L

*Lacre [?].

Laddin (Little Marcle).

Lady Arbour (Hereford Cathedral).

Arbour originally was O. Fr. herbier (Lat. herbarium). As the word changed its form it lost its connection with 'herb', and popular etymology connected it with Ital. arborata, 'a bower or shady retreat'.

There is a Lady Harbour in Eardisley, Lady Court in Shobdon, Lady Grove in Birley, Lady Ridge in Brockhampton, and Lady Wood in Tedstone Delamere. In 1650 Ledbury had a Lady Wood, and a Lady Oak Common; Val. Eccles. mentions 'Oure Ladyes Farme' in Weston-Beggard; and there is a Lady Meadow in Goodrich in 1722.

Lady Lift (a lofty hill in Yazor).

In the Ord. Map (1831) part of the ridge is given as Larkhill Wood, and part as Burton Hill, with Ladylift Clump and Yazor Wood between. N.E.D. gives several quotations for 'lift' as 'rising ground', but the earliest of these is from Sir W. Scott in 1825; so the name is probably modern.

*Lagademar ['pertinebat ad Archenefelde T. R. E.'].

Tradition says it is the 'Licat Amir' (Llygad Amir) of Nennius, where Arthur slew his son Amyr, at the source of the river Gamber (which is Amir in Lib. Land.).

The Lakes Farm (Stretton Sugwas).

O.E. lac, 'lake'. In O.E. place-names it had not the meaning of the modern word. It may refer to a running stream as well as to a standing pool; as in Bab-lock-hithe (Oxf.), which is in 1291 Babbelake. A small trib. of the Wye is still called Letton Lake; a stream in Wigmore is 'Wigmore Lake' in 1831 Ord. Map, and another in Sutton is 'Sutton Lake'. And in 1349 in Marden was 'quoddam fossatum vocatum Walneyslake' (Ep. Reg.).

Lancaegy (Welsh Newton).

So in 1831 Ord. Map.

For the first element see App.,W. cae-gwy would mean 'meadow by the river'.

*Landmore [Garway].

Possibly Llan-mawr, 'great enclosure'.

Lanerch (brook, trib. of the Garren).

W. llanerch, 'a glade', 'a clear patch'.

*The Langet [Abbeydore].

E.H. Cart. (circ. 1280) has languen; but this is almost certainly Llangua.

Langstone (Llangarren).

Larport Court (Mordiford).

The Laskett (Llandinabo).

*Lavilede [in Bredwardine or Letton].

Lawton (Kingsland).

The first element must be O.E. laf, lane, 'what is left', 'a widow'. 'Tun of the widow'.

Laysters.

Near by is Laysters Pole.

The Lea.

O.E. leah, dat. leage, 'a meadow'. A farm called The Ley (Weobley) is in 1348 (Ep. Reg.) La Leghe. There are also The Lea (farm, Upper Sapey), The Leys (Grafton, Aylton, Yarpole, and Stanford Bishop), and The Lays (farm, Tarrington).

Leadon (river, trib. of Severn).

There is also a brook called Leadon or Loden, which flows through Stretton Grandison into the river Frome.

Leadon (Court, Bishop's Frome).

It is difficult to say whether this place takes its name from the river, or gives its name to it. See under Ledbury.

The Leathers (Yatton, Aymestrey).

Ledbury.

It is impossible to say whether this is 'Leoda's burh', or whether it is 'the burh on the river Leadon'. Leadenham (Lincs.) is 'Leoda's settlement'. Letcombe (Berks.: Dom. Ledecumbe) is 'Leoda's valley'. But Lydney (on Severn) is 'Isle on the R. Leden'; and Baddeley quotes a lost Ledencome (1121), 'combe or vale of the Leden', which appears to have once been the name of the Wick-water, near Painswick. A few miles below Ledbury on the river Leadon, and just in Glos. is Leadington (1384 Ledyngtone, Ep. Reg.).

Leddicott (Shobdon).

Possibly 'Lida's cottage'. Cf. Lydbury North (Dom. Lideberie). Lydbrook-on-Wye is ante 1300 Luddebrok.

The Leen (Pembridge).

