NORWICH, a city and county (of itself), locally in the hundred of Humbleyard, county of NORFOLK, of which it is the capital, 108 miles (N.E. by N.) from London, containing, exclusively of that part of the parish of Hellesdon which is in the hundred of Taverham, and of that part of the parish of Thorpe St. Andrew which is in the hundred of Blofield, 50,288 inhabitants. This ancient city, which rose from the ruins of the Fenta Icenorum of the Romans, so named from the river Wentsum, or Wensum, the site of which is now occupied by the village of Caistor, was by the Britons, in allusion to that circumstance, called Caer Gwent; and by the Saxons, in reference to its situation with respect to the Roman station, North wic, or the northern castle, of which its present name is an evident contraction. Uffa, first king of the East Angles, is stated to have built a castle here in 575, and to have made it his residence: Henry I. granted to Harvey, first Bishop of Ely, exemption for the lands of his church from the service of castle guard to Norwich, by which tenure they were held previously to the erection of the monastery of Ely by Ethelreda, daughter of Anna, King of the East Angles, and wife of Egfrid, King of Northumbria, in the year 673. According to Spelman, it was a residence of the kings of East Anglia, who established a mint here, from which issued coins of Alfred and several succeeding kings. Being an object of frequent contention between the Saxons and the Danes, it was alternately in the possession of each party, and was repaired and fortified by Alfred the Great against the latter, to whom, after a treaty of peace, that monarch finally conceded it. The Danes being subsequently driven out, it remained in the possession of the Saxons till 1004, when those invaders, stimulated by the weakness of Etheked II. and the treachery of Alfric, Earl of Mercia, landed on the coast of Essex under Sweyn their king, plundered and burnt the city, and left it in a state of desolation till , their return in 1018, when they again took possession of it under Canute, by whom it was rebuilt and the fortifications of the castle were restored. From this time it rapidly increased in extent and importance till the Norman conquest, when it was inferior only to the city of York. It was bestowed by the Conqueror on Ralph Guader, who, with the Earls of Hereford and Northumberland, entered into a conspiracy against the king; but, being frustrated in his design by the vigilance of the Bishop of Worcester, the sheriff for that county, and Walter Lucy, Baron of Hereford, he withdrew into Brittany, leaving in the castle a garrison of Britons under the command of his wife, who heroically sustained a protracted siege, till, being reduced by famine, she surrendered to the king, on condition of being suffered to leave the kingdom with all her forces in perfect security. During this siege the city sustained material injury, and was so much reduced that, from one thousand three hundred and twenty burgesses who inhabited it in the reign of Edward the Confessor, there were only five hundred and sixty remaining. It gradually recovered from this severe calamity, and in 1094, Herbert de Lozinga, who accompanied William Rufus from Normandy, being made bishop of East Anglia, removed that see from Thetford to Norwich, where he erected a cathedral, an episcopal palace, and a monastery, in which he placed sixty monks.

