ABBEY FOREGATE, east and west. Two townships in the parish of Holy Cross and St. Giles, in the borough of Shrewsbury.


ASCOT and CLUNGUNFORD. A township in the parish of Clungunford, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow.

ABDON. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow. A rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 31 houses, 157 inhabitants. 10 miles south-west of Bridgnorth.

ABERTANNAT. A township in the parish of Llanyblodwell, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry, 1 mile south- east of Llanyblodwell.

ABLEY or OBLEY. See Obley.

ACTON and DOWN. A township in the parish of Lydbury North, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow.

ACTON BURNELL. A parish in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover. A rectory in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Litchfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 62 houses, 305 inhabitants. The residence of Sir Edward Smythe, bart. 7 miles south-east of Shrewsbury. See appendix.

ACTON PIGOTT. A township in the parish of Acton Burnell, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover.

ACTON REYNOLD. A township in the parish of Shawbury, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 32 houses, 168 inhabitants. The seat of Andrew Corbet, esq. 7 miles north-east by north of Shrewsbury. See appendix.

ACTON ROUND. A township in the parish of Much Wenlock, and in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden. 3 miles south of Much Wenlock. 38 houses, 214 inhabitants.

ACTON SCOTT. A parish in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. A rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 24 houses, 187 inhabitants. 3 miles south of Church Stretton.

ADCOT. A township in the parish of Great Ness, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. 7 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

ADDERLEY. A parish in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. A rectory in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 59 houses, 378 inhabitants. The residence of Sir Andrew Corbet, bart. 3½ miles north of Drayton. See appendix.

ADMASTON. A township in the parish of Wrockardine, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. Admaston is justly celebrated for its SPA, whose waters are highly recommended by eminent physicians. The upper spring, containing a large portion of muriate of soda or common salt, with a small quantity of muriated lime, the usual ingredients of sea water, are found exceedingly beneficial in giving a salutary stimulus to the stomach, obviating costiveness, and deterging acrid sordes. It will operate still more strongly in giving tone to the weakened habit, the water being strongly impregnated with iron; and the same air as from the spring at Buxton being emitted from it, similar advantages may be derived from its use, in correcting dyspepsia, and invigorating the stomach and bowels. Its efficacy in scrofulous affections and in those diseases of the skin which have been erroneously denominated scorbutick, has been proved by long experience. The lower spring contains no iron, but a much larger quantity of muriated salt, and is strongly impregnated with that air which has rendered the Harrowgate waters so justly celebrated. It is, therefore, equally useful in cutaneous disorders and in destroying worms. The external use of the warm water having been found greatly to promote the cure in cutaneous cases, suitable accommodations for this purpose are provided. Admaston is situated in an open and highly salubrious spot, and the surrounding country is variegated, rich, and picturesque. 10 miles east of Shrewsbury, 15 miles north-west of Bridgnorth, 1 mile from Wellington.

ADNEY. A township in the parish of Edgmond, and in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 4 miles south- west by west of Newport.

ADSTONE; or ADSTON. A township in the parish of Wentnor, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow. 5½ miles north-east of Bishopscastle.

ALAM BRIDGE; or ALLOM BRIDGE. A township in the parish of Alvely, and in the liberties of Bridgnorth. 6½ miles south-east of Bridgnorth.

ALBERBURY. A parish partly in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford, partly in Montgomeryshire. A vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, he deanery of Pontesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. The Shropshire part contains 189 houses, 1113 inhabitants. 8 miles west of Shrewsbury. See appendix.

ALBRIGHTON. A township in the parish of St. Mary, Shrewsbury, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill, but encompassed by Shrewsbury liberties. 10 houses, 75 inhabitants. 3¼ miles from Shrewsbury.

ALBRIGHTON. A parish in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. 4½ miles south-east of Shiffnall. A vicarage in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 198 houses, 968 inhabitants. Fairs, March 5, May 23, July 18, Nov. 9, for horned cattle, sheep and hogs. A good deal of business is done at these fairs. See appendix.

ALCASTON. A township in the parish of Acton Scott, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 8½ miles south- east by east of Bishopscastle.

ALDENHAM. In the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Stottesden. 4½ miles north-west of Bridgnorth. The residence of Sir Ferdinand Richard Edward Acton, bart. See appendix.

ALDERTON. A township in the parish of Great Ness, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. 7 miles north- west by west of Shrewsbury.

ALDERTON. A township in the parish of Middle, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 7 miles north of Shrewsbury.

ALDON. A township in the parish of Stoke Say, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow. 5½ miles north-west of Ludlow.

ALKINGTON. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 2 miles south-west by south of Whitchurch.

ALLERTON. See Ollerton.

ALMINGTON. A township in the parish of Drayton, but belonging to Staffordshire.

ALLSCOTT. A township in the parish of Wrockardine, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 2½ miles north-west of Wellington.

ALSCOT. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 8 miles, south- west of Wenlock.

ALLSTRETTON. A township in the parish of Church Stretton, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 1 mile north of Church Stretton.

ALVELY. A curacy and parish in the exempt jurisdiction of the borough of Bridgnorth, partly in the borough of Bridgnorth, partly in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Stottesden. 180 houses, 975 inhabitants. 7 miles south-east by south of Bridgnorth.

AMASTON. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 49 houses, 227 inhabitants.

APLEY. In the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 3½ miles north-west by north of Bridgnorth. The residence of Thomas Whitmore, esq. M.P. See appendix.

APLEY CASTLE. In the Wellington division of Bradford, South. 1 mile north of Wellington. The seat of William Charlton, esq. See appendix.

ARGOED. A township in the parish of Kinnerley, and in the hundred of Oswestry. 6½ miles south-east by south of Oswestry.

ARSCOTT; or ASCOTT. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 2½ miles north-east of Pontesbury, 4 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

ASHFIELD. A township in the parish of Priors Ditton, and in the franchise of Wenlock. 7 miles south-west by south of Wenlock. 6 houses, 40 inhabitants.

ASHFORD BOWDLER. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop, partly in the county of Hereford. 16 houses, 89 inhabitants. 3 miles south-west by south of Ludlow.

ASHFORD CARBONEL. A parish partly in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, partly in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden, chapel to Hereford Parva, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Leominster, a peculiar. 56 houses, 316 inhabitants. 3 miles south-east by south of Ludlow.

ASH MAGNA. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 2 miles south-east of Whitchurch.

ASH PARVA. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 2½ miles south-east of Whitchurch.

ASTERLEY. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 8 miles south- west of Shrewsbury.

ASTERTON. A township in the parish of Norbury, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow. 5 miles north- east of Bishopscastle.

ASTLEY. A chapelry to St. Mary, Shrewsbury, in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 3½ miles north-east by north of Shrewsbury.

ASTLEY ABBOTS. A parish in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden, a curacy, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 138 houses, 664 inhabitants. 2½ miles north-west by north of Bridgnorth.

ASTLEY, NEWTON, AND SPOONBILL. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill.

ASTON. A township in the parish of Wem, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 1 mile east of Wem. 51 houses, 262 inhabitants.

ASTON. A township in the parish of Munslow, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow. 9 miles north of Ludlow.

ASTON. A township in the parish of Hopesay, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. 8 miles south-east of Bishopscastle.

ASTON. A township in the parish of Wellington, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 3 miles south-west by west of Wellington.

ASTON. A township in the parish of Claverley, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 6 miles west of Bridgnorth.

ASTON. A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. ½ of a mile north- east of Shiffnal. Aston Hall is the seat of J. Moultrie, esq. See appendix.

ASTON. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry, chapel to Oswestry. 2 miles south-east of Oswestry. Aston Hall is the seat of William Lloyd, esq. See appendix.

ASTON BOTTEREL. A parish in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden. A rectory remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 40 hollows, 230 inhabitants. 9 miles north-east of Ludlow.

ASTON EYRE, or AIR, or AYRES. A township in the parish of Morvill, and in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden. A curacy, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 23 houses, 63 inhabitants. 4 miles north-west of Bridgnorth.

ASTON IN PIGOT. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury. 11 miles southwest of Shrewsbury.

ASTON ROGERS. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury. 10½ miles south- west of Shrewsbury.

ATCHAM. A parish in the Wellington division of Bradford, South. A vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 86 houses, 489 inhabitants. 3½ miles south-east of Shrewsbury.

ATTERLEY. A township in the parish of Much Wenlock, and in the franchise of Wenlock, l mile south-east of Mach Wenlock.

ATTINGHAM. In the parish of Atcham, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. The seat of Lord Berwick. 4 miles south-east of Shrewsbury. See appendix.

AUSTON. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 6 miles southwest of Shrewsbury.

BADGER, Or BAGSORE, Or BADGESORE. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 29 houses, 198 inhabitants. 5 miles south-east by south of Shiffnall. Badger Hall is the seat of Mrs. Hawkins Browne.

BAGLEY. A township in the parish of Hordley, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 4½ miles south of Ellesmere.

BALDERTON. A township in the parish of Middle, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 4 miles south-west by west of Wem.

BARNSLEY. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 2 miles east of Bridgnorth.

BARROW. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, chapel to Much Wenlock, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 96 houses, 462 inhabitants. 2½ miles east of Wenlock.

BASCHURCH, BOREATTON AND BIRCH. A township in the parish of Baschurch, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. Baschurch is a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 207 houses, 1,277 inhabitants. 7 miles south-west of Wem.

BATCH AND NORTON. A township in the parish of Culmington, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 5 miles north-west of Ludlow.

BATCHCOTT. A township in the parish of Richard's Castle, (which parish is mostly in the county of Hereford) and in the hundred of Munslow. 2 miles south-west by west of Ludlow. 29 houses.

BATTLEFIELD. A parish in the liberties of Shrewsbury, a curacy, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 13 houses, 64 inhabitants. 3 miles north-east by north of Shrewsbury. Fair, August 2, for horned cattle and sheep. See appendix.

BAUSLEY; or BAULSLEY, Lower and Upper. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 11½ Miles west of Shrewsbury.

BAYSTON. A township in the parish of Condover, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 2½ miles south of Shrewsbury.

BEACHFIELD. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury.

BEACHFORD. A township in the Parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury.

BEARSTONE. A township in the parish of Mucklestone, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 12 houses, 79 inhabitants. 4½ miles north-east, of Drayton.

BECKBURY. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 54 houses, 285 inhabitants. 4 miles south-east by south of Shiffnall.

BECKJAY. A township in the parish of Clungunford, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. 9 miles north-west by west of Ludlow.

BEDSTONE. A parish in the hundred of Purslow, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 25 houses, 165 inhabitants. 10½ miles west of Ludlow.

BELSERDINE; or BELSWARDINE. A township in the parish of Shineton, and in the hundred of Condover. 10 miles south-east of Shrewsbury. The seat of Sir George Harnage, Bart. See appendix.

BENTHALL. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock. A curacy not in charge, in the diocese of Hereford; the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 119 houses, 554 inhabitants. 8 miles north-west of Wenlock.

BENTHALL. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 6 houses, 48 inhabitants. 6 miles west of Shrewsbury.

BERRINGTON. A parish in the Cound division of the hundred of Condoner, a rectory remaining in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 85 houses, 657 inhabitants. 6 miles south-east by south of Shrewsbury.

BERWICK. A township in the parish of St Mary, in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 2 miles north-west of Shrewsbury. The seat of Mrs. Powys. See appendix.

BESBRIDGE. A township in the parish of Claverley, and in the franchise of Wenlock.

BESFORD. A township in the parish of Shawbury, and in the hundred of Pimhill. 3 miles south-east of Wem.

BETTOR; or ABBOTS BETTOR. A township in the parish of Atcham, and in the hundred of Condover. 3 miles southeast of Shrewsbury.

BETTOR. A township in the parish of Drayton, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 2 miles north- east of Drayton.

BETTUS; or BETTWS. A parish in the Mainstone division of the hundred of Clun, a curacy not in charge, chapel to Clun, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 56 houses, 841 inhabitants. 9 miles south-west of Bishopscastle.

BICKTON. A township in the parish of Chin, and in the Clun division of the hundred of Clun. 6 miles south-west by south of Bishopscastle.

BICKTON; or BICTON. A township in the parish of St. Chad, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury, chapel to St. Chad, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 3 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

BILLINGSLEY. A parish in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 84 houses, 176 inhabitants. 5½ miles south of Bridgnorth. Billingsley is distinguished by the birth of that accomplished oriental scholar, Thomas Hyde. From his father, who held the rectory, he received the rudiments of a learned education, and entered King's College, Cambridge, at the early age of sixteen. Two years afterwards he went to London, having been recommended to the learned Walton, subsequently bishop of Chester, as a person eminently qualified to assist in preparing for publication the Polyglott Bible, [1] in which Walton was at that time engaged. Mr. Hyde rendered the most important services to this undertaking. He transcribed the Persian Pentateuch out of the Hebrew characters, in which it was first printed, into the proper Persian characters, adding a Latin translation. He assisted also in correcting different parts of the work in the Arabick, Syriack, and Samaritan languages. In 1658, Mr. Hyde was appointed Hebrew reader at Queen's College, Oxford; and after the restoration of the King, was made underkeeper of the Bodleian library; an appointment which gave him full scope for prosecuting with advantage his favourite studies. In 1665, he was elected to the office of head keeper, and in the same year published "Versio Latina e Lingua Persica et Commentarii in Observation. Ulug. Beigi de tabulis longitudinis et latitudinis stellarum fixarum".

Mr. Hyde, about this time, formed an acquaintance with the celebrated Robert Boyle, and communicated to that eminent philosopher many remarkable passages which he had collected in the course of reading, from Oriental writers on the subjects of chemistry, physicks, and natural history. In 1666, be was raised to a prebend in the cathedral church of Sarum, and in the following year he printed, at the expense of Mr. Boyle, who was anxious for the diffusion of Christianity among the Eastern nations, " Quatuor Evangelia et Acta Apostolorum, Lingua Malaica, Characteribus Europaeis". In 1674, he gave to the world " Catalogus impressorum Librorum Bibliothecae Bodleianae in Academia Oxon". and in 1678 became archdeacon of Gloucester. He was admitted to the degree of doctor in divinity, two years afterwards; and, from that time, frequently gave proofs of his assiduous study and extraordinary skill in every species of Oriental literature. In 1697, Dr Hyde was appointed Regius professor of Hebrew and Canon of Christ Church. Shortly after, he published "The Religion of the ancient Persians". The Doctor's profound skill in the languages of the East, and his ardent desire to promote the knowledge of them, and of every subject connected with Oriental literature, would have induced him to print more learned works, could he have obtained sufficient encouragement from the publick. The wait of this led him to decline running the risk of publishing anything more; and, for the same reason, the works he left behind him lay neglected, till it was too late to recover them; though the loss has since been deeply regretted by the learned, and those who knew how to estimate their value. On account of his advanced age and increasing infirmities, Dr. Hyde resigned the office of head keeper of the Bodleian library, in 1701, having occupied during the reigns of Charles the second, James the second, and William the third, the post of interpreter and secretary in the Oriental languages, in the course of which employment he had made himself intimately acquainted with the policy, ceremonies, and customs of the Oriental nations. This great man, who confers so distinguished honour on his native county, died at his apartments in Christ Church, in the sixty-seventh year of his age.

The following is the character given of him by Granger.

"Dr. Thomas Hyde' is a great character, but is much less known than he deserves to be, because the studies in which he was occupied are but little cultivated. Those that are acquainted with the Oriental languages, are astonished at the progress which was made in them by one man, though aided by genius, supported and strengthened by incessant industry. There never was an Englishman, in his situation in life, who made so great a progress in the Chinese. Bochart, Pococke, and Hyde, are allowed to be the greatest Orientalists that any age or nation has produced. I am informed that Dr. Hyde's mind had been so much engrossed by his beloved studies that he was but ill qualified to appear to advantage in conversation".

Dr. Gregory Sharpe, master of the Temple, collected and republished some of his papers which had been formerly printed. These made their appearance in two volumes quarto, under the title of " Syntagma Dissertationum et Opuscula".

Anthony Wood has preserved a catalogue of MSS. which Dr. Hyde had either completed or prepared for the press. [2] Dr. Hyde was born in 1636, and died February 18th, 1703.

[1] In this Polyglott the Vulgate is printed according to the revised and corrected edition of Clement VIII. It likewise contains an interlineary Latin version of the Hebrew text, and the Septuagint is the Greek text of the edition of Rome, to which are added the various readings of another very ancient Greek copy, called the Alexandrian, because brought from Alexandria. The Latin version of the Greek of the Septuagint is that published by Flaminius Nobilius, by the authority of Pope Sixtus V. In this Polyglott are also found some parts of the Bible in the Ethiopick and Persian, which are not to be found in any of the rest. It is somewhat curious in the history of literature, that in the first preface to this work, Dr. Walton acknowledged his obligations to the protector for his patronage; but that after the restoration, several alterations were made in this preface, and the paragraph in which lie acknowledges his obligations to the protector is suppressed, and another, transferring his respect to Charles, is introduced in its room. Vid. Hollis Vol. I. p. 123. These alterations have occasioned a distinction among those who are curious in the editions of books, between republican, and royal or loyal copies of the Polyglott.

[2] "The author of the age of Louis xiv, speaking of the state of literature in England, at that time, says "Il est encore remarquable que ces insulaires, separee du reste du monde, et instruits si Lard, aient acquis pour le mans autant de connaissances de l'antiquite qu'on en a pu rassembler dans Rome, qui a ete si long-tems le centre des nations: Masham a pace dans les tenebres de l'ancienne Egypte; U a' y a point de Persan qui a connu la religion de Zoroastre comma 1.4 SAVANT ETAS. L' histoire de Mahomet at des tans qui le precedent etait ignoree des Turcs, et a ete developee par l' Anglais Hahn, qui a voyage si utilement en Arabic".

BIRCH AND LYTH. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the hundred of Pimhill. 1 mile south of Ellesmere. BIRCHES, (the) See appendix.

BISHOPSCASTLE. A market town and ancient corporation which sends two members to parliament. The bishops of Hereford had anciently a castle in this town, from which circumstance it is probable the place derives its name. Part of the site of this castle, (which has long since been demolished) has been converted into a bowling green. The town is irregularly built, on a declivity near the course of the river Clun, and contains few objects of interest and curiosity: Bishopscastle is more noted for the nativity of Jeremiah Stephens, a man of great learning and industry. In consideration of the assistance he rendered to Sir Henry Spelman, in the compilation of the first volume of the English councils, he was presented to the prebend of Biggleswade. That erudite antiquary acknowledges his obligation in these terms. "Our loving friend Jeremiah Stephens, a man born for the publick good, by whose assistance this first tome comes out, and on whom the hope of the rest is founded". Mr. Stephens published "An Apology for the ancient right and power of bishops to sit and rule in parliament". "St. Gregory's pastoral Notes on St. Cyprian of the unity of the church and the good of patience". He left unpublished "A Comparison between the Belgick, Bohemian and Scotch Covenants"; "Of the principles and practices of the Presbyterians"; and "A Treatise on the English laws". He died at Wotton, in 1664.

Bishopscastle borough and out liberties, contain 364 houses, 1880 inhabitants, 20 miles south-west of Shrewsbury. A vicarage remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. Lat. 62. 0. north. Long. 3. 6. west.

Bishopscastle has fairs on the Thursday before February 13; the Friday before Good-friday, which is the largest mart for oxen of three or four years old, in the county; many are sold the day before the fair and the day after, as well as on the fair day: the Fridays after May 1, July 5, September 9, and November 13. The two last are great fairs for fat cattle and sheep, as well as for store oxen; Market on Friday.

BITTERLEY. A parish in the hundreds of Overs and Munslow, a rectory remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 191 houses, 1064 inhabitants. 4 miles north-east of Ludlow. Bitterley Court, situated on a rising ground at the foot of Clee Hill, is the seat of the Rev. J. Walcot. The Titterstone rises on the north-east, and the prospect towards Ludlow is delightfully extended over a fruitful and cultivated tract of country.

BLACK MERE; or BLETCHMORE. 1½ mile north-east of Whitchurch, is noted for the birth of John Talbot, the first Earl of Shrewsbury, in 1373. He was the second son of Sir Richard Talbot, of Goodrich Castle, Herefordshire; and on the death of his elder brother, Sir. Gilbert, became heir to that family. John who was called to parliament by Henry the fourth, by the tide of Lord Furnival, whose eldest daughter and coheiress he had married, was appointed Lord Justice of Ireland in 1412, and Lord- Lieutenant in 1414. In this post he continued seven years, and rendered very important services to the crown, by keeping the native Irish in subjection, and taking prisoner Donald Mac Murrough, a dangerous insurgent. In 1420 he accompanied Henry the fifth to France, and was present with him at two sieges, and at his triumphant entry into Paris. Being retained to serve the king in his French wars, with a body of men at arms and archers, he assisted at the siege of Meaux, and remained in France till the death of Henry. In the beginning of Henry the sixth's reign he was created a Knight of the garter, and was a second time made Lord Justice of Ireland. He afterwards served in France, under the regent, (the Duke of Bedford) and by his exploits rendered his name more terrible to the foe than that of any other English leader. Being raised to the rank of General, he commanded the troops which were sent into the province of Maine to the succour of the earl of Suffolk, and made himself master of Alencon. He took Pontoise, and joined the earl of Salisbury at the siege of Orleans, which failed through the intervention of the celebrated Maid of Orleans. The French, recovering their lost courage, under the guidance of one whom they thought inspired by heaven, became assailants in their turn, and defeated the English at Patai, where Talbot was taken prisoner. He obtained his liberty by ransom, and raising fresh troops in England, recrossed the sea, and marched to the duke of Bedford, in Paris. After a conference with that prince he took Beaumont sur Oise by assault, defeated the French at Brunes, in Normandy, and recovered Pontoise. For these and other great services, he was raised to the dignity of Marshall of France, and in 1442, the title of Earl of Shrewsbury, was conferred upon him. In 1443 he was appointed one of the ambassadors to treat of peace with the French king. He was, a second time, sent to Ireland as Lord Lieutenant, and the earldom of Wexford and Waterford in that kingdom was added to his honours. The English affairs in France continuing to decline, Talbot was again sent thither, in 1461, and was constituted Lieutenant General of Aquitaine, with extraordinary powers. His presence restored success; he took Bourdeaux, and brought back several towns to their allegiance to the English crown. Receiving intelligence that the French were besieging Chastillon, he marched to its relief, and made an attack on the enemy; but fortune, at length, deserted him; he was shot through the thigh by a cannon ball, and died in the field of battle. One of his sons was slain in the engagement, the English were defeated, and the consequence was, their total expulsion from France. This great captain, whose merit was acknowledged equally by friends and foes, fell in 1453, at the age of eighty. His body was found by one who had been his herald 40 years, who kissed it, and with many tears disrobed himself of his coat of arms, and threw it over his lifeless master. His remains were interred at Whitchurch, where a splendid monument was erected to his memory.

BLACK PARK. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 2 miles north-east of Whitchurch.

BLETCHLEY. A township in the parish of Hodnet, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 7½ miles southeast of Whitchurch, 2½ miles west of Drayton.

BLODWELL. See Llanyblodwell.

BLOOR. (Staffordshire) A township in the parish of Drayton, but belonging to Staffordshire; reckoned to Shropshire for the militia.

BOLAS, (Great) A parish in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a rectory in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 5½ miles north-west by west of Newport. 33 houses, 274 inhabitants, See appendix.

BOLAS. (Little) A township in the parish of Hodnet, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North, 7 miles north-west of Newport.

BOLD AND CALCOT. A township in the parish of Cleobury North, and in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden. 7 miles southwest of Bridgnorth.

BONNINGALE; or BONNINGHALL. A parish in the Shiffnall division of the hundred of Brimstry, a chapelry, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 30 houses, 160 inhabitants. 5 miles southeast of Shiffnall.

BOOLEY; or BOWLEY. A township in the parish of Stanton upon Hine-heath, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 25 houses, 134 inhabitants. 3 miles south-east of Wem.

BOREATTON. See Baschurch, Boreatton and Birch.

BOREATTON. The seat of Rowland Hunt, esq. 8 miles south-west of Wem. See appendix.

BOSCOBEL. An extra-parochial place, [1] in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry, containing 5 houses, and 30 inhabitants, about 6 miles east of Shiffnall, remarkable in history, as the place in which King Charles the second concealed himself from his pursuers, after the unfortunate battle of Worcester. Boscobel house is now the property of Thomas Evans, Esq.

[Boscobel is connected with Donnington parish, so that it is not clearly extra-parochial.]


[In this narrative the sentiments, and often, the language of the author have been preserved. The history is so original and interesting, that it was thought advisable to introduce it at full length.]

About the beginning of June, 1650, the young king, who had been for some time an exile in France, receiving an invitation from the royal party in Scotland, embarked at Scheveling, and having encountered a violent storm, by which he was cast upon a Danish island, and escaped the pursuit of the republican fleet, which had been sent out under Admiral Popham, to intercept his passage, landed at the Spey in the north of Scotland. In the mean time, the Parliament of Scotland had deliberated on the expediency of raising an army for his Majesty's service, and an act was passed for training every fourth man through. out the kingdom, who was capable of bearing arms. The Earl of Leven, was made General of the foot; Holborn, Major General; David Lesley, Lieutenant General of the horse, and Montgomery, Major General. The supreme command was reserved for his Majesty, who, at his landing, was received with the strongest demonstrations of affection and joy, and on the fifteenth of July, was solemnly proclaimed king at Edinburgh Cross. His coronation was to have takenplace in the 'following month. But his Majesty had not been long among his Scotch subjects before they discovered an inclination to impose upon him such conditions as were very inconsistent with royal dignity.

When he arrived at Dundee, new propositions from the parliament and the Kirk, (for these two bodies ruled in conjunction) were sent to his Majesty to sign; and when, not long after, the town of Aberdeen presented him with £150, the committee of estates sent to different places enjoining them to bring whatever money or plate they had to bestow, into the publick treasury appointed by that committee. They then began to employ themselves in reforming his Majesty's retinue, and in purging his household of those malignants, (as they stiled them) whom he bad taken into his service. These were prohibited all employment both about the royal person, and in the army. His Majesty himself was surrounded by a strong guard, who continually watched his motions.

The English commonwealth having received full intelligence of the proceedings of the Scotch, and of their design to place his Majesty on the throne, resolved on open war, and prepared an army to invade that kingdom. They had at this time, a sufficient force at their disposal. Ireland was almost wholly subdued, and Cromwell, leaving his son-in-law Ireton as Deputy in his stead, with other experienced officers, to whom he committed the task of finishing the conquests he had himself so successfully begun, returned to England at the critical time when Fairfax, either from disinclination on his own part, to engage in a war against his brethren in Scotland, or by the persuasion of others, was about to resign the command of the army, Cromwell was easily induced to assume it, and advanceing to the borders of Scotland, about the end of June, sent, from the head quarters at Berwick, a declaration from the parliament of England, and another from the army, in order to justify their proceedings, and to state the reason of hostilities. The Scotch, alarmed at this sudden invasion, directed several papers to Sir Arthur Haslerigge, in which they expostulated with the English commander, and urged the solemn covenant, and the former union of the two nations. The English army, nevertheless, moved forward, and by the end of July, arrived at Haddington, from whence Major General Lambert, and Colonel Whaley, being sent with a body of horse towards Musselborough, were attacked in the rear; but after an obstinate contest, in which Lambert was wounded and had very nearly been taken prisoner, the Scotch were repulsed with loss. The next day, the English were again attacked by Major General Montgomery, and Colonel Straughan, but the Scotch, not only failed in their object, but were completely routed, and pursued so far, that their camp was in danger of being surprised.

After this success, Cromwell marched onward, and encamping at a short distance from the Scotch army, endeavoured to bring them to an engagement. Being unable to accomplish this design, he ascended the Pentland hills, and took Collington house, and Readhall. In the latter, Lord Hamilton was taken prisoner, and a considerable quantity of ammunition and provisions fell into the hands of the English commander.

The hostile armies having moved for some time at a little distance from each other, on the opposite sides of a bog, only exchanging at intervals a few great shot, without coming to an engagement, Cromwell not being able, though very desirous to draw out the enemy, and being reduced to great straits, by the scarcity of provisions, retired back to the Pentland hills, from thence to Musselborough, and not long after to Dunbar. At this tune, it was thought, he was meditating a secret flight to England. But the Scotch pressed with advantage upon his rear, and General Lesley having the command of a high hill, at the foot of which he had stationed his main body, contrived to coop up the English within a narrow neck of land. There was now a universal jubilee in the Scotch camp, and a confident assurance prevailed that they could beat the English at their pleasure. But Cromwell, whose unwearied vigilance prevented any surprize, after gaining a pass at Copperspeth, between Edinburgh and Berwick, of which the Scotch had possessed themselves, not only extricated himself from the difficulty, but taking advantage of the presumptuous confidence and security that prevailed in the Scotch army, made that victory his own, which they had so surely promised to themselves. So complete was his success that they never recovered that fatal blow, which led the way to the entire conquest of their country.

The memorable battle of Dunbar, by which Cromwell was raised from a situation apparently hopeless to the height of triumph, was fought on Tuesday the third of September. The greater part of the Scotch, were either slain or taken prisoners; the horse fled, and most of the principal officers; and among the rest, General Sir James Lumsdale, Sir William Douglas, Lord Cranstoun, Lord Libberton (who was mortally wounded in the battle,) and Adjutant General Bickerton, were taken, together with all their ammunition, a great quantity of arms, and 200 stand of colours which were hung up in Westminster Hall. Immediately after the victory, some regiments were sent to take possession of Leith, a commodious port for receiving provisions from England, and Cromwell with the main army, entered the capital of Scotland.

The total defeat of the Scotch army at Dunbar, was not so great a source of grief to his Majesty, as the loss of two persons who were very dear to him, which happened about this time,- his sister, the princess Elizabeth, who died at Carisbrook castle, in the isle of Wight, after a lingering indisposition, under which she had laboured since the tragical death of her father; and, his brother-in-law, the prince of Orange, who had assisted his Majesty, on all occasions, to the utmost extent of his power. This prince died about the end of October; and soon after his death, his consort, the princess Mary, was delivered of a son.

His Majesty was the less affected by the late defeat, because he perceived that success would only have increased the imperiousness of the Scotch covenanters, whose severe impositions became so insufferable, that at length, taking horse in his ordinary habit, and accompanied by three, only, of his most trusty attendants, as if he had merely designed a hawking excursion, he departed secretly towards the north of Scotland, where he had been informed that the Marquess of Huntly, the Earls of Athol and Seaforth, Lords Ogleby and Newborough, and Major General Middleton, with the Gordons, and the men of Athol, were ready to appear for him in considerable force. His Majesty, however, would not cast himself upon them till be knew, more certainly, how far they were able to assist him; and, therefore, went first to Lord Dedup's, on the northern confines of Fife, intending to remain there privately, till he received their answer; and according to its tenor, he had resolved either to repair immediately to them, or again to leave the kingdom.

The sudden and secret departure of the king greatly perplexed the committee of estates at St. Johnston's, their own jealousy giving them reason to apprehend that he was going to Middleton, and the men of Athol. His Majesty's departure was not so secret as to prevent them from discovering, upon enquiry, that he was at the mansion of Lord Dedup. On receiving this information, it was warmly debated among them what course should be taken in reference to his return. Some of the more arrogant of the party were of opinion " That since he had thus deserted them, they ought not to trouble themselves any more about him, but leave him to himselfand his own ways"; but the more moderate thought it adviseable "to send to his Majesty, and let him know their resentment on account of his sudden departure, and his adherence to the malignants". This resolution was at length adopted through the influence of several lords and leading men even of the presbytery itself, who, sensible of the evil consequences of divisions, and of the necessity of uniting against the common enemy, began seriously to close in favour of his Majesty, with those of the royal party, who had by degrees crept into power. The resolution being formed, that no possible expedient to bring back his Majesty should be omitted, Major General Montgomery was ordered to march, immediately, with a body of horse, to Lord Dedup's, and to endeavour, by earnest supplications, to bring his Majesty with him to St. Johnston's. Montgomery having arrived at the place, first surrounded the house, and then sent to inform his Majesty that be came by order of the committee of estates, to entreat his Majesty to return. On being admitted to the King's presence, he fell at his Majesty's feet, and humbly besought him to forget all that had been done derogatory to his authority, and to be assured that on his return he would meet with greater duty and respect; urging at the same time, the ill consequences of deserting those who had so zealously appeared for him. His Majesty, though he ill digested the memory of those restraints and neglects he had so lately endured, and was earnestly solicited by the Gordons, and the men of Athol, to adhere entirely to them, who would undertake to secure him against the Kirk, and all others that should oppose him, was at length overcome by Montgomery's repeated importunities, enforced by the powerful persuasions of others who were as discreet as they were loyal, and returned to St Johnston's to the satisfaction of the moderate of all parties, both covenanters and royalists. By the good understanding of these hitherto opposing factions, affairs proceeded in a much more prosperous career than before, though not without some disturbance from the Ultras on both sides. On the Kirk part, a different faction of covenanters that associated chiefly in the west, and in some parts of the south of Scotland, formed themselves into a distinct sect, and were much dissatisfied with the recent transaction at St. Johnston's. On the royal side, the confederates of the north, were with difficulty pacified. The malcontents of the Kirk set forth a remonstrance to the committee of estates, in which they accused them "of too much haste and precipitation in their treaty with the King, and of entertaining and receiving him among them, before he had given any convincing evidence of a real change, nay when by divers actions (as they alledged) he had manifested the contrary". They also declared, "their utter mislike and disowning of theirs and the king's proceedings", and asserted that his profession of the cause was merely counterfeit", as they said appeared "by his favouring and frequenting the wicked company of Scotch and English malignant; that therefore they absolutely refused to submit to his power and authority". They also declared, "against their intention of invading England for his sake, being a nation not subordinate to them, without consideration of the lawfulness, or the necessity thereof".

The principal persons of this faction, were Colonel Kerr, Colonel Straughan, Lord Warreston, and Sir John Chiesly. They had a committee or synod of their own, called the synod of Glasgow, from which was issued a declaration (to the same effect as the remonstrance) which they sent by four of their commissioners to those of the Kirk at St. Johnston's. But this declaration of the synod at Glasgow, as well as the remonstrance of the western association, was very offensive to the leading men, even of the Kirk party, who endeavoured to bring over Kerr and Straughan, to their side. For this purpose, they sent the Earl of Cassilis, Lord Brody, Mr. Robert Douglas, and others to treat with them; but they were inexorable, and peremptorily declared both against the King and the Lords, on the one side, and against sectaries (as they termed the English army) on the other, resolving equally to oppose both.

The committee of estates were not, however, so anxious on this subject, as they were to bring in Huntly, Middleton, and the rest of the royal party in the north, who had refused to submit, though the King's authority was employed, enjoining them to come in within fifteen or twenty days. Having taken Aberdeen, they marched directly towards St. Johnston's, ill attacked Sir John Browne's regiment, and routed it. On the march, they were presented with an act of indemnity, which they declined, and would not be induced to submission, unless they might be received into places of trust. This proposition not being granted, they marched with two thousand foot, and nine hundred horse, within a mile of the town, and General Lesley being at hand with 1500 horse, an engagement would have ensued, had not his Majesty seasonably interposed and changed into a treaty what might have proved a bloody conflict.

The ministers at Sterling, were so far from consenting to this treaty, that they passed sentence of excommunication upon Middleton, to the great displeasure of the committee at St. Johnston's, who now began to see the necessity of taking in all parties, in order to oppose the common enemy. Argyle, and Douglas, were earnest for this measure, and Cassillis by degrees was brought to comply. The Earl ofLithgow and others, were consequently declared by the Kirk, capable of trust, and the estates having resolved upon a general meeting, to be held at St. Johnston's, consisting of the King, Lords, Barons, Burgesses, and assembly of ministers, to consult for the safety of the Kirk, King, and kingdom, summoned the commissioners of the Kirk at Stirling, to adjourn their sitting thither.

In answer to this summons, the commissioners of the Kirk at Stirling, sent an excuse by their messengers, raising many objections to the convention, advising them to be at a greater distance from the King and his council, and to fix upon Stirling as a more convenient place of meeting. The estates replied that they considered St. Johnston's the best place, and that if the commissioners at Stirling would not join their meeting, they would by themselves consult for their own security. After many debates, it was at last determined by a majority of voices, to go to St. Johnston's, though the committee of war remained at Stirling.

There now seemed to be an almost unanimous agreement among the several factions, against the common enemy, the English army. Some forces alone in the highlands stood out and refused to submit. Middleton was employed with a new commission and instructions from the King, estates and Kirk to treat with them, and several of the Scotch Lords, who had formerly been out of favour, were received, among whom were the Duke of Hamilton, and Lords Lauderdale, Leith, Dedup, and Crawford, who were designed for commands in the army; Some of these were admitted to sit in parliament.

In the west of Scotland, Colonel Kerr, was so far induced to comply with the Grandees of the Kirk, that he took prisoner Colonel Straughan, who still stood out, and was inclined to side with the English; but not long after, Kerr himself, attacking the English forces, under Major General Lambert, was routed, and with several other officers taken prisoner.

The siege of Edinburgh castle, having been carried on with great vigour for three months, it was surrendered to Cromwell, the 24th of December, with all the arms and the magazine that belonged to it, by the Governor Colonel William Dundas, son- in-law to General Leven. About the same time Nesbit, Berthwick, and Roswell, submitted to the English.

Soon after the reconciliation between the King and the estates, the solemnity of his Majesty's coronation took place at Scoots, the usual place of coronation for the Kings of Scotland, where forty-seven monarchs, before his present Majesty had been invested with the insignia of royalty. It was celebrated with loud acclamations, bonfires, and firing of cannon, and with as much pomp and ceremony as the state of affairs would permit. The nobility, barons, and burgesses, went from St. Johnston's to Scoon, in their robes, bringing with them the crown, sword, and sceptre; the Scotch forces under arms, lining the road as they passed along. In the presence chamber, where the Earl of Angns waited as Lord Chamberlain, was placed a chair of state, on which his Majesty, surrounded by his nobility and attendants, was seated. After a low obeisance from all present, the Marquess of Argyle, in a short speech declared "the affections of the parliament, the assembly and the people to his Majesty, and their hopes of good from him, to make them happy, in bringing England and all their enemies into subjection to him, and them. He added that the parliament of Scotland were come to present his Majesty With the crown, sword, and sceptre.

