- Straddel, 1086 Becce, Dom.
- Cowarne, 1138 'una hyda que vocatur Beche', Glos. Cart.
- Straddel, 1424 'Clifford with Bache', Ind. Ct Rolls.
- Straddel, 1537 'Le Bach et Bodest', Aug. Of.
- Straddel, 1548 'Bach with Hardwicke', Ind. Ct Rolls.
- Straddel, 1539 'Overbache', Aug. Of.
Prof. Skeat says that Bache is the palatalized form of O.E. baec, 'a valley or a river bank'. Somewhere near Ross in 1300 (Ep. Reg.) is 'quedam vallis que vocatur Alvinebache'.
The word, alone and in composition, is very common in Herefordshire:- we have Bach (Golden Valley), Bach (Cowarne), Tump Bage and Common Bach (Dorstone), Bage Farm (Hadley), Bache Farm (Kimbolton), Bach brook (Aymestrey), Batch (Almeley), The Baches (Upton Bishop), South Batch (Upper Sapey), Evesbatch, Stansbatch, Stagbatch (Leominster), Batchcomb (Cradley), Batchfields (Bishop's Frome), Batchley (Grendon Bishop), and (if it be connected) Embages (Bromyard).
Cf. Batchcott (Salop).
Badge Court (Worcs.).
- 1376 'terra de Estradel que vocatur Becchen', Cart. Gt Malvern.
This is possibly only a local variant of Bache. There is, however, in Montgomeryshire a brook called Bacho Brook which in the Brut (under year 1111) is Bachwy, and in Gir. Cambrensis Pennant Bacho. In Crasswall, in Ord. Map, 1831, is a place called Bachau, the product of perverse ingenuity.
A trib. of the Arrow, which flows through Kington.
- 1086 Bageberge, Dom.
'Burh in the valley'. The first element is O.E. baec, 'a valley', for which see under Bache above.
- 1086 Bachetune, Dom.
- 1232 Bakyntune, Chart.
- 1243 Bakinton, T. de Nev.
- 1291 Baketon, Tax. Eccl.
- 1327 Bakynton, Chart. Rolls.
- 1341 Baketon, Non. Inq.
'Tun of Bacca or Becca'.
Cf. Bacton (Norf.).
'Badda's lea'. In 1316 there is a Baddesleagh (belonging to Alan de Plokenet) close to Great Brampton. But I take this to be a scribe's mistake for Baddeshawe (Badsay, q.v.).
- circ. 1217 Baddeshage, Chart.
- 1267 Baddesawe, Inq. p.m.
- 1317 Badesawe, Min. Acc.
- 1327 Badeshawe, Baddeshawe, Plac. de Banco.
Badsay is still a surname in the county. For the second element see Appendix -hay.
Cf. Badsey (Worc.), 'Badda's island'.
See also under Wormbridge.
- 1831 Bagwy Llydiart, Ord. Map.
Bagwy seems to be akin to Bacho (q.v.). For the second element see 'Lydiates'. Some have conjectured that it is W. Bagwn-llidiard, 'gate of strength'.
The first word is W. beili, a loan-word from the N.-Fr. 'the bailey-court of a castle', then a court-yard generally, sometimes a cattleyard. Beili is often found as a pl.-n. in Wales, sometimes attached to a tumulus, as Pen y Beili Bedw, a tumulus in Cards.; Beili glas, another in Glams. The second word is W. Maerdy, 'the house of a steward', then 'a dairy house'.
- circ. 1130 Lannbudgual, ['Rex Gurcant...dedit deo et SS. Dubricio et Teliano podum sancti Budgualan'.] Lib. Land.
- 1215 Badelingeham, Close Rolls.
- 1251 Baldingham, Chart. Roll.
- 1252 Baldingham, Chart. Roll.
- 1275 Balingham, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Balingesham, Tax. Eccles.
- 1297 Baldyngham, Ep. Reg.
- 1538 Balincham, Val. Eccles.
- 1542 Balingcham, Orig. Roll.
- 1545 Balyngeham, Inq. p.m.
'The ham of St Budgualan'.
Said to derive its name from having been held by the service of 'bearing' the provisions of the lord or steward in their removes from one manor to another. Such tenants were called Bermanni.
- 1278 La Barre, Ep. Reg.
- 1311 La Barre, Ep. Reg.
- 1335 Le Barre, Ep. Reg.
- 1341 La Barre, Non. Inq.
Fr. barre, 'a bar', 'barrier'. In a Brecon Charter circ. 1150, Earl Roger of Hereford gives to the Priory 'burgagium in Brechonia et acram extra Barram'.
- 1327 la Barewe, Plac. de Banco.
O.E. beorh, 'a hill', 'citadel', then, as prob. here, 'a barrow', 'place of burial'. There is also a farm called Barrow in Pembridge.