From this time the city rapidly improved, and, according to. William of Malmesbury, soon became famous for the number of its inhabitants, and the extent of its trade. It was rebuilt in the reign of Stephen, who incorporated the inhabitants, and gave the town as an appanage to his third son William, from whom it was afterwards taken by Henry II. whose son gave it to Hugh Bigod, Earl of Norfolk, in order to secure his interest in his rebellion against his father. The earl having repaired the fortifications, and placed a strong garrison of French and Flemings in the castle, held it for some time against the king, but, after a vigorous defence, he was compelled to surrender it, and to purchase peace by the payment of one thousand marks. In the reign of John, the Dauphin of France, whom the confederated barons had invited to their assistance, besieged and took possession of the castle, plundered the citizens, and committed numerous depredations. In the reign of Edward I., having recovered from the injury it had sustained, and grown into importance, it abounded with opulent citizens, who environed it with walls of great strength; and in the reign of Henry IV., in 1403, they obtained permission to elect a mayor and sheriffs, in lieu of their ancient bailiffs, whereby Norwich was constituted a county of itself. In the reign of Richard II. an insurrection was excited by John Listher, a dyer in the town, which was quelled by the exertions of the Bishop of Norwich, by whom he was defeated, and, being taken prisoner, was executed in 1381. The city suffered severely by continued discord between the monks and the citizens; the latter assaulted and set fire to the monastery, which, with" the exception of the chapel, was burnt down. The king, having been informed of this outrage, visited Norwich, and, after due examination, caused thirty young men of the city to be executed. In 1446, another assault on the monks was restrained by the activity of the Duke of Norfolk, who seized and punished the ringleaders, displacing the mayor from his office, and appointing Sir John Clifton governor of the city, till the king might be pleased to restore its forfeited privileges. Soon after the suppression of these tumults, the city, which had repeatedly suffered from a similar calamity, was nearly consumed by a fire, which broke out in a house in the parish of St. George. In the reign of Edward VI., Robert Kett, a tanner, and his brother William, both of Wymondham, under the pretence of resisting the enclosure of waste lands, excited a formidable rebellion; and, having seized on the palace of the Earl of Surrey, plundered and converted it into a prison, in which they confined many noblemen and gentlemen; they then encamped on Mousehold heath, where they were at length defeated by the Earl of Warwick with a numerous army, and the two brothers being taken prisoners, Robert was hanged on Norwich castle, and William on the steeple of Wymondham church. In the reign of Elizabeth, the manufacture of bombazine and other articles, for which the city has heen since noted, was introduced by the Dutch and Walloons, who, fleeing from the Netherlands, found in this country an asylum from the persecution of the Duke of Alva; that queen, who, by the encouragement she gave to the emigrants, laid the foundation of the commercial and manufacturing prosperity of this and other town's, visited Norwich, where she was received with great demonstration of respect, and pompously entertained for several days. During the civil war in the reign of Charles I., the city was held by the parliamentarian forces, who defaced the cathedral, stripped it of all its plate and ornaments, and greatly damaged the episcopal palace. After the Restoration, Norwich was visited by Charles II. and his consort, and subsequently by Queen Anne, who were hospitably entertained by the corporation.

The city is pleasantly situated on the summit and acclivities of an eminence rising gently from the river Wensum, which, after pursuing a winding course through the town, joins the river Yare, thus affording a line of navigation from the sea at Yarmouth. The houses are in general of antique appearance, and the city, from being thickly interspersed with orchards and garden-grounds, presents a rural aspect, almost unparalleled in towns of such extent: the principal streets are well paved, the others only partially. There are not less than nine bridges over the river, connecting the various parts of the town, which has recently been lighted wholly with gas; the streets are in many places narrow, and diverge from one common centre. The town, extending a mile and a half in length, and one mile and a quarter in breadth, was formerly-surrounded on all sides, except where it was defended by the river, with embattled walls, in which were forty towers and twelve principal gates; the former are in a dilapidated state, and the latter have been taken down. Various parts of it are supplied with water by means of public water-works. The environs, which are in the highest state of cultivation, have, from the salubrity of the air, and the pleasantness of their situation, become the residence of numerous opulent families. A public subscription library, established in 1784, contains more than fourteen thousand volumes; the admission ticket is 5. 5., and the annual subscription 1.1. The Norwich and Norfolk Literary Institution, under the direction of a committee of twenty-one members, was formed by a proprietary, who also subscribe annually ]. H. 6.: it is open to subscribers not being shareholders at 2. 2. per annum. The Norwich and Norfolk United Medical Book Society was established in 1824, and is supported by professional members in the city and county. A society of artists was instituted in 1803, for promoting the study of painting, sculpture, and architecture; and, in 1816, some of the original members instituted the Norwich and Norfolk society of artists and amatenrs, who hold their meetings in a room built for that purpose near the corn exchange. The Friars' Society, for the dissemination of useful knowledge, was established in 1785; and a mechanics' institution in 1825. The theatre royal, a handsome building tastefully fitted up, is a newly-erected edifice opened in 1826, under the direction of the Norwich company. Near it is an extensive suite of assemblyrooms, consisting of a larger ball-room, sixty- six feet long, and twenty-three wide; a smaller, fifty feet long,, and twenty-seven wide; and a tea-room, twenty-seven feet square, which, by the removal of partitions, form one room one hundred and forty-three feet in- length; they are lighted with gas, and furnished in an elegant style; there are also two appropriate card-rooms. The new concert-room, in the parish of St. Andrew, erected by subscription in 1816, is fifty feet in length, and thirty-five wide; it is handsomely ornamented, and well adapted to its purpose; the orchestra contains an excellent organ. The public gardens, in which is a handsome edifice called the Pantheon, are tastefully laid out for the reception and entertainment of visitors. The cavalry barracks, in Pockthorpe, form ail extensive and handsome range of building of red brick, consisting of a centre and two wings; the walls enclose an area of ten acres, for the exercise of the troops.