His Majesty was then attended by all his train, marching in order before him to the Kirk of Scoon, where, in the middle of a large stage of twenty-four feet square, was erected another with an ascent of two steps, on the top of which was placed a chair of state for his Majesty. The canopy of crimson velvet, under which the King walked, was supported by Lords Drummond, Carnegie, Ramsey, Johnstoun, Brechin, and Yester; his train was borne by four other Earl's sons, Lords Erskine, Montgomery, Newbottle, and Machlene; the supporters of the canopy being supported by six others, the sons of noblemen. On his Majesty's right hand, was the Lord Grand Constable; on his left, the Lord Grand Marshall; the honours were carried before him by the chief nobility. Immediately before his Majesty went the Earl of Argyle carrying the crown; before him, the sceptre was borne by the Earl of Crawford, and Lindsay; the sword by the Earl of Rothes; and the spurs by the Earl of Eglinton. When they had entered the Kirk, his Majesty took the usual oath, which his predecessors, the Kings of Scotland, were accustomed to take at their coronation. One of each of the three estates of Scotland, the Marquess of Argyle, (as one of the nobles) one Baron, and one Burgess, holding the crown amongst them, offered it to the King; they then delivered it to three ministers of the assembly of the Kirk of Scotland, who were appointed by the estates of parliament to present it to him. At the presentation of the crown to the. King by the three ministers, one of them made his address in this form; "Sir, I do present unto you, King Charles, the crown and dignity of this realm". Then, turning his face towards the people, he said, "are ye not willing to have him for your King, and to become subject to him?" On which, the King turning himself to them, the people cried out with a loud voice, "God save King Charles the second". After he had been anointed by the three ministers, the crown was set upon his head by the Marquess of Argyle; the sceptre was given into his hand by the Earl of Lindsay; and the sword carried before him by the Earl of Rothes. As soon as the crown was put upon his head, his Majesty made this short speech to the people, " I do esteem the affections of my good people, more than the crowns of many kingdoms; and shall be ready, by God's assistance, to bestow my life for your defence, wishing to live no longer than that I may see religion and this kingdom flourish in all happiness"; adding many other expressions of regard and affection to the people. Mr. Robert Douglas, afterwards, delivered an hortatory oration, or sermon, before his Majesty.

The ceremonies of the coronation being over, a plentiful entertainment was prepared, and the King sat down at one table, and the Lords at another; many, compliments and expressions of joy passing between them, during the repast. After dinner they returned to. St. Johnston's in the same order and pomp in which they came to Scoon.

The Scotch now prepared to raise a numerous army. His Majesty himself designed to go into the north, and set up his standard at Aberdeen, intending to appear at the head of his army. The Duke of Hamilton was appointed Lieutenant General, and David Lesley Major General; Middleton was to be Lieutenant General of the horse, and Major General Massey was to command in chief all the English forces. Sir John Brown was appointed Governor of Stirling, and Colonel Straughan was excommunicated for complying with the English army, and declaring against the proceedings of the estates of Scotland.

The parliament of Scotland, after a short adjournment, sat again about the beginning of March, when several lords were admitted, but not without much opposition, to their seats in the house. Among these, were the Duke of Hamilton, the Marquess of Handy, the Earl of Callender, and the Earl of Crawford and Lindsay. They had much indulgence shown them as to the form of submission, called the stool of repent. ance, and it was observed that the Duke of Hamilton performed his penance in a very stately manner, a table and a cushion, covered with black velvet, being prepared for him and on the same day, he gave a grnnd entertainment, to which many noblemen nnd persons of distinction, both of the presbyterian, and the royal party, were invited.

A committee was appointed at the beginning of this session, consisting of the Duke of Hamilton, the Marquess of Argyle, the Earls of Eglinton, Glencairne, Dumferling, Weems, and Callender, Chancellor Loudon, and Lord Kirkudbright, to consider of nffairs of state, and to examine and proceed against all who obstrncted the present designs. Some had their estates sequestered, and others were tried for their lives, for holding correspondence with the English army. Hume, and Timptallon, two very strong castles, which obstructed the passage between Edinburgh and Berwick, were, after a short siege, surrendered to the English commanders, Colonel Fenwick, nnd Colonel Monk.

The assemblies of the presbyters at Aberdeen and Stirling, discovered great discontent with the new levies,because so many, whom they esteemed malignants, were admitted to commands in the army, and allowed to bold their seats in parliament. The commissioners of the Kirk, at St. Johnston's, endeavoured to remove their scruples, nnd reminded them of certain acts which commanded silence in matters of this nature, and forbade any one to speak against the publick transactions. of the state. The levies, therefore, went on with all possible speed. His Majesty himself was very active in giving out orders, and providing every thing necessary for raising a great army. At a general rendezvous, which was held in the east of Fife, he came into the field to encourage his soldiers by his personal presence, and made a speech to them in which he exhorted them to be valiant and faithful in his service; assuring them that he would rather die in the field, than be driven up into the mountains. He afterwards went to the assembly at Aberdeen, and endeavoured, by his presence and authority, to compose the differences among the. ministers there. In order to improve his interest, and maintain a correspondence abroad, he seat over the Earl of Dumferling as amhassador .to the states of Holland, Macdonnell, formerly Governor of Overysel, having long been his resident at the Hague. At the same time Lord Croft negotiated for him at the court of the King of Poland. By these, and other embassies, his Majesty, gained many compliments and fair promises, but reaped little or no advantage. Sir Henry Hide, his envoy to Constantinople, contending with Sir Thomas Baldish, who was there at the same time, as amhassador from the republick of England, was given up by the Vizier Hama, (who, like a trne politician, favoured the strongest party) to the disposal of Bend ish, who sent him over to England, where heing tried for his life, and condemned by the high court of justice, he was beheaded. A similar fate befel Captain Brown Bushell, an experienced naval officer, who had left the service of the parliament for that of his Majesty. He was beheaded on the 29th of March, 1651.

In the parliament of Scotland sitting at St. Johnston's, the Duke of Hamilton, and the royal influence, seemed to he most prevalent. The Marquess of Argyle, and other lords of the covenant party, were discontented, because they were not sufficiently noticed. The Earl of London, who had always by custom, been Lord Chancellor, was superseded, and Lord Raleigh substituted in his room. Among the discontented ministers, the principal were Mr. James Guthrie., who had been lung hefore confined for his clamours against the pro--mediate of the state, and still continued under restraint; Mr. Andrew Cant, who, though he had been brought by much persuasion, to a neutrality, if not to an absolute cola. pliance, remained so far refractory,. that he joined with the synod of Glasgow, in protesting against the transaction, at Johnston's; and Mr. Durant, who, having been appointed by the Kirk; to attend the King as his chaplain, left the court, and betook himself . to retirement. On the other side Mr. Rohert Douglas, and Mr. David Dicks, so warmly favoured the measures of the royal party, that they inveighed vets. nently against all "who went about to keep up the same V malignants"; adding "that. now they mutt all become aye iron's bakes".

The parliament at St. Johnston's adjourned till the 17th of April, Waiting for the completion of the levies. In the mean time they devolved the civil power into the hands of a select council, and the military power into the hands of a committee of war, consisting of twenty persons, chosen out of the three estates.

Care was taken to fortify the town of Stirling. His Majesty often went thither to view the works, and hasten their completion, designing that place for his chief residence. He had obtained from the parliament, before their adjournment, an additional act for raising the levies to fifteen thousand foot, besides the horse, so that every thing was busily preparing for speedy action.

The English were not less diligent in pursuing their advantages, than the Scotch in reinforcing themselves. Blackness, a stronghold between Edingburgh and Stirling, was attacked by Colonel Monk, and soon surrendered on terms very advantageous to the besiegers; but the capture, not long after, of the Earl of Eglinton, a nobleman of great power and consideration, together with one of his sons, by Captain Crook, at Dumbarton, was a subject of greater concern to the King's party.

At the next meeting of the parliament of Scotland, they sat in close consultation about the militia, and other weighty and pressing matters of state. The court, at present, was kept at Stirling, which was also the head quarters, the whole Scotch army being quartered about the town. Middleton's northern levies amounted to nearly eight thousand, and it was strongly debated whether these forces should make up a distinct army by themselves, (as Middleton earnestly desired) or join the southern army. However, to prevent emulation and die. content between him and Lesley, his Majesty resolved to take the supreme command of the army himself.

The great business in debate in this sitting of parliament, was respecting a message from the king, in which he desired, first, that the act about the classes of malignants, might be annulled, and another act passed for its repeal; secondly, that there might be no mention of the name of malignants any more amongst them; and thirdly, that the Duke of Hamilton, the Earls of Seaforth, Callender, and others, might have full command.

The Marquess of Argyle made most opposition to granting these requests, and it was with great difficulty that the business was at last effected.

The twenty-ninth of May, being his Majesty's birth-day, was celebrated with much festivity. The parliament adjourned for that day, and his Majesty and the nobility dined together. The troops were drawn out, and at night the streets blazed with bonfires, and the cannon were fired from Stirling, Brunt bland, and the rest of the Scotch garrisons. The town of Dundee manifested its affection and loyalty to his Majesty in a particular manner. A large contribution was made for the King's assistance, and the citizens presented him with a stately tent, together with six pieces of ordnance, and equipped a regiment of horse, at their own charge.

In the beginning of June, the Scotch parliament closed. Before their dissolution they had given large commissions and instructions for the impressment of men in all parts of Scotland, beyond Fife, and in the western parts to hasten their new levies, which were to consist of fifteen thousand foot, besides horse. It was dissolved in a calm and peaceful manner, which tended to unite all interests, and to compose all controversies and differences among them. An unanimous determination prevailed to repress Cromwell and his English myrmidons. In order to ratify this union, they had passed the two grand acts which had been so long contended for the act of indemnity, and the act for repealing the classes of malignants.

The English, eagerly desirous to bring the Scotch army to an engagement, made at near approaches as possible; and, (while the Scotch forces lay encamped in Stirling park, and towards Torwood,) quartered about Lithgow, watching every opportunity to attack them. The Scotch, on the contrary, kept close in their trenches, and declined a battle, thinking it advisable to stay till the complement of their army should be made up by those levies, which were still expected to come out of the west, and some other parts. In order to expedite these, Argyle, Huntly, and Seaforth, were dispatched to their respective territories, to make their levies complete. Massey's instructions were to enter England with a body of English horse and foot, and in conjunction with the Duke of Buckingham and Lord Wilmot, to join a party in Lancashire, that designed to rise for the King, and for that purpose held a correspondence, not only with Scotland, but also with London, where the plot was principally contrived and promoted; but by the capture of a ship at Aire, which had been bound for the Isle of Man, and the seizure of Mr. Brickenhead, an agent in the affair, the whole confederacy was discovered. Mr. Thomas Cook of Gray's Inn, Mr. Gibbons, Mr. Love, Mr. Jenkins, Dr. Drake, and several other presbyterian ministers (who were one inveterate enemies of that cause in which they now conspired,) were immediately apprehended, and brought before the high court of justice. Two of these gentlemen, Mr. Love and Mr. Gibbons, were beheaded on Tower Hill, a little before the Scotch army entered England. Through the discovery of this plot, Massey's proposed expedition was, for a time, frustrated. Sudden action was, however, resolved on, for the English pressed so hard upon the Scotch army that the latter had no alternative, but, either speedily to give battle, or be shut up in their quarters, and reduced to a scarcity of provisions. The leaders of the Scotch army, therefore, consulted whether it would be better to engage the English in Scotland, or to give them the slip, and invade England. Different opinions were expressed upon this question, but his Majesty absolutely declared his to be for the invasion. He hoped, he said, that notwithstanding the late discovery, he had a sufficient number of friends left, who would readily join Lim at his approach. It was not long before this design was put into execution.

In the mean time, the English having failed in their endeavour to bring the Scotch to battle at Torwood, made it their next attempt to land some of their forces on the Fife side. With this view, Colonel Overton was sent with sixteen hundred foot, and four troops of horse, and with little trouble or Les effected a landing at Queen's ferry. Cromwell, at the same time, marched with his whole army close to the Scotch, intending to fall upon their rear, if they should move in that direction, and attempt to frustrate their enterprise. To drive the English out of Fife, four thousand horse and foot were appointed to march against them, under the command of Sir John Brown. To oppose thaw, and to assist and reinforce that part of the English army already landed in Fife, Major General Lambert, and Colonel Okey, with two regiments of horse, and two of foot, were transported over the water, and joining battle with Sir John Brown, completely overwhelmed him, taking Sir John himself, Colonel Buchanan, and 1400 men prisoners, and killing about two thousand. By this victory the English gained so firm a footing in Fife, that they were not easily to be repelled; and soon after, Brunt Island and Inchegawy, a strong castle upon the river Fife, were taken by surrender. His Majesty and the army were now impelled, by necessity, to take that course which had some time before been considered the most advantageous to march directly for England; for General Cromwell, that he might make himself master of the pass at Stirling, found it necessary first to attack St. Johnston's, which, after one day's siege, was taken. Stirling was next taken by General Monk, who advanced to that town on receiving intelligence that it was abandoned by the Scotch and royal forces, who, as soon as they heard that St. Johnston's was surrendered, began their march to the South. The main body of Cromwell's army returned over the Frith, and endeavoured to overtake them, but the Scotch were several days march before them, on the way to England. Major General Harrison, who, with about three thousand horse and dragoons, was in advance of the English army, was ready to attend the movements of the Scotch. Lambert, with as large a force, was ordered, by a council of war, to march with all possible expedition, and in conjuBction with Harrison, to endeavour to attack them in the rear.

General Cromwell began his march to England with a thousand horse and foot, the very same day (the 6th of August,) on which the royal army entered England by the way of Carlisle. In the expectation of their coming, a party in Wales began to rise, intending to join the Earl of Derby from the Isle of Man, but this design, undertaken precipitately and managed without order, soon proved abortive.

By the time his Majesty's army had advanced into Lancashire, it was beset both by the forces that followed him out of Scotland, and those that were raised in England. In the rear was General Cromwell, who had left Monk with a sufficient force to carry on the war in Scotland. In front were the two Major Generals, Lambert and Harrison, who were joined by two thousand of the militia out of Staffordshire; and four thousand men, and a Colonel Birch out of Lancashire, Cheshire, and other parts. On his flank appeared Lord Fairfax with a formidable body in Yorkshire; the city of London poured out her numerous militia, and the adjacent counties were strictly enjoined to send men and horses at their own charge. To complete the disaster, the Scotch army by no means remained entire, for no less than five thousand men having deserted at different times, not more than eleven or twelve thousand remained, when they entered England. His Majesty was also disappointed in his most sanguine expectation; that of being supported by the country. The most considerable force that joined him, was one troop of horse, commanded by the son of Lord Howard of Estrick; nor is this a subject of surprise, since the parliament forces had so overspread the country, that no opportunity was left to the well affected, to exert themselves in his Majesty's favour, Before the decisive blow was struck, we might have perceived ourselves in a lost and hopeless condition. There was, however, a great portion of courage and confidence among the JOVIAL CAVALIERS, even to the very last.

His Majesty, on his entrance into England, was proclaimed king of Great Britain, at the head of his army; and the same ceremony was observed in every market town through which he marched. Having forced his way to Warrington Bridge, in spite of Lambert's attempt to oppose him, both parties engaged near Knutsford Heath, with some little loss on the King's side. On the twenty second of August, his Majesty arrived at Worcester, of which he took possession, after one or two repulses from the republican forces that garrisoned the city. For this success his Majesty was much indebted to the inhabitants, who not only forebore to oppose his entrance, but even assisted in expelling the soldiers of the parliament. Here; the principal officers of the army held a consultation, whether it was most expedient to take up their quarters at Worcester, and there fortify themselves, or to make a resolute venture, and march with all speed to London. But in consideration of the long and tedious marches they had under- gone, and of the sick and Weary state of the army, it was determined to remain where they were, and to make good some passes in the neighbourhood. On the 27th of August a solemn fast was kept, and the next day, at a general rendezvous the country came in in far greater numbers than at any previous time since their arrival in England.

His majesty had, while on his march to Worcester, despatched messages and invitations to several governors of towns and castles, to deliver up those places which they had in possession. The principal of these were Sir Thomas Middleton, governor of Chirk castle, to whom the Earl of Derby also wrote; and Colonel Mackworth, governor of Shrewsbury. The letters to Sir Thomas Middleton were carried by a messenger, whom Sir Thomas caused to be seized, and sent to Wrexham. The letter and summons to the governor of Shrewsbury, were delivered by a trumpeter, and were to this purport:-

The Letter. "COLONEL MACKWORTH:- Having sent you herewith a summons to surrender into my hands my town, with the castle of Shrewsbury, I cannot but persuade myself you will do it, when I consider you are a gentleman of an ancient house, and of very different principles (as I am informed) from those with whom. your imployment ranks you at present. If you shall peaceably deliver them unto me, I will not only pardon you what is past, and protect you and yours in your persons, and all that belongs to you, but reward so eminent and seasonable a testimony ,of your loyalty with future trust and favour,- and do leave it to yourself to propose the particular, being upon that condition ready to grant you presently any thing you shall reasonably desire, and to approve myself your friend", - "C. R".

The Summons. "COLONEL MACKWORTH:- Being desirous to attempt all fair ways for recovering our own, before we proceed to force and extremity, and, (where the controversy is with subjects) accounting that a double victory which is obtained without effusion of blood, and where the hearts that of right belong to us are gained as well as their strengths. We do hereby summon you to surrender unto us our town with the castle of Shrewsbury, as in duty and allegiance, by the laws of God and the land, you are bound to do, thereby not only preventing the mischief which you may otherwise draw upon yourself; but also opening the first door to peace and quietness, and the enjoyment of every one, both king and people, that which pertains to them under certain and known laws; the end for which we are come. Given at our camp at Tong Norton, this 20th of August".

To this letter, and summons, Colonel Mackworth returned this answer.

For the Commander in chief of the Scottish army.

"Sir:- By your trumpet I received two papers, the one containing a proposition, the other a direct summons for the rendition of the town and castle of Shrewsbury, the custody whereof I have received by authority of parliament; and if you believe me a gentleman, (as you say you do) you may believe I will be faithful to my trust; to the violation whereof Beither allurements can persuade me, nor threatenings of force, especially when but paper ones, compel me: What - principles I am judged to be of I know not, but I hope they are such as shall ever declare me honest, and no way differing, herein, (as I know) from those engaged in the same imployment with me; who, should they desert that cause they are imbarqued in, I resolve to be found, as I am, unremoveable, the faithful servant of the commonwealth of England".

Some days before his Majesty's arrival at Worcester, the Earl of Derby, having landed at Weywater in Lancashire, came to the Bing with 250 foot and 60 horse, which he had brought with him out of the isle of Man. He immediately returned into Lancashire to raise a more considerable force, and, by his influence in that part of the country, soon collected a body of 1500 men, with whom he was hastening towards Manchester, where he was assured that 500 more intended to join him. It seemed probable that, in a short time, he would have raised a great number; but, while on his march to Manchester, Colonel Robert Lilburn, with his own regiment and three companies, with a few horse out of Cheshire, endeavoured with all his speed to join General Cromwell's regiment, which lay about Preston, and to attack the Earl. To prevent this conjunction, the Earl of Derby pressed upon Lilburn's men, and forced them to an engagement, just as they were about to draw off, and march in. his flank, to meet the regiment at Preston. The contest was severe, and doubtful for about an hour; but, at length, the Earl of Derby's men being but newly levied, and therefore for the most part raw and undisciplined, were put to general confusion, and fled. The Enrl himself was wounded, and very narrowly escaped being taken. Having made his way into Staffordshire, he concealed himself for some time at Boscobel-house, and at last got safe to Worcester. In this skirmish, Lord Withington, Sir Thomas Tilseley, Major General Sir William Throgmorton, Colonel Matthew Boynton, Colonel Richard Legg, Colonel Ratcliffe Gerrett, Major Trollop, and a great number of inferior officers, and private soldiers, were taken.

A few days after this victory, General Cromwell appeared before Worcester, with an army of seventeen thousand men, horse and foot, not including the forces commanded by Generals Lambert and Harrison, and several reinforcements from other quarters. On the west of the city, on the other side of the river Severn, lay the main body of the Scotch army, covering the space of two miles. The king's soldiers, within the city, made repeated and resolute sallies; but being overpowered by numbers were continually repulsed with loss. On the second day after General Cromwell's approach, fifteen hundred horse and foot sallied out at Sidbury Gate, intending, to attack a house (about two miles from the city) in which two hundred men were stationed. But the parliament army taking the alarm, they were obliged to retreat with the loss of fifteen men. All possible diligence, however, was employed in fortifying the city, and making good the mount, at the south-east extremity.

The next affair was at the pass at Upton, which Major General Massey kept for the Bing. General Lambert marched to this place from Esham with a body of horse and dragoons, who, though a great part of the bridge had been broken, at the news of their approach, contrived to pass the river, fired into the town, and took possession of the church; which Massey in vain endeavoured to recover. At the appearance of the horse his men fled, and were, for a short time, pursued. General Massey himself was wounded, and with difficulty avoided being taken, hiving had his horse shot under him. This little action was scarcely terminated, when General Fleetwood, with his whole brigade, came up to maintain the pass.

The third of September, the very day on which, the preceding. year, had been fought the unfortunate battle of Dunbar, was the fatal day which gave a decisive blow to the long controversy between the royal and the republican party. To the latter the fortune of this day fell, as of many others before; in a long series of successes, and for a time, gave full and undisputed possession of three kingdoms, to those who had fought for pretended liberty, and a commonwealth, against regal government.

Lieutenant General Fleetwood, having left a sufficient force at Upton to maintain the pass, resolved to form a junction with the rest of the army. With this object, he caused two bridges to be made, the one over the Severn, and the other over the Teme, at a point where those rivers meet. General Cromwell, in person, led on Colonel Hacker's regiment of horse, and the two foot regiments of Colonels Fairfax, and Ingoldsby, together with Major General Dean's and Colonel Goff's regiment, in order to assist General Fleetwood, and oppose the horse and foot, that were drawn out to hinder his passage. These troops scoured the hedges, and forced the Scotch to retreat to Powick bridge, where they made a stand, and for a time sustained a severe encounter, but at length retreated and fled into the city.

While this conflict was maintained, the King's troops sallied out at the other side of the city, and gave a desperate charge to that part of the Parliament army. The battle continued three or four hours eager and fierce - till at last the besiegers overpowering the royal party in number, bore them down before them with irresistible force, put them into complete disorder and flight, and, pursuing them to the very gates, rushed in among them, and in a short time made themselves masters of the royal fort and city. The victory was gained before half of General Cromwell's forces came up to engage their enemy, who seeing that victory had absolutely abandoned them, and that all was lost, thought of nothing but individual safety. As they fled in confusion through the city, there was a general cry of "Save the King O save the King!"

His Majesty himself, as soon as he perceived which way the victory inclined, was not unmindful to provide in time for his escape. He had, during the battle, performed all the offices, both of a valiant man, and a good commander, riding about incessantly to encourage his soldiers, and when he saw them begin to fail, he was heard to utter this pathetick expression "Rather shoot me than let me live to see the sad consequences of this fatal day". Many parties of horse were sent out through all coasts, after the flying troops. Few of the infantry escaped from the field alive, and but about three thousand horse, of whom a thousand were taken near Bewdley by Colonel Barton, and more by others, in other places: Many were taken; or knocked on the head, by rising parties of the country people.


In the grand engagement, the number of the slain was supposed Co be three thousand; among whom, the principal persons were, the Duke of Hamilton; Robert, Earl of Carnwarth; Alexander, Earl of Kelly, John Lord Sinclair, Sir John Packington, Major General Montgomery, Major General Piscotty, Mr. Richard Fanshaw, the King's Secretary; the General of the ordnance, the Adjutant General of the foot, the Marshall General, six Colonels of horse, thirteen of foot, nine Lieutenant Colonels of home, eight of foot, six Majors of horse, thirteen of foot, thirty seven Captains of horse, seventy. two of foot, with a number of inferior officers. A hundred and fifty eight stand of colours, the King's standard, his collar of SS., his coach and horses, and other things of great value were taken. Major General Massey, though be made his escape from the field, was unable, in consequence of his wounds, to continue his flight; and was brought to so weak a condition that he surrendered himself to the Countess of Stamford, whose son, Lord Grey of Groby, secured him as a prisoner, to be sent up to London, to the Junto, as soon as he should recover of his wounds.

This great victory, on the part of the commonwealth, was attended by others of less magnitude, which were gained in Scotland, by General Monk, and the forces left in that quarter.

When General Cromwell marched for England, Stirling castle was besieged, and, in a short time, surrendered by capitulation, with a considerable quantity of ammunition which was lodged there, five thousand stand of arms, and forty pieces of ordnance, all the records of Scotland, the chair and cloth of state, the sword and other rich furniture of the Kings, the Earl of Mar's parliamentary robes, coronet and stirrups of gold. Over the door of the chapel which belongs to the castle, was this motto, "J.C.R. Noble hire invicta miserunt centum sex proavi, 1617", importing that when James the first came to the crown, this place had remained unconquered for the space of one hundred and six kings reigns, and so it remained during his own life, and that of his son, but not of his grandson.

As soon as Stirling castle had surrendered, General Monk attacked Dundee. During the siege of this place, several Scotch lords, gentlemen, ministers, and others, met together at Ellit, in the county of Perth, to the number of about three hundred. The principal persons were old General Lesley, the Earl of Leven, Lords Ogleby, Crawford, and Lindsay, who designed to levy a large force for the service of the king, intending first to raise the siege of- Dundee. Information of this meeting was quickly brought to the Lieutenant General, who immediately dispatched Colonel Alured with six hundred horse, and four troops of dragoons, to the place. That officer surprising them on a sudden, overthrew them with ease, slew many, and took General Lesley, the Earl of Crawford, and Lord Leith, and all the chiefs of the conspiracy, prisoners. About the same time, a party of horse and dragoons attacked five hundred Scotch at Dumfries in Galloway, and either slew, or captured, all of them. Among the prisoners, was Sir Philip Musgrave, Mayor of St. Johnston's, who had a commission of Major General of all the troops to be raised in the four northern counties and many noblemen and gentlemen of quality.

Major General Lumsden, governor of Dundee, on being summoned to surrender the place, returned for answer a summons to the besieger, to submit to the authority of his Majesty; but notwithstanding this resolute reply, the town was quickly taken by storm, and the governor, and many others were slain. The reduction of St. Andrews,and Aberdeen, soon followed, with that of other towns, castles, and strong places, which either voluntarily submitted, or surrendered on the first summons.

His Majesty, after the battle of Worcester, was very narrowly searched for, and strictly pursued. It was on his account that the greater diligence was employed in following, waylaying and intercepting, the several parties of routed Scots who fled. But, notwithstanding all the search and inquiry, no news could he heard, nor could any one certainly tell, what was become of him. This circumstance gave occasion to many to conjecture, some one thing, and some another, as their different fancies suggested to them. Some were of opinion that he was gone to the North, others to the West, others again that he had fixed upon London as his safest place of retreat. The truth is, that when the enemy had forced the gate, all possible care was taken to secure his Majesty's person. For this purpose, the Earl of Cleveland, Sir James Hamilton, Colonel William Caries, Colonel Wogan, and Captains Ashly and Kemble, did all in their power to keep the enemy engaged in $udbury Street, while the King, unpursued, took his way with a body of horse through St. Martin's gate, about six &Clock in the evening. When he had arrived at Barbon's bridge, which is about half a mile from the town, he halted in order to advise with a few noblemen and gentlemen that were with him the Duke of Buckingham, the Earls of Derby and Lauderdale, Lords Talbot, Leviston, and Wilmot, Colonel Edward Roscarrock, Colonel Thomas Blayne, Mr. Marmaduke Darcy, Mr. William Armorer, Mr. Hugh May, and some others, as to-what course was best to he taken. The resolution adopted was, that since there was not the slightest probability of being Wet° rally again, they should make their way with all speed towards Scotland. One Walker, formerly scout master in the King's army, was chosen for a guide; but the 'rapid approach of a very dark night, put them sgain to a stand on Kniver heath, near Kidderminster. They now consulted how they might with safety, obtain a little repose that night, particularly on account of his Majesty, whom excessive exertion in the engagement had rendered exceedingly weary. In this difficulty, the Earl of Derby, from his own experience recom- mended Boscobel-house where he himself had found a secure hiding place after the misfortune of his defeat at Wigan. This he considered the best place for a temporary sanctuary, the keeper of the house and his relations, though poor, having proved themselves persons of incorruptible fidelity. This proposal being embraced, and Mr. Charles Gifford and his man Francis Yates having been chosen as guides, they arrived, at break of day, at a house a little on this side Boscobel, in the occupation of one of the Penderells. The house was formerly a monastery of Cistercian nuns, who, from their habit were denominated White Ladies. This name, notwithstanding the abolition of the order, has adhered to the house. Here his Majesty was committed to the care of George Penderell, and his four brothers, who were all immediately sent for. The rest of the company, with the exception of Lord Wilmot, after a very short stay, took their leave of the King, and departed to seek safety elsewhere, as so great a company could not conveniently be concealed in one place. In the mean time his Majesty had completely disguised himself. He had changed clothes with Richard Penderell; Lord Wilmot, who performed on this occasion the office ofbarber, had cut his hair in the most rustick manner that could be devised, and he had sullied his hands so as to resemble the coarsest complexion.

His Majesty and Lord Wilmot, having first appointed to meet, in case they both arrived safe, at the Green Dragon, in the Vintry, Thames street, his Lordship departed with a resolution immediately to go to London; John Penderell, another of the brothers undertaking to conduct him as far as his knowledge extended, through the safest and most commodious ways.

His Majesty thus transformed, attired in Richard Penderell's leathern doublet and green Kendal breeches, with a wood bill in his hand, assuming the character of a wood-cutter, and the name of William Jones, was led, through a back way into a wood called Spring-coppice, belonging to Boscobel-house, and about half a mile from White Ladies, by Richard, who attended there to accompany and wait upon the King, while the three other brothers coasted the confines of the wood, to make discoveries, and to give intelligence of any threatening danger.

It was in a fortunate moment that his Majesty betook himself to this woody shelter, which, though it could not defend him from the rain which fell in great abundance that day, secured him from a more dangerous storm; for in a short time after his Majesty had left the house, a party of horse, belonging to Colonel Ashenhurst's troop, came to search it, It was therefore thought the safest coarse for the King to remain in the wood all that day. His Majesty was much incommoded by the wetness of the weather, which however was rendered more tolerable by a blanket which was brought him by the wife of Francis Yates, by whom he was presented also with a dish of such fare as her cottage afforded. The King was somewhat alarmed at the sight of a strange face, till demanding of the good woman if she could "be faithful to a distressed cavalier", she answered "yes Sir, I will die before I will betray you".

At night the King was conducted to Hobbal Grange, the habitation of Richard Penderell, where the mother of the five brothers, after expressing great joy that it should fall to the lot of her sons to be the instruments of his Majesty's safety, entertained him with great decency, but in such a homely manner, that none of the rest of the family suspected who he was. The king remained not here, but, immediately after supper, departed with Richard for his guide, whom he could follow (such was the darkness of the night) only by the crackling sound of his leather breeches. Their destination was five miles farther towards Wales, to the house of a Mr. Wolfe at Madeley. When they arrived at Evelyn-bridge they were much alarmed by a miller at that place, Who having himself several cavaliers of quality concealed in his mill, and imagining that these persons were on the search, was not less alarmed than they were by a similar suspicion.

It had been his Majesty's intention to pass the Severn, and try his fortune in Wales, but learning that all the passages over the Severn were strictly guarded, and that all the ferry boats were stopped, his Majesty, with his faithful guide, having remained in Mr. Wolfe's barn, where a hay mow was their bed, till friday night, and then venturing for a short time into the house, where, he was entertained with all the respect that a sense of danger would permit, returned somewhat late at night towards Boscobel. Colonel Carles, who when his Majesty left Worcester, was bravely combating the enemy in Sudbury-street, to favour the King's escape, was now come to that place for refuge and relief. The Colonel who was well acquainted with the house, and its inhabitant William Penderell, having been born and educated not far off, was no sooner informed that the King was in the wood, than he hastened with joy and dutiful respect, to present himself to his Majesty. After mutual congratulations, they repaired together to the house, to refresh themselves, and then immediately retiring into the wood and finding a large oak, whose wide spread top, afforded them a very private and commodious lodging, they ascended the tree, and, with the help of cushions, made a tolerable abode there till night; his Majesty taking some repose, by leaning his head upon the Colonel's lap.

At night they betook themselves again to the house to which his Majesty thought proper, for the future, to trust himself while he remained in that part of the country, being much pleased with a secret corner which William Penderell shewed him, where the Earl of Derby had concealed himself, and which was probably, in times past, the dormitory of some of the old friars. His Majesty remained secure in the house from Saturday night till Monday; having passed the Sunday for the most part in reading and meditation, in a Little sum. mer house at the end of the garden.

In the mean time Lord Wilmot had been exposed to in. numerable dangers. He found his journey to London ob. strntted by multitudes of soldiers hurrying continually to and fro, in all parts of the roads and highways, insomuch that he was once obliged to commit himself and his horse, to the hospitality of a convenient marlpit. At length his good fortune brought him to a Mr. Whitgrave's, at Moseley, to whom, and to Mr. Huddleston, who was tutor to three of his children, he did not hesitate to discover himself, and found there both welcome and security. From this place he was safely conveyed to Colonel Lane's at Bentley, about five miles farther, having before sent back John Penderell to Boscobel, with instructions to enquire diligently after the King, and to inform his Majesty, if he found him, how affairs stood. John Penderell, finding the King at Boscobel, and having given him an account of Lord Wilmot, was immediately sent back to his Lordship, to give him notice of his Majesty's intention to meet him where his Lordship should appoint. Having found his Lordship at Bentley, John returned with all speed to the King, to conduct him to Moseley, whither his Lordship had determined to come, and wait for his Majesty. On Monday, the King prepared for his journey, and, not heing able to go on foot, on account of the fatigue he had already undergone, he was accommodated with a horse by Humphrey, another of the five brothers. This good man vied with the rest in loyalty and fidelity to his Majesty, which had, not long ago, been put to a Severe trial. For going to Shiffnal to pay his share of the monthly tax he was wooded at the house of Captain Broadway, to whom he came to pay the money, by a. Colonel who had come thither to enquire after the search at White Ladies. The Colonel, understanding that Hain. phrey lived near the place, put him to a strict examination, and after he had tried the effect of menaces to induce a confession, began to tempt him with the bait of reward, by telling him of the thousand pounds, (which was the price set upon his Majesty's person) imagining that a man of his mean condition could not resist so alluring an offer. The Colonel's supposition, and Humphrey's discreet answers, rendered his dissembled ignorance the more unsuspected, and the Colonel left him with a full persuasion that Humphrey knew no more than was generally known.

Colonel Carles (whom, for his faithful services, the King rewarded with an honourable coat of arms, by letters patent. under the great seal of England,) having friends and relations in these parts, with whom he intended for a while to remain concealed, here took leave of his Majesty, with many hearty prayers for his future preservation. The King, mounted on his, not steed of honour, set out from Boscobel, on Monday. evening, attended by four of the Penderells, and their brother in law Francis Yates, who guarded him on the road at equal intervals from each other, armed with bills and pike staves. Humphrey led the horse by the bridle through thick and thin, making a witty apology for his steed, by telling his Majesty it was no wonder he went so slow, since he carried the value of three kingdoms on his back. In this equipage, the King arrived by night at the appointed place, where Mr. Whitgrave, and Mr. Huddleston, were waiting for his coming. Here the faithful brothers, his guides and attendants, were dismissed, with thanks for their honest services, and assurances of not being forgotten, whenever it might please God that his Majesty should recover the throne. The King was then conducted by the gentlemen to Lord Wilmot, whose joy at this meeting, as well as that of his Majesty, was excessive. After they had entertained each other with the story of their adventures since they parted, his Majesty was conducted to a secret corner of the house, that he might take some repose. The next morning, while the King was in the house, some soldiers came in M search it; Mr. Whitgrave who had been formerly engaged in the King's service, being a suspected person. But Mr. Whitgrave's open deportment, his readiness to let them enter, and the advantageous report of his neighbours, gave these men so much satisfaction, that they went away with little more than a bare enquiry. Indeed, the King's lodging place was so well contrived for secrecy, that they might have searched the house very narrowly without finding him.

White Ladies was also searched the same day, on the information of an ensign, and the proprietor strictly questioned about the King, with a musket presented at his breast. But the good man pretending, that though a large company bad been there. who bad almost eaten him out of house and home, he could not tell whether the King bad been there or not, since be did not know him (relit any other man; and no such person being there to be found, the searchers at last went away. attuning that they bad troubled themselves so much in vain; and the ensign was paid for his diligence with blows and contempt.

