

In bringing these pages to a close, the compiler desires to thank all those who have so kindly assisted in contributing information. Special thanks are due to the following who have taken a deep and practical interest in the present record of local expressions

Rev. JOSEPH BARKER, M.A., Vicar of Eardisland.
Rev. F.W. JOYCE, M.A., Rector of Burford First Portion.
Rev. PHILIP WHITEFOORD, M.A., Rector of Aylton.
E.W. COLT-WILLIAMS, Esq., M.A., H.M. Inspector of Schools.
HENRY VEVERS, Esq., M.R.C.S., Hereford.

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