The principal articles of manufacture are bombazines, crapes, camlets, shawls, plaids, worsted stuffs, fabrics in which silk, wool, and mohair are interwoven (called Norwich shawls), and various others; to prevent fraud in the manufacture of which, eight wardens, of whom four are chosen from the citizens, and four from the neighbourhood, are annually appointed, with full powers of inspection: the number of looms in these several factories is about fourteen thousand,affording employment to more than fifteen thousand persons. There are several silk-mills, in the principal of which from three to four hundred persons are employed; it is worked by steam-engines of various degrees of power: the silk, after being properly prepared, is distributed to the weavers to be manufactured into crape. The towns of Yarmouth, Bungay, and North Walsham, participate in the benefit of this manufacture, of which branch establishments have been opened in those several places. There are extensive iron-foundries, breweries, establishments for making vinegar, snuff-manufactories, and numerous corn-mills: a considerable trade in agricultural produce arises from the situation of the town in the centre of an extensive district remarkable for its fertility and the improved state of its agriculture. The trade between Norwich and Yarmouth is carried on by keels and wherries of very light construction, varying from fifteen to forty tons' burden, by which coal, timber, grain, and various other articles of merchandise, are brought from that port by the river, on which is a regular establishment of steam-packets; and great facility will be also afforded to the trade of the city by a navigable communication with the sea at Lowestoit, in the county of Suffolk, now in progress under the superintendence of the Norwich and Lowestoft Navigation Company, incorporated in the 8th of George IV. Besides the British products just mentioned, considerable quantities of wine and oil are imported from the continent of Europe, and yarn from Ireland; and the manufactures of Norwich are exported from London and Yarmouth to Russia, the Baltic, Germany, the Netherlands, France, Spain, Portugal, and Italy, as well as the East and West Indies and to America. The market days are Wednesday and Saturday, the latter being a very considerable market for corn; the corn exchange is a commodious building, erected in 1828, the front of which is ornamented with a noble Ionic portico of four columns, and the interior constitutes one of the most spacious rooms in the kingdom. A very extensive market is held on the same day, on the Castle Ditches, for horses and cattle; and there is a market for fish daily. The fairs are on the day before Good Friday, and on the Monday and Tuesday in Easter and Whitsun weeks.