- 1282 (translation, 1486) 'at the bridge of the Barre', Custom Book, Hereford.
In 1339 Walter de la Barre was chief Bailiff of Hereford, and John de la Barre in 1334. In 1346 Roger atte Barre de Herefordie has a suit in court. The de Barre or de la Barre family, however, seem to have held lands in Holmer and Burcot at least as early as 1259. The last member of the family died early in the 17th century.
- 1086 Bertoldestreu, Dom.
- 1291 Bertwaldestre, Bertwaldstret, Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Bertwaldestr', Non. Inq.
- 1348 Bertwastree, Ep. Reg.
Cf. Oswestry (Salop).
- 1086 Bertune, Dom.
- circ. 1150 Berthona, Chart.
- 1241 Bertone, Charter Roll.
O.E. Bere-tun, 'enclosure for barley'.
Cf. Berwick (on-Tweed), Barwick (Yorks.), etc., all being 'Barley-farm'.
In 1553 a Barton is mentioned with Rushock and Bradnor, i.e. near Kington.
- circ. 1150 Berstaneshame, Glos. Cart.
- 1219 Bertanesham, Ep. Reg.
- 1227 Bathlegh, Chart. Roll.
I can find no old forms; but on the analogy of Bayton (Cleobury Mortimer) and Bayworth (Abingdon) it should be 'Beaga's, or Bacga's, ford'.
- 1282 (translation 1486) Bayle Brook, Hereford Custom Book.
Found as a surname also in Herefordshire. Prob. 'homestead of Baina or Bana'.
Prob. 'Baina's or Bana's tun'.
- 1086 Baissan, Dom.
- 1240 Beysham, Ep. Reg.
- 1251 Baissan, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Baisham, Baysham, Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Baysham, Non. Inq.
- circ. 1550 Beysham, Leland.
There is also a farm called 'Baysham' in Goodrich, which in 1693 was 'Baysham's Cott'.
O.E. bearo, 'a wood'. If this be the derivation Bearwood is tautological. There is a 'Barrow' within half a mile; but, without old forms, we should not be justified in suggesting 'Barrow-wood'.
Cf. Conybeare, Bere Regis.
- 1086 Becce, Dom.
W. bedw, 'the birches', plur. of bedwen, 'a birch tree'.
- circ. 1130 Bolgros, Lib. Land.
- 1316 Bellimare, F. A.
- 1330 Bellymare, Ep. Reg.
- 1831 Bellimoor, Ord. Map.
It would seem that Belly-moor is simply a translation into English of Bolg-ros, which is compounded from Welsh bolg-, the root of several words meaning 'a paunch', and ros, 'a moor, heath'.
No old forms, so it may be comparatively a modern name.
Cf. (10 miles to the south, in Monmouthshire) Grosmont, which is certainly as old as the 13th century.
- 1086 Beltrou, Dom.
Evidently the Welsh Penarth. The first element, pen, is a common prefix meaning 'the highest part' or 'the extreme end'. Its Scotch form is Ben.
- 1217 Benefeldum, Dore Chart.
- 1291 Benefeld, Tax. Eccles.
- circ. 1369 Benefelde, Ep. Reg.
- 1541 Benfylde, Aug. Of.
Is it 'Bean-field', or 'Field of prayer' ?
- 1086 Bernoldune, Dom.
- 1303 Bernaldeston, ['Est in Marchia Wallie'.] F. A.
- 1428 Bernaldeston, F. A.
So identified by J.H.R.; but otherwise not to be traced. 'Beornweald's tun'.
- 1223 Beriton, Berintune, Brec. Cart.
- 1236 Beriton, Brec. Cart.
- 1396 Pyryton, Ep. Reg.
- 1577 Birriton, Saxton's map.
- 1610 Birriton, Speed's map.
- circ. 1750 Berrington, Bowen's map.
- 1776 Biriton, Stukeley, 'Itin. Cur.'
O.E. pyrige, a loan-word from Lat. pirum. Perton in Stoke Edith (though we have no old forms) is probably also Pyryton.
Much has been written, to little purpose, as to the origin of Bettws. The opinion still holds that it is a Welsh form of the English 'bead-house'; though no one has ever explained why 'bead-houses' should be scattered all over Wales and the Border, with none in England, from whence the word came !
- 1314 'vicus qui vocatur Byhinde the Walle', Hereford Corp. Chart.
- 1383 Bewalstrete, Hereford Corp. Chart.
- 1722 The Biblings, Biblin's End, Terrier.
- 1086 Bicretune, Dom.
- 1303 Bykerton, F.A.
- 1086 Bicanofre, Dom.
- 1266 Bykenovere, Glos. Cart.
- 1275 Bykenore Walensis, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Bykenore' Walensium,}
- " Anglican'} Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Bykenore, Non. Inq.