The succeeding night, his Majesty, after having gratefully acknowledged the kindness of Mr. Whitgrave and Mr. Huddleston, and advised them what course to adopt if it should be discovered that he had been there, went with Lord Wilmot to Colonel Lane's, at Bentley, where he had an opportunity of being safely conveyed to Bristol,. in order to embark for France. Miss Jane Lane, the Colonel's sister, procured, without any difficulty, a pass for herself and a servant, a relation and his wife, to visit a pretended sister of hers, who was near the time of her delivery, the wife of Mr. George Norton, whose house was within two or three miles of Bristol. In this journey his Majesty assumed the character of Miss Lane's servant; Colonel Lascelles, Miss Lane's relation, with his wife behind him, accompanied them; and Lord Wilmot, with a hawk on his fist, as if he had met them accidentally, and had occasion to travel the same way, completed the cavalcade, intending, as soon as he cantle near Bristol, to turn aside to the house of Sir John Winter. In passing through Bromsgrove, where they were obliged to employ a smith to shoe one of the horses, the subject of conversation among the bystanders was the news of the times, the battle of Worcester, and the King's escape. His Majesty, amidst many conjectures, gave it as his decided opinion that the King had fled to Scotland, and lay concealed there. "I rather think", replied the Smith, "that he remains somewhere concealed in England, and how glad should I he if I knew where". At Stratford upon Avon they fell Into the veil, jaws of a troop of horse, which they met on the rond, and were considering how they might avoid; bat their fears were dissipated when the soldiers passed them with a transient salutation. They put up that night at the Crown, in Cirencester, and the next night came to Mansfield, where they were accommodated at the house of a relation of Miss Lane's. On the third day they arrived at the house of Mr. George Norton, at Leigh, about two miles from Bristol, where the King, whom Miss Lane introduced as a son of one of her father's tenants, on pretence of being suddenly attacked by a fever, kept his bed, and was attended by Doctor Gorge. The Doctor asked the sick man many questions about the news, and particularly about the King's escape, and being told by his Majesty that he did not wish to be troubled with such questions, declared he could not help thinking that his patient was a sider, with the round heads. His Majesty had not been here long hefore he was recognized by the hutler, who had formerly served his royal father in Wales. This man, on his promise of close secrecy and loyalty, was entrnsted by his Majesty in several important services. lie was first employed to look after a vessel, in which the King might embark for France. But as no ship that would suit his purpose could be found, his Majesty, on consultation with Lord Wilmot, who came from Colonel Winter's to Leigh, and was privately conducted to the King by the butler, concluded that his Lordship should go to Colonel Francis Windham; to know whether his Majesty could have a secure reception at his house, till some means should be devised for his embarkation. The Colonel was overjoyed at the opportunity of serving his Majesty, and engaged for the fidelity of his whole family. Accordingly Mrs. Norton being by this time brought to bed, Miss Lane pretending to have received a letter from her father, which informed her that he was very ill and wished her to return home, prepared for her, journey, and took with her Mr. Lascelles (whose lady was left hehind to keep company with Mr. Norton,) and her royal servant.. Having left Mr. Norton's, without exciting any suspicion, they. proceeded to Mr. Edward Kirton's, at Castle Cary, under the guidance of one Henry Rogers, whom Lord Wilmot had employed to conduct him from Colonel Winter's to Leigh, and arrived the next day at Colonel Windhiun's house, at Trent, in Dorset-shire: Here they were received as relations of the Colonel, who had been on a long journey, and had taken his house in their way home, for the sake of paying him a visit. The next day, Miss Lane and Colonel Lascelles took their leaveand returned home. His Majesty and Lord Wilmot continued at Colonel Windham's house nineteen days, during which time many different plans were proposed for transporting the King to France, but without success. At length Colonel Windham recollecting that Mr. Eldon, formerly a captain in his late Majesty's service, was then engaged in business at Lime, went to him with the hope of securing his assistance. The Colonel's confidence in this plan was the greater, because he remembered that Mr. Eldon had once employed his interest for Lord Berkeley, on a similar occasion. Eldon readily undertook the business, and bringing the Colonel to a master of a ship, with whom he was acquainted, bargained with him for his ship to transport Lord Wilmot and another nobleman, who had escaped from the battle of Worcester. The man embraced the offer, the price was fixed, and every thing seemed to promise a prosperous issue. In order to account for their remaining at Chayermouth till the ship could be made ready, and every thing prepared for their voyage, Henry Peters (a servant of the Colonel's,) who had been let into the secret, Went to a woman who let lodgings, at Chayermouth, and told her that the young nobleman whom he served having run away with an heiress, wanted some secure place to which he might bring her for a time, till he could dispose of het elsewhere; and, therefore, desired that she would be so kind to the young couple, and so much a friend to herself, as to receive them, at the same time, not only paying her some money in hand, but giving her the promise of a much greater reward. The woman, whose tender sensihilities were increased hy the inducement of profit, easily consented to admit them. In consequence of this 'arrangement his Majesty, with Julia Conisby (the heiress) behind him, set out for Chayermouth accompanied by Lord Wilmot, Colonel Windham, and Henry Peters. By the way they met Mr. Eldon, to whom his Majesty discovered himself, and who, after some consultation with the King and the rest of the company, rode away immediately to Lime, to take order for the ship. While his Majesty and his friends remained it their lodging, Henry Peters continued at the port to wait the arrival of the vessel, and give speedy information when it was ready.

The next morning his Majesty and his company were struck with consternation on receiving intelligence from Henry Peters, that, though he had waited at the port all night, he could hear no tidings of their ship. They soon, however, concluded that they could not continue where they were without the greatest danger. Accordingly his Majesty and his heiress, with Colonel Windhnm, set off for Bridport, leaving behind them Lord Wilmot, (who pretended that his horse must be shod) with instrnctions where to meet them; while Henry Peters was sent to Lime to enquire the reason of their strange disappointment. At Bridport there was a muster of soldiers who were marching for the Isle of Jersey, under the command of Colonel Haines. Colonel Windham, therefore, advised not to enter the town, but his Majesty, who could not bear the idea of disappointing Lord Wilmot whom he was to meet there, and who was weary with sitting up in expectation of the vessel and desired to have a little repose, resolved to venture.. When they were arrived at their inn, the Colonel went to look after some necessaries for their refreshment, while the Bing went into the stable to take care of the horses. Here the ostler having regarded his Majesty very. attentively for some time, began to claim acquaintance with him, not as knowing who he was, but as remembering he had seen him at Exeter, where during the late war, his Majesty had in fact resided. The king, very well pleased, to find the fellow had not a particular knowledge of him, and thinking it expedient to give him as little opportunity as possible of making a perfect discovery, seemed to acknowledge a slight acquaintance, by saying that be had been a servant to a Mr. Porter in that city, adding, that "since they could not conveniently drink together at that time, (for I see said he you are busily employed) he should be glad to have some conversation with him about their old friends at Exeter, on his return from London?'

In the mean time Captain Eldon was surprised beyond measure, ipon learning from Henry Peters of his Majesty's disappointment. He had imagined that the ship had long ago set sail, and almost completed her voyage, nor could he conceive any reason of the master's failure in his engagement, except that as there had been a fair that day at Lime, he had fallen into company, and in the midst of his cups had forgotten his promise. The true reason was, that while the master was at Ms house, making preparation for his voyage, a pro-. clamation was made for the apprehension of his Majesty, in which, on the one side, a reward of one thousand pounds was promised to any one who should discover him, and on the other, the penalty of death denounced against any one who should conceal him. The shipmaster's wife (who was in the secret) hearing this proclamation, struck with sudden apprehension of danger, prevailed upon her husband, by her tears, intreaties, and clamours to suffer himself to be locked up by her in a room, a long while beyond the time fixed for his setting out. It was at a critical time that his Majesty quitted. Chayermouth, for the unfortunate failure of the ship's sailing was very near producing worse consequences. A conversation taking place between the ostler and the smith, who came to shoe Lord Wilmot's horse, respecting the strangers; the smith declared, that he knew by the manner of the nailing, that Lord Wilmot's hearse had been last shod somewhere in the north. They immediately conjectured from this, and from some other circumstances, that these were noblemen who had fled from the battle of Worcester, who had been thrown upon that coast by various accidents, and that one of them very probably was the King. The ostler, struck with the prospect of the reward, hastened directly to the parson of the place, (who was a man zealous for the cause) to give him information; but the parson's morning devotions lasting longer than the ostler's patience, he returned home, lest he should lose the present he expected from his guest. The parson at length having finished his long prayer, [this is not the only occasion which this writer needs to be reminded of the maxim, "De sacris autos bats sit una sententia ut conserventur".] and alarmed at the rumour which the wicked smith had raised in the town, took some auxiliaries with him, ran to the ion, and strictly enquired what persons were there last night, whence they came, what they did, and whither they had directed their course. The answers to these enquiries, still increasing his suspicions, Mr. Butler, the nearest Magistrate, was sent to, for his warrant to raise the country in search of the King. On Mr. Butler's refusal, a Captain Massey, who lay with his troop in the neighbourhood, having rode in quest of his Majesty, as far as Dorchester, returned as wise as when be set out. All the neighbouring parts of the country were searched with the mest severe scrutiny. The house of Sir Hugh Windham, uncle to the was then narrowly inspected - not a corner was left that was not peeped into - not a single servant of the family, that was not examined - and lest his Majesty should have concealed himself under female apparel, a handsome young woman was taken into custody, and could not he released till she was discovered not to be the King.

Before the hue and my was at its height at Chayermouth, Lord Wilmot, by good fortune, was safe out of the town, and having arrived at Bridport, as soon as he perceived his Majesty and the Colonel, at the place appointed, watching when he should pass, be, without seeming to take any notice of them, rode on towards London, and they, having their horses ready saddled, mounted and immediately overtook him.

For their better security from the multitude of passengers that filled the road (among whom they perceived one who had been a servant of his late Majesty's,) they took another way a little to the left, and somewhat late at night arrived within sight of a little tows, Lord Wilmot rode before to enquire what was called, whither it led, and what accommodation it afforded; and went, by chance, to an inn, the keeper of which instantly recognised him, having been formerly his servant, and a soldier in his late Majesty's army. Here they would have been comfortably entertained; had they not been suddenly molested by the arrival of a party of soldiers, whom, in their march for the Isle of Jersey, the constable had brought here to be quartered, and, disturbed, in the middle of the night, by the childbearing outcry of a lady attached to the camp.

The next morning, when the soldiers had marched, it was resolved, after much debate, as to the course they should take from Broad Windsor, which was the name of the village, that his Majesty should return, with Colonel Windham, to Trent, while Lord Wilmot went, with Henry Peters, to Mr. John Coventry, at Salisbury, (son of the late Lord Keeper,) to consult with him as to what coarse might yet be pursued to effect his Majesty's safe transportation to France. Mr. Coventry brought them to the house of a Mrs. Hide, a widow, who lived at Heale, a little village about a mile from Salisbury, where they met Colonel Robert Phillips, who had commanded in the late King's army. He being thought a proper person to be made acquainted with their Nosiness, hastened to Southampton to hire a vessel, and brought word that he had found one that would undertake the voyage, ready to go to sea. On receiving this welcome information, Lord Wilmot immediately returned to convey the news to his Majesty, and to conduct him to Heale. But before his arrival, this very ship was hired by the republican party, to convey the soldiers to the Isle of Jersey. Upon this disappointment, Colonel Phillips meeting with Colonel Gunter, one of his friends, a man whom he knew to be loyal, acquainted him with the whole affair, and entreated him to give his aid to the undertaking. Colonel Gunter readily promised to do all in his power, and departed for that purpose. In the mean time his Majesty arrived at Heale, and supped at the widow's, with several of her friends, [among them was Dr. Henchman, afterwards Bishop of Salisbury, and now Bishop of London] who noticed him only as an accidental guest, and, after supper, understanding that the plan had failed, discovered himself to the widow, who already knew who he was, by having accidentally seen him pass by some years before. This lady being made one of the council for his Majesty's safety, considered it most advisable that he should remain concealed in a place in her house, which was built at the time of the war for the purpose of hiding goods, till a convenient opportunity should be offeredfor his embarkation. That this design might be managed the more secretly, his Majesty, by her advice, pretended to take leave of her to go to London. The servants were all dismissed with leave to go to a fair which was kept that day at Salisbury. His Majesty, having only Colonel Phillips with him, rode as far as Stonehenge, and, taking a little compass about, returned to the house at an appointed time, and remained in the private place, till word was brought that, by the diligence of Colonel Gunter, a ship was hired at Brighthelmstone, a port in Sussex, and already provided for the voyage. His Majesty accordingly prepared to leave Beale, and, late at night, accompanied by Colonel Phillips, and the.widow's prayers, took his course to the house of a Mr. Simmons, near Portsmouth, and, the succeeding evening, arrived at Brighthelmstone, where (Colonel Phillips having taken his leave) Lord Wilmot and Colonel Gunter met him. His Majesty was then introduced to Mr. Mansell, the Merchant from whom Colonel Gunter had hired the vessel, and to Tittershall, the master: the latter, perceiving that one of the persons he had to carry, though meanly clad, and hearing the character of a servant, was, in fact, the King, for he remembered him from the circumstance of having once presented to his Majesty a petition, took Mr. Mansell aside, and charged him with not having dealt plainly with him, in concealing the quality of the persons whom he had undertaken to transport, and remonstrated on the injury that had been done him by Mr. Mansell, who could not be ignorant of the late proclamation concerning the King.

The master's apprehension of the danger of the enterprise might have rendered this last attempt as fruitless as the former, had not the King and Lord Wilmot, who were informed of his objections by Mr. Mansell, and were well assured that they proceeded from fear, and not want of integrity, urged him, both with representations of the security of the undertaking, and with promises of certain reward; not omitting an immediate bounty. By these considerations the master was prevailed on to set sail. Without delay, therefore, he sent the mariners to the ship, which lay, half laden with sea coal about four miles off, at Shoreham, directing them to prepare for a voyage that night. This extraordinary haste caused his wife, whom he had sent to buy some necessaries, to guess that some unusual accident occasioned this sudden preparation, and so far did the sagacity of her conjectures go, that she told her husband she suspected, by the haste and secrecy of his setting sail he was employed to transport some great person, and she believed it was the King himself, but, she added, if it be so, God grant that you may prove an effectual instrument of his safety; and so it succeed according to my prayer, though I and my children suffer for it even to the begging of our bread all our days, it shall never grieve me. As soon as all things were in readiness, his Majesty and Lord Wilmot mounted their horses and rode with the master to Shoreham, where, after so many disappointments, they, at last, embarked on the 15th of October, passing for two Isle of Wight merchants, who had bought the remainder of the coals. They, therefore, at first, pretended that they were going to the Isle of Wight, till Lord Wilmot, who appeared to be the principal person, seemed to alter his mind, and, as if upon a new contract with the master of the vessel, directed him to steer for France. Being favoured with a prosperous gale, they arrived in a short time at Feccani, a small seaport town in Normandy, near Havre de grace, his Majesty himself assisting to steer the vessel. On landing, the King in the first place, gave thanks to God for his happy deliverance from the innumerable perils to which he had been exposed, and them dismissed the collier, who declined the offers made to him for his security; choosing to return to his family and employment, though at the hazard of being called in question for what he had done, rather than remain in a foreign country, though to his certain safety and advantage. From Feccani his Majesty proceeded to Roan, where be was visited by Dr. Earl, now bishop of Worcester, who warmly congratulated him on his happy escape from England, and his safe arrival in that city. By the assistance of two honest merchants who resided there, (Mr. Sambourn and Mr. Parker) his Majesty threw of his disguise, put himself into an equipage more becoming his rank; and on the 30th of October was met, on his journey to Paris, by his mother, the Queen dowager of Great Britain, his brother the Duke of York, the Duke of Orleans, and other nobles of France, with a great retinue of English and French gentlemen, on horseback, and was thus conducted with joy and triumph into the city, where he was honourably entertained at the royal palace of the Louvre, during the greater part of his abode in that kingdom.

Boscobel still continues an interesting monument of this portion of the life of the second Charles. The house is nearly in its original state, but some of the parts have been much changed. An outbuilding has been converted into a sitting parlour, the principal entrance has been removed, and an area, in the front of the house, has been laid out as a pleasure ground. But whatever could be traced, relative to the King's concealment, has been carefully preserved. The places in which be was concealed are chiefly in, and adjoining to, a large chimney. A flight of a few steps conducts into what was then used as a cheese loft, in which there is a trap door into what is denominated, from the circumstance of his Majesty's having for a considerable time concealed himself there,- THE SACRED HOLE. The large wainscotted parlour is in nearly its original form. In a pavement before the house, are the following words, inscribed in white pebble stones.

Sext. Id. Sept. 1651. In hac domo, Carolus Secundus, tutela quinque fratrum de inirpe Penderell, potitus est, eorumque denique ope incolumis evasit.

The Royal Oak, said to have sprung from an acorn of the original oak [from many circumstances it may be reasonably concluded that the present is the original tree] that sheltered his Majesty, stands near the middle of a large field, adjoining the garden. For the wall, which formerly surrounded it, are substituted iron rails; and the following inscription, on a brass plate, is affixed to the tree,-

Feliciss, arborem quam in asilum
Potentiss. regis Car. 2di Deus Opt. Max.
per quem reges regnant hic crescere
voluit, tam in perpet. rei tames
memoriam quam in specimen firnue
in regem fidei, muro cinctam
posteris commendant Basilius
et Jana Fitzherbert.
Quercus amica Jovi.

BOTEVYLE. A township in the parish of Church Stretton, and in the hundred of Munslow. 2 miles north-east of Church Stretton.

BOTTEREL (ASTON.) See Aston Botterel.

BOULDON. A township in the parish of Holdgate, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow. 11 houses, 60 inhabitants.


BOWDLER. See Ashford Bowdler, and Hope Bowdler.

BOWLEY. See Booley.

BOYCOT. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 7 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

BRACE MEOLE; or MEOLE BRACE. A parish in the borough of Shrewsbury, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Pontesbary, and archdeaconry of Salop. The parish of Meole Brace contains 213 houses, 1348 inhahitants, but in this parish is the workhouse, or house of industry, for all the town parishes. It contains 290 inhabitants, all ascribed to Meole Brace in the return.

BRADNEY. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry, 4½ miles north- east of Bridgnorth.

BRAGGINGTON. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 11 miles west of Shrewsbury.

BRATTON. A township in the parish of Wrockwardine, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. About 1 miles north north-west of Wellington.

BRIDGNORTH. A market and borough town most romantically situated on the eastern confines of the county, and intersected by the river Severn. The part which stands on the eastern banks of the river is designated by the appellation of the Low Town, and that which lies on its western banks is called the High Town. The latter extends along the flat of the hill, rising sixty yards above the level of the river. A connection is formed between these two parts by a stone bridge of six arches; and the whole town is within a franchise or liberty exempt from all county contributions and services. Its singular situation strikes the eye of a traveller by its similitude to the city of Jerusalem, and to the seaport town of Gibraltar. The air of Bridgnorth is uncommonly salubrious, and on this point it has been asserted that it is equal even to Montpelier. It is remarked that there are few consumptive people in the town; and there is this convenience in the situation, that if the air of the Upper Town be too sharp for the constitution, that of the Lower Town is much milder. Dr Hollins, an eminent physician in Shrewsbury, father to Dr. Hollins, physician to George the second, observed that when any epidemick distemper was abroad, Bridgnorth was sooner free from it than any other place he knew. Dr. Anthony Weaver, late an eminent physician of this place, made the same remark. Part of the ruins of a castle built by Robert de Belesme, the third Norman Earl of this county, are yet standing. The present edifice was erected on the site of the former structure, but a part of the square tower, now standing 17 degrees out of its perpendicular, is almost the only relick left. It was about seventy feet high, and the interior from north to south, twenty four feet nine inches in length, by twenty feet three inches in breadth. The bridge, which is a very handsome and spacious structure, consisting of six arches, and formerly of seven, has lately undergone considerable repair, by Mr. Thomas Simpson, of Shrewsbury, and Mr. John Smallman, of Quatford. The Low Town consists of several avenues, one of which leads from the bridge, called Bridge Street; another opens on the east into Mill Street, thus named on account of its approach to the Town Mills, granted by King Henry the third, to the burgesses of this place. In this avenue are several respectable houses. The avenue of the south-east extremity, leading into St. John's Street, which is so called from it having had, in the reign of Richard the first, an hospital which was afterwards converted into a priory dedicated to the Holy Trinity, the Virgin Mary, and St. John the Baptist. The south end of this avenue opens into another called Spital Street, from an ancient hospital, or leper's house, which stood at the southern extremity, and was dedicated to St. James. The western end of the bridge opens into Underhill Street, in which stands a very ancient, large, half-timbered mansion, built in 1589, is which Dr. Percy, the late bishop of Dromore, was born, who afterwards became its proprietor. This avenue winds round the eastern side of the hill, on which the High Town appears so commanding. This part of the borough, comprehending the old castle ward, is subdivided into other avenues, - High Street, Listley Street, Hungary Street, Little Brugg or Bridge Street, now frequently called Pound Street; Whitburne or Raven Street, Church Street, the Back Lane, adjoining the cemetery of St. Leonardo, and the Cart Way and Back Lane, opening from High Street into the castle promenade. The High Street, in very early times called Great Street or Brugg, is a spacious and well formed avenue, about 26 yards in width, extending about 920 yards along the level of the hill towards the north. This Street has elegant regular buildings, in which are the first tradesmen's shops in this place, and two posting houses - the Crown Inn or Royal Hotel, and the Castle Inn. It is terminated by a modern embattled gate way, erected in 1740, and in the centre stands a tower or guild hall, erected in 1655. At the south-west end it opens into Listley Street, in which, on the side passing into the New town, formerly stood Listley Gate. This Street on the south-west was defended hy a stone wall continued to Hungary Gate. At this place it leads into Hungary Street, also called St. Mary, from an old chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, some vestiges of which are still to be seen. This street connects itself with the High Street at the east end, and was terminated by its antique barrier gate at the west extremity, where it opens into the ancient little Brugg. On the north-east side are the remains of an old stone castellated structure, called the Halfmoon battery. It is octagonal, and was probably a watch tower of considerable strength and great importance to this almost defenceless part of the town. From Little Bridge Street, proceeds Whitburne Street, now called Raven Street (from a publick house there), which a few years ago was defended at the western extremity by an ancient stone gate-way.

At the other end it leads into High Street, and exactly opposite is Church Street. On the north side of this latter, stand the alms houses, erected in 1792, for the accommodation of twelve poor women. This Street leads up into the cemetery of St. Leonard, in which stands the free grammar school, founded by the bailiffs and burgesses, in or prior to the reign of Henry the seventh, for the sons of burgesses, to which are annexed three valuable exhibitions to Christ Church College, Oxford. On the south side of this cemetery, also stands an hospital for poor widows, endowed by the Rev. Francis Palmer, rector of Sandy, in the county of Bedford. At the south-east end of the High Street is the Cart Way, the only passage from the bridge to the Upper Town, till the year 1782, when the new road which winds round part of the south-west extremity, was formed.

At the Upper Town in the Cart Way, there stood, in former times, another of these fortified entrances into the High Town called Cow Gate, from whence, towards the north, issues the Friar's Lane, which derives its name from a religions house standing at a distance, and once occupied by the Grey, or Franciscan Friars. A considerable part of this structure is still to be seen near the bank of the river. The south end of the High Street leads into those which approach the castle. The East Castle Street is bounded on a brow of the eminence, by a handsome range of neat brick houses, erected mostly in the eighteenth century, and belonging to Charles Hanbury Tracy, Esq., of Toddington, in the county of Gloucester. On the same side is an ancient brick structure, certainly the first in this part of the town, and built prior to the year 1638, by Francis Ridley, Gent., who descended from an uncle of Dr. Nicholas Ridley, the first protestant bishop of London, who suffered martyrdom in the Cause of the reformation. This Street is terminated on the south, by the neat modern Church of St. Mary Magdalen, and on the north, leads into the West Castle Street, at which extremity are still to be traced the remains of the Barrier Gate Way, belonging to the castle, arched over, and lately forming a part of the "Hole in the Wall" publick house, but taken down in June, 1821. At the west side of this street stands a dissenting chapel, belonging to the Baptists. Many of the meanest houses are hewn out of the red sandy rock, under the brow of the hill, with several caves, formerly used as cellars, over which the inhabitants have gardens. There is a curious, but gloomy path, leading from the High Town to the end of the bridge, cut deep in the rock in some places, and made easy by steps and rails. On the north side a chapel presents itself, which belongs to the Independents. From the upper part of this avenue, a benutiful terrace walk leads along the summit of the Castle-hill. This walk wss much admired by King Charles the first, who was there three tunes during the civil war, and preferred it to all other terraces in the kingdom. Persons of taste universally consider it highly interesting. The town in general enjoys a profusion of water, which lows, not only from an extensive spring in the Conduit Field, about half a mile distant, and which is conveyed by pipes, but also, from the Severn. The water of this river is thrown into a cistern on the Castle-hill, by a water engine, worked by the stream. The town consists of two parishes, St. Mary Magdalen, and St. Leonard, the former comprising the whole extent of the Low Town, with a portion of the ancient forest of Morfe, the two Castle Streets, a part of High Street, and of Listley Street. St. Leonard's comprehends the remainder of the horough. At each extremity of the High Town, stand the Churches, which have a commanding and singular appearance, when approached from the Hermitage-hill. That of St. Mary, wss erected nearly on the site of the former edifice, (under an act of parliament passed for that purpose) at the expense of £8827 I ls. 9d., the first stone being laid the 17th of Dec. 1792, by Thomas Whitmore, Esq., the present patron. It is a neat edifice, a hundred and twenty one feet long, and sixty broad, its roof being snpported by fourteen Ionia columns. At the north end is a conical tower, one hundred and thirteen feet, six inches in height, surmounted by a gilt cross, and containing a ring of six very musical bells. The Church of St. Leonard, which appears a very ancient structure, from the perishable red stone of whichit is composed, was built in the year 1448. The materials were given by Richard fiord, Esq., of Hord's Park, out of his quarry, near the Church Yard, called Pipper's Field. The Tower is ninety three feet high, and twenty six feet six inches, by twenty four feet, at the hase. The free school is situated on the west side of the cemetery of St. Leonard, and was founded about the eighteenth year of the reign of King Henry the eighth (1503,) by the bailiffs and corporation. See appendix. The town has many ancient privileges granted under various charters. The carpet trade, was a short time ago, brought to great perfection here. For a time it was discontinued, but is now going on, and is in an increasing state. The iron foundry was once carried on to a great extent. A short time ago it was at a stand; but is now reviving. A manufactory of glue was lately introduced by Mt. Robert Thompson, but is now discontinued. Near this manufacfory, is the tan yard, belonging to the family of the Sings, and occupied by them ever since the reign of Henry the eighth. Adjoining is the steam flour mill, in the occupation of Mr. John Jasper, and capable of grinding one hundred and eighty bushels a day. The pipe manufactory has, till lately, been very extensively employed. The nail trade is in very few hands. An immense quantity of excellent malt is made here, equal, if not superior, to any in the kingdom; the land, on the western side of the river, being admirably adapted to the growth of barley. Many vessels are constructed on the banks of the Severn. In addition to these concerns is the river trade, carried on from Welshppol, Shrewsbury, and Colebrookdale, through this town, to Bewdley, Stourport, Worcester, Gloucester, and Bristol; the Severn connecting itself at Stourport, with the Staffordshire and Worcestershire canal. Monsieur de la Motto, a French spy, [1] introduced the lace making trade; which is at present carried on by a few of the lower order of females, at their respective houses, and is increasing. Bridgnorth is governed by two bailiffs, [2] John Roe, and John Dyer, Gents., a recorder, Thomas Whitmore Esq., a deputy recorder, Leek, Esq., Barrister at Law, tea clerk, John Smith Gent., twenty four aldermen, and forty eight common council men, two chamberlains, and two bridge masters. It is an ancient borough, and has sent members to parliament ab origitse. The first on record are Andrew Bolding, and Traward de Egerton, twenty third of Edward the first, 1294. Its present representatives are Thomas Whitmore, and William Wolryche Whitmore, Esqs.

Its population in 1801, was 4485; and in 1811, 4179. According to the last return the borough of Bridgnorth contained 988 houses, and 4345 inhabitants.

The venerable Dr. Percy was well known during more than half a century, by various learned and ingenious publications, and distinguished by the most active and exemplary publick and private virtues. In him literature lost one of its brightest ornaments and warmest patrons. His ardour of genius, his fine classical taste, his assiduity of research, and his indefatigable zeal in its cause, were such as were possessed by the distinguished few, such as will render his name dear to learning and science. He was the intimate friend of Shenstone, Johnson, Goldsmith, and Reynolds; and the last of that illustrious association of men of letters, which flourished at the commencement of the last reign. Dr. Percy was born at Bridgnorth, in 1728, and was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where he took the degree of M.A.; and in 1756, was presented by his college to the vicarage of Easton Mauduit, in Northamptonshire, which he held with the rectory of Wilbye, in the same county, given him by the Earl of Sussex. He took his Doctor's degree in 1770; and in the list of graduates is styled of Emanuel college. June 12th, 1761, he entered into an agreement with Messrs. Tonson, to publish an edition of the works of George Villiers, the second Duke of Buckingham, for which he received fifty two guineas; March 24th, 1763, for an edition of Surrey's poems, twenty guineas. The translation from the Chinese, entitled Hau Kiou Chooan, [3] or the pleasing History, (published in 1761,) was followed in 1762, by a collection of "Chinese Miscellanies", and in 1763, by "Five pieces of Runick poetry", translated from the Icelandick language. May 5th, 1764, he again engaged with Messrs. Tonson to furnish Notes for an edition of The Spectator, and Guardian, for which he had one hundred guineas. In 1764, he thus communicated to Dr. Ducarel his intended publication of the "Reliques of English Poetry", and the works of Buckingham", "What I chiefly want are old manuscripts or printed copies of the more fugitive remains ofancient genius; of such poems as are not to be found in our voluminous poets such as Chaucer, Lydgate, Gower; of such pieces as are left us by unknown authors, These are of various kinds, vir. Allegories, Romances in verse, Historical Ballads, etc. The following would be particularly acceptable - Pierce Plowman; Life and Death, (an old allegorical poem in the metre of Pierce Plowman;) Horn Child, an old metrical romance; Ippotire, (quoted by Chaucer,) ditto; Sir thy, (quoted by Chaucer,) ditto; Sir Rg lanaoure, ditto; Sir Tryanwure, ditto; Ipponsedon, ditto; The Life and Death, of Merlin, ditto; Sir Landrwell, ditto; The Spire of low Degree, ditto; The Mirk and the Bird, a fable, by Lydgate. I also want to see either the second or third edition, 4to, of the Rehearsal: the first edition was published in 1672, which I have: the fourth edition was published in 1683, which I have also: I want to see either or both of the intermediate editions; and should even be obliged by a perusal of any tracts written by or concerning George Villiers, the second Duke of Buckingham, who died in 1687". elhe Reliques of Ancient and English Poetry", first appeared in 1675; and this publication constitutes an era in the history of English literature in the eighteenth century. Perhaps the perusal of a folio volume of ancient manuscripts, given the Bishop by a friend in early life, (from which he afterwards made large extracts in the "Reliques",) led his mind to those studies in which he so eminently distinguished himself. In this work, he recovered from obscurity, and preserved from oblivion, many beautiful remains of genius. In some that were mere fragments and detached stanzas, Dr. Percy supplied the deficiences, and formed into a whole, by congenial taste, feeling, and imagination. The beautiful old Ballad of "A Friar of Orders Grey", upon which Goldsmith founded his interesting poem of "The Hermit", was among the remains of antiquity which Dr. Percy completed in this manner; and he is the avowed author of the tdrecting song of "Oh Nannie, wilt thou gang with me", A Key to the New Testament", a concise manual for students of sacred literature, which has been adopted into the Universities, and often reprinted;- was first published in 1765. After the publication of the "Reliques" he was invited by the late Duke and Duchess of Northumberland, to reside with them, as their domestick chaplain. In 1770, he conducted through the press, "The Northumberland Household Book"; and a translation of Mallet's "Northern Antiquities", with notes. In the year 1769, he was nominated Chaplain in ordinary to his Majesty. In 1778, he was promoted to the Deanery of Carlisle; and in 1782, to the Bishoprick of Dromore, in Ireland, where he constantly resided, promoting the instruction and comfort of the poor, with unremitting attention, and superintending the sacred and civil interests of the diocese, with vigilance and assiduity; revered and beloved for his piety, liberality, benevolence, and hospitality, by persons of every rank, and religious denomination. Under the loss of sight, of which he was gradually deprived some years before his death, he steadily maintained his:habitual cheerfulness; and in his last painful illness, displayed such fortitude and strength of mind, such patience and resignation to the divine will, and expressed such heartfelt thankfulness for the goodness and mercy shewn to him, in the course of a long and happy life, as were truly impressive, and worthy of that pure Christinn spirit, so conspicuous in his character. His only son died April 2, 1783. Two daughters survived him: the eldest was married to Samuel Isted, Esq., of Ecton, in Northamptonshire; and the youngest to the Hon. and Rev. Pierce Meade, Archdeacon of Dromore. A fine mezzotinto portrait of him, in a cap, holding in his hand a thick volume, labelled "MSS". was engraved February 2, 1775, from a painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds; under which is "Thomas Percy, S.T.P". To this, in some impressions taken of it in 1778, was added, "Dean of Carlisle"; which, in 1782 was again exchanged for "Bishop of Dromore". Dr. Percy died in 1811. His works are, 1. Hau Kiou Chooan,. a translation from the Chinese. 2. Chinese Miscellanies. 3. Five Pieces of Ituniek Poetry, translated from the Icelandick Language. 4. A Bew translation of the Song of Solomon. 5. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, 3 vols. 6. A Key to the New Testament. 7. The Northumberland Household Book. 8. The Hermit of Warkworth, a Poem in the ballad style. 9. A translation of Mallett's Northern Antiquities. 10. A Sermon preached before the Sons of the Clergy, at their Anniversary Meeting, at St. Paul's, May 11, 1769. 4to. Bridgnorth has fairs on the Thursday before Shrove Tide, March 14, May 1, June 30, August 2, October 29. The last is a very considerable mart for horses, especially two year old colts of the draught kind, and for weanling calves. Quantities of cheese and salted butter, are there exposed to sale: much of these articles is brought down the Severn from Montgomeryshire. Hops are another article; they are bought by the Welsh, who attend there with hutter and cheese, and by the shopkeepers of that county.

[1] This gentleman, after having been long employed by the French government as a spy, was at length apprehended, and on Friday, the 13th of July, 1781, was brought to the bar of the Sessions house, in the old Bailey, and being found guilty, was executed shortly afterwards.

[2] The Bailiffs are chosen every year, on St. Matthew's day, out of the twenty-four aldermen, and in the following remarkable manncr. The court being met, the names of twelve aldermen, seniors of those than present, being separately written upon small bits of paper, all of the same size, and rolled up chose by the town clerk, are thrown into a large purse which, after being well tossed and shaken by the two chamberlains standing upon the chequer, (a large square table in the middle of the court, encompassed with seats,) is held open betwixt them before the bailiffs, when each bailiff, according to seniority, putting in his hand, takes out a scroll. By these scrolls the callers are fixed, who, immediately mounting the chequcr, albirnately call the jury out ofsuch persons as are burgesses, and then present them to the court, to the number of fourteen. These being all sworn, neither to cat nor drink, till they, or twelve of them, have made choice of two fit persons who have not before been bailiffs for three years. are locked up until they have agreed: a regulation which has sometimes occasioned very long and tedious fasting., even to the injury of their health. In the year 17S9, at the election of bailiffs, the jury fasted no less than seventy four hours. When they have agreed, they make report of the persons they have elected, who are sworn into office on Michaelmas day. The bailiffs for the time being, are justices of the peace, and lords of the manor for the said town and liberties, which are very extensive; extending one way, six or seven miles.

[3] "Hau Kiou Omani", or the pleasing History, a Chinese Romance in 4 vols. duodecimo, is a translation from the Chinese language, revised from a manuscript (dated 1719,) found among the papers of a gentleman, who had large concerns in the East India company, and who occasionally, resided much at Canton.

BROADSTONE. A township in the parish of Munslow, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow. 8 miles south-west by south of Wenlock.

BROAD STREET AND CASTLE. One of the wards in the borough of Ludlow, in the parish of St. Laurence, Broad Street and Castle Ward contains 443 houses, 2208 inhabitants.

BROADWARD. A township in the parish of Clungunford, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. 8 miles west of Ludlow.

BROCKTON. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury. 13 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

BROCKTON. A township in the parish of Long Stanton, and in the franchise of Wenlock.

BROCKTON. A township in the parish of Lydbury North, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow. 21 miles south of Bishopscastle.

BROMFIELD. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Muuslow, a vicarage remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 123 houses, 674 inhabitants. 2 miles north-west of Ludlow, See appendix.

BROMLEY. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Briwstry. 2 miles north- east of Bridgnorth.

BROMLOW. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury, 51 houses, 817 inhabitants. 8½ miles north of Bishopscastle.

BROMPTON. A township in the parish of Berrington, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover. 4½ miles south- east of Shrewsbury.

BROMPTON. A township in the parish of Clunbury, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. 5½ miles southeast by south of Bishopscastle.

BROMPTON. A township in the parish of Church Stoke, and in the upper division of the hundred of Chirbury. 6½ miles north- west of Bishopscastle.

BRONNYGARTH. A township in the parish of St. Martin's, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry. With Weston Rhyn it contains 192 houses, 917 inhabitants. 4½ miles north-west by north of Oswestry.

BROOKHAMPTON. A township in the parish of Long Stanton, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 11 houses, 191 inhabitants. 6 miles south-west by south of Wenlock.

BROOM. A township in the parish of Acton Burnell, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover. 9 miles south-east by south of Shrewsbury.

BROOM. A township in the parish of Cardington, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover. 6 miles south-west of Much Wenlock.

BROOM and ROWTON. A township in the parish of Clungunford, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. Broom 7 miles, Rowton 7½ miles south-east of Bishopscastle.

BROOMHALL. The Seat of H.P. Tozer Aubrey, esq. ½ mile west of Oswestry. See appendix.

BROSELEY. A market town in the franchise of Wenlock, a rectory in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 1019 houses, 4814 inhabitants. The depression of trade is stated as the cause of diminished population in Broseley, which, in 1811 contained 4850 inhabitants. Market on Wednesday, Fairs on April 25, and October 28. 14 miles south-east of Shrewsbury. In the year 1711, was discovered at Brosely, a very remarkable burning spring, of which the Rev. Mr. Mason Woodwarden, professor at Cambridge, gives the following account. "The well for four or five feet deep, is six or seven feet wide, within that is another less hole of like depth, dug in the clay; in the bottom whereof is placed a cylindrick, earthen vessel, of about four or five inches diameter at the mouth, having the bottom taken oil; and the sides well axed in, the clay rammed close about it, Within the pot is a brown water as thick as puddle, continually forced up with a violent motion, beyond that of boiling water, and a rumbling hollow noise, rising and falling by fits, five or six inches; but there was no appearance of any vapour rising, which perhaps might have been visible, had not the sun shone so bright. Upon putting a candle down at the end of a stick, at a quarter of a yard distance, it took fire, darting and flashing after a very violent manner, for about half a yard high, much in the manner of spirits in a lamp, but with great agitation. It was said that a tea kettle had been made to boil in about nine minutes time, and that it had been left burning for forty eight hours, without any sensible diminution, it was extinguished. by putting a wet mop upon it, which it was necessary to keep there for a considerable time, otherwise it would not go out. Upon the removal of the mop, there arises a sulphureous smoke, lasting about a minute, and yet the water is cold to the touch. The cause of this inflammable property, is most probably the mixture of the waters with petroleum, which is one of the most inflammable substances in nature, and has the property of burning on the surface of water. In the year 1755, this Well entirely disappeared, by the sinking of a coal pit in its neighbourhood.