Akin to Lene (q.v.), in which district it lies.

Legion's Cross (Eardisland).

Leinthall.

'Lenta's nook or flat meadow'. For second element see Appendix, -hale. On the 1275 Entry in the Cantilupe Reg. Capes writes 'Leinthall Earles, which belonged to the Mortimers, is said to have taken its name from the Earls of March. But this entry in the Register is earlier than the title. The name was given probably in Saxon times. The Comites of the text seems the Latinizing of a familiar name, in which the possessive case was mistaken for a plural'. The parish of Leinthall Starkes takes its name, says Blount, 'from one of its mesne lords in ancient times'. But we have no record of anyone bearing the name.

Leintwardine.

'Lenta's worth' or farm. For the second element see Appendix, -wardine.

*Lembegge [a little stream flowing through Bredwardine into the Wye].

Lenaston (Llanwarne).

*Lene [Domesday Hundred].

This name is applied in Dom. and later to a whole district, which is roughly the valley of the Arrow between Kington and Leominster. Low-lying land, it possibly took its name from W. llion, 'floods', 'streams'. It is the second element in the names of Kingsland, Eardisland, and Monkland; and it may be the first element in Lyonshall, and even of Leominster.

Leominster.

The quotation from Leland gives two theories of the origin of the name. The f in the Dom. form points to 'Leofric's minster', the Mercian Earl having founded a monastery of nun's there; Freeman cannot find the exact date, but says it must have been soon after 1032. Or the first element may be W. llion, 'floods', 'streams' (see under Lene). The 14th century forms of Lyminster (Sussex) are in Leone- or Lene- (though it is Limestre in 13th century). Roberts thinks this is 'Leo's minster'.

Letton.

Johnston thinks 'tun on the leat'; O.E. gelaet, M.E. let, 'an open conduit', 'water channel'. And the village is on a stream called Letton Lake (see Lake). Or the Lec- may be (as often in Dom.) O.E. legh, leah, 'a meadow'. But this should give Leyton.

Lewiswyche (Lyonshall).

Lewson (Whitchurch).

No old forms to be found. Possibly it would turn out to be 'Leof's ham'.

Lidgmoor (King's Pyon).

Lilland's Farm (Little Marcle).

Lilly Brook Field (Lyde).

In it is 'Our Lady's Lights'.

Lilwall (Kington).

Lily Hall Farm (Old and New, Ledbury).

Lily Pool (Moccas).

Limebrook (Lingen).

The first element is evidently the same as in Lingen (q.v.).

Linceter (Whitbourne).

*Lincot Wood [near Pontrilas].

Welsh llincoed, 'flax-wood'; or llyncoed, 'wood of the lake'.

*Lincumbe [?].

Lingen.

The obvious suggestion for the first element is ling, 'heather'. But the word is Norse, and not found in England until 1357. Probably a pers. name is involved, though there is none in Onom. that seems likely.

Linley Green (Stanford Bishop).

No old forms. 'Flax-meadow'. It is in the township of Linton.

The Linnett (Ullingswick).

Linton.

'Flax-enclosure'. There is also a township called Linton in Stanford Bishop.

Cf. Lyncroft (Staffs.), Linacre (Lancs.), and four Lintons in Yorks.

Lionshall (Peterchurch).

See Lyonshall.

Litley (Hereford).

'Luda's or Leoda's meadow'. The Worcs. Lutley is Dom. Ludeleia, 'Luda's meadow' also. There is, too, a Staffs. Lutley.

Little Hereford.

See Hereford.

Littlehope (Mordiford).

So in 1831. See Appendix, -hope.

The Llan (Dorstone).

See Appendix, llan-.

Llanach (Dorstone).

The second element is prob. the Celtic suffix (which Pughe says means 'water') found in Clydach, Mawddach, etc.

Llanarrow (Bacton).

Possibly W. llan garw (g is often mutated or altogether dropped), 'a rough enclosure'. For llan see Appendix.

Llanavon (Dorstone).

For first element see Appendix, llan-. The second element is Welsh afon, 'a river', for which see Onny. (Llanavon is situated on the river Dore.)

Llanbodon (Michaelchurch Eskley).