Clearly 'Bica's bank'. Lower down the Wye is Bigsweir, which in 1322 is Bikiswere, 'Bica's weir'. See under Doward for Bicknor entry in Lib. Lan.
- no date Bikeden, Leom. Cart.
So in 1676. For etymology see Pudleston.
- 1346 Bydenweye, Ep. Reg.
- 1722 Bigleston, Wormelow Terrier.
Possibly from O.E. pucel, 'goblin', 'sprite', for which see sub Pudleston. Or, if we had old forms, we might find it to be 'Bigweald's tun'.
- circ. 1140 Belboga, E. H. Cart.
'Billing' is one of the commonest of the so-called patronymics. We find Billingford (Norfolk), Billingham (Durham), Billingley (Yorks.), Billinghurst (Sussex) and five other places in various counties. Yet it is by no means clear that there ever was a clan 'Billing'. It is quite possibly no more than 'Billa's meadow'.
- 1243 Communitas de Birches, T. de Nev.
- 1277 Birche sancte Marie, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Birch' beate Marie, } Tax. Eccles.
- Briches beate Marie,}
- 1306 Ecclesia sancte Marie de Birches, Ep. Reg.
- 1334 Maurice atte Birches ordained, Ep. Reg.
- 1340 Muchelbirches, Min. Acc. Aconbury.
- 1341 Byrches sancte Marie, Non. Inq.
- 1538 Birche, Val. Eccles.
- 1539 Lytle Byrche, Aug. Of.
O.E. byrc, 'a birch tree'.
- circ. 1240 Birchovr, Leom. Cart.
- 1539 Byrchore, Aug. Of.
- 1086 Burlei, Dom.
- circ. 1300 Boerleye, Chart.
- 1138 Buterlega, A.C. So identified by J.H.R. See Butterley.
'Meadow with the burh'.
- circ. 1183 Britleia, Birdleia, Chart.
'Meadow of Brid'. Birt's Morton (Glos.) is circ. 1350 Morton Brut, from Walter le Bret who held it in 1275.
- 1135 Bicopeston, Lib. Nig.
- 1291 Bissopeston, Tax. Eccles.
- 1303 Bysshoppeston, F.A.
- 1327 Bisshopeston, Plac. de Banco.
- 1341 Bysshopeston, Non. Inq.
- 1341 Bysshopesdon, Assize Roll.
'The Bishop's tun'. The Warwickshire Bishopstone is 1016 Biscopesdun.
Evidently part of the Bishop's manor of Ross, though no old references are to be found. In 1355 there is a 'Bisshopusbrok qui cadit in ripam de Weye'; and in 1292 a 'Bissopeswere super Weye', both near Ross.
The Shrops. Bitterley is Dom. Buterlie. See under Butterley.
- 1341 Bitton, Non. Inq.
Prob. like Glos. Bitton (which is Dom. Betune, and 1234 Betton) 'tun of Betti' or 'of Beta' (both in Onom.).
- 1294 Blakemonstone, Ep. Reg.
- 1400 Blakemanston, Acon. Cart.
- 1490 Blakemonston, Court Roll.
- 1509 Blackmonston, Rent. and Surveys.
- 1538 Blakmoston, Val. Eccles.
The Kentish Blackmanstone is held in Dom. by a person named Blacman. This also was 'Blacman's tun', until popular etymology took the matter in hand.
- 1490 Blake Norle, } Courtfield MSS.
- 1569 'an acre of land called Black Norles Sute', }
- no date Blakwrthin, Leom. Cart.
Legend says Black Caer-dun, supposed to have been a British or Roman fortified town, twelve coins and some fragments of pottery having been discovered there, but no foundations of buildings ! But the word obviously means 'Blaeca's weorth' or farm.
See The Blane.
Possibly O.E. blithe, 'merry, pleasant'.
- 1273 Blakemare, Comp. Roll.
- 1291 Blakemar, Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Blakemere, Non. Inq.
There is a Blackmore in Abbeydore (which may be the 'Blakapola' of the Dore Cart. in 1232), and a Blakemore in Aston Ingham; also a Blakemor (unidentified) in Leom. Cart.
Cf. Blakeney (Glos.), Blakenham (Suff.), Bletchley (Bucks.).
Welsh blaen (plur. blaenau) means the top, beginning, or source of anything. Usually a prefix to the name of a place situated at the end of a valley, or at the source of a river, as Blaen-Rhondda, Blaenau Festiniog. The Blane is an Anglicized corruption of Blaen; and Blaenans must be the same, though the form is difficult to explain.
O.E. blithe, 'merry, pleasant'.
Apparently W., 'kite's tail'.
- 1086 Bodeham, Dom.
- circ. 1150 Bodeham, Brec. Cart.
- 1243 Bodeham, T. de Nev.
- 1291 Bodenham, Tax. Eccles.
- 1302 Bodeham, Quo War.
- 1341 Bodenham, Non. Inq.