The government of the city, by charter of Charles II., is vested in a mayor, recorder, steward, two sheriffs, twenty-four aldermen, and sixty common council-men, assisted by a town clerk, chamberlain, two coroners, water-bailiff, sword-bearer, Serjeants at mace, and subordinate officers. The mayor is nominated annually by the resident freemen, who appoint two of the aldermen, the latter choosing one to be mayor; the other officers of the corporation are also appointed by the aldermen. The mayor, recorder, steward, and such of the aldermen as have filled the office of mayor, are justices of the peace within the city and county of the city. The freedom is inherited by birth, acquired by servitude, or obtained by purchase. A court of assize is held annually under the judges travelling the Norfolk circuit, which, is opened by a commission distinct from that for the county of Norfolk; courts of general quarter session, for the trial of all but capital offenders; and, under a grant from Richard I. and other charters, a court of record for the recovery of debts to any amount, called the " Court of Guildhall of the City of Norwich," is held on Wednesdays and Saturdays, the judges of which are the sheriffs, assisted by the steward, who is a barrister. A court of requests is held every Monday, under an act passed in the 12th and 13th of William and Mary, before an alderman and two common council-men, for the recovery of debts under 40s. The guildhall, situated on the north of the market-place, is an ancient structure "of black flint, containing convenient and- well-arranged courts for the assizes and quarter sessions for the city and county of the city, with the requisite offices for the town clerk, chamberlain, and other officers of the corporation: the mayor's council- chamber is a noble room, splendidly fitted up, and ornamented with a series of historical paintings and with numerous portraits of eminent persons; at the east end .is a fine window of stained glass; in this chamber is deposited the sword of Don Xavier Francisco Winthuysen, the Spanish admiral, presented to the corporation by Admiral Lord Nelson, and accompanied with a letter in his lordship's own hand-writing. St. Andrew's Hall, formerly the church of the monastery of the Black friars, and now converted into a banqueting-hall, and used occasionally for public meetings, is an ancient structure, of which the front has been carefully restored: the choir is used as a church for the inmates of the city workhouse, which stands near it, having been formerly appropriated to the use of a Dutch congregation, and thence called the Dutch church: the nave, one hundred and twenty-four feet long, is elegantly fitted up, and decorated with paintings; the roof is supported on twelve lofty pillars, and the windows, which are of large dimensions and ornamented with rich tracery, were formerly embellished with painted glass; among other decorations in the hall is the ensign of the French ship Le Genereux, captured in the Mediterranean by the squadron under the command of Admiral Lord Nelson, in 1800, and presented to the corporation by Captain Sir Edward Berry, Knt.; and at the east end is a fine portrait, by Sir William Beechy, of Admiral Lord Neison, presented to the corporation in 1804; in this hall are held the grand musical festivals. The new city gaol erected in 1829, at an expense of 24,000, is a massive and appropriate building, containing requisite wards, airing-yards, and other offices adapted to the classification of prisoners, and amply supplied with water by means of pumps worked by the tread-mill. The city first exercised the elective franchise in the 23rd of Edward I., since which time it has regularly returned two members to parliament: the right of election is vested in the freeholders, and in the freemen generally not receiving alms, the number of whom is about four thousand; the sheriffs are the returning officers. The assizes and quarter sessions for the county of Norfolk are held in the shirehall, a spacious edifice, erected in 1822; and, this being the county town, the election of knights of the shire regularly takes place- in it. The castle, which, though situated in the centre of the city, belongs to the county of Norfolk, has been converted into a prison for that county, and a new gaol and shire-hall have lately been erected in connexion with it. The principal remains of the ancient building are, the shell of the keep, a massive structure on the summit of an artificial eminence, and Bigod's tower, a fine specimen of the Norman style of architecture; over the fosse, an ancient stone bridge of one circular arch, of forty feet span, is still entire, and, from the supposed date of its erection, is considered to be of Saxon architecture. The outer walls, of which only some small portions are remaining, formerly enclosed an area of twenty-three acres, on part of which the new buildings have been erected. The county gaol and house of correction is a commodious building, comprising fifteen wards, fifteen day-rooms, and the same number of airing-yards, in one of which is a tread-mill, applied to the grinding of corn, for the employment of the prisoners.