[1] See appendix.

BROUGHALL. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 1 mile southeast of Whitchureh.

BROUGHTON. A township in the parish of Claverley, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 10 miles east of Bridgnorth.

BROUGHTON. A township in ithe parish of Bishopscastle, and in the Bishopscsstle division of the hundred of Purslow. 1 mile north-west of Bishopscastle.

BROUGHTON. A parish in the liberties of Shrewsbury, a chapeiry in the diooese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 31 houses, 177 inhabitants. 3 miles south of Weer.

BRUNSLOW; or BnownsLow. A township in the parish of Edgton, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow: 3½ miles south-east of Bishopscastle.

BUCKNELL. A parish in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow, a chapelry in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Chin, and archdeaconry of Salop. This parish is partly in Wigmore hundred, county of Hereford. The entire parish contains 465 inhabitants. The Shropshire part contains 57 houses, 111 inhabitants. 91 miles south-east by south of Bishopscastle.

BUCKTON. A township in the parish of Bueknell, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. 10½ miles south-east of Bishopscastle.

BUILDWAS, MAGNA, and PARVA. One township. A parish in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a curacy in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 52 houses, 240 inhabitants. 3 miles north-east by north of Much Wenlock.

BUILDWAS ABBEY. See appendix.

BULTHY; or BWLTHAU. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 12 miles west of Shrewsbury.

BURASTON; or BOREASTON. A township in the parish of Burford, and in the hundred of Overs. 7 miles Routh-west of Ludlow. Buraston and Whetmore townships contain 46 houses, 226 inhabitants.

BURCOT. A township in the perish of Worfield, or Worvil, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 2 miles north-east of Bridgnorth. See appendix.

BURCOT. A township in the parish of Wrockwardine, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 2 miles west of Wellington.

BURFIELD. An extra-parochial place near Clun.

BURFORD. A parish in the hundred of Overs, a rectory divided into three parts, or portions, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Burford, and archdeaconry of Salop. 201 houses, 1036 inhabitants. 6. miles south-west of Ludlow. Burford house is the residence of the Hon. and Rev. G. Rushout.

BURLEY. A township in the parish of Culmington, and in the upper division of the hundred of blunslow. 4½ miles north of Ludlow.

BURLTON. A towsship in the parish of Loppington, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 4 miles south- west of Wem.

BURROW CAMP. 4½ miles south-east of Bishopscastle. See appendix.

BURTON; OR BORTON. A township in the parish of Berrington, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover. 4 miles south south-east of Shrewsbury.

BURTON. A township and curacy in the pariah of Much Wenlock, in the franchise of Wenlock, in the diocese, of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 2½ miles south-west of Wenlock.

BERWARTON. A parish in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 22 houses, 123 inhabitants. 9 miles south-west of Bridgnorth.

BURWAY. A township in the parish of Munslow, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow. 1 mile northwest of Ludlow.

BYN WESTON; or BIN WESTON. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury. 23 houses, 155 inhabitants. 14 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

CAER CARADOC. One of the hills on the eastern line of the plain of Shropshire. An aboriginal British fortification. See appendix, "Aboriginal British Fortifications". This was once thought to be the spot on which Caractacus the British Chieftain made his last and unsuccessful resistance to the Roman arms, and was certainly one of his encampments. When Britain was invaded by the Romans, Shropshire was inhabited by the tribes of the Cornavii [the Cornavii possessed Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Staffordshire, and Cheshire, as well as part of Shropshire] and the Ordovices, whose territory was divided by the river Severn. The latter, a warlike and enterprising race, united with the Silures, who occupied Herefordshire, under the command of Caractacus. The memory of this brave man is preserved by local tradition, and his name is connected with two military posts in the country, on which traces of his encampments are yet to be discerned. Many are the conjectures which have been formed respecting the scene of his last contest with P. Ostorius, and as there are no records which confirm the general discription given by Tacitus, it is impossible to decide which is the true one. It is certain that, for a considerable time, Caractacus successfully opposed the progress of the Romans, in the hilly country, which now forms a part of Shropshire; and it was therefore thought not improbable, that he here terminated his career. A learned editor of Camden, whose reputation as an antiquary is of the highest order, considers the account of the Roman historian as referring to a hill about two miles south of Clun, called Caer Caradoc, or the Geer, near the junction of the rivers Clun, and Teme, among several dangerous fords. On the point of this hill, which can be approached only on one side, is a large camp, defended on the north side by deep double ditches, cut in the solid rock, almost impregnable on the east and south, and fortified by ramparts of stone. The description of Tacitus, as Mr. Gough observes, places this camp before our eyes. " Montibus arduis, et si qua clementer accedi poterat in modum valli saxa praestruit; et praeterfluebat amnis vado incerto, catervaque armatorum pro munimentis constiterant". A learned and respectable clergyman of Shrewsbury, who has made the military antiquities of Shropshire and the bordering counties his particular study, is inclined to believe that the only place which exactly answers the description of Tacitus, is the Breidden hill, in Montgomeryshire. The circumstances on which he grounds his hypothesis are, the remains of a British encampment on its summit, and the course of the river Severn near its base, he adds that the Roman historian describes the enemy as flying " per juga montium" and in that situation they could not do otherwise. P. Ostorius, the propitetor in Britain, found the affairs of the Romans in great disorder, on account of the encroachments of the enemy, on the tetritories of their allies - which were become the more outrageous, because they did not imagine that a general, but lately appointed, and unacquainted with the army, would think of taking the field at the beginning of winter. Ostorius, however; sensible how much his character depended upon the first events of his administration, immediately marched against them at the head of such troops as he could command; put all who resisted him to the sword, and pursuing the rest, who were dispersed and routed, prevented them from rallying again. Unwilling to trust to a trencheroui peace, which would. be no security either to himself, or to his army, he prepared to disarni those Tribes, whose allegiance he suspected, and to post his forces on the rivers Antona (the Avon) and Severn, that he might be ready to check them on every necessary occasion. This design was first opposed by Iceni [who occupied Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge, and Huntingdon] a powerful tribe, which had continued unbroken by the war, and hid formerly embraced the alliance of the Romans. Excited by their example, the neighhouring tribes rose in a body and encamped in a favourable station, fenced by a rampart of earth, and which being accessible only by a narrow passage, prevented the entrance of the Roman cavalry. The Roman general, though he was supported only by the auxiliary troops, and was destitute of his legions, attempted to force these entrenchments, and having disposed his infantry to the best advantage, drew up also some troops of horse before the ramparts. At the given signal these were forced, and the enemy, entangled in their own entrenchments, were put into complete disorder. They defended themselves however with great valour, conscious of their revolt, and of the impossibility of escape. In this battle, M. Ostorius the lieutenant's son, had the honour of saving the life of a citizen. In consequence of this defeat of the Iceni, other tribes were confirmed in their allegiance; and Ostorius marching with his army among the Cangi, (who seem to have belonged to the tribe of the Belgai,) laid waste the fields and ravaged the country. The enemy did not dare to face us openly in the field; and if at any time they fell by surprize upon our rear, they paid dearly for their temerity. The Roman general had now advanced almost to the Irish sea, when a sedition among the Brigantes, arrested him in his progress. Being resolved to secure his old conquests, before he attempted anything further, the general returned, and after the slaughter of a few who had taken up arms, the Brigantes were reduced to obedience, and obtained forgiveness. Bnt the Silures were not to be reclaimed either by severity or mercy, and a legion was therefore encamped to awe and restrain them. In order to facilitate the accomplishment of this design, the colony of Camaludonum (Colchester) with a numerous body of veterans, was planted in the recent conquests. These took possession of the conquered lands, were always in readiness to assist their countrymen against any revolt, and brought their allies into conformity to our laws. Some cities were also given to King Cogidunus, agreeably to the ancient usage of the Romans, to make even King's their instruments, to keep nations in subjection. The army afterwards marched against the Silures, who, in addition to their native ferocity, placed great hopes in the valour of Caractacus, whom the many changes and prosperous turns of fortune had advanced to a pre-eminence over the rest of the British leaders. He, artfully availing himself of his knowledge of the country, as countervailing his. inferiority of numbers, transferred the war into the country of the Ordovices, and being joined by those who distrusted the peace subsisting between us, put matters upon a decisive issue, posting himself on a spot, of which, the approaches and retreats were as advantageous to his own party, as they were perpleiing to es. He then threw up, on the more accessible parts of the highest hills, a kind of rampart of stone, below and in front of which, was a river difficult to ford, and on the works he placed the troops of soldiers. The respective leaders also went round to animate and inspirit them, lessening their fears, magnifying their hopes, and urging every encouragement usual on these occasions. Caractacus rnnning from one to another, bade them consider that the work of that day would, be the beginning of new liberty, or of eternal slavery. He set before them the example of their ancestors, who had driven, Caesar the dictator out of Britain, and by whose valour they had been hitherto preserved from axes and tributes, and their wives and families from dishonour. The people received these animating harrangues with loud acclamations, engaging themselves by the most solemn rites, according to the religion of their country, never to yield to weapons or wounds. Their resolution astonished the Roman general; and the river in the way, together with the ramparts and the steeps, presented to the assailants a formidable and resolute appearance. But the soldiers were clamorous for the charge, crying ont that valour could beat down all opposition; and the inferior officers inspiring the same sentiments, gave new courage to the troops. Ostorins, having reconnoitred the ground, to see which part was impenetrable, and which accessible, led on the ardent soldiers, and with considerable difficulty crossed the river. When they came to the rampart, while they only threw their darts at a distance, our men suffered most, and numbers were slain; but closing the ranks, and placing their shields over them, they, presently tore down the rough irregular piles of stone, and coming to close quarters, obliged the barbarians to retire to the top of the hills. Thither also both the light and heavy armed soldiers followed them, the former attacking theta with their spears, the latter in a body, till the Britons, who had no, annouror helmets to shelter them, were thrown into confusion; and if they made any resistance to the auxiliaries, they were cut to pieces by the swords and spears of the legionaries, against whom when they turned, they were destroyed by the broad swords and javelins of the auxiliaries.. This was an illustrious victory. The wife, and daughter of Caractacus. were taken, and his brother submitted to the 'conqueror, Caractacus himself, by the common insecurity of adversity, throwing himself npon the protection of Cartismaudua, queen of the Brigantes, was put in irons and given up to the con, querors, nine years after the war first broke out in Britain, His fame, which had reached the islands, and the neighbouring provinces, and even Italy, made people eager to see what kind of a man it was, who had so long set our power at defiance, Nor was the name of Caractacus 'inconsiderable at Rome, The people were assembled as to some great sight. The praetorian cohorts were under arms in the field before the camp. First came the King's dependants and retinue, and the trappings and collars, and the trophies which he had won in foreign wars, next, his brothers, his wife and daughter, and last himself, was presented to the publick view. The rest expressed their fears in unworthy supplications, Caractacus, neither by his looks, nor by his language, pleaded for pity; and when he came before the Emperor's seat expressed himself in these terms:- " Had I made that prudent use of my prosperity, which my rank and fortune would have enabled me to make, I had come hither, rather as a friend, than as a prisoner: nor would you have disdained the alliance of one descended from illustrious ancestors, and sovereign over many nations. My present condition, disgraceful as it is to myself, reflects glory on you. Possessed as I once was of horses, men, arms and wealth, what wonder is it if I parted from them with reluctance; for does it follow, that because you wish for universal empire, all must voluntarily submit to your yoke. Had I been given up at the first, neither my fortune, nor your glory, would have been set in a distinguished point of view, and my punishment would have sunk all remembrance of me. By giving me my life, you make me an eternal monument of your clemency". The Emperor immediately pardoned Caractacus, his wife and brothers. As soon as their chains were taken off, they proceeded to pay their respects, in the same terms as before to the Emperor, to Agrippina, who sat on a raised seat not far away. A woman sitting at the head of the Roman army, among the Roman ensigns, and seeming to command them, was a new sight, and very foreign to the manners of our ancestors; But she assumed a share in the government, as obtained by her family. The senate was afterwards assembled, and many congratulatory speeches were made on the taking of Caractacus. It seemed as illuntrious a sight, as when Scipio shewed Syphax, Paulus presented Perses, and other generals displayed conquered Kings to the Roman people; and the ensigns of a triumph were decreed to Ostorius". These victories over the. Britons, are ranked by historians among the most distinguished memorials and testimonies of the Roman valour. Hence Seneca observes, Claudius might boost of having first conquered the Britons, for Julius Cesar, only shewed them to the Romans. Elsewhere he says of the same Emperor:- Ille Britannon, Ultra notj, Litors ponti, Et caeruleos, Scuta Brigantes, Dare Romuleis, Colla cathenis, Jussit et ipsum, Nova Romana, Jura securis, Tremere oceanum. Gildas, the earliest of our British historians, speaking of the numerable revolt, and overthrow of the Britons, under Boadicea, about A.D. 60, gives us to understand, that the gospel then began to be successfully published in this country; and the correctness of his statement is confirmed by those ancient Cambrian records, called the Triades. In these it is stated that the celebrated Caractacus, who after a war of nine years, was betrayed to the Romans, was, together with his father Brennus and the whole family, carried prisoner to Rome, about the year 58, where they remained for a period of seven years. At this time Christianity was preached in the imperial city; and Brennus, with others of his family, became professed members of the Christian church. At the expiration of seven years, they were permitted to return, and were thus furnished with a favourable opportunity of introducing the gospel into their own country, It is also said, that three Christians, one an Israelite, and the other two, gentiles, with whom they had been in the habit of associating; accompanied them, and were successful in reclaiming many of the Britons, from their ancient superstitions, and in teaching them the religion of Christ. It does not appear that Caractacus was converted to Christianity at Rome, but his son Cyllin and his daughter Eigen, are both ranked among the British saints. That son is represented as the grandfather of King Lucius, who made great exertions for the promotion of the gospel in Siluria, [Hertfordshire] the country of his ancestors; and even the celebrated King Arthur seems to have been a descendant of this family. Eigen the daughter of Caractacus is said to have bestowed her hand on a British Chieftain, whose domain called Caer Sarllog, is now known by the name of Old Sarum. Claudia, one of her sisters, is supposed to have become the wife of a Roman Senator, named Pudens. Caer Caradoc is about 2 miles north-east of Church Stretton.


CAINHAM; OR CAYNHAM. A parish in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Siottesden, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 194 houses, 986 inhabitants. 2½ miles south-east by east of Ludlow.

CAKEMORE; or CAKEMOOR. A township in thc parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry. 2½ miles north-east of Hales Owen.

CALLAUGHTON. A township in the parish of Much Wenlock, and in the franchise of Wenlock. l miles south of Weadock.

CALVERHALL; or CORVERHALL; or CLOVERLEY. A township in the parish of Frees, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. A chapel to Prees. Calverhall, with Willaston, and Millen-heath, contains 51 houses, 298 inhabitants.

CANTLOP. A township in the parish of Berrington, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover. 6½ miles south.east by south of Shrewsbury.


CARBONEL. See Ashford Carbonel.

CARDESTON. A parish in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Postesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 65 houses, 297 inhabitants. 6 miles west of Shrewsbury.

CARDINGTON. A parish in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow, a vicarage in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 124 houses, 687 inhabitants. 11½ miles north of Shrewsbury. Cardington produces a qunrtz, and clay, the former of which is said to he superior to that imported from Ceerearronshire, for the use of the Staffordshire potteries.

CARREGHORN. A township in the parish of Llanymynech, and in the hundred of Oswestry. See appendix.

CASTLE PULVERBATCH. A township in the parish of Chnrch Pulverbatch, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 8½ miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

CASTLE STREET. In the parish of St. Laurence, in the borough of Ludlow. Broad Street and Castle Ward, contain 443 houses, 2,208 inhabitants.

CASTLE WRIGHT. A township in the parish of Mainstone, and in the Mainstone division of the hundred of Clun.

CATSTREY; or CATSTREE. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 3 mile, north north-east of Bridgnorth.

CAUGHLEY. A township in the parish of Linley, and in the franchise of Wenlock. 6 miles east of Wenlock.

CAUSE. A township in the parish of Westbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 10 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

CAUSE CASTLE. This Castle was supposed to have been built by Roger Corbett, who held, of Earl Roger de Montgomery, a tract of land in this quarter, consisting of thirty nine manors, or hamlets. It is conjectured that he gave the above name to this his capital seat, in allusion to a Castle in the Pays de Caux in Normandy. As he and his son probably took sides with Robert de Belesme in his rebellion; the Castle is supposed to have heen forfeited to Henry the first, who gave it to Paris Fitz John, from whom it was taken by the Welsh. It was afterwards restored to the original lords, and in the first year of King John, a weekly market was obtained for it, at the instance of Robert Corbett. Its proximity to the Welsh border rendered its tenure uncertain, and we find that it was again seized by the Welsh, and restored by Henry the third. In the reign of Edward the third, the male line of the family becoming extinct, the Castle was transferred by a marriage of a daughter of the house, to the Staffords, Earls of Stafford, on the execution of the last of whom, Edward duke of Buckingham, it was forfeited to the crown, but was restored to his son Edward. It was alienated in the reign of Elizabeth to Robert Harcourt, from whom it descended to Lord Viscount Weymouth. The site of the Castle is perhaps one of the most lofty and commanding in the whole range of the Salopian frontier. It is an insulated ridge, rising abruptly from a deep ravine on one side, and sloping towards a vast valley, bounded by the Stiperstones, on the other. The Keep mount is singularly steep and towering; it must have been ascended by steps or by a winding path, though no traces of either now remain; part of a Well is still distinguishable; but the castle itself is a mere ruin. It has, apparently, been stripped of all its dressed stone, as the fragments of the edifice that are here and there left standing, consist of the rude materials used for filling up the interior of the thick walls. Parts of one of the entrance gateways, evidently of a more recent date than the original Castle, are still to be discerned.

CAYNTON. A township in the parish of Edgmond, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 3½ miles north-west of Newport.

CHARLTON; or CHORLTON. A township in the parish of Wrockwardine; and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 8 miles west of Wellington.

CHATFORD. A township in the parish of Condover, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 4½ miles south of Shrewsbury.

CHATWELL; or CHATWALL: A township in the parish of Cardington; and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 4 miles north-east of Church Stretton.

CHELMARSH; or CHILMARSH. A pariah in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Stottesden, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden and archdeaconry of Salop. 72 houses, 108 inhabitants. 8½ miles south south-east of Bridgnorth.

CHELMICK. A township in the parish of Hope Bowdler, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 2 miles south- east of Church Stretton.

CHERRINGTON. A township in the parishes of Edgmond and Bolas Magna. 80 houses, 192 inhabitants. 4½ miles west of Newport.

CHESTERTON: A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 5 miles north-east of Bridgnorth. At Chesterton is one of the most perfect Roman camps in the Island; and the Saxons had a Castle there. See appendix.

CHESWARDINE. A parish in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford North, a vicarage, in the diocese of Hereford; the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Stafford. 155 houses, 988 inhabitants. 4 miles south-east of Drayton.


CHETTON. A parish in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory remaining in charge, and consolidated with Deuxhill, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 4½ miles south-west of Bridgnorth. 108 houses, 573 inhabitants.

CHETWYND. A parish in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South; a rectory in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 91 houses, 566 inhabitants. 1/4 mile north of Newport.

CHETWYND ASTON. A township in the parish of Chetwynd, and in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 60 houses, 291 inhabitants.

CHETWYND PARK. 14 mile north north-west of Newport. The residence of J. Borough, esq. See appendix.

CHILD'S ERCALL. A parish in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North, a curacy in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 74 houses, 389 inhabitants. 10½ miles north-west of Newport.

CHILMARSH. See Chelmarsh.

CHILTON; or CHELTON. A township in the parish of Atcham, and in the hundred of Condover. 3½ miles southeast of Shrewsbury.

CHINNEL; or CHIMNEL. Part of a township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. See Hollyhurst and Chinnel. 1½ mile north of Whitchurch.

CHIPPENHALL; or CHIPNALL. A township in the parish of Cheswardine, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 3½ miles south-west of Drayton.

CHIRBURY. A parish in the upper division of the hundred of Chirbury, a vicarage remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Pontesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 269 houses, 1,442 inhabitants. 19 miles south-west of Shrewsbury. Chirbury is a pleasant village, lying in a fertile valley, on the confines of Montgomeryshire. It formerly possessed a Castle, supposed to have been erected by Ethelfreda, Queen of Mercia; and as it gives its name to the hundred in which it is situated, it may be presumed that the place was at one time of greater consequence than it is at present. The ruins of a priory of Augustine Canons is its chief architectural antiquity. The nave of that edifice forms the present parish church, and has on each side six pointed arches, on plain round pillars. At the west end is a strong and handsome square tower, with eight pinnacles, and an open worked battlement. Within a few years there was a fine deep-toned priory bell, which was used for ringing the curfew. The new peal of six bells was formed from the metal of this, (which had been cracked) and three smaller bells. The tithes of this parish were given, by Queen Elisabeth, to the Grammar School of Shrewsbury, founded by her brother, Edward the sixth. Chirbury gave title to the celebrated Edward Lord Herbert, who was born at Ergo. See Eyton.

CHOULTON; or CHEALTON. Part of a township in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow, and in the parish of Lydbury North. 3½ miles east of Bishopscastle. See Eaton and Chealton.

CHURCH ASTON. A township in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a chapel to the parish of Edgmond, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 173 houses, 329 inhabitants. 1 mile south from Newport.

CHURCH PREEN. A township in the parish of Cardington, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover, a chapelry, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 13 houses, 73 inhabitants. 10½ miles south south-west of Shrewsbury.

CHURCH PULVERBATCH; or CHURTON. A parish in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover, a rectory remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Pontesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 81 houses, 539 inhabitants. 8 miles southwest of Shrewsbury. Fair September 27, for horned cattle, horses, and sheep.

CHURCH STOKE. A parish partly in Course hundred, in the county of Montgomery, partly in Montgomery hundred, county of Montgomery, partly in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury. The whole of the parish contains 1,338 inhabitants. The Shropshire part contains 34 houses, 197 inhabitants. 5½ miles north-west of Bishopscastle.

CHURCH STRETTON. A market town in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow, a vicarage, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 248 houses, 1,226 inhabitants. 13 miles south south-west of Shrewsbury. Fairs May 14, and September 25, Market on Thursday. LAT. 52. 34 N. LONG. 2. 54 W.

CHURTON. See Church Pulverbatch.

CLAVERLEY. A parish in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry, a curacy, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, in the peculiar jurisdiction of Bridgnorth. 254 houses 1305 inhabitants. 4½ miles east of Bridgnorth, Claverley gave birth to Sir Robert Brooke, who was educated at Oxford, from whence he removed to the middle Temple. In 1553, he became chief justice of the common pleas, in which office he conducted himself with inflexible integrity, and died in 1558. His works are, "An Abridgment of the year books", in folio; "Certain cases adjudged"; and "Reading on the statutes of limitations", Svo.

CLEE STANTON, and CLEE DOWNTON. A township in the parish of Stoke St. Milborough, and in the franchise of Wenlock. Clee Stanton is 4½ miles northeast, and Clee Downton 5½ miles north-east of Ludlow.

CLEE ST. MARGARET. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a curacy remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 55 houses, 229 inhabitants. 7 miles north north-east of Ludlow.

CLEETON. A township in the parish of Bitterley, and in the hundred of Overs. 64 miles north-east of Ludlow.

CLEWILSEY. A township in the parish of Llanvair Waterdine, and in the Mainstone division of the hundred of Clun.

CLEOBURY MORTIMER. A market town in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden, a vicarage, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Burford, and archdeaconry of Salop, 328 houses, 1,662 inhabitants. It has a market on Thursdays, and fairs April 21, June 4, October 27, for horned cattle, sheep, and pigs. It owes its name to its having formerly belonged to the noble family of Mortimer, and consists of one large street. The church is an elegant building of what is commonly, though improperly, called Gothick architecture, and once belonged to one of the mitred abbeys. A strong castle which formerly stood in this place, built by Hugh de Montgomery, was entirely destroyed in the wars, between Henry the second, and his rebellious barons. On the north side of the church, is a free school, founded by Sir Edward Childe, one of the masters in chancery, who left three thousand five hundred pounds, for its support, besides a liberal salary to the master. Near the school, a little to the east, are conjectured to be the remains of a Danish camp, the history of which is unknown. This town is generally thought to have been the birth place of Robert Langelande, otherwise John Malverne, author of the visions of Pierce Plowman;- a severe satire upon the clergy of the fourteenth century. Cleobury Mortimer is about 30 miles south-east of Shrewsbury, in LAT. 52. 24 N. LONG. 2. 86 W. Robert Langelande was one of our most ancient poets, and was a disciple of the celebrated reformer Wickliffe. Boyle, in his dictionary, informs us that "The Visions" were published during the mayoralty of John Chichester of London, in the year 1369. If this account be correct, many of Chaucer's and Gower's pieces made their appearance before Langelande's work. There are, however, many passages in the Plowman's Tale of Chaucer, which strongly resembles some of those in "The Visions"; - a strong presumption that Langelande's work is many years older than Chaucer's. In the general idiom and phraseology of Langelande, there is a marked difference. There is a much nearer approach in the works of the former, to the peculiar genius ofthe Anglo Saxon language, particularly in the derivation of his words, while the latter attempted, with Gower, to soften the harshness of our native tongue, by the introduction of words from the Latin, Italian, and French languages; and borrowed, from Petrarch and Dante, the seven lined stanza, which he introduced into our poetry. Langelande's poem is extremely irregular, both in action and design. It is a severe satire upon almost every action of life; but particularly on the conduct of the clergy of that period. It abounds with humour; but, instead of rhymes, the author has contrived to make almost every verse begin with the same letter. It may be easily imagined, that this whimsical alliteration does not contribute largely either to perspicuity of style, or vigour of sentiment. But this mode of versification was borrowed from the Saxon Bards, and the work is full of Saxon Idioms. The following is a specimen of the Introduction:- " In a summer season when hot was the sun I shoupe me into the shroubes as I a shepe were; In habit as a hermit, unholy of works, Went wide into the world wonders to hear, And on a May morning on Malvern hylles, Me befell a ferly, a fairy methought, I was wery of wand'ring. " Seldon, Spencer, Hickes, and others have spoken of this author in terms of commendation. But apart from that vein of humour and just satire which runs through the work, it contains little worthy of admiration.

CLEOBURY FOREIGN. A township in the parish of Cleobury Mortimer, and in the Ludlow division of the hundred of Stottesdon.

CLEOBURY NORTH. A parish in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Stottesdon, a rectory remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesdon, and archdeaconry of Salop. 32 houses, 170 inhabitants. 8 miles south-west of Bridgnorth.

CLIMATE. Owing to the irregularity of its soil and surfaces in conjunction with other causes, there is no inconsiderable difference in the climate of Shropshire. On the eastern side of the county, when the land approaches nearer to a plain, the harvest is frequently ripe about a fortnight sooner than in the interior, where the valleys are extensive, the surface more dense, and the bottom of clay, And yet in this part, both hay and grain are gathered earlier than on the western side, where the valleys are narrow, and the land frequently more elevated; though here, the land is not so stiff, and lies for the most part on a rocky bottom, full of femora& In spring the easterly winds prevail, and in autumn those from the west. lu the opinion of Archdeacon Plymley, the easterly winds are more regular, than those from the west; generally blowing for a series of five or six years; and then, for nearly the sane space of time, being less frequent, and less violent. The same may be observed of the wet and dry seasons; but the periods of both appear to be much shorter. The air is generally very salubrious, not only through the county at large, but even in the mining districts.

CLIVE. A chapelry in the parish of St. Mary, Shrewsbury, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 54 houses, 306 inhabitants. 3 miles south of Wem. This is said to have been the birth place of the poet Wycherley; though some affirm that he was born at the "French Farm", near Wem, and others, at Wem. Wycherley was one of the wits and poets of the reign of Charles the second, and was born about the year 1640. After receiving an education at school, he was sent to France, and transformed to the Roman Catholick religion. A little before the restoration he returned to England, and entered as a Gentleman commoner, at Queen's college, Oxford; but, being never matriculated, he quitted the University without a degree, and took chambers in the Middle Temple. He soon, however, deserted the law for the Town; and following the tsste of that dissipated age, devoted himself to the composition of comedies. His first piece, entitled "Love in a wood, or St. James's Park", made its appearance in 1672, and quickly brought its author into notice. He became a favourite with the Duchess of Cleveland, and was much esteemed by Villiers, the witty Duke of Buckingham, who presented him with a captain's commission in his own company. His good fortune did not stop here, for he was honoured with the attentions of his Majesty, who paid him a visit when he was confined by sickness, and made him many promises of future promotion. But his prospects were blasted by his marriage with the Countess of Drogheda, [1] without acquainting the king. The match did not prove a very happy one. His lady was excessively jealous of him; and though on her death, a few years after, she settled her whole estate on her husband, the title was disputed, and he became so involved in his circumstances, by law expenses and other incumbrantes, that he was thrown into prison. He had remained in confinement about seven years, when James the second, going to see his comedy of " The Plain Dealer", was so much delighted with it that he gave orders for the payment of the author's debts, and granted him a pension of £200 a year. But the concealment of part of his debts, and the subsequent changes of the times, left him still under difficulties, which were not removed by his father's death, when he became only a tenant for life of the estate to which he succeeded. In his old age he raised some money, and at the same time made a good bargain for a future widow, by marrying, a few days before his death, a young woman with £1500, on whom he settled a jointure. [2] Wycherley died in 1715, at the age of seventy-five. This writer is remembered only as a writer of comedies; of which, besides the two already mentioned, he composed two more, " The Gentleman Dancing Master", and the "Country Wife", the last of these, and the "Plain Dealer", were the most noted; and the reputation he acquired was such that Lord Rochester pronounces Wycherley and Shadwell to be the only modern wits who have touched upon true comedy. This was one libertine judging of another; for the plays of Wycherley, are Strongly Marked with his own character, some wit and strength of delineation, with much coarseness and licentiousness. It has been said of manner, compared with Moliere's; that Wycherley's "Plain Dealer" is a misanthrope, and Moleire's misanthrope a plain dealer. He attacks vice with the severity of a cynick, and the language of a libertine. A volume of poems which he published in 1704, succeeded so ill, that he applied to Pope, then a mere youth, with whom he had contracted an acquaintance, to correct the verification. The correspondence between them is printed in the collection of Pope's letters, and the editor observes upon them, that to judge by the manner of thinking, and turn of expression, one might suppose that they were mistitled, and that those assigned to the boy belonged to the man of seventy, and vice versa. Dr. Johnson remarks, that "when Pope was sufficiently bold in his criticisms, the old scribbler was angry to see his pages defaced, and felt more pain from the detection, than pleasure from the amendment of his faults". The posthumous works of Wycherley, in prose and verse were published by Theobald, in 1728. 8vo.

[1] His acquaintance with this lady is said to have commenced at Tunbridge, where, walking out one day with his friend Mr. Fairbread of Gray's Inn, just as they arrived at a bookseller's shop, the countess, a young, rich, and beautiful widow, came to the bookseller, and enquired for the "Plain Dealer". " Madam", said Mr. Fairbread, "since you are for the plain dealer, there he is for you"; at the same time pushing Mr. Wycherley towards her. " Yes", said Wycherley, "this lady can bear plain dealing; for she appears to be so accomplished, that what would be a compliment to others, when said to her, would be plain dealing". "No, truly Sir", said the lady, " I am not without my faults, I love plain dealing, and am never more fond of it than when it tells me of a fault". "Then Madam", said Mr. Fairbread, "You and the plain dealer seem designed by Heaven for each other". Mr. Wycherley accompanied the Countess, home, visited her daily at her lodgings, and in a short time obtained her mind to marry him. This step Wycherley took by the advice of his father; but the King, when informed of it, was highly displeased; and, as Wycherley, conscious of having acted imprudently, seldom went to court, his conduct was attributed to ingratitude.

[2] Mr. Edward Blount relates some particulars of the marriage, in a letter to Mr. Pope, dated January 21, 1715-46. " Our friend Wycherley had often told me, as I doubt not be did all his acquaintance, that be would marry as soon as his life was despaired of: accordingly, a few days before his death, he underwent the ceremony, and joined together those two sacraments which, wise men say, should be the last we receive; for if you observe matrimony is placed after extreme unction in our catechism, as a kind of hint of the order of time, in which they ought to be taken. The old man then lay down, satisfied with the consciousness of having, by this one act, paid his just debts,- obliged a woman who he was told had merit, and shewn an heroick resentment of the ill usage of his next heir. Some hundred pounds which he had with the lady discharged those debts; a jointure of four hundred a year made her a recompence; and the nephew was consoled with the miserable remains of a mortgaged estate [3]. I saw our friend twice after this was done, less peevish in his sickness, than be used to be in his health, neither much afraid of dying, nor (which in him had been more likely) much ashamed of marrying, The evening before he expired, he called his young wife to his bedside, and earnestly entreated her not to deny him one request,- the last he should make. Upon her assurances of consenting to it, he said to her, "My dear, it is only this, that you will not marry an old man again".

[3] Mr. Wycherley'a widow survived his many years, even to extreme old age. The late John Lee, esq. of Wem, who died about six years ago, had conversed with an old man, who knew her well. So complete was the revenge which the dying poet took of his nephew, who it is said was so lost to all sense of decency as to insult his uncle on his death bed.

CLOTLEY. A township in the parish of Wrockwardine, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 2 miles south-west of Wellington.

CLOVERLY; or CALVERHALL; or CORVERAL. The seat of J.W. Dodd, esq. In the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 5 miles south-east of Whitchurch. See Calverhall.

CLUN. A parish in the Clun division of the hundred of Clun; a vicarage in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 324 houses, 2,781 inhabitants. 5 miles south-west by south of Bishopscastle. It derives its name from its river Collun, or Clun. It is an insignificant and neglected town, and possesses little worthy of observation, except its castle, which had long been a ruin. It was erected in the reign of Henry the third, by William Fitzalan, to one of whose ancestors the manor had devolved by marriage to the family of Say. John, the son of William, was captain-general of the forces, commanding the Welsh marshes, and this castle was, in those turbulent times, a strong hold for warriors, and a receptacle of their plunder. It remained in his line, down to the reign of Queen Elizabeth, when the last earl died. By the marriage of Mary Fitz-alan, with Philip Howard, the son of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, it became vested in that noble family. From thence it passed to the Walcotts, and afterwards, by purchase to Lord Clive, in whose family it continues. The Duke of Norfolk still retains the title of Baron of Clun. Fairs, Whitmonday, and Nov. 22; the last is a great fair for sheep. See appendix.

CLUNBURY, and BROMPTON. A township in the parish of Clun, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. Clunbury is a curacy not in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop.

CLUNGONAS. A township in the parish of Clun, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow.

CLUNGUNFORD, and ABCOT. A parish in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. A chapelry, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeacoary of Salop. 8 miles south-east of Bishopscastle. 85 houses, 474 inhabitants.

CLUNTON. A township in the parish of Clun, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. 4½ miles south of Bishopscastle.

COALBROOKDALE. Celebrated for its iron bridge over the Severn, is a winding glen between two vast hills, about a mile from Madely Market, Here are the most considerable iron works in England; the forges, mills, and steam engines, with all their vast machinery, the flaming furnaces, and smoking lime kilns, present a horribly sublime spectacle. The bridge of Coalbrookdale was laid in 1779. All the parts having been cast in open sand, and a scaffold previously erected, each part of the rib was elevated to a proper height by strong ropes and chains, and then lowered, till the ends met in the centre. All the principal parts were erected in three months, without any accident to the work or workmen, or the least obstruction to the navigation of the river. On the abutments of the stone work are placed iron plates, with mortices, in which stand two upright pillars of the same. Against the foot of the inner pillar, the bottom of the main rib bears on the base plate. This rib consists of two pieces, connected by a dove-tail joint, in an iron key, and fastened by screws. Each piece is seventy feet long. The shorter ribs pass through the pillar, the back rib in like manner, without coming down to the plate. The cross stays, braces, circle in the spandrils, and the brackets, connect the larger pieces, so as to keep the bridge perfectly steady; while a diagonal, and crow stays, and top plates, connect the pillars and ribs together in opposite directions. The whole bridge is covered with iron top plates, projecting over the ribs on each side, and on this projection, stands the ballustrade of cast iron. The road over the bridge, made of clay and iron slag, is twenty-four feet wide, and one foot deep; the toll for carriages, is one shilling. The span of the arch is one hundred feet, six inches, and the height, from the base line, to the centre, is forty feet. The weight of iron in the whole, is three hundred and seventy-eight tons, ten hundred weight; each piece of the long ribs, weighs five tons, fifteen hundred weight. On the largest, or exterior rib, is inscribed in capitals,- This bridge was cast at Coalbrook, and erected in the year 1779, Coalbrookdale is 18 miles south of Shrewsbury. In the neighbourhood of Coalbrook, are the seats of Francis Darby, and Richard Darby, Esqs. W, Tuthill, Esq., B. Dickinson, Esq., and J. Reynolds Esq.

COCKSHUT, and CROSEMERE. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. Cockshut is chapel to Ellesmere, and is in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. Cockshut is 4 miles, and Crosemere 3 miles, south-east of Ellesmere.

COLD HATTON. A township in the parish of High Ercall, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 8 miles west of Newport.

COLD WESTON. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hanford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 5 houses, 24 inhabitants. 7 miles north-east of Ludlow.

COLEBATCH. A township in the hundred of Purslow.

COLEBROOKDALE. See Coalbrookdale.