'Boda's home'. The Furches family obtained land here by marriage with the Lacies in the 12th century. Hence it is sometimes found as Bodenham Furches.
- 1831 Bollin, Ord. Map.
Old forms being absent, we cannot tell whether the g is in the O.E. form, or has got itself inserted later. According as we decide this it will be 'Bolla's homestead', or 'homestead of Bolla's sons'. See under Billingsley.
Since this is the reputed site of Ariconium, Judge Cooke says it is Welsh Bol-yr-tre, 'the bowel or centre of a town', though on the English side of the Wye, where there is only one pl.-name certainly Welsh, and that within a stone's throw of Archenfield. Others say bole is 'a place where miners melted their lead'. It is perhaps more likely to be 'the tree of Bolla' or some similar name. But we have no old forms to help us.
- 1302 La Haye Hyde de Boleton, Quo War.
So in Ord. Map, 1831. It seems to be a name of only 18th cent. origin.
Very common throughout the country, not merely in composition, as in Overbury (Woolhope), Buryhill (Weston-under-Penyard) and Monksbury (Yarkhill), but also independently, as The Bury (in Aconbury), Bury Farm (Stoke Prior), Bury House (Wigmore), Little Bury (Eye), Bury of Hope (in Hope-under-Dinmore), Bury (Luston). In Ledbury the parish is still divided into Ledbury Borough and Ledbury Foreign. And some quite small villages or even hamlets retain the name for a few houses as distinct from the rest, e.g. Ivington has Ivington Bury; and Grafton, a tiny hamlet near Hereford, has a house called Graftonbury. A farm in Kingsland is called Lawton Bury.
- 1056 Bosanbyrig, Flor. Worc.
- 1086 Boseberge, Dom.
- 1233 Boseburia, Glos. Cart.
- 1291 Bosebur' Episcopi, Tax. Eccles.
'Burgh of Bosa', perhaps the 'scriba regis' (i.e. of Witlaf, king of Mercia) mentioned in a charter of 833.
There is a Bowlston Court in Kentchurch also.
- 1286 Balchampton, Ep. Reg.
- 1443 Buggleston, Inq. p.m.
- 1538 Bowlston, Aug. Of.
The entry from the Swinfield Register suggests a connection with the Beauchamp family. The Glamorganshire 'Bolstonne', in Margam Cart. 1517, both before and after that date and still, is Bonvilston.
- 1330 Bultibrok, Ep. Reg.
- 1347 Boltebroke, Ep. Reg.
The first element is prob. O.E. botl (sometimes found as bolt), 'a house'. 'House on the brook'. The W. Trenant (twice found in the county) has much the same meaning.
- 1086 Bolelei, Dom.
- 1086 Bradeford, Dom.
- 1123 Bradeforda, Leom. Cart. (et passim).
- 1257 Bradeford, Chart. Roll.
'The broad ford'. I have entered this as an unidentified name; but it is almost certainly Broadward in Stoke Prior. See under Broadfield.
- circ. 1280 Bradelee, E. H. Cart.
Tautology; since Bradlow='Broad Hill'. Locally it is still always Bradlow, never Bradlow Hill.
- 1337 Bradnore, Inq. p.m.
- 1553 Bradnor, Court Roll.
'Brada's bank'. For second element see Appendix.
- Brampton (Great, Madley).
- Brampton (Little, a township on Radnor border).
- Brampton Abbotts.
- Brampton Brian.
- Brampton (Dorstone).
- 1086 Bruntune, Dom. (1, 2, 3, and 4).
- 1132 Bramtona, Chart. (1).
- circ. 1160 Bromptona,} Glos. Cart. (3).
- 1302 Brumptone, Quo War. (3).
- 1303 Bromptone Brian, Ep. Reg. (4).
- 1327 Michelebrompton, Plac. de Banco (1).
- 1333 Bryanesbromptone, Ep. Reg. (4).
'Brand's tun'. Brampton Abbots is held in Dom. by the Abbot of St Peter's, Gloucester. Brampton Bryan was held from the Mortimers by a long succession of Brians of Brampton (1179-1398).
It may be, as popular etymology says, a corruption of Bravinium or Branogenium, the station on the Roman road, usually located in Leintwardine. But the other Brandons (Durham, Warwickshire, Salop) are Dom. Brandune, 'hill of Brand'. We have no old forms to help us.
- 1086 Brudeford, Dom.
Originally, it would seem, 'spreading ford'. Then the ending got confused with -wardine (for which see Appendix).
- 1086 Brideneberie, Dom.
- 1276 Bridenebury, Ep. Reg.
- 1278 Brudenebury, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Brydenebur', 'Ecclesia de B.'. Tax. Eccles.
- 1304 Bridenbyr', Ep. Reg.
- 1341 Bridenbury, 'Capella de B.' (entered under Avenbury)., Non. Inq.