Norwich was raised into an episcopal see by Herbert de Lozinga, who having been made Bishop of Thetford (which had become the head of the diocese of East Anglia, founded by Segebert, King of the East Angles, in 6.30), whither the episcopal chair had been removed from North Elmham in 1691, transferred the seat of the diocese to this city in 1094, where, having purchased a large plot of ground near the castle, he erected a cathedral, an episcopal palace, and a monastery for sixty Benedictine monks, the revenue of which, at the dissolution, was & 1050.17. 6. The diocese comprehends the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and eleven parishes in the county of Cambridge; t,he ecclesiastical establishment consists of a bishop, dean, four archdeacons, six prebendaries, six minor canons, of whom one is precentor, an epistoler, a gospeller, eight lay clerks, ten choristers, an organist, and other officers. The bishop is a suffragan of the Archbishop of Canterbury; and, besides being entitled by his episcopal dignity, he sits in the House of Peers as titular abbot of St. Bene't at Holme, being the only abbot in England. The cathedral church, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, after being destroyed by fire, was rebuilt by John of Oxford, the fourth bishop j and having suffered materially from frequent accidents, and from repeated assaults arising from the dissensions betweenthemonks and the citizens, it has undergone numerous repairs and alterations, especially in 1806, when a thorough reparation took place. In its present state it displays much of its original Norman architecture, of which it affords some of the finest specimens in the kingdom; it is a spacious cruciform structure, with a tower Of t,he most finished and highly ornamented Norman style rising from the centre, and surmounted by an octagonal spire in the later decorated style, crocketed at the angles j the west front of Norman character, has a central entrau.nce,with a large window above it in the later English style j the east end has several circular chapels, and the lady chapel, now destroyed, was in the early English style of architecture; there are some vestiges of a part resembling that portion of Canterbury cathedral which is called Becket's Crown, and, amidst all the alterations and insertions which have been made, there are still nu-, merous remains of its ancient character. The interior is finely arranged, and has an impressive grandeur of effect j the nave, of which and of the aisles the roof is finely vaulted, is purely Norman j the triforium is large, and surmounted by a fine range of clerestory windows the choir is richly ornamented with tracery in the later English style, of excellent design, and is decorated with screen and tabernacle-work of elaborate execution; the font, in St. Luke's chapel, is remarkably beautiful, and there are some ancient monuments of great beauty and interest. The cloisters are peculiarly fine, displaying a continued series of the purest specimens, from the early decorated to the later style of English architecture. In the chapel of St.Mary the Less, within the cathedral, are held the consistorial episcopal courts. The chapter-house has been demolished; of the bishop's palace the entrance gate and hall are remaining, and St. Ethelbert's and Erping ham gates, both beautiful structures, are in good preservation. The precincts of the cathedral are under the special jurisdiction of the dean and other members of the establishment, who exercise magisterial Powers within them.

PARISHES IN THE CITY OF NORWICH.