It might be W. glan-baddon, 'bathing-bank'; or W. llan bodion, 'enclosure of the mountain kites'.

Llancillo.

Evidently a Saint's name is involved.

Llancloudy (Llangarren).

The Lib. Land. form would give in mod. Welsh Llanllowdy. The difficulty of pronouncing Welsh ll accounts for the introduction of c. Nothing is known of the Saint referred to.

Llandee (Newton-in-Clodock).

Ord. Map is prob. wrong in making second element ddu, 'black'. It is most likely corrupted from -dewi. Cf. Llanddew (Brecs.) and the fourteen Welsh Llanddewis.

Llanderwyn (Abbeydore).

W. llan-derwen, 'oak-tree enclosure'.

Llandinabo.

Junapeius was an early Bishop of Llandaff. In Welsh he is Inabwy. (The d is intrusive.) The Church is still dedicated to him.

Llandore (Llanveyno).

W. 'enclosure on the river'. Situated on the Olchon brook. Some miles further up the river is Llandraw, prob. a variant of the same word. Cf. Landore (Glam.).

Llanedry (Brilley).

There are seven Welsh parishes called Llanbedr. The name may be W. Llan-bedwerw, 'church in the birch grove'; or W. Llan-beder, 'St Peter's Church'.

Llanfair (Clifford).

Like the score or more of Welsh Llanfairs, 'church of the Virgin'.

Llanfrother (Hentland).

Said to be the site of Dubricius' monastery; and hence interpreted as Welsh Llanfrawdwyr or Llanfrawtwr, 'church of the Friars'.

Llangarren.

W. 'church on the river Garran'. The last syllable is always -an down to 1831. It is now -en (Kelly) or -on (Crockford) about equally often. There is a Glangarren (farm) in St Weonards; and in Goodrich in 1674 was 'a piece of land called Garrons'.

Llangunbille (Llanrothal).

In Welsh v or f is used as a mutation of b; hence the modern form. The name of the Saint involved is not known.

Llangunnock (St Weonards).

The second element is the name of another Celtic Saint.

Llanhaithog (Kentchurch).

It has been thought that here llan- is for glan, 'a bank'; glan haiddog would be 'bank of oats'.

Llanrosser (Michaelchurch Eskley).

(Not in 1831 Ord. Map.) Prob. W. Llan-rhosydd, 'church on the moors'.

Llanrothal.

Another obscure Welsh Saint-name is involved.

Llanveyno.

A chapelry of Clodock. But it is not mentioned in Tax. Eccles. nor in Non. Inq., nor yet in Val. Eccles. 'Church of St Beuno', to whom eleven churches are dedicated.

Llanwarne.

Welsh Llan-gwernau, 'church among the alders'. In the Lib. Land. entry Aperhumur is mod. Welsh aber-amyr, 'at the confluence of the Gamber'. In Ballingham is a Warn Acre.

Llanwonog (Clodock).

Prob. (like the Cardigs. Llanwenog) 'St Gwenog's Church'. It was a chapelry as late as 1733, though now only a farm.

Llydyadyway (Cusop).

The Ord. Map gives the true form (for which see Lydiates); it has been wondrously Welshed. Cf. Broom-y-clos.

Lockleys (Hatfield).

Loden (brook).

See Leadon.

Logaston (Almeley).

It is not on the Lugg, so that river is not the first element.

Longford (Kingsland).

Longland Bars (Yarkhill).

Longrove.

The Ord. Map led ignorant 19th century etymologists (and also the Post Office) to corrupt the old name of Long Grove into Llangrove. It is now usually written as above.

Longtown.

Longwood (Abbeydore).

Longworth (Lugwardine).

There is no possible doubt as to the change of name towards the end of the 18th century, but no explanation can be given as to the cause. An exactly contrary change is seen in the Cambs. Duxford, which is Dokesworth as late as 1662.

Lowdy Hall (Ullingswick).

The Lowe (Much Dewchurch).

The Luce (Stoke Prior).

Lucton.

It may be, as Blount suggests, 'town on the Lugg'.

Ludford.