- 1812 Bridenbury, Dunc.
- 1831 Bredenbury, Ord. Map.
'Beorhtwine's or Bridwine's burgh'.
- circ. 1200 Bredewerthin, Brec. Cart.
- 1217 Bredworthin, Dore Cart.
- 1243 Bradewardin, T. de Nevill.
- 1255 Bradwerthin, MS. in West. Archives.
- 1277 Bredworthin, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Bredewardin, Tax. Eccles.
- 1302 Bredewardyn, Quo War.
- 1341 Bredwardyn, Non. Inq.
- 1440 Bradwardyn, Inq. p.m.
'Brid's weorth' or farm. For the second element see Appendix, -wardine.
- circ. 1200 Bruntune, Breuntuna, Chart.
- 1252 Brahintone, Capes.
- 1291 Breynton, Brenton, Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Breynton, Non. Inq.
Judge Cooke says Bruntune is 'a vill near a flowing stream' ! But it is better to say with Prof. Wyld 'We expect a personal name with -tun'. Brun and Bruna are common O.E. names.
- circ. 1200 Brenchesowre, Brec. Cart.
The second element is an unusual form of the -ofr or -or ending. The first element may be the pers. n. Brengyth; or it may be a variant of the Brin- or Brun- in Brinsop.
- 1086 Bricge, Dom.
- 1255 Bruges, MS. in West. Archives.
- 1277 Bruges super Wayam, Chart.
- 1291 Bruges Solers, Tax. Eccles.
- 1302 Brugges sup. Wayam, Quo War.
- 1303 Brug Solers, F.A.
- 1341 Bruggsolers, Non. Inq.
- 1433 Brugge, Pat. Roll.
Why Sollers? The family of Solers or de Solariis held Sollershope and other Herefordshire lands early in the 14th century. But the Manor of Bridge is held by Roger de Clifford in 1277, and seems to have been held for centuries thereafter by Cliffords or by the Bishop.
- circ. 1130 Lann San Bregit,} Lib. Land.
- Lann San Freit, }
- 1138 Ecclesia Sancte Brigide virginis, Glos. Cart.
- 1277 Bridestowe, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Bridestowe, Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Bridestowe, Non. Inq.
'The stow of St Bridget, Brigida, or Bride'. An Inq. p.m. of 1422 mentions a 'lordship called Bridwarne' near Eton Tregoz, which would seem to be Bridstow.
Cf. Bridestowe (Devon) and Bridgerule (Devon, old 'Lan Bridget'), and the nine Llansantfraids (or -freads, i.e. Bridgets) in Wales.
- 1086 Bretlege [? J.H.R.], Dom.
- 1539 Brereley, Aug. Of.
'Brier-meadow'. The first element is O.E. braer, brer, 'the brier tree'.
Called Whitehouse Camp in Vic. Count. Hist., and Whitehouse only in 1831 Ord. Map. Kelly's Directory now calls it Brighton Camp. It is almost the only English name amid the Welsh in which the parish and district abounds. Possibly both Brighton and Whitehouse date from the 18th cent.
- ante 1240 Briel, Leom. Cart.
- 1259 Brynlegh', Cwmhir Cart.
- 1267 Brunley, Inq. p.m.
- 1290 Brimleye, Fine Roll.
- 1333 Bruylle, Ep. Reg.
- 1337 Brunleie, Inq. p.m.
- 1403 Brynley, Inq. p.m.
- 1450 Broonle, Llantony Cart.
- 1532 Brilleis, Aug. Of.
- 1538 Brilley, Val. Eccles.
- 1541 Breleu, 'In dominio de Huntingdon'. Aug. Of.
A difficult word, in which English and Welsh forms have got inextricably mixed in the course of centuries. Quite half the pl.-ns. in the parish are still Welsh.
Cf. Brill (Bucks.), which in 1109 is Bruhella. In 1722 there is a Brillstone in Goodrich.
- 1086 Bromefelde, Dom.
- 1123 Bremelfelda, Leom. Cart.
- 1138 Branfeld, A.C.
- no date Brumfeld, E. H. Cart.
The Dom. form of the first element is O.E. brom, 'broom'. The Bremel of Leom. Cart. is O.E. bremel, brembel, or brembel - braer, 'a bramblebush'.
M.E. Brink, as below.
- 1275 Brinkestye, Ep. Reg.
- 1307 Brenkesty, Ep. Reg.
M.E. Brink (not known in O.E.), 'the descent of a hill', 'the edge, margin, or border of a steep place'. It is not infrequent as a first element in place-names, e.g. Brinklow (Warwicks.), Brinkley (Cambs.), Brinkworth (Wilts.). The second element, -sty, is O.E. stiga, 'a path'. The Trilleck Register in 1355 mentions (in the forest of Dean) 'semita que vocatur le Ynsty'. Also, in the same neighbourhood, Meresty (= boundary-path), Bicknorsty, and Cnappesty ('hill-path'). In 1431 there is a Hamsty in Marcle (Pilley MS.), which is 'the path to [what is still called] Homme house'. In 1395 in Tillington is Wyndemullestye. And in 1722 there is a Stye Field in Credenhill. 'Holesti' is in Mansell Lacy in 1222.