PARISH.LIVING.Value in the
King's Books.
s. d.
EndowmentsPATRONS.Population
Private
Benefaction
Royal
Bounty
Parliamentary
Grant
All Saints }United Rectory314 7700600S.Thornton,Esq.{934
St. Julian }{743
St. AndrewVicarage5 0 0800600Parishioners1513
St. AugustineDischarged Rectory6 17 81400Dean and Chapter1625
St. BenedictPerpetual Curacy1000800Parishioners1125
St. ClementDischarged Rectory7 9 2200200Caius College, Cambridge2364
St. EdmundDischarged Rectory4 6 3600400890Rev.C.D.Brereton677
St. EtheldredPerpetual Curacy800Mayor and Corporation273
St. George ColegatePerpetual Curacy1000Dean and Chapter1610
St. George TomblandPerpetual Curacy9001000900Bishop of Ely797
St. GilesPerpetual Curacy100Dean and Chapter1422
St. GregoryPerpetual Curacy800600Dean and chapter1244
St. HelenPerpetual Curacy200Mayor and Corporation345
St. John MaddermarketDischarged Rectory710 21000800New College, Oxford957
St. John SepulchrePerpetual Curacy400800Dean and Chapter1599
St. John TimberhillPerpetual Curacy800600Dean and Chapter1103
St. James }{Perpetual Curacy}600}Dean and Chapter{1268
St. Paul } United{Rectory}Not in charge.6002160
St. LawrenceDischarged Rectory413 94001000The Crown1092
St. Margaret de WestwickDischarged Rectory5 4 9200800200Bishop of Norwich938
St. Martin at PalacePerpetual Curacy1000800Dean and Chapter1262
St. Martin at OakPerpetual Curacy200800600Dean and Chapter2477
St. Mary CoslanyPerpetual Curacy2008001400Marquis Townshend1521
St. MaryDischarged Rectory, now held as a Perpetual Curacy5 0 10600Dean and Chapter
St. Michael CoslanyDischarged Rectory13 6 84004001000Cais College, Cambridge1340
St. Michael at PleaDischarged Rectory6 l0 06001000Sir T. B Lennard, Bart.389
St. Michel at ThornPerpetual Curacy10001000Dowagar Lady Suffield1750
St. Peter HungateDischarged Rectory3 1 5400200The Crown, by lapse511
St. Peter MancroftPerpetual Curacy200200600Parishioners2671
St. Peter MountergatePerpetual Curacy200800Dean and Chapter1789
St. Peter SouthgateDischarged Rectory2 17 31000Bishop of Norwich329
St. SaviourPerpetual Curacy1000800Dean and Chapter1266
St. Simon and St. JudeDischarged Rectory3 10 01000Bishop of Norwich447
St. StephenDischarged Vicarage9 0 0600400Dean and Chapter2927
St. SwithinDischarged Rectory6 3 4200800800Bishop of Norwich750

PARISHES IN THE LIBERTY OF THE CITY OF NORWICH.

PARISH.LIVING.Value in the
King's Books.
s. d.
EndowmentsPATRONS.Population
Private
Benefaction
Royal
Bounty
Parliamentary
Grant
Eaton (St. Andrew)VicarageNot in charge200200Dean and Chapter1313
HeighamRectory6 13 4Bishop of Norwich1503
PockthorpePerpetual CuracyDean and Chapter1313
LakenhamV. united with that of Trouse, in the county of NorfolkDean and Chapter1875

All the above parishes, with the exception of those of St. Andrew, St. Helen, St. James, St. Paul, and Lakenham, which are within thr peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter, are in the archdeaconry and diocese of Norwich.

Many of the churches, of which the prevailing style is that of the later English, with portions of an earlier date, and some Norman remains, are deserving of architectural notice: among these are the church of St. Peter Mancroft, a spacious structure in the later style of English architecture, with a lofty square embattled tower highly enriched; the interior is rcmarlrably light and elegant; the intervals between the arches of the nave are ornamented with niches of exquisite design, and the windows are large and filled with excellent tracery; the east window is ornamented with stained glass, and in the vestry are some ancient portraits of the saints, and a painting of the Resurrection; there are numerous ancient monuments, of several of which the inscriptions are obliterated. The church of St. Michael Coslany is a handsome structure of flint and stone, and affords a fine specimen of t,hat mode of building; the prevailing character is the later English, intermixed with the decorated and early styles; the details are elaborately wrbught, and the chancel in particular is beautifully ornamented. The churches of St. Benedict, St. Etheldred, and St. Julian, havr rouutl towers, in which, though greatly obscured by altcratk)ns and repairs, many remains of Norman architecture arc discernible. The church of St. Lawrence is a handsome edifice, with a tower of flint and stone one hundred and twelve feet high j over the western entrance are sculptured representations of the martyrdom of St. Lawrence, and of St. Edmund, King of East Anglia. The churches of St. Andrew, St. George Colegate, St. Giles, St. Saviour, and various others, arc handsome structures in the later style of English architecture, with lofty and elegant towers of flint and stone, and contaiu numerous interesting portions in earlier styles, togethcr with valuable specimens of architectural skill. There are four places of worship for Baptists, two for the Society of Friends, two each for Independents and Wesleyan Methodists, and one each for those in the late Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, and Unitarians, a synagogue, and two chapels belonging to the Roman Catholics, one of which is an elegant edifice lately erected.