COLEMERE. See Coolmere.

COMLEY. A township in the hundred of Condover.

CONLEY. A township in the parish of Church Stretton and in the hundred of Munslow,

CONDOVER. A parish in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover, its vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop, 274 houses, 1,378 inhabitants, 6½ miles south of Shrewsbury.

Condover is the birth place of Thomas Owen, a learned judge, who was educated at Oxford; from whence he removed to Lincoln's Inn, where he became Lent reader to the society, in 1583. In 1590, he was made Serjeant at Law, and afterwards a judge of the Common Pleas. He died in 1598, reports were printed in 1654.

Richard Tarlton, or Tarleton, the earliest English comedian of celebrity, was also born at Condover. At what precise period he commenced actor is unknown. He was brought to London, and introduced to court, by a servant of Robert, Earl of Leicester, who found him in a field, keeping his father's swine. The Earl 'highly 'pleased', says Fuller, 'with his happy unhappy answers', took him under his patronage.

In 1583, Queen Elizabeth, at the suit of Sir Francis Walsingham, constituted twelve players, who were sworn her servants, allowing them wages and liveries, as grooms of the chamber, (a custom which lasted till Colley Cibber's time,) one of whom, was Tarleton.

Heywood, in his " Apology for Actors", says 'Here I must needs remember Tarleton, in his time, gratious with the Queene Soveraigne, and in the people's general applause'. And Hawes, the editor of Stow's Chronicle, observes, 'Among these twelve players, were two rare men; viz., Thomas Wilson, for a quicke, delicate, refined, extemporal wit; and Richard Tarleton, for a wondrous, plentiful, pleasant, extemporal wit, was the wonder of his tyme. He was so beloved that men used his pictures for their signes'. [1] Fuller asserts that, 'when Queen Elizabeth was serious ( I dare not say sullen) and out of good humour, he could undumpish her at his pleasure. Her highest favourites would in some cases, go to Tarleton, before they would go to the Queen; and he was their usher, to prepare their advantageous access unto her. In a word, he told the Queen more of her faults than most or her chaplains; and cured her melancholy, better than all her physicians'.

Sir Richard Baker in his Theatrum Redivivum, speaking of Pryane, says 'let him try it when he will, and come upon the stage himself, with all the scurrility of the Wife of Bath, with all the ribaldry of Poggins, or Boccace; yet, I dare affirm, he shall never give that contentment to beholders, as honest Tarleton did; though he said never a word'. Implying that the very aspect of Tarleton, delighted the spectators, before he uttered a syllable; and in his chronicle, Sir Richard, after giving due praise to Allen and Burbage, adds, 'and to make their comedies complete, Richard Tarleton, who for the part called the Clowne's part, never had his match,- never will have'.

Dr. Cave, De Politics, Oxf. 1588, 4to., says 'Aristotles suum Theodoretum laudavit quendam peritum tragrediarum actorem, Cicero suum Rosciam, nos Angli Tarletonum; in cujas voce et vultu onines jocosi affectus, in cujus cerebroso capite, lepidae facetae habitant'. Fuller says, 'much of his merriment, lay in his very looks and actions; according to the epitaph written upon him,

Hic situs est, cujus poterat, vox, actio, vultus, Ex Heraclito reddere Democritum.

Indeed the self same words, spoken by another, would hardly move a merry man to smile, which uttered by him, would force a sad soul to laughter'.

That he possessed the via comica in a supereminent degree, the following epigram assures us;

As Tarleton when his head was only seene,
The Fire house door, and Tapistrie between,
Set all the multitude in such a laughter,
They could not hold for scarce an hour after;
So, Sir, I set you, as I promised, forth,
That all the world may wonder at your worth.

He for some time kept an ordinary in Paternoster Row; and then, the sign of the Tabor, a Tavern in Gracechurch street, where he was chosen scavenger; but was often complained of by the ward, for neglect: he laid the blame on the raker, and he again on the horse, which being blooded and drenched the preceding day, could not be worked: then said Tarleton, the horse must suffer; so he sent him to the compter; and when the raker had done his work, sent him to pay the fees, and redeem the horse. Another story is told of him, that having run up a large score at an alehouse in Sandwich, he made his boy accuse him, for a seminary priest. The officers came and siezed him in his chamber, on his knees, crossing himself; and they paying his reckoning, with the charges of his journey, he got clear to London. When they brought him before the Recorder, Fleetwood, he knew him, and not only discharged him, but entertained him very courteously.

In a very rare old pamphlet, entitled "Kind Hearte's Dream", by Henry Chettle, 4to., no date, but published in December, 1592, he is thus described. ' The next, by his suite of russet,- his buttoned cap,- his taber,- his standing on the toe, and other tricks, I knew to be either the body, or resemblance of Tarleton; who, living for his pleasant conceits, was of all men liked, and dying, for mirth left not, his like'.

In 1611, a book was published, called "Tarleton's Jeasts". It contains several specimens of the extemporary wit, so pleasing to our ancestors, of which the following is one.

'As he was performing some part at the Bull, in Bishopsgate street, where the Queen's players often times played, a fellow in the gallery, threw an apple at him, which hit him on the cheek; he immediately took up the apple, and advancing to the audience, addressed them in these lines.

Gentlemen, this fellow with his face of mapple, [2]
Instead of a pippin, hath thrown me an apple,
But as for an apple, he hath cast a crab,
So instead of an honest woman, God hath sent him a drab.

The people', says the relater, 'laughed heartily, for the fellow had a queen to his wife'.

Tarleton's wife, (whose name was Kate,) is said to have been unfaithful to him. Being with her in a storm, in his passage from Southampton, when every man was compelled to throw all his baggage overboard, he offered to throw his wife over; but the other passengers prevented him.

So great wss his privilege with the audience, and his power over them, that he would enter between the acts, nay, sometimes between the scenes, on the stage, and excite merriment by any spacial of buffoonery that occurred to him; as in this whimsical instance.

'At the Bull, in Bishopsgate street, was a play of Henry the fifth, (the performance which preceded Shakespeare's,) and because he was absent that should take the blow, Tarleton himself, ever forward to please, tooke upon him to play the sane judge, besides his owne part of the clowne; and Knel, then playing Henry the fifth, hit Tarleton a sound box indeed, which made the people laugh the more because it was he; but anon the judge goes in, and immediately Tarleton, in his clowne's clothes comes out, and asks the actors- What news? O, saith one, hadst thou been here thou should'st have seen Prince Henry hit the Judge a terrible box on the eare! What, man, strike a Judge! It is true i'faith, said the other! No other like, said Tarleton, and it could not but be terrible to the Judge, when the report so terrifies me, that methinks the blowe remains still on my cheeke, that it burns again. The people laught at this mightily; and to this day I have beard it commended for rare: but no marvel, for he had many of these. But I would see our clowns in these days doe the like. No, I warrant ye; and yet they think well of themselves too'.

After the play was finished, theames were given to him by some of the audience, which, to their great entertainment, he would descant upon. In his "Jeasts" we find the following:- "I remember once I was at a play in the country, when, as Tarleton's use was, the play being done, every one so pleased threw up his theame: amongst an the rest, one was read to this effect, word by word:

Tarleton, I am one of thy friends, and none of thy foes,
Then I pr'y'thee tell me, how thou cam'st by thy flat nose,

Tarleton very suddenly returned this answer:

Friend or foe, if Wilt nteds know, marke me well;
With parting dogs and bears, then by the ears, this chance fell;
But what of that? though my nose be flat, my credit to save,
Yet very well, I can by the smell, scent an honest man from a knave'.

Ben Johnson, in " The Induction" to his comedy of Bartholomew fair, makes the stage keeper speak thus of him:

'I kept the stage in Master Tarleton's time, I thank my stars. Ho !
an' that man had lived to have played in Bertholomew fair, you should
ha' seen him ha' come in, and ha' been cozened i' the cloth quarter
so finely'.

He was the author of a drumstick piece, the schethe or plant only, of which is now remaining, called "The Seven deadly sins". Gabriel Harvey, in his four letters, etc. 4to. 1592; stiles it 'a famous play:' he also adds, 'which most deadly but lively playe, I might have seen in London, and was very gently invited thereunto at Oxford, by Tarleton himself'.

After an eccentrick and too free life, he died a penitent in 1588, and was buried in St. Leonard's, Shoreditch, September 3, of that year; as appears by the parish register. About this period were licensed, as we learn front the entries in the books of the stationer's company: 'A sorrowfull newe sounette, intitled Tarleton's Recantation, upon this theame given him by a gentleman at the Bel Savage, without Ludgate, being the last theame he songs, (Now or else never',) and 'Tarleton's repentance, or his farewell to his friends in his sickness a little before his death, etc'.

In "Wit's Bedlam" Svo. 1617, it the following epitaph on Tarleton.

' Here, within this sullen earth,
Lies Dick Tarleton, lord of mirth.
Who in his grave still laughing gapes,
Syth all clownes have been his apes;
First he of clownes to learn still sought,
But now they learn of him they taught
By art far past the principall,
The counterfeit is,- so worth all'.

The orthography and phraseology of these anecdotes, no doubt, appear uncouth; and some of Tarleton's jokes, witticisms, and mummeries, flat and insipid to the modern reader and auditor; but it must be remembered that when this celebrated Buffo flourished, that humour was but in embryo, to which Shakespeare afterwards gave birth, and which was afterward reared to maturity by Jonson.

[1] At that time it was common for every tradesman's shop to have its sign:- a custom which has become almost obsolete; or is at least, confided to inns and tippling houses.

[2] I.e. rough and carbuncled.

CONDOVER HAMLETS. A township in the parish of Condover, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover.

COOLMERE. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the hundred of Pimhill. 2 miles east of Ellesmere.

COPPICE GREEN. A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. 1 mile north-east of Shiffnal.

COPTHORN. A township in the parish of Bickton, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 1½ mile west of Shrewsbury.

COPTIVINEY. See Stocks and Coptiviney.

CORELEY; or CORLEY. A parish in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Burford, and archdeaconry of Salop. 121 houses, 566 inhabitants. 6 miles east of Ludlow.

CORFTON. A township in the parish of Diddlebury, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a chapelry, (but unconnected with Diddlebury church,) in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 6 miles north of Ludlow.

CORNLEY. A township in the hundred of Munslow.

CORVE STREET. In the parish of St. Lawrence, Ludlow, one of the wards of the borough of Ludlow. 160 houses, 740 inhabitants.

CORVERAL. See Calverhall and Cloverley.

COSTON, and SHELDERTON. A township in the parish of Clungunford, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. Cotton, is 6½ miles southeast, and Shelderton, 8½ miles south-east of Bishopseastle.

COTHERCOTE. A township in the parish of Church Putverhatch, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 9 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

COTTON. A township in the parish of Alveley, and a ehapelry. Cotton Hall is the residence of the Rev. J.H. Petit. 5½ miles southeast of Bridgnorth.

COTTON. A township in the parish of Wem, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 75 houses, 458 inhabitants. 8 miles north of Wem.

COTWALL. A township in the parish of High Ercall, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 9 miles north-east of Shrewsbury.

COUND. A parish in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover, a rectory remaining in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. The parish of Cound, including Cressage chapelry, contains 135 houses, 799 inhabitants. 6 miles south-east of Shrewsbury. Cound Lodge is the seat of C. Pelham, Esq., M.P.

COURLEY, and BOTEVYLE. A township in the parishes of Church Stretton and Cardington, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 2 miles north-east of Church Stretton.

COURWOOD. A township in the parish of Kinlet, and in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden.

CRACHLEY BANK; or CRACKLEY BANK. A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. 3 miles north-east of Shiffnal.

CRADLEY. A township in the parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry. 2 miles north- west of Hales Owen.

CRANMORE; or CRANMERE. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 3½ miles north-east of Bridgnorth.

CREGGEON; or CRIGION. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 12 miles west of Shrewsbury.

CRESSAGE. A township in the parish of Cound, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover, chapel to Cound, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. It is holden in the presentation to Cound, but with most parochial rights. 8½ miles south-east of Shrewsbury.

CRESSET. See Upton.Cresset.

CRICKET. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 2½ miles west of Ellesmere.

CRICK HEATH. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry. 4 miles south of Oswestry.

CRONKHILL. A township in the parish of Atcham, and in the hundred of Condover. 4 miles south-east of Shrewsbury.

CROSEMERE. See Cockshut and Crosemere.

CROSS-HOUSES. A township in the parish of Berrington, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover. 4½ miles south-east of Shrewsbury.

CROSS STREET. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry.

CROW MEOLE, A township in the parish of St. Chad, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

CRUCK MEOLE. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 4 miles south- west of Shrewsbury.

CRUCKTON. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 4 miles southwest by west of Shrewsbury. Cruckton quarter of the parish of Pontesbury contains 57 houses, 377 inhabitants. Cruckton Hall is the seat of Thomas Harries, Esq. See appendix.

CRUDGINGTON. A township in the parish of High Ercall, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 10½ miles north-east of Shrewsbury.

CULMINGTON. A parish in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow, a rectory remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and arch deaconry of Salop. 5½ miles north-west by north of Ludlow. 95 houses, 569 inhabitants. There is a considerable increase in the population of Culmington parish, which is partly attributed to a school having been established, chiefly for the education of the children of farmers, the parents for the most part residing in other parishes.

CYNYNION. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry.

DALLICOT. A township in the parish of Claverley, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 4 miles north-east by east of Bridgnorth.

DARLASTON. A township in the parish of Prees, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 5 miles north-east of Wem.

DAWLEY MAGNA. A parish in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a curacy, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport and archdeaconry of Salop. 996 houses, 5,147 inhabitants. 4 miles south-east of Wellington, The parish of Dawley has two large coal and iron works.

DAWLEY PARVA. A township in the parish of Dawley Magna, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford South.

DAYWELL. A township in the parish of Whittington, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry. 3 miles north of Oswestry.

DETTON. A township in the parish of Neen Savage, and in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden, 2½ miles north of Cleobury Mortimer.

DEUXHILL, and GLAZELEY. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, a rectory discharged, consolidated with Chetton, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. Deuxhill contains 9 houses, 49 inhabitants. Deuxhill is 4 miles south-west by south,- Glazeley 3½ miles south, of Bridgnorth. See Glazeley and Chetton.

DIDDLESTONE. See Duddlestone.

DIDDLEBURY, A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a vicarage discharged in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 159 houses, 987 inhabitants. 8 miles north of Ludlow.

DIDDLEWICK. A township in the hundred of Stottesden.

DINCHOPE. A township in the parish of Bromfield, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, 12 houses, 83 inhabitants.

DINMORE, An extra-parochial place, in the hundred of Purslow, near Clungunford. 1 house, 12 inhabitants. The population is reckoned in the parish of Clungunford. See appendix.

DINTHILL. A township in the parish of St. Alkmond, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury, Dinthill is the residence of J. Bather, Esq.

DITCHES. See Lowe and Ditches.

DITTON PRIORS; or PRIORS DITTON. A parish partly in the franchise of Wenlock, and partly in the hundred of Munslow, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 685 inhabitants. 7 miles south of Much Wenlock.

DIVISIONS. The common divisions of Shropshire are:-

1 The hundred of Oswestry.
2 " Pimhill.
3 " Bradford.
4 " Brimstry; or Brimstree.
5 " Ford.
6 The liberties of Shrewsbury.
7 The hundred of Condover.
8 The franchise of Wenlock.
9 The hundred of Chirbury.
10 " Purslow.
11 " Munslow.
12 " Stottesden.
13 The liberties of Bridgnorth.
14 The hundred of Clun.
15 " Overs.

The hundred of Oswestry is divided into the upper and lower divisions; the hundred of Pimhill into the Ellesmere and Baschurch divisions; the hundred of Bradford into North and South; and again into the Whitchurch and Drayton divisions of the North part, and the Wellington and Newport divisions, of the South part; the hundred of Brimstry into the Shiffnal, Bridgnorth, and Hales Owen divisions; the hundred of Condover into the Cound and Condover divisions; the hundred of Chirbury into the upper and lower divisions; the hundred of Purslow into the Bishopscastle and Stow divisions; the hundred of Munslow into the upper and lower divisions; the hundred of Stottesden into the Cleobury and Chelmarsh divisions; and the hundred of Clint into the Mainstone and Chin divisions. See appendix.

DODDINGTON. A township in the parish of Cleobury Mortimer, and in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden.

DODINGTON. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of Bradford, North, adjoining to Whitchurch.

DONNINGTON. A parish in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry, a rectory in charge in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 67 houses, 330 inhabitants. 5 miles south-east of Shiffnal.

DONNINGTON. A township in the parish of Wroxeter, and in the Wellington division of Bradford, South. 4 miles north east of Wellington. See appendix.

The late Dr. John Douglas, Bishop of Salisbury was, early in life, master of Donnington school, He was born in 1721, and was the son of Mr. Archibald Douglas, a respectable merchant of the port of Pittenween, in Fifeshire. His grandfather, who was a younger brother of the family of Talliquilly, (one of the oldest branches of the house of Douglas now in existence,) was an eminent clergyman of the episcopal church in Scotland, and the immediate successor of Bishop Burnet, in the living of Salton in east Lothian; from which preferment he was ejected at the revolution, when presbyterianism was established in Scotland. The Bishop was for some years at school at Dunbar. In 1736, he was entered a commoner of St. Mary Hall, and remained there till 1738, when he removed to Baliol college, on being elected an exhibitioner on Bishop Warburton's foundation. In 1741, he took his bachelor's degree; and in 1742, in order to acquire a facility in speaking French, he went abroad, and resided for some time at Montreal in Picardy; and afterwards at Ghent, in Flanders. On his return to college in 1743, he took his master's degree, and having been ordained deacon, in 1744, he was appointed to officiate as chaplain to the third regiment of foot guards, which he joined when serving with the combined army in Flanders. During the time he filled this situation, be employed himself chiefly in the study of modern languages. He was not an inactive spectator of the battle of Fontenoy, which took place on the 29th of April 1745; on which occasion be was employed in carrying orders from General Campbell to the English, who guarded the village in which he and the other generals were stationed. He returned to England in September, 1745, with that detachment of the army which had been ordered home, on the breaking out of the rebellion; and having no longer any connection with the guards, he went back to Baliol college, where be was elected one of the commissioners on Mr. Snell's foundation. In 1747, he was ordained priest, and became curate of Tilehurst, near Reading; and afterwards of Dunstew, in Oxfordshire, where he was residing when, at the recommendation of Dr. Charles Stuart, and Lady Allen, a particular friend of the Bishop's mother, he was selected by Lord Bath as a tutor, to accompany Lord Pulteney on his travels. Of the tour which he then made, there exists a manuscript account in the Bishop's hand writing. It relates principally, if not exclusively, to the governments and political relations of the several countries through which he passed. In October, 1749, he returned to England, and took possession of the free chapel of Eaton Constantine, and the donative of Uppington, in Shropshire, on the presentation of Lord Bath. In November, 1760, he published his first literary work, "The Vindication of Milton from the charge of plagiarism, brought against him by Lauder". In the same year he was presented by Lord Bath, to the vicarage of High Ercall, in Shropshire; and vacated Eaton Constantine. He only resided occasionally on his living; and at the desire of Lord Bath, took a house, in a street contiguous to Bath house, where he passed the winter months. In the summer he generally accompanied Lord Bath in his excursions to Tunbridge, Cheltenham, Shrewsbury, and Bath; and in his visits to the Duke of Cleveland, Lord Lyttleton, Sir H. Bedingfield, etc. In September, 1752 he married Miss Dorothy Pershouse, sister of Richard Pershouse, Esq., of Reynold's Hall, near Walsall, in Staffordshire; and in three months became a widower. In the spring of 1754 he published "The Criterion of Miracles", in the form of a letter to an anonymous correspondent, since known to have been Dr. Adam Smith. In 1755, he wrote a pamphlet entitled "An Apology for the clergy", against the Hutchinsonians, Methodists, etc.; and shortly afterwards, another pamphlet, entitled "The destruction of the French, foretold by Ezekiel", against the same sects, being an ironical defence of them, against the attack made on them in the former pamphlet. In 1756, he published his first pamphlet against Archibald Bower; and in the autumn of that year, a pamphlet entitled, "A serious defence of the administration", being an ironical justification of their introducing foreign troops to defend this country, In 1757, he published, "Bowyer and Tillemout compared"; within a very short time afterwards, "A full confutation of Bower's three defences", and in the spring of 1758, "The complete and final detection of Bower". In the easter term of this year, he took his Doctor's degree, and was presented, by Lord Bath, to the perpetual curacy of Kenley, in Shropshire, In 1750, he published, " The conduct of a late noble commander, candidly considered", in defence of Lord George Sackville. No one ever knew that he wrote this, except Millar, the bookseller, to whom he made a present of the copy. This defence of Lord George Sackville was suggested solely by the attack so unfairly made on him by Ruffhead, before it could possibly be known whether he really deserved censure. In the same month he wrote and published; "A letter to two great men, on the approach of peace", a pamphlet which excited great attention, and always passed for having been written by Lord Bath. In 1760, he wrote the preface to the translation of Hooke's Negotiations. He was this year appointed one of his Majesty's chaplains. In 1761, he published, "Seasonable hints from an honest man", as an exposition of Lord Bath's sentiments. In November, 1762, he was, through the interest of Lord Bath, made canon of Windsor. In December of that year, on the day on which the preliminaries of peace were to be taken into consideration in parliament, he wrote the paper entitled "The sentiments of a Frenchman", which was printed on a sheet, pasted on the walls in every part of London, and distributed among the members of parliament as they entered the house. In 1763, he superintended the publication of "Henry Earl of Clarendon's diary and letters", and wrote the preface which is prefixed to those papers. In June of this year, he accompanied Lord Bath to Spa, where he became acquainted with the hereditary Prince of Brunswick (the late Duke,) from whom he received marked and particular attention, and with whom he was afterwards in correspondence. It is known that within a few years there existed a series of letters, written by him during his stay at Spa; and also a book containing copies of all the letters which he had written to, and received from, the Prince of Brunswick, on the state of parties, and the character of their leaders in this country, and, on the policy and effect of its continental connexions; but as these have not been found among his papers, there is reason to apprehend that they may have been destroyed, in consideration of some of the persons being still alive, whose characters, conduct, and principles, were the topicks of that correspondence. In 1761, Lord Bath died, and left him his library; but General Pulteney wishing that it should not be removed from Bath house, he relinquished his claim, and accepted £1000 in lieu of it. General Pulteney at his death, left it him again, and he again gave it up to the late Sir W. Pulteney, for the same sum. It was erroneously stated in some of the newspapers, that the valuable library of which he was possessed had been derived from this source, whereas it was entirely collected by himself. In 1764, be exchanged his living in Shropshire, for that of St. Austin, and St. Faith, Watling street, London. In April, 1765, he married Miss Elizabeth Rooke, daughter of Henry Brudenell Rooke, Esq. During this and the preceding year, as well as in 1768, he wrote several political papers, which were printed in "The Publick Advertiser", and all the letters which appeared in that paper, in 1770 and 1771, under the signatures of Tacitus and Manlius, were written by him. In 1778, he assisted Sir John Dalrymple in the arrangement of his manuscripts. In 1776, he was removed from the chapter of Windsor to that of St. Paul's. During this and the subsequent year, he was employed in preparing Captain Cook's journal for publication; which he undertook at the earnest request of Lord Sandwich, then first Lord of the Admiralty. In 1777, he assisted Lord Hardwicke in arranging and publishing his "Miscellaneous Papers", which came out in the following year. In 1778, he was elected a member of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies. In 1781, he was again applied to by Lord Sandwich, to reduce into a shape fit for publication, the Journal of Captain Cook's third and last voyage; the introduction and the notes were supplied by him. He was likewise chosen President of Sion College for the year, and preached the Latin Sermon before that body. In 1786, he was elected one of the Vice Presidents of the Antiquarian Society; and framed their address, on the King's recovery in 1789, both to his Majesty and the Queen. In March, 1787, he was elected one of the Trustees of the British Museum, and in September of the same year, he was appointed Bishop of Carlisle. In 1788, he succeeded to the deanery of Windsor, for which he vacated his residentiaryship of St. Paul's. In 1789, he preached before the house of lords; and of course published the sermon on the anniversary of King Charles's martyrdom. In June, 1791, he was translated to the See of Salisbury. In 1793, he preached the anniversary sermon before the Society for the propagation of the gospel, which is published and prefixed to the annual account of the proceedings. Having been often and very earnestly requested by many of his literary friends, to publish a new edition of the " Criterion", which had been many years out of print, he undertook in Autumn, 1806, to revise that book. He had, many years ago, collected materials for a new and enlarged edition of that work, but unfortunately they had been either mislaid or lost; or more probably been destroyed by mistake, with some other manuscripts. This circumstance, and his very advanced age, sufficiently accounts for his not having attempted materially to alter the original work. In this statement, all the avowed publications of the Bishop are enumerated; but he has been concerned in many others, in which he was never supposed to have had any part; and in some of no trifling celebrity, whose nominal and reputed authors he permitted to retain and enjoy exclusively, all that credit of which he could justly have claimed no inconsiderable share. During a great part of his life, he was in correspondence with some of the most eminent literary and political characters of the age. Few could have read more, if indeed any one so much as, with such habits of incessant application as those in which he persevered almost to the last hour of his long protracted life, he must necessarily have read. In the strictest sense of the expression, he never let one minute pass unimproved; for he never deemed any space of time too short to be employed in reading; nor was he ever seen by any of his family, when not in company with strangers, without a book, or a pen in his hand. The accounts which were inserted in many of the newspapers of the illness which terminated in his death, are as incorrect as most of those which have been given of his life and writings. Instead of falling a victim to the gout, he can scarcely be said to have had latterly any specifick complaint. He retained his faculties to the last; and during a great part of each day, amused himself with reading. After a life thus devoted to the cause of literature and religion, and not spent in solitary seclusion from the world, but in the midst of its most active and busy scenes, he died on Monday, the 18th of May, 1807, without a struggle, and without a pang, in the arms of his son; by whom the above particulars were hastily extracted, from an authentick document, now in his possession. He was buried on Monday, the 25th of May, in a vault in St. George's chapel, in Windsor castle. His royal highness the Duke of Sussex, with a condescension not less honourable to his own feelings, than such a tribute of respect could not but be to the memory of him to whom it was paid, attended at his funeral.

DORRINGTON. A township in the hundred of Brimstry.

DORRINGTON. A township in the parish of Mucklestone, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 31 houses, 185 inhabitants. 4½ miles north-east of Drayton.

DORRINGTON. A township in the parish of Condover, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. The residence of William Cross Curtis, Esq.

DOVASTON. A township in the parish of Kinnerley, and in the lower division of the hundred of Oswestry. 7½ miles south-east of Oswestry.

DOWLES. A parish in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 15 houses, 61 inhabitants. 8 miles east of Cleobury Mortimer.

DOWN (LOWER). A township in the hundred of Purslow.

DOWN ROSSAL. A township in the parish of St. Chad, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

DOWNTON. A township in the parish of Upton Magna, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 3 miles east of Shrewsbury.

DOWNTON. A township in the hundred of Munslow. 3 miles north of Ludlow. Downton Hall is the residence of Sir William Edward Rouse Boughton, Bart. See appendix.

DOWNTON. A township in the franchise of Wenlock.

DRAYTON; Or DRAYTON MAGNA; Or DRAYTON in HALES; Or MARKET DRAYTON. A market town in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 18 miles north-east of Shrewsbury, and 154 north-west of London. LAT. 2. 58 N. LONG. 2. 35 W. It is a vicarage in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 747 houses, 3,700 inhabitants.

Drayton is situated in the north-eastern extremity of the county on the borders of Staffordshire. It is a neat little town, and is watered by the river Tern. Though no coins, pavements, or other monuments of antiquity have been discovered either in or near it, it is nevertheless strongly conjectured that this town was one of the Roman stations. Its parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, and built in the reign of King Stephen was thoroughly repaired in 1787 after having been stripped of its Gothick honours. The steeple is, to all appearance, of later date than the body of the church, as the former needed no repair, when the latter was in ruins.

Previously to the introduction of canals, Drayton had one of the greatest markets in the district. The wharf at Stone, in Staffordshire, drew much of its trade. There is a manor Factory of paper, and another of hair, for chair bottoms, etc.

Near this town, during the heat of the desolating wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, a battle was fought, which proved very disastrous to the gentry of Cheshire for though the victory was not decisive on either side, the contest continued so long, and with so much animosity, that great numbers of both parties were slain.

The Duke of York had long opposed the measures of the reigning monarch, Henry the sixth, and was strongly suspected of having designs upon the throne. The King at length calling a council, desired that some measures might be taken towards a perfect reconciliation of all parties; promising, upon his salvation, (an oath not usual with him) so to receive the Duke of York and his friends, that all discontent should be removed. Messages were accordingly despatched to the Duke, and all others of his party; commanding them, upon urgent affairs of the realm, and upon his royal promise of safe conduct, to repair to his court at London, at a day appointed. The Duke of York, in consequence of this summons, came with 400 men well equipped, and lodged at his house, called Baynard's Castle; the Earl of Salisbury, with 600 men, lodged at his house, called the Harbour. The Duke of Exeter, and the Doke of Somerset, with 800 men, were lodged within Temple Bar; the Earl of Northumberland, Lord Egremont, and Lord Clifford, with 1,500 men, were lodged in Holborn; and the Earl of Warwick, with 600 men, were lodged at the Grey Friars, in London.

On the 17th of March, the King and the Queen came to London and were lodged at the Bishop's Palace. The Mayor with five hundred well appointed men, rode all day long round the city, for the purpose of preserving the King's peace. The lords lodging within the city, held their council at Black Friars, the others' at the Chapter-house in Westminster. The Archbishop of Canterbury, and others of the most able prelates, interceded so effectually between both these parties, that it was at length agreed that all grievances should be forgotten and forgiven, and that all should be obedient to the King. Besides this general agreement, there were some particular articles to be performed by the Duke of York, and the Earls of Salisbury and Warwick, which were afterwards ratified under the great seal of England, on the 24th of March, in the 36th year of King Henry's reign. A solemn procession was made to St. Paul's, at which the King was present with his crown on his head; before him, arm in arm, went the Duke of Somerset, and the Earl of Salisbury, the Duke of Exeter, and the Earl of Warwick, and so on, one of the one, and one of the other party, till they were all marshalled. Behind the King, came the Queen, led by the Duke of York. After divine service, they returned to the court, with all the appearances of sincere reconciliation, but soon after a quarrel occured between a servant of the Earl of Warwick, and a courtier, who, in the course of the encounter was dangerously wounded. The Earl's domestick fled, and the King's servants seeing that their companion was hurt, and that the offender had escaped, watched the Earl as he was coming from the council-table and attacked him. Many of his attendants were wounded, but the Earl procuring a wherry, escaped to London. The Queen immediately commanded the Earl to be committed to the Tower, but he, foreseeing the danger, departed for Yorkshire, and acquainted the Duke of York, and his father, the Earl of Salisbury, of the late occurrences, advising them to provide against the approaching storm. He himself hastened to Calais, and in his quality of Lord Admiral, taking with him all the King's ships that were in readiness, scoured the seas, and meeting with five large Carricks, three of Genoa, and two of Spain, after a battle which lasted two days, succeeded in capturing them, and returned to Calais, after having unloaded their freight, he found his prize worth ten thousand pounds, in staple commodities, besides the ships and prisoners.

In the mean time, the Earl of Salisbury with about 5,000 men, marched through Lancashire in his way to the King, intending to inform his Majesty of the affront which bad been offered to his son, and the inveterate malice which the queen discovered against him, The Queen, with the Dukes of Buckingham, and Somerset, bearing of his coming, gave orders to Lord Audley to use means to apprehend him, His Lordship immediately levied ten thousand men in Cheshire, and in a plain called Bloor-heath, about two miles from Drayton, waited to give battle to the Earl; there being but a small brook of no great depth between them [the River Tern].

Early in the morning the Earl made a seeming retreat, which Lord Talbot perceiving, immediately ordered his troops to pass the river; but before they could be reduced to order, the Earl with his full force, fell upon them, slew about 2,400 men, among whom were Lord Audley, and most of those who had passed the river, and dispersed the rest: Sir John and Sir Thomas Nevin, the Earl of Salisbury's sons were severely wounded, and being taken prisoners, were sent with Sir Thomas Harrington, who was travelling into the north, towards Chester,

Drayton has fairs on the Wednesday before Palm Sunday, Wednesday before June 22, September 19, October 24. Market on Wednesday. See appendix. The celebrated Lord Clive, the founder of the present noble family of Powis, was born at Styche, near Drayton. He was the son of Richard Clive, Esq., and nearly related to Sir Edward Clive, one of the judges of the court of common pleas; and received his education first at the free school at Drayton; and afterwards at Dr. Stirling's school, at Hempsted, in Hertfordshire. During the years devoted to education, he exhibited no taste for literature, but was characterised by a daring and adventurous spirit, almost incapable of restraint, and destitute of fear. His ruling passion began early to display itself by his learning the manual exercise of a serjeant who was recruiting in the town. On his quitting school, he was sent as a writer in the East India Company's service, to Madras, whither he arrived in the year 1744. In 1746, Madras surrendered to the French, and all the company's servants were made prisoners. The French commander in chief refusing to ratify the terms of the capitulation, the British considered themselves justified in breaking their parole; and among others, Mr. Clive, disguised as a Moor, made his escape. Being much more attached to the camp than to the counting house, and war being at that time more cultivated in India than commerce, it was not long before this young merchant had a favourable opportunity of exchanging his pen for a pair of colours. At the siege of Pondicherry, by Admiral Boscawen, in 1748, Mr. Clive, being then an ensign in the company's troops, first distinguished himself, and on the first of September, when the French were repulsed in a sally with a considerable loss, Captain Brown, who defended the second trench, being mortally wounded, his post was afterwards gallantly sustained by Ensign Clive. In 1749, Admiral Boscawen assisted the company in obtaining a settlement from the King of Tanjore, at Devi Cottah, and that fort being attacked by a strong body of troops under the command of Major Lawrence, was carried by storm. In this affair, Mr. Clive solicited the command of the forlorn hope, though out of his turn. This request was granted, and in the head of about 30 British troops and 700 sepoys, he advanced to storm the breach. The sepoys instantly fled, but Lieutenant Clive, with his handful of men, pushed on, and had scarcely arrived at the breach, when the enemy rushed upon them with so much fury that three only, with their commander, escaped instant destruction. The whole column of European troops then advanced to the attack; Lieutenant Clive being still in the first division; and the fort was reduced. The character given of our hero, by that excellent officer Major Lawrence, from whom Mr. Clive always acknowledged that he learnt the art of war, well deserves to be inserted here, 'Mr. Clive is a man of undaunted resolution, of a cool temper, and a presence of mind that never leaves him even in the greatest danger. Born a soldier; for without a military education of any sort, or much conversing with any of the profession, from his judgment and good sense, he led an army like an experienced officer and a good soldier, with a prudence that warranted success. This young man's early genius (continues the Major) surprized and engaged my attention as well before, as at the siege of Devi Cottah, where he behaved with courage and judgment, much beyond what could have been expected from his years; and his success afterwards confirmed what I had said to many people concerning him'.

The reduction of Devi Cottah was followed by immediate peace, and Mr. Clive reassumed, for a time, his mercantile capacity.

In 1750, the French having the year before taken the city of Arcot, and invaded the kingdom of Tanjore, as auxiliaries to Chunda Saib, the usurping nabob of Arcot, the English under Major Lawrence took the field, in support of Mahomed Allee Cawn, the rightful sovereign, and at Vilanure joined the viceroy Nazirzing, whose army consisted of 300,000 fighting men, 800 pieces of cannon, and 1,300 elephants. On the 24th of March the armies engaged, and victory declared for the viceroy and the English; the French retreating to Pondicherry, with the loss of 11 cannon, In this expedition Mr. Clive acted as commissary of the army.

In 1751, Mahomed Allee Cawn, being joined by the English, was defeated by Chunda Saib, near Volcanda; a panick having seized the English battalion, from which their officers (particularly Captain Dalton and Lieutenant Clive) endeavoured in vain to recover them. In July, Chunda Saib, having driven his competitor entirely out of the Carnatic, Lieutenant Clive was sent from St. David's with a detachment and a convoy of stores, to relieve Verdachellum, the only fort that acknowledged the nabob, and which was then invested by a neighbouring Polygar, or Lord. His troops the lieutenant easily defeated, and entered Verdachellum without any loss.

But as he was returning to Fort St. David's, attended by 12 sepoys and some servants, he was surrounded by the Polygar's troops, who killed seven of the sepoys; and Mr. Clive saved himself by the swiftness of his horse, from a party of Cavalry that pursued him several miles.

The French being still superior to the English before Trichinopoly, where they in a manner invested Mahomed Allee Cawn, the presidency sent thither another reinforcement of 100 Europeans, and 50 sepoys, under Mr. Clive; who had now obtained the commission of captain. The French endeavoured in vain to intercept him, being defeated in a skirmish; but still, though the English battalion was augmented to 600, the French had 900, and Chunda Saib's troops were ten times the number of the Nabob's, whose treasures also were exhausted, and his revenues daily cut off, or exacted by the enemy.

Captain Clive, at his return to St. David's, proposed to attack Arcot, as the only means to draw off Chunda Saib from Trichinopoly. He offered to lead the expedition, and it was immediately undertaken. Major Lawrence says, 'This expedition was attended with uncommon success, which some people were pleased to term fortunate and lucky; but in my opinion, from the knowledge I had of the gentleman, he deserved, and might expect from his conduct, every thing as it fell out'.

The Captain marched from Madras on the 26th of August, at the head of 210 Europeans, and 500 sepoys, with only eight officers; six of whom had never seen service before; and yet with this small force, and three field pieces, he undertook and effected the conquest of a large province; a conquest which in many respects may be compared to that of Valencia, in Spain, by the great Earl of Peterborough.

On the 31st they halted within ten miles of Arcot, the capital of the province, 60 miles from the coast. The garrison of 1,200 men immediately abandoned the fort, and next day the English took possession of that and the city, in the sight of 100,000 of the inhabitants, who gazed on them with respect and admiration. In the fort were eight pieces of cannon, and effects to the value of £50,000 belonging to the country merchants, to whom they were punctually restored; and near 4,000 persons who inhabited the fort, were permitted to remain in their habitations unmolested. This judicious generosity conciliated the principal inhabitants to the English, and afterwards contributed to save the place, by the intelligence that was given to the Captain by the country people.