- 1086 Hope, Dom.
- circ. 1130 Bruneshopa, Orderic Vitalis.
- circ. 1200 Brunehop, Brec. Cart.
- 1284 Bruneshope, Chart.
- 1291 Bruneshop, Tax. Eccles.
- 1303 Brunshope, F.A.
- 1327 Brunsop, Ep. Reg.
- 1327 Bruneshoop, Plac. de Banco. Curiously enough (probably by a scribe's mistake) the Lancs. Boysnape is, in 1235, Bruneshop - the only -hope found in that county.
- 1341 Brunsop, Non. Inq.
- 1431 Brunshope, F.A.
- no date Overbrunssope, } Worms. Cart.
- 1538 Brynsope, Val. Eccles.
- 1577 Brinsop, Saxton's Map.
'The enclosed valley of Bruna or Brun'. There is a Brinshope farm in Wigmore, which in 1831 Ord. Map is Brinsop.
One would say 'Beorn's tun', were it not that nearly all the names in St Weonards are Welsh, which suggests that dangerous conjecture, a hybrid.
- 1086 Bradefelde, Dom.
- 1123 Bradeffeld, Leom. Cart.
- circ. 1150 Bradefeld, Brec. Cart.
- 1243 Bradfeud, T. de Nev.
- 1291 Bradefelde, Tax. Eccles.
- 1428 Bradefeld, F.A.
'Broad' is a common element in Herefordshire place-names, as everywhere:- e.g. Broadmoor (Woolhope); The Broad (Eye); Broad Meadow (hamlet in Hardwicke); Broad Oak (Garway), which is in 1548 'Brode Oke parcel of Dore'; Broad Oaks (Bosbury); Broadstones (Stoke Prior); and Broadward (Stoke Prior), which is in 1280 Bradford, and in 1638 Bradward. There is a Brademedue, not identified, in Leom. Cart.; and Leland mentions a Brode Medow, near Wide Marsh, in Hereford.
- 1086 Brocheberie, Dom.
- 1243 Brocbir, T. de Nev.
- 1291 Brocbury, Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Brokbury, Non. Inq.
'The burh on the brook'. Or is it from O.E. broc,'a badger' ?
- 1086 Brocheurdie, Dom.
'Farm on the brook'. See Appendix, -wardine.
-ly is a somewhat rare form of -ley (for which see Appendix).
Akin in origin to Brobury (q.v.).
- 1142 Brocwardin, Lant. Cart.
- 1283 Brockhampton, Ep. Reg.
- 1287 Brochamptone, Glos. Cart.
- 1334 Brokamtone, Ep. Reg.
- 1431 Brokehampton, F.A.
- 1545 Brokanton, Inq. p.m.
It may be from O.E. broc, 'a badger', but more probably from broc, 'a brook', or sometimes 'a swamp', 'a water-meadow'. 'The tun in the ham (i.e. meadow) by the brook'. There is another Brockhampton near Bromyard which is also called Brockington, and is Brockyntone in 1457 (Glos. Cart.).
- 1086 Brochemton, Dom.
- 1123 Brocmanetune, Leom. Cart.
- 1303 Brokmanton, F.A.
- circ. 1390 Brokmanton, Leom. Cart.
- 1547 Brockmanton, Ind. Court Rolls.
- 1086 Brocote, Dom.
- 1086 Bremesese, Bremesse, Bromesais, Bromesesce, Dom.
- 1228 Bromes heff, Close Roll. -heff or heaf = 'accustomed pasture ground for sheep'.
Built and so-called in 1722.
- circ. 840 Bromgeard, Birch.
- 1086 Bromgerbe, Dom.
- 1160 Bromiard, Glos. Cart.
- 1291 Bromyard, Tax. Eccles.
- 1316 Bromyerd forincecum, } F.A.
- Bromyerd intrincecum,}
- 1341 Bromyerd, Non. Inq.
- 1363 Bromyarde fforeyn, Ep. Reg.
O.E. brom, 'broom', and feld, 'field covered with broom'. In Shrops. Broom Farm is Dom. Bruma, and Broome is Dom. Brame.
Also called Brantsill, and Bromeshill. Saxton's map (1577) and the 1831 Ord. Map spell it Bransill. Said to be Welsh; and plausibly connected with bron, 'the breast of a hill', or brun, 'a hill', which in Lib. Land. is bran. In the absence of old forms, however, it is impossible to decide whether it might not equally be English 'Brand's Hill', more especially as it is in a definitely English district. Bronllys in Breconshire is Brwyn-llys, from the personal name Brwyn (H.O.).