The free grammar school, originally built by Bishop Salmon, was established by Edward VI., and is endowed by the corporation, who have the appointment of the master, and the nomination of the scholars; the master's salary is 50 per annum, with a house and the privilege of taking boarders; the under-master's salary is 30; gratuitous instruction in the classics is afforded to a certain number of boys of the city. Belonging to this school and that at Aylsham are three scholarships, of 2.13.4. each per annum, founded at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, by Archbishop Parker; and two scholarships for boys educated at Norwich, Aylsham, or Wymondham; four scholarships, of 5 each per annum, founded at Emanuel College, Cambridge, by William Braithwaite, in 1618; and two of three scholarships, of 5 per annum each, founded at Caius College, for natives of Norfolk. Edward Coleman also, in 1659, bequeathed 20 per annum to Corpus Christi College, for the maintenance of four scholars from this school, or from the school of Wymondham. The boys' hospital, founded in 1618 by Mr. Thomas Anguish, mayor, for the maintenance and education of forty boys; and the girls' hospital, endowed in 1649, for thirty-two girls, are both conducted under good regulations, and provide for an increased number of children. There are twelve charity schools supported by subscription, for the clothing and education of children, in which are two hundred and ten boys, and one hundred and thirty girls. In 1775, Mr. Moy, of this city, bequeathed 1000 Bank stock, directing the interest to be appropriated to apprenticing children educated in the schools; and Mr. Elmy left 400 for the same purpose. The National schools afford instruction to nearly one thousand eight hundred children; and in the county of Norfolk there are not less than ten thousand children instructed in these institutions, which are supported by subscription. The Norwich British und Foreign school was instituted in 1811, and is supported by subscription; there are nearly four hundred children in this establishment.

St. Giles' hospital was founded, in 1249, by Bishop Suffield, who endowed it for the maintenance and support of aged persons of both sexes, who are nominated by the corporation: the ancient collegiate church of St. Helen has been appropriated to its use; the choir is fitted up for the residence of fifty women, part of the nave has been prepared for the reception of fifty men, and the remainder is used as a chapel: this edifice, notwithstanding the alterations it has undergone, still displays many interesting portions of its ancient architecture. Doughty's hospital was founded, in 1687, by Mr. William Doughty, who bequeathed 6000 for its erection and endowment; there are forty aged persons of both sexes, who have a weekly sum of money, clothes, firing, an d other necessaries; according to the directions of the founder, no person can be admitted who is under sixty years of age. Cook's hospital was founded prior to the year 1701, by Robert and Thomas Cook, who endowed it for the residence and support of ten poor women of the city, who receive each a weekly allowance of money. The Norfolk and Norwich hospital, a handsome building of red brick, erected in 1771, at an expense of 13,323. 8. 11., contains spacious accommodation for the reception of all classes of patients; the institution is under the direction of a president and a committee, and is gratuitously attended by the cipal medical practitioners of the city; as a school of medicine and surgery it is distinguished by its successful operations in cases of lithotomy. The Magdalen asylum is under the management of a committee of ladies; there are now twenty females in it, the greatest number which it can accommodate. Bethel hospital for the reception of lunatics, was erected by Mrs. Mary Chapman, in 1713, and is supportedby funds arising from donations, and by annual subscription; and at Thorpe about two miles from the city, is the Norfolk and Norwich lunatic asylum, established in 1814, tinder the statute of the 48th of George III., " for the better care and maintenance of lunatics, being criminals or paupers." The Norwich dispensary, established in 1804, is chiefly supported by subscription. An infirmary for the cure of diseases of the eye was established in 1822, since -which period nearly two thousand five hundred persons have been ciired or relieved. The institution for the relief of the indigent blind, established chiefly by the exertions of Thomas Tawell, Esq., one of its greatest benefactors, embraces also a school for the instruction of blind children, in which there are thirty pupils, in addition to eight aged persons now in the asylum; it is under the direction of a president, three vice-presidents, and a committee of subscribers, by whom a matron and an instructor of the blind are appointed. Among the charitable associations are, a society for the relief of clergymen's widows; a benevolent medical society, for the widows and children of surgeons and apothecaries, and indigent members of that profession, in the city and county, and a similar society for the widows and children of attornies; a society for the relief of decayed tradesmen, their widows, and orphans; the Friendly Society, for the, relief of poor women in sickness and old age; the society of universal good will, for the relief of strangers; the Humane Society, for the recovery of persons apparently drowned, and various others; and there are also considerable charitable bequests for distribution among the poor.