On Sep. 4th, Captain Clive marched out in pursuit of the fugitive garrison, who, on his approach, retreated to some hills in their rear. On the 6th, he marched out again, and in a smart skirmish, defeated the enemy, who now amounted to 2,000; and on the 14th, the Captain surprized them in their camp, and totally routed them, without losing a man.

The French, and Chunda Saib, being determined, if possible, to regain this important place, sent thither, on the 23rd of September, 8,000 men, horse and foot, commanded by Rajah Saib Chunda Saib's son; but they were followed by a detachment under Captain Killpatrick, sent to support Mr. Clive. Being now on the point of being closely besieged in a large and ruinous fort, the Captain, on the 24th, made a vigorous sally, in which he drove the French from their guns, which, however, he could not carry off. In this sally, a sepoy, from a window, levelling his piece at Captain Clive, was perceived by Lieutenant Trenwith, who pulled the Captain aside; upon which the sepoy changed his aim, and shot the Lieutenant dead. The French artillery being arrived from Pondicherry, a practicable breach was made of fifty feet. Lieutenant Innis, who was sent with a reinforcement, was surrounded and defeated. However, 6,000 Morattoes, who were encamped within 30 miles, offered the garrison their assistance. Upon this, Rajah Saib, having made, another breach to the south west, was determined to storm the fort; but in all his attacks he was bravely repulsed. One of the gates being attempted to be forced open by elephants, with large pieces of iron fixed to their forehead, these animals turned from the musketry, and trampled on those who conducted them. The storm to the north-west was carried on with a mad kind of intrepidity, heightened by the inebriation of eating bang, a plant which occasions stupefaction or the most desperate rage. But in this the Moors were thrice repulsed, by the small arms and cannon: At the south-west breach they were equally unsuccessful; having embarked 70 men on a raft, to cross the ditch, which raft was destroyed by a field piece, fired by Captain Clive himself; and all the men were drowned. After this, the enemy retreated and disappeared, having had about four hundred killed and wounded. The garrison then consisted of only 80 Europeans, and 126 sepoys, officers included.

On the 19th, Captain Clive (having been reinforced by Captain Killpatrick's detachment, and 600 Morattoes) took the field; and on the 3rd of December, engaged Rajah Saib and the French in the plains of Araxi, 20 miles south of Arcot; and after an engagement of five hours, totally defeated them, taking the military chest, etc. Conjeveram being repossessed, and its pagoda garrisoned by the French, Captain Clive, on the 14th, summoned it to surrender, and in three days took it, after making a breach. In this attack, Lieuteuant Bulkeley was shot through the head, close by Captain Clive's side. After destroying the defences of Conjeveram, and sending part of his army to Arcot, the Captain returned with the remainder to Madras, from whence he proceeded to Fort St. David's, and arrived there before the year was expired.

In the mean time the French were carrying on their approaches against Trichinopoly, having been supplied with battering cannon from Carical; but their batteries were too distant to make any impression upon the walls, or among the English and their sepoys; who encamped close to the west, as did the Nabob's cavalry to the south of the town. It is remarkable that all the cannon balls which the besieged fired, had the English mark, being the same which were as ineffectually thrown away by our ships against Pondicherry, as they were now by our enemies against Trichinopoly.

In January, 1752, Rajah Saib, with a considerable force, marched within nine miles of Madras and plundered the English gentlemen's country seats, at St. Thomas's mount. After these hostilities, the Moors returned to Conjeveram, garrisoned its pagoda, and threatened to attack the fort of Ponomalee. Captain Clive took the field the 2nd of February, with 380 Europeans, 1,300 sepoys, and six field pieces. The enemy had 400 Europeans, 2,500 horse, and 2,000 sepoys, with a large train of artillery; yet on the English advancing to storm their fortified camp, they suddenly quitted it, and marched towards Arcot, on the first of March, at sun set. Here, notwithstanding their advantageous situation, they were attacked by the English in front and rear, and before morning driven from their guns, with the loss of 50 Europeans, 300 sepoys, 60 prisoners, 8 pieces of canuon, etc. Of the English 40 Europeans, and 30 sepoys were killed.

Correpaule surrendered immediately; but soon after Captain Clive had orders to repair, with all his troops, to Fort St. David, the presidency having determined to send them to Trichinopoly. In his way thither, he came to the spot where the viceroy Nazirzing had been defeated, in 1750, by the French, and in memory of which, M. Dupleix had here planned a new town, with a monumental pillar, etc., both which Captain Clive demolished. The enemy were now dispersed, their horse disbanded, and the French were recalled to Pondicherry. Thus the Captain, by his valour and conduct, recovered to Mahomed Allee Cawn an extent of country 60 miles long and 80 broad, the annual revenues of which were £160,000 sterling.

The troops took the field again on the 18th of March, and Major Lawrence, who was just returned from England, resumed the command. Captain Gingin commanded at Trichinopoly: the Major and Captain Clive, in their march to join him were attacked on the 28th, by the French and Chunda Saib's troops, but the former retreated in half an hour, and the General of the latter being killed, they also fled. Major Lawrence arrived that night at Trichinopoly, and took the command of the whole united army consisting of 1,200 Europeans, and Topasses, [a tawny race of foot Soldiers, descended from Portuguese, marrying natives] and 1,200 sepoys; with the Nabob's troops and those of his allies. The enemy avoided an attack by retreating; upon which Captain Clive was sent with a detachment to cut off their supplies, and on the 7th of April he stormed a mud fort, where they had a large magazine of grain. After this the Captain took possession of a village, and two pagodas, near which the enemy's convoys must pass. On M. d'Auteul's marching with a reinforcement from Pondicherry, Captain Clive marched on the 14th to intercept him. In the meantime M. Law sent a detachment to surprise the pagodas; but the Captain had regained his camp that very night; M. d'Auteul having retreated. About four iu the morning, on the lesser pagoda being attacked, the French, by the means of some deserters, having been mistaken by the advanced guard for a reinforcement, Captain Clive starting out of his sleep, joined the French Sepoys, who were then firing at random, and thinking them his own troops began in the country language, to reprimand them. On this, one of the officers, suspecting him to be an Englishman, cut at him with his sword; but by advancing forward, the Captain parried the blow, receiving it near the hilt; and one of his own officers coining up, killed the French Sepoy, and disengaged him. He then joined his own troops, and attacked the pagoda, which was then occupied by the French, and the deserters. They fought desperately, killing several of the assailants. At length, the French commander being slain, Captain Clive advanced to parley with them, leaning on two serjeants, as he was faint with loss of blood. Their leader, an Irishman, instantly fired at him, and though the ball missed the Captain it killed one of the serjeants. This the French disavowed, and immediately afterwards surrendered at discretion. On the 15th of May, Captain Clive attacked, and the next day took Pitchanda, making the garrison prisoners of war. On the 27th, the Captain was sent with a detachment to attack the French near Volcanda, and the governor of that fort refusing them protection, M. d'Auteul's whole party, consisting of 100 Europeans, 400 sepoys, and 300 of horse, surrendered themselves prisoners of war. The booty here made, amounted to £10,000 sterling. Chunda Saib, being thus deprived of his allies, surrendered himself to Monachjee, the Tanjarine general, who, in violation of the most sacred oaths, without consulting the nahob, or Major Lawrence, ordered him to be beheaded on the third of June. The head was sent to the nabob, and then being tied to the neck of a camel, was carried five times round the walls of Trichinopoly, attended by 100,000 spectators. [M. Dopleix in his " Memoirs", falsely asserts that Major Lawrence himself ordered the death of Chanda Saib, though that calumny had been clearly confuted before.]

The same day M. Law, with the rest of the French, who had been some tine besieged in the pagoda of Seringham, surrendered themselves also prisoners of war, amounting in the whole to 820 French, and 2,000 sepoys; and than Mahomed Allee Cawn was reinstated by Major Lawrence, and Captain Clive, in the nabobship of the Carnatic. In this war, the English had not 50 men killed.

The French, however, still retained Ginjee, and some other places to the northward. Here, therefore, the war still continued, and on the 26th of July, the English under Major Kineer in an attack on the French, were repulsed. After this, the French advancing near to Fort St. David were totally defeated on the 26th of August, by Major Lawrence. In September and October, Chinglapel, [forty five miles south-west of Madras] and Cobelong, [twenty wiles south of Madras, within musket shot of the sea] two strong forts were, at the nabob's request, besieged and taken by Captain Clive; and at the close of the year, he embarked for England, universally acknowledged as the man who, by his example, first roused his countrymen from their lethargy, and by his prudence, courage, and activity, had principally contributed to raise their reputation. In October, 1758, he arrived in England, where, in reward of his services, he was presented by the directors with a rich sword, set with diamonds; an incitement to future services, and a prelude to greater rewards!

In 1756, Captain Clive being appointed governor of Fort St. David's, with the rank of lieutenant colonel in the king's troops, returned to India; and an intended expedition against the viceroy Salabatzing being rendered abortive by the loss of the Doddington Indiaman, in which the company had sent their plan, another expedition was undertaken in 1756, against the pirate Angria.

Geria, the capital of that potentate's dominions, hitherto deemed impregnable, was attacked and taken, on the 18th of February, and his treasure and effects, amounting to £125,000, were divided amongst the captors. The admiral and the colonel, at their return to Madras, received information of the loss of Calcutta, and of the barbarity of Surajah Dowlah. The monster having taken that city, the English prisoners to the amount of 146, of whom a Mr. Holwell was one, were by his order confined in the black hole prison. It was about eight o'clock in the evening, when these unhappy men, worn out by fatigue and continual action, were thrust, on a close sultry night, into a dungeon, only about eighteen feet square; shut up to the east and south, the only quarters from whence air could reach them, by dead walls, and by a wall and a door to the north; open only by two windows, strongly barred with iron, from which they could receive scarcely any circulation of fresh air.

They had been but a few minutes confined before every one fell into a perspiration so profuse, that no idea can be formed of it. This produced a raging thirst, which increased in proportion as the body was drained of its moisture. Various experiments were tried to give more room and air. Every man was stripped, and every hat put in motion; they several times sat down on their hams; but at each time several of the poor creatures fell, and were instantly suffocated, or trod to death.

Before nine o'clock, every man's thirst became intolerable, and respiration difficult. Efforts were repeatedly made to force the door; but still in vain. Many insults were used to the guards to provoke them to fire in upon the prisoners; who grew outrageous, and many of them delirious. " Water, water", became the general cry. Some water was brought: but these supplies, like sprinkling water on fire; only served to raise and feed the flames. The confusion became general and horrid from the cries and ravings for water; and some were trampled to death. This scene of misery proved entertainment to the miserable wretches without, who supplied them with water that they might have the satisfaction of seeing them fight for it, as they phrased it; and held up lights to the bars, that they might lose no part of the inhuman diversion.

Before eleven o'clock, most of the gentlemen were dead, and one third of the whole. Thirst grew intolerable: but Mr. Holwell kept his mouth moist by sucking the perspiration out his shirt sleeves and catching the drops as they fell, like heavy rain, from his head and face. By half an hour after eleven, most of the living were in an outrageous delirium. They found that water heightened their uneasiness; and "Air, air", was the general cry. Every insult that could be devised against the guard,- all the opprobrious names that the viceroy and his officers could be loaded with were repeated to provoke the guard to fire upon them. Every man had eager hopes to meet the first shot! A general prayer arose to heaven, to hasten the approach of the flames of a conflagration that had broken out to the right and left of them, and put a period to their misery ! Some expired on others; while a steam arose as well from the living as the dead, which was exceedingly offensive.

About two in the morning, they crowded so much to the windows that many died standing, unable to fall by the throng and equal pressure all around. When the day broke, the stench arising from the dead bodies was insufferable. At that juncture, the Soubah, who had received an account of the havock death had made amongst them, sent one of his officers to enquire if the chief survived. Mr. Holwell was shewn to him; and about six o'clock, an order came for their release. Thus had they remained in this infernal prison, from eight at night till six in the morning, when the poor remains of 146 souls, being only 23, came out alive; but most of them in a high putrid fever. The dead bodies were dragged out of the hole by the soldiers, and thrown promiscuously into the ditch of an unfinished ravelin, which was afterwards filled with earth.

Admiral Watson and Colonel Clive determined to revenge the cruelties inflicted on their countrymen at Calcutta. After a tedious passage they arrived at Bengal on the 6th of December. Busbudgia fort was attacked and taken December 30th; Tanna fort abandoned January the 1st, 1757; and fort William, the affecting scene of the Soubah's cruelty, surrendered to the Kent and Tiger the next day. The city of Huegley, 60 miles above Calcutta, was taken and destroyed on the 11th; and on the 2nd of February, the Soubah's army, consisting of 10,000 horse and 15,000 foot, was attacked and defeated by Colonel Clive, who had only 969 Europeans and 1,600 sepoys. This accelerated a peace which was signed on the 9th. On the 24th of March, the French fort of Chandenagore was taken, after a vigorous defence, by the ships and troops; and thus in a few days the viceroy was humbled, and the French power broken. Surajah Dowlah's perfidy, however, soon occasioned fresh hostilities, and completed his ruin; as he was totally defeated by Colonel Clive on the 23rd of June, in the famous battle of Plassey, and the next day the conqueror, in a triumphal manner, entered Muxadaab, and placed Jaffier Allee Cawn, one of the principal generals, on the throne. His rival was soon after taken, and privately put to death by Jaffier's son.

Thus in about a fortnight, in a great and populous state, was a revolution effected, by which the French were driven out of Bengal, and all its dependencies, and more solid profit was reaped by the English East India Company, with few men, in a short campaign, than had been gained by crowned heads and numerous armies in those bloody wars which have almost drained the veins of Europe to the lowest ebb. If a Justin or Curtius had been living in these times, what would they have said to find the glory of Alexander the great, outrivalled by a British subject? Alexander invaded India with an army of 120,000 horse and foot; but the places he took, and the conquests he made, were attended with no difficulty. Porus fell into his hands, and he restored to him his kingdom. A private subject of Great Britain has done an act as brave and great: his few soldiers would have followed him to the utmost limits of the globe; yet Alexander conld not prevail upon his army to pass the Ganges, and attack Aggamenes.

The whole sum agreed to be paid by the new Soubah was £2,962,500 sterling, for the English company, inhabitants, troops, and sailors.

Admiral Watson died at Calcutta, greatly lamented, on the 16th of August. Colonel Clive happily survived to enjoy, in his native country, the honour and the fortune be had acquired. He commanded in Bengal, the two succeeding years, from whence, in 1758, he sent two thirds of his force for the security of Madras, at that time threatened, and soon after, for 67 days, unsuccessfully besieged by the French. In June that year the Colonel received from England, the commission of President of the council at Calcutta; in other words, of Governor of Bengal. His services were also rewarded by the viceroy, Jaffier Allee Cawn, with a grant of about £27,000 a year. He was honoured also by the Mogul, with the dignity of an Omrah of the empire; and the large districts which the company acquired by his influence, produced near £600,000 a year.

In October, 1759, seven Dutch ships, with troops on board, arrived in the Ganges from Batavia, with a view, no doubt, of dividing the English forces, or of expelling them entirely from Bengal. In this they were clandestinely encouraged by the Soubah. However, at Governor Clive's desire, the Soubah was prevailed upon to forbid their sailing up the river: but they, disregarding his orders, and disembarking their troops, the seven Dutch ships were attacked on the 24th of November, and six of them taken by the Calcutta, Duke of Dorset, and Hardwicke, East Indiamen. The other, which escaped, was intercepted by the Oxford, and Royal George; and the day following, their troops also were totally defeated, near Chandenagore, by Colonel Forde. This immediately brought the Dutch to terms; and, on the council at Hughley discovering the proceedings of their ships, acknowledging themselves the aggressors and agreeing to pay costs and damages, their vessels and prisoners were restored.

The English at Bengal, had the more reason to be jealous of the Dutch, as the Shah Zadda, a son of the late Mogul, and undoubted heir of the Mogul empire, had set up pretensions to the Soubahship of Bengal and invaded the provinces on the side of Patna, with a numerous army. But Colonel Clive joined the Soubah, preserved Patna, and drove the prince beyond the river Kurrumnassa [the boundary of the province.] The prince frequently wrote to the colonel, offering any terms to the company and himself, on condition the English would quit the Soubah, and join his arms; but the colonel gave him no encouragement

In January, 1760, Mr. Clive, till then a lieutenant colonel; was advanced to the rank of colonel in the King's troops; and on the 8th of February, he resigned the government to Mr. Holwell, and embarked for England, where, on September the 2nd, he was presented by the University of Oxford, with the honorary degree of L.L.D., and on the 24th, the thanks of the general quarterly court of directors and proprietors, were unanimously given to him, together with Admiral Pococke and Colonel Lawrence, for their great and glorious services in the East Indies.

Soon after the colonel's arrival, the following verses appeared in the papers:-

Great as from Porus' conquest Philip's son,
Glorious as Cortez from new Indies won;
'Midst trumpet's loud acclaim, and cannon's roar,
Welcome illustrious Clive to Britain's shore!
From eastern dawning, bright as Phoebus' rays,
We now behold thy full meridian blaze;
Proud of that chief, at whose impetuous course
Old Ganges trembled to his distant source,
Who like fam'd Warwick, master of the crown
On loftiest nabobs look'd superior down;
And made the fierce Mogul, with conscious fear,
Start as of yore, when Kouli Khan was near.
To thee her safety twice Bengalia owes,
Alike from Indian and Batavian foes;
Hence in no dungeon now her sons remain,
Nor of a new Amboyna's fate complain.
And see with wreaths by glorious toils acquir'd
Kind Heav'n rewards the genius it inspir'd,
And gives thee all thy fondest wish could claim,
Unenvy'd fortune, and unsully'd fame;
Thy aged sire's embrace, thy sov'reign's praise,
And from a stranger muse unpurchas'd lays.

[It should be remembered, that after our losses and disgraces in Europe and America, in the years 1756 and 1757, the GREAT COMMONER, in a speech which he made in the house of Commons, reflecting on our Generals and Admirals for rashness, cowardice, and misbehaviour, said, 'he must indeed except from this too general reflection one commander who might truly be styled, a heaven taught genius !']

In the parliament which met at Westminster, November 3rd, 1761, Colonel Clive was elected for the borough of Shrewsbury; and on the 1st of December he was advanced to an Irish peerage, by the title of Lord Clive, Baron of Plessey. In 1764, fresh disturbances arising in Bengal, and affairs there being looked upon as desperate, all eyes were turned upon his Lordship, as the only man who could again retrieve them: and this arduous task he readily undertook; every thing at home being settled to his satisfaction, and full powers, civil and military, being entrusted to him abroad. He was accordingly again appointed to the presidency, or government of Bengal; and after being honoured by his Majesty with the knighthood of the Bath, and the rank of Major General, he set sail for India, in the Kent, on the 4th of June. The season being so far advanced, his Lordship had the misfortune to lose his passage, and therefore did not arrive at Calcutta till the 3rd of May, 1765. Before his arrival, affairs had taken such a turn, that the easy task devolved upon him, of settling terms with the country powers, which be rendered very advantageous to the country company, who had now the disposal of all the revenues of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa, deducting only about £300,000, for the use of the Emperor. Lord Clive then set about the more arduous undertaking of reforming the abuses among the company's servants; he put the army establishment upon a better footing, and introduced some good regulations into the conduct of the private trade, which, nevertheless, were not so strict as to prevent oppressions among the natives,

In 1765, Lord Clive returned to England, having contributed to the prosperity of the company, in a most unexampled manner. Six years after this, a resolution was moved in the House of Commons, to the following import, viz., 'That in the acquisition of his wealth, Lord Clive had abused the powers with which he had been entrusted'.

General Burgoyne said he looked upon the deposing Surajah Dowlah, and bringing about a revolution in favour of Jaffier, in the year 1756, to be the origin of all those subsequent evils, which had operated to the temporary distress, if not total destruction, of the company; he enlarged upon the perfidy used to bring about that revolution; stated the fictitious treaty forged in order to elude the payment of the stipend promised to Omichund, (a black merchant and confidant of Surajah Dowlah, whom Lord Clive and the select committee in India, prevailed upon to join in a scheme to dethrone his master,) exposed the conduct of Lord Clive, in causing Admiral Watson's name to be signed, contrary to the Admiral's express inclination, to this treaty; and added, 'that the perfidy of Omichund was of the blackest dye, and, as to the proceedings of the select Committee in India, I will allow them to be (said the general ironically) of the whitest kind. The general concluded by proposing the above resolution, and if it met with the approbation of the house, he should move that persons who acquired sums of money by presents or otherwise in India (if they acquired such sums by virtue of their acting in a publick capacity) should make restitution.

His Lordship in his defence, began by soliciting the indulgence of the house to a few facts which had been partially stated; and as he was pleading for what was dearer to him than life, his reputation, he hoped the Committee would patiently hear him. He then went through one of the reports of the secret Committee, and quoted those different passages which concerned himself. His Lordship was very particular in examining the report; and in answer to those different pnssages which accused him of appropriating part of the revenues of Bengal, he read extracts of the nabob's letter to him, as president of the select Committee, of the Committee's letter to the directors, and finally the directors' letter of approbation to him. His Lordship afterwards observed, that, trained in the school of war and politicks as he had been for 20 years, he was now in the school of philosophy; and if patience was a virtue, he had no doubt of being very virtuous indeed. He enlarged very fully on the misconduct of the directors, and after arraigning in the severest terms the unpardonable remissness of former administrations, in neglecting the affairs of the India company, he declared that the mismanagement abroad was founded upon mismanagement at home. He then entered very particularly into the malevolence and artifice of his enemies and, to prove the zeal with which one of them attacked him, he read part of a conversation between the late Deputy Chairman and one of the first Clerks of the India House, in which the late Deputy Chairman, Sir George Colebrooke, says these remarkable words, 'I want to mark the man;' (meaning his Lordship.) Lord Clive proceeded to exculpate himself, and declared be went out to India the last time, promising not to add a shilling to his fortune, either directly or indirectly; which promise he declared to God he had religiously kept.

His Lordship ironically complimented the vast extent of abilities of Lord North, in limiting the continuence of the territorial acquisitions in the company's possession to 6 years. He said he might call his Lordship, the lion of government, and the India company the jackall, or lion's provider; that he had already seized upon three quarters; and no doubt but when, the lion had been out hunting, and was returning hungry, that the remaining quarter would be seized also; that he stood there an independent man, ready to give government every honourable assistance; that he would do, and farther would not be expected of him. With respect to the East India company, he lamented their situation; that they had long been tampered with by quacks, even till they were reduced to an absolute consumption, and had thrown themselves upon Parliament, as the only and true physician that could effect a cure.

His Lordship remarked that for these two years past, the directors, either through ignorance or design, had kept the affairs of the company a secret: that they had rioted at taverns, dissolved in dissipation and luxury, and had venison, turtle, and other choice viands, in, and out of season, with Burgundy, Claret, and old Hock; that they entirely neglected their duty; and employed a man to think for them, (Mr. Wilks) to whom they allowed £400 per annum, and that many of their orders were so absurd and contradictory that their own servants were almost justified in refusing obedience to them. I left India (continued his Lordship,) in 1760, in profound peace, in which it was, likely to remain. The expense of the Military at that time, though heavy, was nothing equal to what it is now; I expected it would, instead, of increasing, have been reduced. Much virulence and malevolence have been employed against me; and it is with real concern I find myself reduced to the sad necessity of being the herald of my own fame. I have served my country, and that company faithfully; and, had I been employed by the crown, I should not have been in the situation I am in at present. I should have been differently rewarded; no, retrospect would have been had to sixteen years past, and I should not have been forced to plead for what is dearer than life, my reputation. My situation, Sir, has not been an easy one for these twelve mouths past, and though my conscience never could accuse me, yet I felt for my friends who were involved in the same censure as myself. Sir, not a stone has been left unturned, where the least probability could arise of discovering something of a criminal nature against me.

The two committees, Sir, seem to have bent the whole of their enquiries to the conduct of their humble servant, the Baron of Plassey; and I have been examined by the select committee, more like a sheep stealer than a member of this house. I am sure, Sir, if I had any sore places about me; they would have been found; they have probed to the bottom; no lenient plaisters have been applied to heal. No, Sir, they were all of the blister kind, prepared with Spanish flies and other provocatives. The publick records have been ransacked for proofs against me; and the late deputy chairman, of the India company, a worthy member of this house, has been very assiduous indeed, so assiduous in my affairs, that really, Sir, it appears he has entirely neglected his own. As the heads upon Temple bar have tumbled down, and as there is no probability of their being replaced (for jacobitism seems at an end; at least there has been great alteration in men's sentiments within these ten years,) I would propose, Sir, that my head, by way of preeminence, be put upon the middle pole, and his Majesty having granted me these honours, it is proper they should be supported. What think you then, of my having the late chairman and deputy on each side.

I will now, Sir, crave leave to say a word to the proposed regulations of the noble lord. I agree with hire, Sir, that the annual direction has been in a great measure, the cause of the great distress of the India company; and I also agree that every proprietor should possess £1000 stock, and be in possession twelve months before he can be qualified to vote. His lordship then expatiated on the great temptations in India; said that the country had been governed by a set of boys, and numberless abuses had been committed; that with respect to the Mottut, he never heard of it until last summer, when he was in Shropshire; but though a sum of £5000 was of little moment where the receipts amounted to four or five millions, yet great abuses have been made of it; that, as to jaghires, they are as commonly given by princes in that country, as pensions, lottery tickets and other douceurs, are by the ministers in this.

I must beg leave to observe to the house, that presents were allowed and received from the earliest time of the direction. They have continued to be received uninterruptedly for the space of 150 years; and men, Sir, who have sat in the direction themselves, have at several times received presents. This the direction must know; but I am firmly of opinion that in honourable cases, presents are not improper to be received; but when for dishonourable purposes, then, Sir, I hold them to be highly improper. In the early part of my. life, my labours were without emolument or laurels, and I hope the house cannot think but that I ought to be rewarded for my services to my country in the latter part of it. When I was employed by the company, their affairs abroad were in a condition much to be lamented. Misfortunes attended them in every part of their settlements, and the nabob looked with a jealous eye upon the small privileges and possessions they then enjoyed; and though small, in danger every day of being wrested from them. Fear and weakness of power sought for protection from the dangers that surrounded them. In this critical situation I was called forth, and it pleased God to make me the instrument of their deliverance. In the various battles and attacks in which I was employed, I had the good fortune to succeed; nor were such schemes and undertakings entered upon without the previous provocation of the country powers. The treachery of Surajah Dowlah was for ever in our eye, and his perfidy was never at rest; nor did we attack Chandenagore till the treaty on his behalf was first violated. After these conquests, Sir, and acquisitions gained for the company, I returned home. They approved in the highest degree, of what I had done; and as a token of their approbation they presented me with a rich sword, set with diamonds. This, certainly, Sir, was no mark of their opinion that I had either violated treaties, or disobeyed their orders. Nor did their commendation and good opinion of my services terminate here. As soon as troubles broke out in that country, and when the news of the terrible disaster of the taking of Calcutta from us arrived to the ear of the company, they immediately sent to me, and requested that I would go once more to India, to protect and secure their possessions, that my presence alone would effect it; and they should rest secured through the good opinion they entertained of me, that success would accompany me, and that I should be the means of putting their affairs again into a prosperous situation. I did not hesitate a moment to accept the offer. I went abroad, resolving not to benefit myself one single shilling at my return: and I strictly and religiously adhered to this resolution. When I arrived there, I subdued Angria, a very powerful prince. I retook Calcutta, with an inconsiderable army. Surajah Dowlah had at all times betrayed a disposition to break the treaty; and when an army was sent under the command of M. Dupree, which might have proved fatal to us, I do not hesitate to say, that we bribed the general of that army, who immediately wrote to the nabob to let him know that the English were invincible; and upon a second request from the nabob to M. Dupree that he would march with his army, and destroy the English, his answer was couched in the same terms. He said, that he always found the English invincible: and it would have been the height of imprudence to hazard an attack. By such means, and by this stratagem, we succeeded. We soon discovered that the nabob, Sarajah Dowlah, was so turbulent and restless, that he only waited for the departure of the fleet to exterminate the English. But as treacherous men are too apt to have men of the same cast and disposition about them, the nabob was not wanting of such companions. Omichund, his confidential servant, as he thought, told his master of an agreement between the English and M. Dupree to attack him, and received for that advice a sum not less than four lacs of rupees. Finding this to be the man in whom the nabob entirely trusted, it soon became our object to consider him as a most material engine in the intended revolution. We therefore made such an agreement as was necessary for the purpose, and entered into a treaty with him to satisfy his demands. When all things were prepared, and the evening of the event was appointed, Omichund informed Mr. Watts, who was at the court of the nabob, that he insisted on thirty lacs of rupees, and five per cent upon all the treasure that should be found; that unless that was immediately complied with, he would disclose the whole to the nabob; and that Mr. Watts and the two other English gentlemen, then at the court, should be cut off before morning. Mr. Watts immediately, on this information, despatched an express to me at the council. I did not hesitate to find out a stratagem to save the lives of these people, and secure success to the intended extent. For this purpose we signed another treaty. The one was called the Red, the other the White treaty. This treaty was signed by every one except Admiral Watson; and I should have considered myself sufficiently authorized to put his name to it, by the conversation I had with him. As to the person who signed Admiral Watson's name to the treaty, whether he did it in his presence or not I cannot say; but this I know, that he thought he had sufficient authority for so doing. This treaty was immediately sent to Omichund, who did not suspect the stratagem. The event took place, and success attended it; and the house, I am fully persuaded, will agree with me that when the very existence of the company was at stake, and the lives of these people so precariously, situated, and so certain of being destroyed, that it was a matter of true policy, and of justice, to deceive so great a villain. I have in my hand, Sir, a letter signed by Admiral Watson, Messrs. Manningham, Watts, etc., which I apprehend will convey Admiral Watson's thorough approbation of the proceedings of the revolution, and the means by which it was obtained. (His lordship then read the letter, which conveyed Admiral Watson's full approbation.) Now, Sir, great as my fortune is, (and it bears no proportion to what I might have made) yet to show that I did not harass, or lay under contribution, those whom I I had conquered, for my own emolument, I can tell this house, that neither I, nor any one in my army, received a sixpence from the inhabitants of Muxadahad. My jaghire was not received till 1759, though it has been reported that I received it at the revolution in 1757. I must beg leave to mention another circumstance to this house, that upon these troubles, the Dutch were encouraged by the nabob to enter the country with seven ships, and a vast army. I did not hesitate a moment to give them battle, and in twenty-four hours I destroyed every ship they had, and their whole army was either killed, wounded, or taken prisoners. At this time, the Dutch had most of my money, and in this instance I think I shewed a zeal for the honour and interest of the company, superior to every other object even of my own concern. I must now beg leave to read in the house, two letters from the court of directors to myself, containing their approbation of the revolution in Bengal. These letters, Sir, came not through the common channel of address to the governor and council, but were directed to myself. His lordship then read the letters, which contained indeed the most full and satisfactory approbation of what is termed in one of the letters, THE LATE GLORIOUS AND PROFlTABLE REVOLUTION.- These, Sir, are surely sufficient certificates of my behaviour, and of the proof that revolution; and whatever the house may think of them, will remain an everlasting approbation of my conduct from those persons who alone employed me, and whose servant I was. A late minister, (Lord Chatham) whose abilities have been an honour to his country, and whom this house will ever revere, will, I am sure, come to your bar, and not only tell you how highly he thonght of my services at the time, but also what his opinion is now.

Upon my arrival, Sir, in England a second time, a committee of the directors waited upon me to desire to know when I would receive the congratulations of the direction. I accordingly waited upon them at their court in Leadenhall street, and the chairman, at a very full court, addressed me in the words contained in this letter, (which his lordship read.) These, Sir, were circumstances, certainly, that gave me full satisfaction and ground to think that my conduct in every instance was approved of. After such certificates as these, Sir, am I to he brought here like a criminal, and the very best parts of my conduct construed into crimes against the state? is this the reward that is now held out to persons who have performed such important services to their country? If it is, Sir, the future consequences that will attend the execution of any important trust, committed to the persons who have the care of it, will be fatal indeed; and I am sure the noble lord upon the treasury bench, whose great humanity and abilities I revere, would never have consented to the resolutions that passed the other night, if he had thought on the dreadful consequences that would attend them. Sir, I cannot say that I either sit or rest easy, when I find, by that extensive resolution, that all I have in the world is confiscated, and that no one will take my security for a shilling. These Sir, are dreadful apprehensions to remain under, and I canuot look upon myself but as a bankrupt. I have not any thing left which I can call my own, except my paternal fortune of £500 per annum, and which has been in the family for ages past. But upon this I am content to live, and perhaps I shall find more real content of mind and happiness, than in the trembling affluence of an unsettled fortune. But, Sir, I must make one more observation, that if the definition of the Hon. Gentleman, (General Burgoyne) and of this house, is that the state, as expressed in these resolutions, is quoad hoc, the company, then, Sir, every farthing that I enjoy is granted to me. But to be called, after sixteen years have elapsed, to account for my conduct in this manner, and after an uninterrupted enjoyment of my property, to be questioned and considered as obtaining it unwarrantably, is hard indeed! and a treatment I should not think the British senate capable of. But, if it should be the case, I have a conscious innocence within me, that tells me my conduct is irreproachable. Frangas none flectes. They may take from me what I have; they may, as they think, make me poor, but I will be happy ! I mean not this as my defence. My defence will be made at the bar; and before I sit down, I have one request to make to the house,- that when they come to decide upon my honour, they will notS forget their own'.

By the assistance of Mr. Wedderburne, afterwards Lord Loughborough, his lordship defended himself against all the charges brought against him, which at one time had put on very serious aspect. The original motion was at length rejected, and it was resolved, 'That Lord Clive had rendered great, and meritorious services to his country'.

Though his lordship thus escaped publick prosecution, yet from this time he fell a prey to the most gloomy depression of spirits. At length at the age only of fifty, in November, 1774, he put an end to his own life, leaving behind him five children and a widow, the sister of Dr. Maskelyne, the astronomer royal.

Lord Clive was of a temper unusually reserved, but among particular friends he was cheerful, and even jocular; and in domestick life be was kind and amiable. He had, as we have seen, the fine talent of inspiring confidence in those under his command;- hence he was characterised by the great Lord Chatham, as the 'heaven born general', who, with little experience, surpassed all the officers of his time. He represented the town of Shrewsbury in parliament, from 1760 to 1774, but rarely spoke in the house, though upon special occasions he displayed great powers of elocution. By his will be bequeathed, £70,000 to the invalids in the company's service.

DRAYTON PARVA; or LITTLE DRAYTON. A township in the parish of Drayton Magna, or in Hales, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North, adjoining to Drayton.

DRAYTON. A township in the hundred of Bradford, South.

DUDLESTON; or DUDDLESTONE. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry, a chapel to Ellesmere, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 4 miles north-west of Ellesmere.

Dudleston is situated in the north-western extremity of the county, near the cross road, which connects the road from Ellesmere to Chirk, with that from Overton to the latter place; it has an elegant modern church, in the Gothick style, with painted gless windows, occupying the site of one more ancient; near the south side of the church is an ancient stone cross. An Irish Archbishop, who was taken ill and died whilst on a visit at Plas Warren, is interred within the church.

Dudleston is a perpetual curacy in the gift of the vicar of Ellesmere; the income arises from lands near Oswestry, purchased many years back, with a grant from Queen Ann's Bounty, and private subscriptions obtained by the family who then owned Kilhendre. Among the names appears that of the Hon. and Rev. Dr. Godolphin, Dean of St. Paul's, Sir Bridgman, the ancestor orthe Bradford family. The Church yard commands a highly diversified, and beautiful prospect: among the objects are Chirk Castle, the Welch Mountains, the Braxton Hills, the fine tower of Wrexham Church, and farther in the distance, the Towers of Chester,

About a quarter of a mile from the church, in a retired and beautifill valley; whose sides are covered with wood, not more than thirty years ago stood a very ancient mansion called Kilhendre. In the centre of the house was a chamber perfectly dark, into which you descended by steps, and the passages to which were hidden by tapestry; evidently appearing to have been intended as a place of concealment in cases of sudden danger. Some workmen employed in taking down part of the house, before the final demolition of the whole, discovered, beneath a flight of stone steps, an earthen jar, containing many pieces of leather money. This mansion, as appears by documents still extant, was in existence as far back as the reign of Edward the Second. Here Colonel John Jones, Governor of Dublin for some time, found a peaceful Asylum, after the death of Cromwell. He was a man of very ancient family, of most dignified appearance and venerable with age. He had been a very active and successful officer, was very high in Cromwell's estimation, and had received from him extensive grants of lands in Ireland.

About two miles from Dudleston the County terminates in an elevated and precipitous rock, called Coed-yr-Allt; commanding one of the finest prospects that can well he imagined. Deep below winds the Dee with its dark waters and rocky bed, its sides crowned with ancient woods of oak; recalling to the mind of the spectator, as well by its natural character, as by its deep and gloomy woods, having been the favourite haunt of the Druids and the most frequent scene of their mystical rites, Milton's epithet of sacred. The Dee is here joined by a considerable tributary stream, the Ceiriog, which flows beneath the Aqueduct at Chirk, and through the grounds of Bryn-kynn-Allt. These two rivers form the boundary for some miles between England and Wales. Other features in the landscape, are the Mansion and woods of Wynnstay; the highly beautiful grounds and woods of Nant-y-belan: the Aqueducts of Chirk and Pont-y-cysyllte, Chirk Castle, Bryn-cyn-Alt, the beautiful seat of Lord Dungannon, and Castel-dinas-brau, all backed by the Welch Mountains.

There is an air of wildness and solitude in the place; and those persons who are desirous of seeing Welch scenary without making an excursion into Wales, may there be fully gratified.

The gentlemen's seats in the neighbourboud of Dudleston are, Plas Yolyn, Plas Warren, Kilhendre, Sodylt Hall, Shellbrook Hill, and Knolton Hall.