One of the few English farm-names in the whole valley of the Monnow above Pontrilas.
- 1650 Broomy Close, Survey.
- 1665 Broomy Close, Will of Rob. Pye.
- 1791 Broomey Close, Llandinabo Par. Reg.
- 1831 Broomy Close, Ord. Map.
Evidently a 19th century Wallicizing of a 17th century English name.
Cf. (all in our county) Broomy Hill (Hereford and Kingsland) [Broomhill (Sussex) was, in early days, Bromy Knoll]; The Broome (Cradley, Eardisland and Peterstow); and Broome Hill Farm (Tillington), which in 1395 is Bromhulle (Ep. Reg.). In 1722 there is a Broomy Hill in Goodrich.
- 1186 Brockeshes, Glos. Cart.
- 1539 Broxwood Byrches, Aug. Of.
- 1304 Villa de Bruges, Ep. Reg.
- 1831 Brutch, Ord. Map.
Evidently 'Bridge'. Cf. the old form of Bridge Sollers. There is in 1272, in or near Lyonshall, a Bruschfurlonge, the first element in which is M.E. brusche (O.Fr. brosse), 'brushwood'.
- 1722 Bryons (Bryan Parrock), Terrier.
Called a 'township'.
W. 'hill near the Curl brook'. The name is possibly modern.
A quite modern name, though in a typically Welsh district.
- 1650 Bringwine, Survey.
W. bryn gwyn, 'fair hill'.
Cf. Bryngwyn (Mons.) which in Lib. Land. is Brangwayn.
I suspect this name to be an early 19th century importation. It is the only Welsh name in the Parish, and indeed in the whole district. It is a very common cottage-name in Wales.
W., possibly bryn-yspardun, 'hill of a spur'.
- 1335 Bokinhulle, Ep. Reg.
- 1377 Bokenhulle, Ep. Reg.
The development of the word is very similar to that of Bucknell (Oxfs.) which is in 1149 Buckenhull, and in 1316 Bokkenhull. The first element may be either O.E. buccan (gen. sing.), 'he-goat', or a pers. n. Bucca. There is a Buckenhill also in Sollershope.
- 1288 Bokelaunde, Ep. Reg.
- 1290 Boklande, Leom. Cart.
- 1291 Boclond', Tax. Eccles.
O.E. bocland, 'an estate held with certain privileges in virtue of a royal charter or "book"'. The Docklow Buckland belonged in 1290 to Leominster Priory, as did Fencote near by. In Talgarth in the 12th century there was a Cumbebuckeland.
- 1086 Buctone, Dom.
- 1479 Buckton, Ind. Ct Rolls.
The first element may be O.E. bucca, 'a he-goat'; but far more probably it is the personal name Bucca.
- 1086 Boninhope, Dom.
- 1275 Bulengehope, Ep. Reg.
- 1302 Bulneshope, Quo War.
- 1303 Bullinghop, F.A.
- 1341 Bullyngeshop sup. et inf., Non. Inq.
- 1396 Bolynghope, Ep. Reg.
- 1831 Bullingham, Ord. Map.
'The enclosed valley of Bula'. The Dom. form is so identified by J.H.R., but is puzzling. The Quo War. form is a scribe's mistake.
- 1086 Bunesulle, Dom.
- 1142 Boneshull, Lant. Cart.
- 1340 Boneshull, Ind. Ct Rolls.
- 1394 Bunshill, Ind Ct Rolls.
- 1523 Boneshill, Hereford Will.
- 1538 Boneshill, Val. Eccles.
It might be 'hill of the cup'; but is more probably 'Buna's hill'.
- ante 1272 Byrchoure, Byrchoverr, Worms. Cart. In same charter, evidently in same neighbourhood, is Byrchfurlonge, or Bruschfurlonge.
- 1335 Birchovere, Ep. Reg.
This is, of course, 'Birch bank'. See Appendix, -over, and cf. Birchover (Matlock).
- ante 1172 Burcota, Chart.
- circ. 1180 Burcote, Chart.
- 1278 La Burkote, Ep. Reg.
- 1552 Kentish Burcott, Heref. Corp. MS.
It seems to have had two portions, Burcott Row and Kentish Burcott; but I can find no explanation of these names. (For Row see Rough, and Munderfield Row.) The Worcs. Burcote is Dom. Bericote, 'barley-cot'. An Oxfs. Burcot is 1290 Borewardescote, and another Oxf. Burcot is 1198 Bridicote.
- 1086 Burgelle, Dom.
- circ. 1150 Burchull, Brec. Cart.
- 1199 Burchull, Lant. Cart.
- 1283 Burhulle, Ep. Reg.
- 1283 Borughull, Chart. Roll.