Of the monastic establishments formerly existing in the town and neighbourhood, numerous vestiges of which are still visible, were the priory and church of St. Leonard at Thorpe-wood, near the city, in which Herbert de Lozinga placed several monks, while he was erecting the cathedral; also an. hospital for lepers, endowed by him, the revenue of which, at the dissolution, was 10; the hospital of St. Paul, founded in 1121, by the prior and convent of Norwich; a nunnery, dedicated to St. Mary and St. John, and endowed by King Stephen, for sisters of the Benedictine order, who in 1146 founded a new convent at Carrow, the revenue of which, at the dissolution, was 84. 12. if.; St. Edwards hospital, founded in 1200, by Hildebrand de Mercer, citizen of Norwich, which had so far decayed, that at the dissolution its revenue was only 14s. 6d.; the monastery of the Black friars, founded in the reign ot Edward II., of which the ancient church is now bt. Andrew's Hall; the monastery of the Grey friars, founded in 1226, by John de Hastingford, the site ot which is now occupied by Cook's hospital; the monastery of White friars, founded in 1256, by Philip Congate, merchant, which remained till the dissolution; the convent of Augustine friars, founded in the reigtt or Edward I., by one of the bishops; a convent of mars of the order "de poenitentia Jesu," founded in 1266, and which, after the suppression of that order, was annexed to the convent of the Black friars; the college of St. Mary, originally a chapel, founded in 1250, by Sir John Broun, or Brom, and at the time of the dissolution consisting of a dean, four prebendaries, and others, with a revenue of 86. 16.; also various hospitals, vestiges of which may be traced in several parts of the city.

William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich in the fourteenth century, and founder of Trinity Hall, Cambridge; Matthew Parker, second Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury, chaplain to Queen Anne Boleyn, whom he attended to the scaffold; Dr. John Kaye, or Caius, founder of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, author of a treatise on the antiquities of that university, and other works; Robert Green, a popular writer in the reign of Elizabeth; Dr. John Cosin, Bishop of Durham in the reign of Charles II.; the learned Dr. Samuel Clarke, the son of an alderman of this city, born in 1675; Edward King, F.R.S. and F.S.A., a most erudite antiquary, and author of a work on ancient architecture, entitled " Munimenta dntiqua," born in 1734; the Rev. William Beloe, the translator of Herodotus; and Sir James Edward Smith, M.D., founder and first president of the Linnaean Society, and author of the "Flora Brltannica," were natives of this city. Among the distinguished residents were Sir Thomas Erpingham, Knight of the Garter, and chamberlain to Henry IV.; he distinguished himself at the battle of Agincourt, and built the beautiful gate facing the western end of the cathedral, which is still called Erpingham gate; he died in 1428, and was interred in the cathedral: Sir John Fastolf, a renowned warrior, who signalized himself in the wars with France in the reigns of Henry IV., V., and VI.; he died in 1459, and was interred in a chapel which he had founded in the abbey of Holme; and various others.

[Last updated 14 Mar 2011 - 08:05 by Mel Lockie]