DUDLICK. A township in the parish of Stottesden, and in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden. 6 miles north north-west of Cleobury Mortimer.

DUDSTON. A township in the parish of Chirbury, and in the upper division of the hundred of Chirbury. 1½ miles north of Montgomery, 7 miles north-west of Bishopscastle.

EAMSTRY. A township in the parish of Atcham, and in the hundred of Condover. 2 miles south-east of Shrewsbury.

EARDINGTON. A parish in the liberties of Bridgnorth, united to Quatford, which is in the peculiar jurisdiction of Bridgnorth, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield. 60 houses, 1¼ miles south of Bridgnorth.

EARDISTON. A township. in the parish of Ruyton, and in the lower division of the hundred of Oswestry. 6 miles south-east of Oswestry.

EARNWOOD. A township in the hundred of Stottesden.

EASTHAM. A township in the hundred of Munslow.

EAST HAMLETS. A township in the parish of Stanton Lacy, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow.

EASTHOPE. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 13 houses, 96 inhabitants. 7½ miles north-east by east of Church Stretton.

EASTWALL. A township in the parish of Rushbury, and in the upper division of the hundred of Muuslow. 5 miles east of Church Stretton.

EASTWICK. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill.

EATON; Or EATON UNDER HAYWOOD. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 78 houses, 566 inhabitants. 4 miles south-east of Church Stretton.

EATON and CHEALTON. A township in the parish of Lydbury, North, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow. 3½ miles east of Bishopscastle.

EATON. A township in the parish of Stoke upon Tern, and in the Drayton division of Bradford, North. 21 houses, 123 inhabitants. 6 miles northwest of Newport.

EATON CONSTANTINE. A parish in the Wellington division of Bradford, South. A free Chapel or rectory, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 84 houses, 251 inhabitants. 8 miles southwest of Wellington, 7½ miles south-east of Shrewsbury.

EATON; Or EYTON and PLOWDEN. A township in the parish of Lydbury, North, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow, 8 miles southeast by east of Bishopscastle.

EATON MASCOT. A township in the parish of Berrington, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover. 5 miles south-east of Shrewsbury.

ERNALL. A township in the hundred of Oswestry. 4 miles northeast by north of Oswestry.

EDDICLIFF. A township in the parish of Clun, and in the Clun division of the hundred of Clun. 61 houses, 419 inhabitants.

EDENHOPE, Upper and Lower. A township in the parish of Mainstone and in the Mainstone division of the hundred of Chin. 8½ miles west of Bishopscastle.

EDGE. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. Edge quarter of Pontesbury, contains 63 houses, 874 inhabitants. 6 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

EDGEBOLD PULLEY. A township in the parish of Meole Brace, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 1¾ mile south-west by south of Shrewsbury.

EDGEBOLTON; or EDGEBOULTON. A township in the parish of Shawbury, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 6 miles southeast of Wem. The township, including Muckleton, and Great Wigford, contains 77 houses, 457 inhabitants.

EDGELEY. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North.

EDGERLET. A township in the hundred of Oswestry.

EDGMOND. A parish in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. A rectory in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 406 houses, 2,163 inhabitants. 2 miles south- west by west of Newport.

The Rev. William Gilbert, a celebrated nonconformist divine, held the rectory of Edgmond and was born, if not there, in some part of Shropshire, in the year 1613. He was educated at Edmund Hall, Oxford, and was presented, by Lord Wharton, to the living of upper Winchington, in Buckinghamshire; afterwards to the vicarage of St. Lawrence, Reading; and lastly, to the rectory of Edgmond, in his native county; from which he was ejected at the restoration. He afterwards officiated among the nonconformists at Oxford and London, and died at Oxford, in 1694. His works are; 1. Vindicia supremi Dei Domini, against Dr. Owen; 2. England's Passing Bell a poem on the plague, the fire ofLondon, and the Dutch war; 3. Super auspicatissimo regis Gul. in Hiberniam descensu, 4to.; 4. Epitaphia diversa. He also published a dialogue, called "Julius Secundus", which he ascribed to Erasmus.

EDGTON. A parish in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow, a curacy not in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 40 houses, 220 inhabitants. 4½ miles south-east of Bishopscastle.

EDSTASTON. A township in the parish of Wem, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. A chapel to Wem, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 2 miles north of Wem.

ELLERDINE. A township in the parish of Ercall Magna or High Ercall, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 9 miles south-east of Wem.

ELLERTON. A township in the parish of Cheswardine, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 4½ miles north-west by north of Newport.

ELLESMERE. A market town, in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill, a vicarage remaining in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 1,143 houses, 6,056 inhabitants. 17 miles north north-west of Shrewsbury. 176 miles north-west of London. LAT. 52, 56 N. LON. 2, 59 W.

Ellesmere takes its name from a mere, or great lake in its neighbourhood. It is a town of Saxon origin, and was formerly called Aelsmere, or the greatest mere; the lake that washes it being of the extent of 101 acres [some say 116 acres]. Ael in compositions prestantiam vel plenitudeuem denotat: mere stagnum quod instar maria exigui se praebet [Ael in composition signifies excellence, or fullness; and mere, a lake resembling, as it were, a little sea]. Though some derive the name from the abundance of eels in that water. In the time of Edward the confessor, 'Edwinus comes tenuit Ellesmeres', which, in Domesday, Earl Roger held. In the year 1177, 'The King (Henry the second of course) went to Oxford, and among other grants, there is one to David, the son of Owen, 'de North Wales, terram de Ellesmar'. Owen having married the King of England's sister, Robert Lupus held 'Manerium de Ellesmar per balivum Johannis Regis'. In the sixth of John, the King gave the castle and manor of Ellesmere, in frank marriage with his daughter Joan, to Llewellyn, Prince of North Wales; but in the tenth of John, four years afterwards, Bartholomew Turoc, the governor, was commanded, on his allegiance, to put the place into the possession of William Earl of Salisbury, the King's brother, and Thomas de Erdington, 'quia volumus quod illud custodiant: teste meipso apud Warwick 18 die Decembris;' [Because it is our pleasure that they should keep it. Witness, my hand, at Warwick, the 18th of December] so that the King reserved the disposal of the castle, this being a frontier town and of some importance to the marches, and consequently, not to be disposed of to the Prince of Wales, and left entirely in his power. It is supposed he had only the rents and profits arising from the tenants.

In the fourth of Henry the third, Roger Le Strange yielded up to the King the inheritance of the manors of Colemere and Hampton, and received, in consideration of the same, the said manors again, 'cum castro et hundredo de Ellesmar ad vitam tantum'. [With the castle and hundred of Ellesmere, for his life only.] In the twenty first year of Henry the third, John Le Strange was governor of the castle. In the twenty fifth year of Henry the third, David, son of Llewellyn late Prince of Wales, by his charter in writing, surrendered up Ellesmere to the crown of England, after which we hear no more of its being in the hands of the Welsh.

The continual skirmishes between the English and Welsh made the tenure of Ellesmere very precarious; and though Henry the second, and King John, being embroiled in foreigu wars, gave this town and castle in dower, the first with a sister, and the latter with a natural daughter, by Agatha de Ferrars, the Earl of Derby's daughter, in order to conciliate the ancient animosities of both people, yet upon the slightest appearance of a rupture, these Kings might, and did resume at pleasure, or gave what recompense they thought fit upon the seizure, and such as the Princes of Wales, holding upon their good behaviour, were glad to receive.

In the thirty seventh of Henry the third, the manor and hundred of Ellesmere were committed to John de Grey, paying a fine of ten shillings a year, In the forty third of Henry the third, Peter Montfort was governor of Ellesmere castle. In the fifty first of Henry the third, the manor, castle, and hundred, were granted to Hamon Le Strange, and his heirs, 'donec sibi et haeredibus provisum erat de escheatis ad c. librarum per annum'. [Till he and his heirs should be provided for to the amount of one hundred a year, out of the feodritares]. This Hamon was a younger son of the first John, Lord Le Strange of Knockin. In the fourteenth year of Edward the second, Oliver de Ingleham, who adhered so firmly to the King upon the insurrection of the Earl of Lancaster, and other lords, was governor of this castle, In the third of Edward the third, a writ was issued to see after the encroachments on this manor, and settle the boundaries, which being done, the King gave the castle of Ellesmere, with the hamlets of Colemere and Hampton, to the Lord Eubule Le Strange in fee, who, dying- left the saws to Roger Le Strange de Knockin, sen., his cousin, and next heir. Richard, his son and heir, who was found to be cousin and heir to Philippa, Duchess of York, his mother's sister, died the twenty seventh of Henry the sixth, and after his death, Elizabeth, his relict, married Roger Kynaston, Esq., her dower being the manors of Nesse Strange, Kinton, Colemere, hamlet of Hampton, hamlet of Knockin, 'castrum et dominium de Ellesmar', and the castle of Middle. John, son of Richard, died the seventeenth of Edward the fourth, who having issue, Joan his sole daughter and heir, married George, son and heir apparent to Thomas Stanley, the first Earl of Derby of that name, in whose family it remained for four descents, when William, Earl of Derby, had license the forty second of Elizabeth, to make an alienation of the manor of Ellesmere to Richard Spencer, Esq., and Edward Savage, who, the subsequent year, obtained the Queen's pardon for the alienation, 'quam fecere Thomae Egerton custodi magni sigilli' (which they had made to Thomae Egerton, Knight, keeper of the Great Seal;) afterwards created Lord Chancellor and Baron of Ellesmere. In his family it still remains.

In the sixth of James, George Onslow Esq., alienated the manor of St. John of Jerusalem (Welshampton) 'infra villam et parochiam de Ellesmere', to Sir Thomas Egerton, Lord Ellesmere. The most ancient freehold of the manor was Ockley, or Ottley; the noble and ancient seat of the Kynastons, [now the residence of Lady Tarns. The house appears to be very old, and stands low, but the park is a very fine one, having perhaps the greatest quantity of elm trees to be seen in any part of England.] of which family there have been several Knights, who have borne tbe highest offices of which gentlemen in a private capacity are capable, particularly the ingenious and learned Francis Kynaston, Esq., Knight of the body to Charles the first, and celebrated for his translation of Chaucer's Troilus and Cressida, into Latin.

By statute the twenty seventh of Heury the eighth, Ellesmere cum membris was united to the hundred of Pimhill. In the fortieth year of Elizabeth, the Queen gave license to Sir Edward Kynaston, Knight, to keep a market on Tuesday, and a fair. But the account given by Leland of this town is that it had four streets, and no market. None of the ruins of the castle are left [it was destroyed in the seventeenth century, during the sage of the civil war]; but the eminence on which the keep stood discovers that it has been an ancient fort.

Ellesmere is an elegant little town and is rendered exceeding beautiful by the fine wood fringed lake, which comes close to its walls. It has a good market, and the chief trade of the town is in malting and tinning.

On the castle hill (formerly the keep) there is one of the finest bowling greens in the kingdom, from which there is an extensive prospect of nine different counties.

The church of Ellesmere is a spacious, but irregular, cruciform building. In the centre is a handsome square tower, adorned with pinnacles. The tracery of the great eastern window is highly beautiful. In a chapel, south of the chancel, is an ancient tomb of the Kynaston's of Hordley. The ceiling of this part is highly adorned with Gothick fretwork.

Market on Tuesday. Fairs, February 2, the third Tuesday in April, Whit Tuesday, August 26, and November 14. The second is a great fair for barren cows.

Francis Egerton, third Duke of Bridgwater, is deserving of notice in this place, as having been possessed of huge estates in Ellesmere, and its neighbourhood; and at being distinguished for his publick spirit, and for the vast plans he formed and executed for the improvement of his estates. The noble duke possessed an estate at Worsley, about 7 miles from Manchester, rich in mines of coal, from which he derived little or no advantage, on account of the expense which attended the conveyance of this article by land carriage, to a suitable market for consumption. Fully apprized of the utility of a canal from Worsley to Manchester, he consulted Mr. Brindley on the subject; who, having surveyed the country, declared the scheme to be practicable. Accordingly, his grace obtained, in the years 1758 and 1759, an act of parliament for this purpose; and Mr. Brindley was employed in the conduct and execution of the undertaking,- the first of the kind ever attempted in England, with navigable subterranean tunnels and elevated aqueducts. At the commencement of the business it was determined that the level of the water should be preserved without the usual obstruction of locks. But in accomplishing this object, many difficulties occurred; and it was soon found that it would be necessary to carry the canal over rivers and many deep valleys, and that it would not be easy to obtain a sufficient supply for completing the navigation. However, Mr. Brindley, patronized by the duke, and furnished with ample resources, persevered, and at length conquered all the embarrassments occasioned by the nature of the undertaking, and by the passions and prejudices of individuals. Having completed the canal as far as Barton, where the river Irwell is navigable for large vessels, he proposed to carry it over that river by an aqueduct 39 feet above the surface of the water. This was considered as a chimerical and extravagant project; and an eminent engineer, who was consulted on the occasion, ridiculed the attempt. 'I have often heard' said he, 'of castles in the air, but never before was shewn where any of them were to be erected'. The duke of Bridgwater was not discouraged; but confiding in the judgment of Mr. Brindley, empowered him to prosecute the work; and in about 10 months the aqueduct was completed. This astonishing work commenced in Septemher, 1760, and the first boat sailed over it the 17th of July, 1761. The canal was then extended to Manchester, where Mr. Brindley's ingenuity in diminishing labour by mechanical contrivances was exhibited in a machine for landing coals upon the top of a hill. It is no wonder, that an object, so curious in itself, and of so great national importance, should have attracted general attention.

The duke of Bridgwater, having found by experience, the utility of these inland navigation, extended his views to Liverpool; and obtained, in 1762, an act of parliament for branching his canal to the tideway in the Mersey. This part is carried over the river Mersey and Bollan, and over many wide and deep valleys. Over the valleys it is conducted without a single lock; and across the valley at Stretford, through which the river Mersey runs, a mound of earth, raised for preserving the water, extends nearly a mile. In the construction of this mound Mr. Brindley displayed his mechanical genius, by rendering the canal itself subservient to his design, and by bringing the soil necessary for his purpose along the canal in boats, of a peculiar form, which were conducted into caissoons or cisterns; so that on opening the bottoms of the boats, the earth was distributed where it was wanted, and the valley was thus elevated to a proper level for continuing the canal. Across the Bollan the ground was raised by temporary locks formed of the timber used in the construction of the caissoons just mentioned. In the execution of every part of the navigation, Mr. Brindley displayed singular skill and ingenuity; and in order to facilitate his purpose, he produced many valuable machines. His economy and forecast, in every part of the work, deserve to be particularly noticed, and they are peculiarly discernable in the stops or floodgates, that are fixed in the canal, where it is above the level of the land. These stops are so constructed, that if any of the banks should give way and occasion a current, the adjoinieg gates will rise merely by that motion, and prevent any other part of the water from escaping, besides that which is near the breech between the two gates. The duke was born in 1736, and was the fifth son of the first duke. In 1748 he succeeded his brother in the family estates, and died, unmarried, in 1803.

ELSON; or ELSTON. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 1½ mile north-west of Ellesmere.

ENCHMARSH and CHATWALL. A township in the parish of Cardington, and in the upper division of the hundred of Muuslow. Enchmarsh is 8½ miles north-east, and Chatwall, 4½ miles north-east of Church Stretton.

ENSDON. A township in the parish of Montford, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. 6 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

ENSDON HOUSE. A seat of the Earl of Powis. 5½ miles north-west of Shrewsbury. See appendix.

ERCALL CHILD'S. See Child's Ercall.

ERCALL MAGNA; or HIGH ERCALL. A parish in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 341 houses, 1,952 inhabitants. 8 miles northeast of Shrewsbury.. See appendix.

ERCALL PARVA. See Child's Ercall.

ESPLEY. See Hopton and Espley.

ESPLEY. A township in the hundred of Condover.

EUDON GEORGE. A township in the parish of Chetton, and in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden. 3½ miles southwest by south of Bridgnorth.

EVELITH, A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry, 1½ mile south of Shiffnal.

EWDEN BURNELL. A township in the parish of Chetton, and in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden.

EWDNESS. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 3½ miles northeast by north of Bridgnorth.

EYRE. See Aston Eyre.

EYTON. A township in the parish of Baschurch, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill; near Fenemere. 6 miles south-west of Wem.

EYTON. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 15 houses, 65 inhabitants. 7 miles west of Shrewsbury.

EYTON. A township in the parish of Lydbury North, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow. 4 miles south-east of Bishopscastle.

EYTON and DEYTON. A township in the parish of Wroxeter, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 7 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

EYTON ON THE WILDMOORS, or UPON WILDMORES. A parish in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 74 houses, 390 inhabitants. 2 miles north of Wellington.

The celebrated Edward Herbert Lord Chirbury was born at this place. Granger, in his " Biographical History of England", speaks of his lordship as standing in the highest rank among the publick ministers, historians, and philosophers of the age. 'It is hard to say, (he continues) whether his person, his understanding, or his courage, was the most extraordinary. But the same man was wise and capricious; redressed wrongs, and quarrelled for punctilios; hated bigotry, and was himself a bigot to philosophy. He exposed himself to such dangers as other men of courage would have carefully declined; and called in question the fundamentals of a religion which none had hardiness to dispute besides himself'. Lord Herbert was the first, and the most candid of our English infidels, and his system of deism certainly comes nearer to christianity, and contains less of acrimonious censure of Revelation, than that of any other. The following extracts from his lordship's life, written by himself, and published many years afterwards from his manuscripts, by Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, will shew that this nobleman possessed no small portion of vanity, and (though an infidel) a far more than common degree of superstition and credulity.

I was born at Eyton, in Shropshire, (being a house which together with fair lands, descended upon the Newports, by my grandmother,) between the hours of twelve and one of the clock, in the morning. My infancy was very sickly, my head continually purging itself very much by the ears; whereupon also it was so long before I began to speak, that many thought I should be ever dumb. The very farthest thing I can remember is that when I understood what was said by others I did yet forbear to speak, lest I should utter something that was imperfect or impertinent. When I came to talk, one of the first enquiries I made was,- how I came into this world? I told my nurse, keeper, and others, I found myself here indeed, but from what cause, or beginning, or by what means, I could not imagine. But for this, as I was laughed at by the nurse and some other women that were then present, so I was wondered at by others, who said they never heard a child but myself ask that question; upon which, when I came to riper years, I made this observation, which afterwards a little comforted me, that as I found myself in possession of this life, without knowing anything of the pangs and throws my mother suffered, when yet doubtless they did not less press and afflict me than her,- so I hope my soul shall pass to a better life than this, without being sensible of the anguish and pains my body shall feel in death. For as I believe, then I shall be transmitted to a more happy state, by God's great grace, I am confident I shall no more know how I came out of this world, than how I came into it. And certainly, since in my mother's womb, this plastics or formatrix, which formed my eyes, ears, and other senses, did not intend them for that dark and noysome place, but, as being conscious of a better life, made then as fitting organs to apprehend and perceive those things which should occur in this world; so I believe since my coming into this world, my soul hath formed and produced certain faculties, which are almost as useless for this life, as the above named senses were for the mother's womb; and these faculties are Hope, Faith, Love, and Joy; since they never rest or fix upon any transitory and perishing object in this world, as extending themselves to something further than can be here given, and indeed acquiesce only in the perfect, eternal, and infinite. I confess they are of some use here, yet I appeal to everybody, whether any earthly felicity did so satisfy their hope here, that they did not wish and hope for something more excellent; or whether they had ever that faith in their own wisdom, or in the help of man, that they were not constrained to have recourse to, some divine and superior power, than they could find on earth, to relieve them in their danger and necessity;- whether ever they could place their love on any earthly beauty, that it did not fade and wither, if not frustrate and deceive them,- or, whether ever their joy was so consummate in any thing they delighted in, that they did not want much more than it, or indeed this world can afford, to make them happy. The proper objects of these faculties, therefore, though framed, or at least appearing in this world, is God only, upon whom Faith, Hope, and Love were never placed in vain, or remain long unrequited. But, to leave these discourses, and come to my childhood again, I remember this defluxion at my ears above mentioned, continued in that violence that my friends did not think fit to teach me so much as my alphabet, till I was seven years old, at which time my defluxion ceased, and left me free of the disease my ancestors were subject unto, being the epilepsy. My schoolmaster, then in the house of my said lady grandmother, began to teach me the alphabet, and afterwards grammar, and other books commonly read in schools, in which I profited so much that upon this theame "Audaces fortuna juvat", I made an oration of a sheet of paper, and fifty or sixty verses, in the space of one day. I remember in that time, I was corrected sometimes for going to cuffs with two school fellows, being both elder than myself, but never for telling a lie, or any other fault; my natural disposition and inclination being so contrary to all falsehood, that being demanded whether I had committed any fault, whereof I might justly be suspected, I did me ever to confess it freely, and thereupon choosing rather to suffer correction, than to stain my mind with telling a lie; which I did judge then, no time could ever efface, and I can affirm to all the world truly, that from my first infancy to this hour, I told not willingly any thing that was false; my soul naturally having an antipathy to lying and deceit, After I had attained the age of nine, during all which time I lived in my said lady grandmother's house, at Eyton, my parents thought fit to send me to some place where I might learn the Welsh tongue, as believing it necessary to enable me to treat with those of my friends and tenants who understood no other language; whereupon I was recommended to Mr. Edward Thetwall, of Place Ward, in Denbighshire. This gentleman I must remember with honour, as having of himself acquired the exact knowledge of Greek, Latin, French, Italian, and Spanish, and all other learning, having for that purpose, neither gone beyond seas, nor so much as had the benefit of any universities. Besides, he was of that rare temper in governing his choler, that I never saw him angry during the time of my stay there, and have heard so much of him for many years before. When occasion of offence was given him, I have seen him redden, and after, remain for a while silent, but when he spoke, his words were so calm and gentle, that I found he had digested his choler; though yet I confess I could never attain that perfection, as being subject ever to choler aid passion, more than I ought, and generally to speak my mind freely, and indeed rather to imitate those who having fire within doors, choose rather to give it vent, than suffer it to burn the house. I commend yet much more, the manner of Mr. Thelwall; and certainly he that can forbear speaking for some while, will remit much of his passion; but as I could not learn much of him in this kind, so did I as little profit in learning the Welsh, or any other of those languages that worthy gentleman understood, as having a Tertian ague for the best part of nine months, which was all the tune I staid in his house. Having recovered my strength again, I was sent, being about the age of ten, to be taught by one Mr. Newton, at Diddlebury, in Shropshire, where, in the space of less than two years, I not only recovered all I had lost in my sickness, but attained to the knowledge of the Greek tongue, and Logick, insomuch that at twelve years old, my parents thought fit to send me to Oxford, to University college, where I remember to have disputed, at my first coming, in Logick, and to have made in Greek, the exercises required in that college oftener than in Latin. I had not been many months in the university, but news was brought we of my father's death, his sickness being a lethargy or coma vigilans, which continued long upon him, He seemed at last to die without much pain, though in his senses. Upon opinion given by physicians that his disease was mortal, my mother thought fit to send for me home, and presently after my father's death, to desire her brother, Sir Francis Newport, to hast to London to obtain my wardship, for his and her use joyntly, which he obtained. Shortly afterwards, I was sent again to my studies in Oxford, where I had not been long, but that an overture for a match with the daughter and heir of Sir William Herbert of St. Gillien's was made; the occasion whereof was this;- Sir William Herbert being heir male to the old earl of Pembroke, by a younger son of his, (for the eldest son had a daughter, who carried away those great possessions the Earl of Worcester now holds in Monmouthshire,) having only one daughter surviving, wade a will, whereby he estated all his possessions in Monmouthshire and Ireland, upon his said daughter, upon condition she married one of the surname of Herbert; otherwise, the said lands to descend to the heirs male of the said Sir William Herbert, and his daughter to have only a small portion out of the lands he had in Anglesy and Carnarvonshire. His lands being thus settled, Sir William died shortly afterwards; he was a man much conversant with books, and especially given to the study of divinity, insomuch that he writ an exposition upon the Revelations; which is printed; though some thought he was far from finding the sense thereof, as he was from finding the Philosopher's stone, which was another part of his study; howsoever he was very understanding in all other things; he was noted yet to be of a very high mind; but I can say little of him, as having never seen his person, nor otherwise had much information concerning him. His daughter and heir called Mary, after her father died, continued unmarried, till she was one and twenty, none of the Herberts appearing in all that time, who either in age or fortune, was fit to match her. About this time I had attained the age of fifteen, and a match at last being proposed, yet notwithstanding the disparity of years betwixt us, upon the eight and twentieth of February, 1598, in the house of Eyton, where the same vicar who married my father and mother, christened and married me, I espoused her. Not long after my marriage, I went again to Oxford, together with my wife, and mother, who took a house and lived for some certain time there. And now having a due remedy for that lasciviousness to which youth is naturally, I followed my book more close than ever, in which course I continued, till I attained the age of about eighteen, when my mother took a house in London, between which place and Montgomery castle I passed my time, till I came to the age of one and twenty, having in that space, divers children of whom I have none now remaining but Beatrice, Richard, and Edward. During this time of living in the university, or at home, I did, without any master or teacher, attain the knowledge of the French, Italian, and Spanish languages, by the help of some books in Latin or English, translated into these idioms, and the dictionaries of those several languages. I attained also to sing my part at first sight in Musick, and to play on the lute, with very little or no teaching. My intention in learning languages being to make myself a citizen of the world, as far as it were possible; and my learning of musick was for this end, that I might entertain myself at home, and together refresh my mind after my studies, to which I was exceedingly inclined, and that I might not need the company of young men, in whom I observed in those times, much ill example and debauchery.

My book "De Veritate prout distinguitur a Revelatione verisimili, possibili, et a falso", having been begun by me in England, and formed there in all its parts, was about this time finished. All my spare hours which I could get from my visits and negotiations being employed to perfect this work, which was no sooner done, but that I communicated it to Hugo Grotius, that great scholar, who having escaped his prison in the low countreys, came into France, and was much welcomed by me and M. Tieleners [1] also, one of the greatest scholars of his time, who after they had perused it, and given it more commendations than it is fit for me to repeat, exhorted me earnestly to print and publish it: howbeit as the frame of my whole book was so different from any thing which had been written heretofore, I found I must either renounce the authority of all that I had written formerly, concerning the method of finding out truth, and consequently insist upon my own way, or hazard myself to a general censure concerning the whole argument of my book. I must confess it did not a little animate me, that the two great persons above-mentioned did so highly value it; yet as I knew it would meet with much opposition, I did consider whether it was not better for me, a while, to suppress it. Being thus doubtful in my chamber, one fair day in the summer, my casement being open towards the south, the sun shining clear, and no wind stirring, I took my "De Veritate" in my hand, and kneeling on my knees, devoutly said these words,-

0 thou Eternal God, author of the light which now shines upon me, and giver of all inward illuminations, I do beseech thee of thine infinite goodness, to pardon a greater request than a sinner ought to make. I am not satisfied enough whether I shall publish this book, De Veritate; if it be for thy glory, I beseech thee, give me some sign from heaven; if not, I shall suppress it.

[1] In the little book of Lord Herbert's verses, published after his death, is a copy addressed to Tilenus, " after the fatal defluxion upon my arm". Daniel Tilenus was a theological writer of that time. He wrote about Antichrist, and "Animadversions on the Synod of Dort". Some of his works were published at Paris; he was however a Silesian, and his true name might be Tieleners latinised into Tilanus, according to the pedantry of that time, as Groot was called Grotius, the similitude of whose studies might well connect him with Tieleners",

I had no sooner spoken these words, but a loud, though gentle noise came from the heavens, (for it was like nothing upon earth,) which did so comfort and cheer me, that I took my petition as granted, and that I had the sign I demanded; whereupon also, I resolved to print my book. This, (how strange soever it may seem,) I protest before the eternal God, is true, neither am I any way superstitiously deceived herein, since I did not only clearly hear the noise, but in the serenest skye that ever I saw, being without all cloud, did to my thinking see the place from whence it came.

And now I sent my book to be printed in Paris, at my own cost and charges, without suffering it to be divulged to others, then to such as I thought might be worthy readers of it; though afterwards reprinting it in England, I not only dispersed it among the prime scholars of Europe, but was sent to, not only from the nearest, but furthest parts of Christendome, to desire the sight of my book, for which they promised any thing I should desire, by way of return, but hereof more amply in its place".

Lord Herbert was created a Knight of the bath at the accession of James the first. He distinguished himself at the age of Juliers, and in 1616, was sent ambassador to Louis the thirteenth, but was recalled on account of a dispute between him and the constable De Luynes. In 1625, he was created a baron of the kingdom of Ireland, and in 1631, was elevated to the English peerage. His lordship left a history of Henry the eighth, in folio. A treatise "De Religione Gentilium and expeditio Buckingami ducis in Ream Insulam,- and his own life. Hie lordship was born in 1584, and died in 1648. He had a younger brother of the name of George, who entered into orders, and was presented to the living of Bernerston, near Salisbury. He was an eminently pious and exemplary divine. His works are 1. Oratio in auspic. serenim. princip. Caroli reditum ex Hispaniis, 1628. 2. A translation of Coruaro on Temperance. 3. Remains, containing his "Priest to the Temple";- an excellent treatise on the duties of a parish priest. 4. The Temple, or Sacred Poems. The present noble family of Powis, is descended on the female side from Lord Herbert of Chirbury.

FARELEY. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford.

FARMCOTT. A township in the parish of Claverley, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 4 miles south-east by east of Bridgnorth.

FAULES GREEN. A township in the parish of Prees, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 6 miles northeast of Wem.

FAWES and WHITLEY. A township in the parish of Prees, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North.

FELHAMPTON. A township in the parish of Wistanstow, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 4 miles south of Church Stretton. Felhampton hall is the residence of - Marston, Esq.

FELTON BUTLER. A township in the parish of Great Ness, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. 7 miles northwest of Shrewsbury.

FENEMORE; or FENNYMERE. A township in the parish of Baschurch, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. 6 miles south-west of Wem.

FERNEY HALL. Belonging to Mrs. Sitwell, and now occupied by General Lloyd, is situated on an eminence, and commands a fine and extensive view towards the east, including Oakley Park, and the town and castle of Ludlow, with the Clee and other distant objects. 5 miles north-west of Ludlow.

FITCHELL. A township in the parish of Baschurch, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill.

FITS. A parish in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 6 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

Edward Waring, M.D. Lucasian professor of Mathematicks, was descended of an ancient family at Mitton, in the parish of Fittes, or Fitz, Shropshire, and was the eldest son of John Waring of that place, by Elizabeth, his wife. He was born in 1734, and after being educated at Shrewsbury free school, under Mr. Hotchkiss, was sent on one of Millington's exhibitions, to Magdalen college, Cambridge, where he applied himself with such assiduity to the study of mathematicks, that in 1757, when he proceeded B.A. he was the senior wrangler, or most distinguished graduate of his year. This honour, in order to procure which, he probably postponed his first degree to the late period of his twenty third year, led to his election, only two years afterwards, to the post of Lucasian professor. The appointment of a young man scarcely twenty five years of age, and still only a bachelor of arts, to a chair which had been honoured by the names of Newton, Saunderson, and Barrow, gave great offence to some of the senior members of the University, by whom the talents and pretensions of the new professor were severely arraigned. The first volume of his "Miscellanea Analytica", which Mr. Waring circulated in vindication of his scientifick character, gave rise to a controversy of some duration. Dr. Powell, master of St. John's, commenced an attack by a pamphlet of "Observations" upon this specimen of the professor's qualification for his office. Waring was defended in a very able reply, for which he was indebted to Mr. Wilson, then an undergraduate of Peterhouse, afterwards Sir John Wilson, a judge of the Common Pleas, a magistrate justly beloved and revered for his amiable temper, learning, honesty, and independent spirit. In 1760, Dr. Powell wrote a defence of his "Observations", and here the controversy ended. Mr. Waring's deficiency of academical honours was supplied in the same year, by the degree of M.A. conferred upon, him by royal mandate, and he remained in undisturbed possession of his office. Two years afterwards, his work, a part of which had excited warm dispute, was published from the University press, in quarto, under the title of "Miscellanea Analytica de Aquationibus Algebraicis, et Curvarum Proprietatibus", with a dedication to the Duke of Newcastle. It appears, from the title page, that Waling was, by this time, elected a fellow of his college. So intricate and abstruse are the subjects of this book, that it has been little studied even by expert mathematicians. The author's own account of it, in a work written many years afterwards, is the best perhaps that can be given. 'I have myself written on most subjects in pure mathematicks, and in these books inserted nearly all the inventions of the moderns with which I was acquainted. In my prefaces I have given a history of the inventions of the different writers, and ascribed them to their respective authors; and likewise some account of my own. To every one of these sciences I have been able to make some additions; and, in the whole, if I am not mistaken in enumerating them, somewhere between three and four hundred new propositions of one kind or other; considerably more than have been given by any English writer; and in novelty and difficulty not inferior; I wish I could subjoin, in utility. Many more might have been added, but I never could hear of any reader in England, out of Cambridge, who took the pains to read and understand what I have written. But I must congratulate myself that D' Alembert, Euler, and Le Grange, three of the greatest men in pure mathematicks of this or any other age, have since published and demonstrated some of the propositions contained in my Medit, Algeb. or Miscel. Analyt.; the only book of mine they could have seen at that time; and D' Alembert and Le Grange mention it as a book full of excellent and interesting discoveries in Algebra; and some other mathematicians have inserted some of them in their publications. The reader will excuse my saying so much, there being some particular reasons that influenced me'. For his profession in life, Mr. Waring chose the study of medicine, and proceeded a Doctor in that faculty in 1767. In 1771, he appears in the list of physicians to Addenbrooke's hospital in Cambridge; and about this time practised in the neighbouring town of St. Ives. But though be followed this profession with his characteristick assiduity, and attended lectures and hospitals in London, he never enjoyed extensive practice. Of this he was the less careful, as, in addition to the emoluments of his professorship, which were considerable, he possessed a very handsome patrimonial fortune, while his favourite science supplied him with an inexhaustible fund of amusement and occupation. In 1776, he entered into a matrimonial connexion with Miss Mary Oswell, sister of Mr. W. Oswell, a respectable draper in Shrewsbury, and not many years afterwards, retired from the University, first to a house in Shrewsbury; and at length to his own estate, at Plealey, near Pontesbury. The mathematical enquiries, which had occupied so large a portion of his early life, he still continued to cultivate with undiminished diligence; and he also occasionally indulged in philosophical extortions of a more popular and intelligible class. The result of these he collected in a volume printed at Cambridge in 1794, with the title of "An Essay on the Principles of Human Knowledge". Under this comprehensive title are contained his opinions on a great variety of subjects. But this book, in the front of which he designates himself as fellow of the Royal Society of London, and of those of Bologna, and Gottingen, was never published. Thus passed the even tenor of Dr. Waring's life, interrupted occasionally by a visit to the board of longitude in London, of which he was a member, and from which he always returned with an increased relish for his country seat at Plealey; and here he might have promised himself many years of life, and health, when his career was terminated by a short illness, produced by a violent cold caught in superintending some additions which he was making to his house. He died the 15th of Angust, 1798, in the 64th year of his age. We will close this sketch of the life of Dr. Waring, with the concluding words of his last mentioned work, which contain a just and pleasing specimen of his genuine piety, and unfeigned humility. 'Should it please Providence, to deprive me of the use of my faculties, may I submit with humble resignation! May I, for the future, lead a life better in practice, and more fervent in devotion to the Supreme Being; and may God grant me his grace here, and pardon for my sins, when the trumpet of the great archangel ahall summon me to life again, and to judgment'.

FOLTON. A township in the hundred of Munslow.

FORD. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford.

FORD. A parish in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford, a curacy remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Pontesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 39 houses, 212 inhabitants. 5 miles west of Shrewsbury.

FOREST or HAYES. A township in the parish of Westbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 11 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

FORTON. A township in the parish of Whittington, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry.

FORTON. A township in the parish of Montford, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. 4 miles northwest of Shrewsbury.

FRANKTON, (English.) A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 5 miles south-east of Ellesmere.

FRANKTON, (Welsh.) A township in the parish of Whittington, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry. 2½ miles south-west of Ellesmere.

FRANTILER. A township in the hundred of Oswestry.

FRODESLEY; OF FORDESLEY. A parish in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. One of the hills in the eastern • line of the plain of Shropshire. 26 houses, 179 inhabitants. Frodesley is the residence of . Sir Henry Cholmondeley Edwards, bart. 7 miles south of Shrewsbury.

FUNNONVAIR. A township in the parish of Llanvair Waterdine, and in the Mainstone division of the hundred of Clun.

GAMISTON; Or GARMISTON. A township in the parish of Leighton, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 9 miles south-east of Shrewsbury.

GATACRE. A township in the parish of Claverley, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 6 miles south-east of Bridgnorth.

GATTON. A township in the parish of Ratlinghope, and in the hundred of Ford. 5 miles north-west of Church Stretton.

GLAZELEY. A parish in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop, consolidated with Deuxhill, Chetton, and Loughton. 7 houses, 46 inhabitants. 3½ miles south of Bridgnorth.

GOLDING. A township in the parish of Cound, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover. 6½ miles southeast of Shrewsbury.

GOLDSTONE. A township in the hundred of Bradford, North.

GOOSE HILL. A township in the parish of St. Chad, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

GRAFTON. A township in the parish of Fitz, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. 5½ miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

GRAVENHANGER. A township in the parish of Mucktatton, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 6 miles north- east of Drayton. 33 houses, 200 inhabitants.

GREAT ASH. See Ash Magna.

GREAT BERWICK. A township in the parish of St. Mary, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

GREAT BUILDWAS. See Buildwas Magna.

GREAT DAWLEY. See Dawley Magna.

GREAT HANWOOD. A parish in the liberties of Shrewsbury, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Pontesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 31 houses, 157 inhabitants. 4 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

GREAT LYTH. A township in the parish of Condover, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 4 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

GREAT NESS. A parish in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 104 houses, 580 inhabitants. 7 miles north-west of Shrewsbury. The residence of T.P. Bather, Esq., and J. Edwards, Esq.