- 1291 Burchull, Tax. Eccles.
- 1303 Burghulle, F.A.
- 1333 Bourghulle, Ep. Reg.
- 1341 Burghull, Non. Inq.
- 1377 Bourgchulle, Ep. Reg.
- 1538 Boroughhill, Val. Eccles.
'Hill-town'. For the first element see Appendix, -burg. The Glos. Burghill is in Glos. Cart. (undated) Burehul.
- 1303 Burghope, F.A.
'Enclosed valley containing a burh'. The Burthrope of the T. de Nev. is almost certainly meant for this place. Silas Taylor says the name means 'Burrowhope from some ancient fortifications' !
- 1243 Burleg, T. de Nev.
- 1291 Burleye, Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Burley, Non. Inq.
'Meadow of the burh'. There is another Burley in Colwall, a Burley Gate in Ocle Pychard, a Burling and a Burlingate in Marden.
- 1243 Burghelton, T. de Nev.
- 1303 Burwelton, F.A.
- 1086 Boritunee, Dom. J.H.R. thinks the Dom. Burcstanestune may also be Burrington.
- 1362 Buritone, Ep. Reg.
- 1427 Boriton, Ep. Reg.
- 1479 Boryton, Ind. Court Rolls.
Probably = Burton, q.v.
Berrington (q.v.) is Dom. Boritune; but Barrington (Glos.) is Dom. Bernintone, i.e. 'Beornwine's tun'.
- 1243 Burthop, T. de Nevill.
- Holme Lacy 1086 Bertune, Dom.
Linton Burton is almost certainly the Biriton of a delimitation circ. 1300.
O.E. burh+tun, 'fortified dwelling-place'. Some, however, think the first element should be from the name of a man, though there is nothing in Onom. that would fit. There are more than thirty Burtons in Dom., most in the form Bertun or Bertune; but several are Borton or Bortune.
- 1086 Burardestune, Beuretune, Dom.
- 1291 Burton, Tax. Eccles.
- 1303 Bourton, F.A.
Cf. Burwardsley (Ches.). Burwarton (Salop).
Forty days indulgence was granted in 1390 to all who contributed to the repair of the bridge at 'Burzchwyte in Whytbourne'.
There is probably some corruption in this pl.-n. W. llwyn is 'a bush'.
- 1220 Boteford, Brec. Cart.
- 1086 Buterlei, Butrelie, Dom.
- 1123 Butterlega, Leom. Cart.
- 1138 Buterlega, A.C. J.H.R. thinks this is Birley (q.v.).
- 1303 Buterleye, F.A.
- 1327 Boturleye, Plac. de Banco.
'Meadow where they make butter'. Or, possibly, from a personal name Butter or Buthar. (Onom. gives only one Buterus.)
Cf. Butterleigh (Devon); Butterley (Derby); Buttery (Salop), Dom. Buterel; Butterworth (Lincs.), with this cf. also Cheswardine; Butterwick (Lincs.), with this cf. Chiswick; Bitterley (Salop), which is Dom. Buterlie, and Buterleye in 1286 and later.
No early forms. Hence one hesitates to entertain the opinion of Mr J. Hobson Matthews that it is a corruption of Bettws-y-coed, though Welsh names are all round it.
- 1377 Boyfeld, Ep. Reg.
- 1408 'Byfeld alias Byweld', Ind. Court Rolls.
There is in 1725 a piece of land in Goodrich called 'The Byfields'; and there is still a 'Byfields' in Cradley.
- 1086 Buiford, Dom.
- circ. 1220 Buford, Brec. Cart.
- 1275 Buford, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Buford, Tax. Eccles.
- 1303 Byford, F.A.
- 1326 Byforde, Ep. Reg.
- 1341 Byford, Non. Inq.
'By the ford'. Cf. Attwood; Byfleet (Surrey), 'by the river'; Bytham (Lincs.), 'by the home'.
- 1243 Bylun, Glos. Cart.
- 1280 Boylonde, Glos. Cart.
- 1355 Boylaunde, Ep. Reg.
In 1557 there is a Byrelets at Eggleshall in Staffs.
- 1655 Byllack Yatt, Survey of the 'Meares & Bound' of Goodrich.
- 1270 Porta Episcopi, Hereford Corp. MS.
- 1486 'Byster's Gate otherwise called Bishop's Gate', Customs of Hereford.
- 1557 Bystrersgate, Hereford Corp. MS.
The gate existed (and was the city prison) until the early 19th century. The street leading to it was called Bye-street (a name still found in Ledbury). Hence 'Byster's Gate' would seem to be a corruption of Bye-street-gate.
- 1086 Boitune, Dom.
- 1291 Buton, Tax. Eccles.
- 1550 Beyton, Ind. Ct Rolls.
'The tun of Boi, or Boia, or Boiga' (all in Onom.).Return to top of page