The Brut says that Lud was a British king, brother of Cassivelaunus. London was called from him Caerlud, and he was buried near the gate named from him Ludgate. Good authorities hold that Lud was a Celtic deity. Cf. Ludlow, 'Lud's Hill', and Luddington (War.), O.E. Ludantun, 'Lud's town'. There is a Ludstock in Ledbury, and Val. Eccles. mentions two mills on 'Ludbroke in the lordship of Goodrich'.

Lugg (river).

The name is certainly Celtic, in Mod. Welsh Llugwy. The 1831 Ord. Map so marks it for a few miles of its upper course in Radnorshire above Llangynllo. Between that place and the Herefordshire border it is marked as Llugw; thereafter it becomes 'The Lug'. Gir. Cambrensis calls it Luggo, which evidently equals Llugw. There seems to have been a Celtic god Lug, which may point to river-worship. But it is possibly no more than the W. llwg, 'a marsh', 'a stream', as in Luke Brook (trib. of the Garran). The name is found in Carlisle (It. Anton. Luguvallum; Bede, Lugubalia; in Welsh Caer Ligualia; O.E. Chron. Carleol), and in Lugdunum (Lyons). Llewellyn is said (whether correctly or not, I cannot say) to be a Mod. Welsh form of Lugobelinos.

Lugg Bridge (near Hereford).

Lugg Meadow (near Hereford).

Lugharness.

One of the small Marcher Lordships annexed to Herefordshire by 27 Hen. VIII, cap. 26 (1536). It includes the district on the Lugg and S. and S.E. of Presteign. The meaning of -harness is not clear. Baddeley thinks it is hernesse, i.e. hurnes, a variant of M.E. hurne, 'a district'. In Glos. Cart. is mentioned a Bromfelde-hernesse, evidently the district round our Herefordshire Bromfield. In 1722 New Harness is one of the four 'Liberties' of Wormelow: the others being Diffrin-garran, Argoed-lank, and Showle.

Lugwardine.

'Farm on the river Lugg'. For the second element see Appendix, -wardine.

Luke Brook (trib. of Garran).

See Daffaluke, and Lugg.

Lulham (Eaton Bishop).

'The ham of Lull or Lulla'. For second element see Appendix, -ham.

Lunnon (Vowchurch).

Evidently a corruption of W. Llanon, 'church of the ash tree'. Cf. Llannon (Carmarths.).

Luntley (Dilwyn).

Luston (Eye).

'Tun of Lusa'. Part of the township is still called Luston Bury; and the Leom. Cart. (no date) mentions 'Aston in Luston', a name which has not survived.

Lyde.

Origin uncertain. Lyde Godfrey is also called Lyde Arundel. Lyde Saucy was leased by Ralph de Saucy from the Lacies in the 12th century. The Muchegros family holds Herefordshire lands in Dom. A farm in Upper Lyde is still known as Much Cross Farm.

Lydiates (Brimfield).

Called Lydiard in Ord. Map. There is, on same map, a Lydiatts in Eyton, Lidiard-y-wain in Cusop, a West Lidiart in Withington, and Bagwy Llydiart in Orcop. Leom. Cart. circ. 1219 has Lhidiate [somewhere near Maund]; a Wormesley Charter ante 1272 has Bodiezlidiet [apparently near Lyonshall]; and in a Crasswall Chart. of late 11th century is 'Lidhate versus Boleston'. A Brecon Charter has a curious entry (circ. 1200), 'juxta viam regalem apud la lidesate versus austrum'. The s may be a scribe's mistake, but the word is repeated several times.

Cf. Lypiatt (Glos.), 'gate into an enclosure'.

Lye (Aymestrey).

In Salop and Worcs. Dom. Lege has become Lea.

Lynch (Little Hereford).

So in 1831 Ord. Map.

Lynhales (Lyonshall).

A 19th century name for a house previously called 'The Moor'.

Lyonshall.

There is a Lionshall (q.v.) in Peterchurch, which in 1316 was Lynhales. The confusion of Len- with Leon- seems to date from the second half of the 13th century. It is possible that the first element is akin to Lene (q.v.), from which it is distant about six miles. But this would not explain the occurrence of the name in Peterchurch. For the second element see App. -hall.

Lyston (Llanwarne).

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