GREAT RYTON. A township in the parish of Condover, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 6 miles south of Shrewsbury.

GREAT SUTTON. A township in the parish of Diddlebury, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow. 5½ miles north of Ludlow.

GREAT WOLLASTON; or WOOLASTON. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford, a chapel to Alberbury, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Pontesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 11 miles west of Shrewsbury.

GREAT WYTHEFORD. A township in the parish of Shawbury, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 7 miles north- east of Shrewsbury. The seat of Philip Charlton, Esq.

GREET. A parish in the hundred of Overs, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Burford, and archdeaconry of Salop. 14 houses, 72 inhabitants. 6 miles south-east of Ludlow.

GRETTON. A township in the parish of Rushbnry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 4 miles northeast by east of Church Stretton.

GRIMMER. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury. 12 miles southwest of Shrewsbury.

GRINDLE. A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. 8 miles south of Shiffnal.

GRINSHILL, or GRINSELL. A parish in the liberties of Shrewsbury, a rectory or donative, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 40 houses, 214 inhabitants. 7 miles north of Shrewsbury.

From Hawkstone, southwards, to Lea and Grinshill hills, extends a line of siliceous free stone, chiefly of the red kind, except at Grinshill, where there is a considerable quantity of white, of which great use has been made in the bridges, churches, and other modern edifices of Shrewsbury.

GUILDENDOWN. A township is the hundred of Chirbury, but surrounded by Clun and Purslow. 4 miles south-west of Bishopscastle.

HABBERLEY. A parish in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Pontesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 24 houses, 161 inhabitants. 8 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

HABBERLEY OFFICE. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the hundred of Ford.

HACKLETON; Or ACKLETON. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 4½ miles north- east of Bridgnorth.

HADLEY. A township in the parish of Wellington, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 1½ mile south of Wellington.

HADNALL; Or HADNALL EASE. A township in the parish of Middle, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. A chapel to Middle, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeacenry of Salop. 61 houses, 363 inhabitants. 5 miles, north of Shrewsbury.

HAGHMOND. See Haughmond.

HALES OWEN. A market town, partly in Halfshire hundred in the county of Worcester, partly in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry. The Shropshire part contain 1,472 houses, 8,187 inhabitants, and the entire parish 10,946 inhabitants. 35 miles south-east of Shrewsbury, and 120 miles north-west of London. LAT. 52. 28½. N. LON. 2. 8 W.

Hales Owen is an insulated district, surrounded by Staffordshire and Worcestershire, and is at least twelve miles distant from any part of Shropshire. The town lies in a valley, and possesses many good houses, being the favourite residence of several respectable families. There was formerly in this place an Abbey of Praemonstratensian canons, built in the reign of King John, pursuant to a charter granted by that monarch to Peter de Rupibus, bishop of Winchester. This edifice appears, from the few remains that are now standing, and from the foundations that are still to be traced, to have been both stately and extensive. A house in the neighbourhood, which is now occupied by a farmer, is supposed to have been the Abbot's kitchen. Some fragments of the ruins are preserved in it, and among the rest, some painted tiles, with which part of the Abbey was paved. The parish church at Hales Owen is a beautiful structure and is much admired for its noble spire, supported by four curious arches. Hales Owen does not possess much trade, nor is its weekly market very large; but the manufacture of nails, and of different kinds of hardware, is carried on in the town, and its vicinity. It has a free school founded by a commission sent down from the court of chancery, in the time of the commonwealth. See appendix. Fairs, Easter Monday, and Whit-monday. Market on Monday.

Adam Littleton, the learned author of a Latin Dictionary, was born in the parish of Hales Owen, November 8, 1617. He was educated under Dr. Busby, who was so celebrated for the extreme severity with which he inculcated classical literature, and went from Westminster school to Christ church college, at Oxford, but was expelled by the parliament visitors. He then became usher, and afterwards second master, of Westminster school, and was admitted, after the restoration, rector of Chelsea, Middlesex. In the year 1674, he was presented to the prebend of Westminstor, and obtained a grant from the king to succeed Dr. Busby, as head master. He was also one of the king's chaplains, and, by the interest of Dr. Houchman, bishop of London, proceedod to his divinity degrees, without taking any in arts. For some time he was subdean of Westminster, and was licensed in 1687, to the church of St. Botolph, Aldersgate, which living he resigned after having held it four years. Dr. Littleton died June 30, 1694, in his sixty seventh year, and was buried in the church at Chelsea, where his memory is honoured by a handsome monument. He was a man of great and various erudition, and was well skilled in the Oriental languages, and in rabbisical learning. His works, consisting of sermons, translations, and a variety of papers on miscellaneous topicks are about twelve in number.

William Caslon was born in that part of the town of Hales Owen which is situated in Shropshire, in 1892. He is justly styled, by Mr. Rowe Mores, the Coryphoeus of Letter founders. He was not trained to the business, " which is a handywork, so concealed among the artificers of it", that Mr. Moxon, in his indefatigable researches on that subject, " could not discover that any one had taught it any other, but every one that had used it learned it of his own genuine inclination". (Dissertation upon English Typographical founders and founderies p. 17.)

Mr. Caslon served a regular apprenticeship, to an engraver of ornaments on gun barrels; and was taken from that instrument to an employment of a very different tendency, the propagation of the Christian faith. In the year 1720, (the year in which his eldest son was born,) the Society for promoting Christian knowledge, in consequence of a representation made by Mr. Solomon Negri, a native of Damascus, in Syria, well skilled in the Oriental languages, who had been professor of Arabick in places of note, for a great part of his life, deemed it expedient to print the new Testament and Psalter, in the Arabick language, for the use of the Eastern churches, and for the benefit of the poor Christians in Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Arabia, and Egypt; the constitution of which countries allowed of no printing. Mr. Caslon was pitched upon to cut the fount, which in his specimen is distinguished by the name of English Arabick. After he had finished his Arabick fount, he cut the letters of his own name in Pica Roman, and placed the name at the bottom of a specimen of the Arabick. Mr. Palmer, (the reputed author of Pashnanazar's " History of Printing",) seeing his name, advised Mr. Caslon to cut the whole fount of Pica. Mr. Caslon did so and as the performance exceeded the letters of the other founders of the time, Mr. Palmer, whose circumstances required credit with these, who by this advice were now obstructed, repented of having given the advice, and discouraged Mr. Caslon from any further progress; a circumstance which is verified by the celebrated Dr. Franklin, who was at that time a journeyman under Mr. Watts, the first printer that employed Mr. Caslon.

Mr. Caslon, disgusted, applied to Mr. Bowyer, under whose inspection he cut, in 1722, the beautiful fount of English, which was used in printing Selden's works in 1726; and the Coptick types which were used for Dr. Wilkin's edition of the Pentateuch. Mr. Caslon was encouraged to proceed further both by Mr. Bowyer, and by his brother in law Mr. Bettenham, and had the candour to acknowledge Mr. Bowyer his master, and to own that Mr. Bowyer had taught him an art in which, by diligence and unwearied application, he arrived to that perfection, as not only to remove the necessity of importing types from Holland, but so far to surpass in beauty and elegance the best productions of foreign artificers, that his types have not unfrequently been exported to the continent. It may still, with great justice and confidence, be asserted that a more beautiful specimen than his is not to be found in any part of the world. It appears by the Dissertation of Mr. Mores (p. 86) that Mr. Caslon had a brother named Samuel who was his mould maker, and afterwards lived with Mr. George Anderton, of Birmingham, in the same capacity. Mr. Caslon's first foundery was in a small house in Helmet row, in Old street; he afterwards removed into Ironmonger row; and about the year 1735, into Chiswell meet, where the foundery was carried on, at first by himself, and afterwards, in connection with William, his eldest son, whose name first appeared in the specimen of 1743. In or about the year 1750, Mr. Caslon was put into the commission of the peace for Middlesex; and retired from the active part of business, (having realised an affluent fortune) to a house opposite the Nag's head, in the Hackney road; whence he afterwards removed to another. house in Water Gruel row; and afterwards to Bethnal green, where be died January 23, 1766; at the age of 74; and was buried in the church yard of St. Luke's, Middlesex, in which parish all his different founderies were situated. A monument erected to his memory, is thus briefly inscribed:-

W. Caslon, Esq., ob. 1766, aet. 74. Also W. Caslon, Esq., (son of the above) ob. 17 August, 1778, aet 58.

One particular in Mr. Caslon's character is thus excellently described by Sir John Hawkins (History of Musick Vol. 5, p. 127.) "Mr. Caslon meeting with encouragement suitable to his deserts, settled in Ironmonger row, in Old street; and being a great lover of musick, had frequent concerts at his house, which were resorted to by many eminent masters; to these he used to invite his friends, and those of his old acquaintance, the companions of his youth. He afterwards removed to a large house in Chiswell street, and had an organ in his concert room. After that he had stated monthly concerts, which for the convenience of his friends, and that they might walk home in safety after the performance was over, were on that Thursday in the month, which was nearest the full moon; from which circumstance, his guests were wont humorously to call themselves lunaticks. In the intervals of the performance the guests refreshed themselves at a side board, which was amply furnished, and when it was over, sitting down to a bottle of wine and a decanter of excellent ale, of Mr. Caslon's own brewing, they concluded the evening's entertainment with a song or two of Purcell's, sung to the harpsichord, or a few catches; and about twelve, retired".

About a mile and a half north-east of Hales Owen lies that celebrated spot, the Leasowes, formerly the property and the favourite residence of Shenstone, the poet. Here that amiable and ingenious man was born, Nov. 18, 1714. Even in infancy he was distinguished by superior capacity, and a prediliction for study. He learned to read of an old matron, whom he afterwards celebrated in that pleasing poem, written in imitation of Spencer, entitled the "Schoolmistress". So great was the delight he received from books, that he was always calling for fresh supplies, and expected when any of the family went to market, that a new book should be brought him, which, when it came, was laid in bed by him. It is said that when his request had been neglected, his mother was accustomed to wrap up a piece of wood of the same form, and thus pacify him for the night.

He went for some time to the grammar school at Hales Owen, but was afterwards placed under the care of a Mr. Crompton, an eminent schoolmaster at Solihull, where he was soon distinguished by the rapidity of his progress in learning.

In June, 1724, when be was only ten years of age, he lost his father, and two years afterwards, on the death of his grandfather, he was left with his brother, to the care of his grand-mother, who managed the family estate.

From school he removed, in the year 1785, to Pembroke college, Oxford, where it may be presumed that he found both delight and advantage, since he continued his name on the books for ten years, though he never took a degree. He had been designed for the church, but notwithstanding his impression of the importance of the sacred function, be did not enter into orders.

Shortly after he removed to Oxford, the care of his affairs, in consequence of his grandmother's death, devolved upon the Rev. Mr. Dolman, of Brome, in Staffordshire, of whose attention and kindness, he was always accustomed to speak in the most grateful terms.

On quitting Oxford, he wandered about in order to make himself acquainted with life, and resided sometimes in London, sometimes at Bath, or any other place of publick resort. In the midst of his rambles, he did not forget his poetry, and in 1741, published his "Judgment of Hercules", which be addressod to Mr. Lyttleton, whose interest he warmly supported at an election. In the course of the following year, appeared his " Schoolmistress".

In 1745, Mr. Delman, to whose care he had been indebted for his ease and leisure, was removed by death, and the care of his fortune now fell upon himself. Having lived for a while with his tenants, to whom he was distantly related, he took his estate into his own hands, not so much to the increase of its produce, as the improvement of its beauty.

His delight in rural pleasures, and his ambition of rural elegance, were now strongly excited. From this time he began to employ himself in pointing his prospects, diversifying his surface, entangling his walks, and winding his waters. In this elegant occupation he displayed such a combination of judgment and fancy, that his circumscribed domain became the envy of the man of opulence, and the admiration of the connoisseur. To embellish the form of nature was his innocent and delightful amusement, and surely the most supercilious observer will allow some praise to him, who does best what so many endeavour to do well. This praise was Shenstone's. Of the Leasowes thus ornamented, with so much trouble and expense, his friend Mr. Dodsley gives the following minute description.

'About half a mile from Hales Owen, in the way from Birmingham to Bewdley, you quit the great road, and turn into a green lane on the left hand, where, descending in a winding manner to the bottom of a deep valley, finely shaded, the first object that occurs is a kind of ruinated wall, and a small gate within an arch, inscribed, "The Priory Gate". Here it seems, the company should begin their walk, but generally chuse to go up with their horses or equipage to the house, from whence returning, they descend back into the valley. Passing through a small gate at the bottom of a fine swelling lawn, that surrounds the house, you enter upon a winding path, with a piece of water on your right. The path and water overshadowed with trees that grow upon the slopes of this narrow dingle, render the scene at once cool, gloomy, solemn, and sequestered, and form so striking a contrast to the lively have just left, that you seem all on a sudden, landed in a subterraneous kind of region. Winding forward down the valley, you pass beside a small root house, where, on a tablet, are these lines:-

Here in cool grot and mossy cell, We rural fays, and fairies dwell; Tho' rarely seen by mortal eye, When the pale moon ascending high, Darts through yon limes her quiv'ring beams, We frisk it near these crystal streams.

Her beams reflected from the wave, Afford the light our revels crave; The turf, with daisies broidered o'er Exceeds we wot, the Parian floor; Nor yet for artful strains we call, But listen to the water's fall.

Would you then taste our tranquil scene, Be suro your bosoms be serene, Devoid of hate, devoid of strife, Devisid of all that poisons life; And much it 'vails you in their place, To graft the love of human race.

And tread with awe these favour'd bow'rs, Nor wound the shrubs, nor bruise the flow'rs; So may your path with sweets abound, So may your couch with rest be crown'd; But harm betide the wayward swain, Who dares our hallow'd haunts profane!

These sentiments correspond as well as possible with the ideas we form of the abode of fairies, and, appearing deep in this romantick valley, serve to keep alive such enthusiastick images, while this sort of scene continues.

You now pass through the Priory Gate before-mentioned, and are admitted into a part of the valley somewhat different from the former, tall trees, high irregular ground, and ragged seats. The right presents you, with, perhaps, the most natural, if not the most striking, of the many cascades here found; the left, with a sloping grove of oaks; and the centre, with a pretty circular landscape appearing through the trees, of which Hales Owen steeple, and other objects at a distance, form an interesting part. The seat beneath the ruinated wall, has these lines of Virgil inscribed,- suiting well with the general tenor of Mr. Shenstone's late situation:

Lucis habitamus opacis, Riparumque toros, et prata recentia rivis Incolimus.

You now proceed a few paces down the valley to another bench, where you have the cascade in front, which, together with the internal arch, and other appendages, make a pretty irregular picture. I must observe once for all, that a number of these pro tempore benches (two stumps with a transverse board) seem chiefly intended as hints to spectators, lest, in passing cursorily through the farm, they might suffer any of that immense variety the place furnishes, to escape their notice. The stream attending us with its agreeable murmurs, as we descend along this pleasing valley, we come next to a small seat, where we have a sloping grove upon the right, and on the left, a striking vista to the steeple of Hales Owen, which is here seen in a new light. We now descend farther down this shady and sequestered valley, accompanied on the right by the same brawling rivulet, running over pebbles, till it empties itself into a fine piece of water at the bottom. The path here, winding to the left, conforms to the water before-mentioned, running round the foot of a small hill, and accompanying this semicircular lake into another winding valley, somewhat more open, and not less pleasing than the former: however, before we enter this, it will be proper to mention a seat about the centre of this water scene, where the ends of it are lost in the two valleys on each side, and in front it is invisibly connected with another piece of water, of about twenty acres, open to Mr. Shenstone's, but not his property. This last was a performance of the monks, and part of a prodigious chain of fish ponds, that belonged to Hales Abbey, The back ground of this scene is very beautiful, and exhibits a picture of villages, and varied ground, finely held up to the eye.

I speak of all this as already finished, but through some misfortune in the mound that pounds up the water, it is not completed,

We now leave the priory on the left, which is not meant for an object here, and wind along into the other valley: and here I cannot but take notice of the judgment that formed this piece of water; for although it is not very large, yet, as it is formed by the concurrence of these valleys, in which two of the ends are hid, and the third seems to join with the large extent of water below, it is to all appearance, unbounded. I never saw a more natural bed for water, or any kind of lake that pleased me better; but it may be right to mention, that this water, in its fall extent, has yet a more important effect from Mr. Shenstone's house, where it is seen to a great advantage. We now, by a pleasing serpentine walk, enter a narrow glade in the valley, the slopes on each side, finely covered with oaks and beeches, on the left of which is a common bench, which affords a retiring place, secluded from every eye, and a short respite, during which the eye reposes on a fine amphitheatre of wood and thicket.

We new proceed to a seat beneath a prodigiously fine canopy of spreading oak, on the back of which is this inscription:

Hue ades O Melibaee ! caper tibi salvus et haedi, Et si quid cessare potes, requiesce sub umbra.

The picture before it is that of a beautiful home scene; a small lawn of well varied ground, encompassed with hills and well grown oaks, and embellished with a cast of the piping Faunas, amid trees and shrubs on a slope upon the left; and on the right, and nearer the eye, with an urn thus inscribed,

Ingenio et amicitiae Gulielmi Somerville.

And on the opposite side,

G.S. posuit, Debita spargens lacryma favillam, Vatis amici.

The scene is inclosed on all sides by trees; in the middle only, there is an opening, where the lawn is continued, and winds out of sight.

Here, entering a gate, you are led through a thicket of many sorts of willows, into a large root house, inscribed to the Right Honourable the Earl of Stamford, It seems that worthy peer was present at the first opening of the cascade, which is the principal object from the root house, where the eye is presented with a fairy vision, consisting of an irregular and romantick fall of water, one hundred and fifty yards in continuity; and a very striking scene it affords. Other cascades may possibly have the advantage of a greater descent and a larger torrent; but a more wild and romantick appearance of water, and at the same time strictly natural, is what I never saw in any place whatever. This scene, though comparatively small, is yet aggrandised with so much art, that we forget the quantity of water which flows through this close and over-shaded valley, and are so much transported with the intricacy of the scene, and the concealed height from which it flows, that without reflection, we add the idea of magnificence to that of beauty. In short, it is not but upon reflection that we find the stream is not a Niagara, but rather a water fall in miniature; and that the same artifice, upon a larger scale, were there large trees instead of small ones; and a river instead of a till, would be capable of forming a scene that would exceed the utmost of our ideas. But I will not dwell longer upon this inimitable scene; those who would admire it properly mnst view it, as surely as those that view it must admire it, beyond almost any thing they ever saw.

Proceeding on the right hand path, the next seat affords a scene of what Mr. Shenstone used to call his Forest Ground, consisting of wild green slopes, peeping through a dingle of irregular groupes of trees, a confused mixture of savage and cultivated ground, held up to the eye, and forming a landscape fit for the pencil of Salvator Rosa.

Winding on beside this lawn, which is overarched by spreading trees, the eye catches at intervals, over an intermediate hill, the spire of Hales Church, forming here a perfect obelisk, the urn to Mr. Somerville, etc., and now passing throngh a kind of thicket, we arrive at a natural bower of almost circular oaks, inscribed in the following manner:-


Come then, my friend, thy sylvan taste display; Come hear thy Faunus tune his rustick lay; Ah ! rather come, and in these cells disown The care of other strains, and tune thy own.

On the bank above it, amid the fore-mentioned shrubs, is a statue of the piping Faun, which not only embellishes this scene, but is also seen from the court before the home, and from other places; it is surrounded by venerable oaks, and very happily situated. From this bower also, you look down upon the fore-mentioned irregular ground, shut up with trees on all sides, except some few opening to the more pleasing parts of this grotesque and hilly country. The next little bench affords the first, but not most striking view of the priory. It is indeed, a small building; but seen as it is beneath trees, and its extremity also hid by the same, it has in some sort the dignity and solemn appearance of a large edifice. Passing through a gate, we enter a small, open grove where the first seat we find affords a picturesque view, through trees, of a clump of oaks at a distance, overshadowing a little cottage, upon a green hill: we thence immediately enter a perfect dome or circular temple, of magnificent beeches, in the centre of which it was intended to place an antique altar, or a statue of Pan. The path serpentising through this open grove leads us by an easy ascent to a small bench, with this motto:

Me gelidum memus, Nympharumque leves qum satyris chori Secernant populo: - HOS.

Which alludes to the retired situation of the grove. There is also seen, through an opening to the left, a pleasing landscape of a distant hill, with a whited farm house upon the summit, and to the right hand a beautiful round slope, crowned with a clump of large firs, with a pyramidal seat in its centre, to which after no long walk, the path conducts us.

But, we first come to another view of the priory more advantageous, and at a better distance, to which the eye is led down a green slope, through a scenery of tall oaks, in a most agreeable manner; the grove we have just passed on one side; and a hill of trees and thicket on the other, conducting the eye to a narrow opening, through, which it appears.

We now ascend to a small bench, where the circumjacent county begins to open; in particular, a glass house appears, between two large clumps of trees, at about the distance of four miles; the glass houses in this country, not ill-resembling a distant pyramid. Ascending to the next seat, which is in the Gothiek form, the stone grows more and more extended; woods and lawns, hills and valleys, thicket and plain, agreeably intermingled. On the back of this seat is the following inscriptions which the author told me that he chose to fix here, to supply what he thought some want of life, in this part of the farm, and to keep up the spectator's attention, till he came to scale the hill beyond.

Shepherd would'st thou here obtain Pleasure unalloyed with pain Joy that suits the rural sphere? Gentle Shepherd,! lend an ear:

Learn to relish calm delight, Verdant vales, and fountains bright, Trees that nod on sloping hills, Caves that echo tinkling rills.

If thou canst no charm disclose, In the simplest bud that blows, Go forsake thy plain and fold, Join the crowd, and toil for gold.

Tranquil pleasures never cloy; Banish each tumultuous joy; All but love - for love inspires Fonder wishes, warmer fires.

Love and all its joys be thine - Yet ere thou the reins resign, Hear what reason seems to say, Hear attentive, and obey.

Crimson leaves the rose adorn, But beneath them lurks a thorn, Fair and flow'ry is the brake, Yet it hides the vengeful snake.

Think not she whose empty pride, Dares the fleecy garb deride, Think not she who light and vain, Scorns the sheep - can love the swain.

Artless deed and simple dress, Mark the chosen shepherdess; Thoughts by decency controll'd, Well conceived and freely told.

Sense that shuns each conscious air, Wit that falls ere well aware; Generous pity prone to sigh, If her kid or lambkin die,

Let not lucre, let not pride, Draw thee from such charms aside; Have not those their proper sphere? Gentle passions triumph here.

See ! to sweeten thy repose, The blossom buds, the fountain flows; Lo ! to crown thy healthful board, All that milk and fruits afford.

Seek no more; - the rest is vain, Pleasure ending soon in pain, Anguish lightly gilded o'er: Close thy wish, and seek no more.

And now passing through a wicket, the path winds up the back part of a circular green hill, discovering little of the country, till you enter a clump of stately firs upon the summit. Overarched by these firs, is an octagonal seat, the back of which is so contrived as to form a table or pedestal, for a bowl or goblet, thus inscribed -


This facetious inscription being an old Shropshire health, is a commemoration of his country friends, from whom this part of Shropshire is divided; add to this, that the Wrekin, that large and venerable hill, appears full in front, at the distance of about thirty miles.

The scene is a very fair one, divided by the firs into several compartments, each answering to the octagonal seat in the centre; to each of which is allotted a competent number of striking objects, to make a complete picture. A long serpentine stream washes the foot of this hill, and is lost behind trees at one end, and a bridge thrown over at the other. Over this the eye is carried from very romantick home scenes, to very beautiful ones at a distance. It is impossible to give an idea of that immense variety, that fine configuration of paths, which engage our attention from this place. In one of the compartments you have a simple scene of a cottage, and a road winding behind a farm house, half covered with trees, upon the top of some wild sloping ground; and in another a view of the town, appearing from hence, as upon the shelving banks of a large piece of water in the flat. Suffice it to say, that the hill and vale, plain and woodland, villages and single houses, blue distant mountains that skirt the horizon, and green hills romantically jumbled, that form the intermediate ground, make this spot more than commonly striking. Nor is there to be seen an acre of level ground, through the large extent to which the eye is carried.

Hence the path winds on betwixt two small benches, each of which exhibits a pleasing landscape, which cannot escape the eye of a connoisseur.

Here we wind through a small thicket, and soon enter a cavity in the hill, filled with trees, in the centre of which is a seat, from whence is discovered, gleaming across the trees, a considerable length of the serpentine stream before-mentioned, running under a slight rustick bridge to the right; hence we ascend into a kind of Gothick alcove, looking down a slope, sided with large oaks, and tall beeches, which together over-arch the scene. On the back of this building is found the following inscription:-

O you that bathe in courtlye blysse, Or toil in fortune's giddy sphere, Do not too rashlye deem amysse Of him that bydes contented here.

Nor yet disdeigne the russet stoale Whyche o'er each carelesse lymbe he flyngs, Nor yet deryde the beechen bowle, In whyche he quaffs the lympid springs.

Forgive him if at eve or dawne, Devoide of worldlye cark be stray, Or all beside some flowerye lawne He waste his inoffensive daye.

So may he pardonne fraud and strife, If such in courtlye haunt he see; For faults there beene in busye lyre, From whyche these peaceful glennes are free.

Below this alcove is a large sloping lawn, finely bounded, crossed by the serpentine water before-mentioned, and interspersed with oaks, single and in clumps, at agreeable distances.

Further on the scene is finely varied, the hill rising and falling towards the opposite concavities, by the side of a long winding vale, with the most graceful confusion. Among other scenes that form this landscape, a fine hanging wood, backed and contrasted with a wild heath, intersected with cross roads, is a very considerable object. Adjoining to this is a seat, from whence the water is seen to advantage in many different stages of its progress, or where, (as a poetical friend observed) the proprietor has taken the Naiad by the hand, and led her an irregular dance into the valley.

Proceeding hence through a wicket, we enter upon another lawn, beyond which is a new theatre of wild shaggy precipices, hanging coppice ground, and smooth round hills between, being not only different, but even of an opposite character to the ground from which we passed. Walking along the head of this lawn, we come to a seat under a spreading beech, with this inscription:-

Hoc erat in votis: modus agri non ita magnus, Hortus ubi, et tecto vicinus jugis aquae fons, Et paulum sylvae super his foret: Auctius atque Dii melius fecere!

In the centre of the hanging lawn before you, is discovered the house, half hid with trees and bushes: a little hanging wood, and a piece of winding water, issues through a noble clump of large oaks, and spreading beeches. At the distance of about ten or twelve miles Lord Stamford's grounds appear, and beyond these, the Clee hills, in Shropshire. The scene here consists of admirably varied ground, and is, I think, a very fine one. Hence passing still along the top of the lawn, we cross another gate, and behind the fence begin to descend into the valley. About half way down is a small bench which throws the eye upon a near scene of hanging woods and shaggy wild declivities, intermixed with smooth green slopes and scenes of cultivation.

We now return again into the great lawn at the bottom, and soon come to a seat, which gives a nearer view of the water before-mentioned, between the trunks of high overshadowing oaks and beeches, beyond which the winding line of trees is continued down the valley to the right. To the left, at a distance, the tops of Clent hills appear; and the house upon a swell amidst trees and bushes. In the centre the eye is carried by a side long view, down a length of lawn, till it rests upon the town and spire of Hales, with some picturesque and beautiful ground rising behind it.

Somewhat out of the path, and in the centre of a noble clump of stately beeches, is a seat inscribed to Mr. Spence, in these words,-

JOSEPHO SPENCE eximio nostro Critoni; quem sibi vindicare vellet Musarum omnium et Gratiarum chorus, dicat amicitia 1758.

We now, through a small gate, enter what is called the " Lover's Walk", and proceed immediately to a seat where the water is seen very advantageously at full length; which, though not large, is so agreeably shaped, and has its bounds so well concealed, that the beholder may receive less pleasure from many lakes of greater extent. The margin on one side is fringed with alders, the other is overhung with most stately oaks and beeches, and the middle beyond the water presents the Hales Owen scene, with a group of houses on the slope behind, and the horizon well fringed with wood. Now, winding a few paces round the margin of the water, we come to another small bench, which presents the former scene somewhat varied, with the addition of a whited village among trees upon a hill. Proceeding on, we enter the pleasing gloom of this agreeable walk, and come to a bench beneath a spreading beech, that overhangs both walk and water, which has been called the assignation seat, and has this inscription on the back of it:-

" Nerine Galatea! thymo mihi dulcior Hyblae, Candidior cygnis, hedera formosior alba! Cum primum pasti repetent praesepia tauri, Si qua tui Corydonis habet te cura, venito".

Here the path begins gradually to ascend beneath a depth of shade, by the side of which is a small bubbling rill, either forming little peninsulas, rolling over pebbles, or falling down small cascades, all under cover, and taught to murmur very agreeably. This soft and pensive scene, very properly stiled the Lover's Walk, is terminated with an ornamental urn, inscribed to Miss Dolman, a beautiful and amiable relation of Mr. Shenstone, who died of the small pox, about twenty one years of age, in the following words, on one side,

Peramabili sum consobrinae M.D.

On the other side,

Ah ! Maria ! pvellarum elegantissima ! ah ! flore venustatis abrepta, vale! heu quanto minus est cum reliquis versari, quam tvi meminisse !

The ascent from hence winds somewhat more steeply to another seat, where the eye is thrown over a rough scene of broken and furzy ground, upon a piece of water in the flat, whose extremities are hid behind trees and shrubs, among which the house appears, and makes upon the whole, no unpleasing picture. The path still winds under cover up the hill, the deep declivity of which is somewhat eased by the serpentine sweep of it, till we come to a small bench, with this line from Pope's Eloise,-

" Divine oblivion of low thoughted care !"

The opening before it presents a solitary scene of trees, thicket, and precipice, and terminates upon a green hill, with a clump of firs on the top of it.

We now find the great use, as well as beauty of the serpentine path in climbing up this wood, the first seat of which, alluding to the rural scene before it, has the following lines from Virgil:-

Hic latis otia fonis, Speluneae, vivique lacus, hic frigida Tempe, Mugitusque beum, mollesque sub arbore somni !

Here the eye, looking down a slope, beneath the spreading arms of oak and beech trees, passes first over some rough furzy ground, then over water to the large swelling lawn, in the centre of which the house is discovered among trees and thickets; this forms the fore ground. Beyond this appears a swell of waste, furzy land, diversified with a cottage, and a road that winds behind a farm house, and a fine clump of trees. The back scene of all is a semicircular range of hills, diversified with woods, scenes of cultivation, and inclosures, to about four or five miles distance.

Still winding up into the wood, we come to a slight seat, opening through the trees to a bridge of five piers, crossing a large piece of water, at about half a mile distance. The next seat looks down from a considerable height, along the side of a steep precipice, upon irregular and pleasing ground. And now we return upon a sudden into a long straight-lined walk in the wood, arched over with tall trees, and terminating with a small rustick building. Though the walk, as I said, is straight-lined, yet the base rises and falls so agreeably, as to leave no room to censure its formality. About the middle of this avenue, which runs the whole length of this hanging wood, we arrive unexpectedly at a lofty Gothick seat, whence we look down a slope, more considerable than that before-mentioned, through the wood on each side. This view is indeed a fine one, the eye first travelling down a well variegated ground into the valley, where is a large piece of water, whose sloping banks give all the appearance of a noble river. The ground from hence rises gradually to the top of Clent hill, at three or four miles distance; and the landscape is enriched with a view of Hales Owen, the late Lord Dudley's house, and a large wood of Lord Lyttleton's. It is impossible to give an adequate description of this view, the beauty of it depending upon the great variety of objects and beautiful shape of ground, and all at such a distance as to admit of being seen distinctly.

Hence we proceed to the rustick building before-mentioned, a slight and unexpensive edifice, formed of rough, unhewn stone, commonly called here the Temple of Pan, having a trophy of the Tibia and Syrinx, and this inscription over the entrance;-

Pan primus calamos cera conjungere plures Edocuit; Pan curat oves oviumque magistros.

Hence mounting once more to the right, through this dark umbrageous walk, we enter at once upon a lightsome, high, natural terrace, whence the eye is thrown over all the scenes we have seen before, together with many fine additional ones; and all beheld from a declivity, which approaches as near a precipice as is agreeable. In the middle is a seat with this inscription,-

Divini gloria ruris.

To give a better idea of this by far the most magnificent scene here, it were perhaps better to divide it into two distinct parts; the noble concave in the front, and the rich valley towards the right. In regard to the former, if a boon companion could enlarge his idea of a punch bowl, ornamented within with all the romantick scenery the Chinese ever yet devised, it would perhaps afford him the highest idea he could conceive of earthly happiness: he would certainly wish to swim in it. Suffice it to say, that the horizon, or brim, is as finely varied as the cavity. It would be idle here to mention the Clee hills, the Wrekin, the Welsh mountains, or Caer Caradoc, at a prodigious distance, which though they furnish the scene agreeably, should not be mentioned at the Leasowes, the beauty of which turns chiefly upon distinguishable scenes. The valley upon the right is equally enriched, and the opposite side thereof well fringed with woods, and the high woods on one side this long winding vale, rolling agreeably into the hollows of the other. But these are a kind of objects, which, though really noble in the survey, will not strike a reader in description, as they would a spectator on the spot.

Hence returning back into the wood, and crossing Pan's temple, we go down the slope into another part of Mr. Shenstone's grounds, the path leading down through very pleasing home scenes of well shaped ground, exhibiting a most perfect concave and convex, till we come to a seat under a noble beech, presenting a rich variety of fore ground, and at perhaps half a mile distance, the Gothick alcove, on a hill well covered with wood, a pretty cottage under trees in the more distant part of the concave, and a farm house on the right, all picturesque objects.

The next and the subsequent seat afford pretty much the same scenes a little enlarged, with the addition of that remarkable clump of trees called Frankly beeches, adjoining to the old family seat of the Lyttleton's, and from whence the present Lord Lyttleton derives his title.

We come now to a handsome Gothick scene, arched with a clump of firs, which throws the eye in front, full upon a cascade in the valley, issuing from beneath a dark shade of poplars. The house appears in the centre of a large swelling lawn, bushed with trees and thicket. The pleasing variety of easy swells and hollows, bounded by scenes less smooth and cultivated, affords the most delightful picture of domestick retirement and tranquillity.

We now descend to a seat inclosed with handsome pales, and backed with firs, inscribed to Lord Lyttleton. It presents a beautiful view up a valley contracted gradually, and ending in a group of most magnificent oaks and beeches. The right hand side is enlivened by two striking cascades, and a winding stream seen at intervals, between tufts of trees and woodland. To the left appears the hanging wood already mentioned, with the Gothick screen on the slope in the centre.

Winding still downwards, we come to a small seat where one of the offices of the house, and a view of a cottage on very high ground, is seen over the tops of the trees of the grove in the adjacent valley, giving an agreeable instance of the abrupt inequality of the ground, in this romantick and well variegated country. The next seat shews another face of the same valley, the water gliding calmly along betwixt two seeming hills, without any cascades, as a contrast to the former one, where it was broken by cascades: the scene very significantly alluded to by the motto,-

Rura mihi et longi placeant in vallibus amnes, Flumina amem, sylvasque inglorius.

We descend now to a beautiful gloomy scene called Virgil's grove, where, on the entrance, we pass by a small obelisk on the right hand, with this inscription,-

P. Virgilio Maroni, Lapis iste cum luco sacer esto.

Before this is a slight bench, where some of the same objects are seen again, but in a different point of light. It is not very easy either to paint or describe this delightful grove: however, as the former has been more than once attempted, I will hope to apologize for an imperfect description by the difficulty found, by those who have aimed to sketch it by their pencil. Be it therefore first observed that the whole scene is opaque and gloomy, consisting of a small deep valley or dingle, the sides of which are enclosed with irregular tufts of hazel and other underwood, and the whole shadowed with lofty trees, rising out of the bottom of the dingle, through which a copious stream makes its way through mossy banks, enamelled with primroses, and a variety of wild wood flowers. The first seat we approach is thus inscribed,-

Celeberrimo Poetae Jacobo Thompson, Prope fontes illi non fastiditos, W.S. Sedan hanc ornavit. Quae tibi, quae tali reddam pro carmine dona ? Nam neque me tantum venientis sibilus austri, Nec percussa juvant fluctu tam littora, nec quae, Saxosas inter decurrunt, flumina valles.

This seat is placed upon a steep bank on the edge of the valley, from which the eye is here drawn down into the flat below, by the light that glimmers in front, and by the sound of various cascades, by which the winding stream is agreeably broken. Opposite to this seat the ground rises in an easy concave, to a kind of dripping fountain, where a small rill trickles down a rude niche of rock work, through fern, liverwort, and aquatick weeds, the green area in the middle, through which the stream winds, being as well shaped as can be imagined. After falling down those cascades, it winds under a bridge of one arch, and then empties itself into a small lake which catches it a little below. This terminates the scene upon the right; and after these objects have for some time amused the spectator, his eye rambles to the left, where one of the most beautiful cascades imaginable is seen, by way of incident, through a kind of vista or glade, falling down a precipice overarched with trees, and strikes us with surprise. It is impossible to express the pleasure which one feels on this occasion; for though surprise alone is not excellence, it may serve to quicken the effort of what is beautiful. I believe none ever beheld this grove without a thorough sense of satisfaction; and were one to chase any particular spot of this perfectly Arcadian farm, it should perhaps be this; although it so well contrasts both with the terrace, and with some other scenes, that one cannot wish them ever to be divided. We now proceed to a seat, at the bottom of a large root, on the side of a slope, with this inscription:-

O let me haunt this peaceful shade, Nor let Ambition e'er invade, The tenants of this leafy bower, That shun her paths, and slight her power.

Hither the peaceful halcyon flies, From social meads and open skies: Pleased by this rill her course to steer, And hide her sapphire plumage here.

The trout, bedropp'd with crimson stains, Forsakes the river's proud domains, Forsakes the sun's unwelcome gleam, To lurk within this humble stream.

And sure I heard the Naiad say, Flow, flow, my stream, this devious way, Tho' lovely soft thy murmurs are, Thy waters lovely, cool, and fair.

Flow, gentle stream! nor let the vain, Thy small unsully'd stores disdain; Nor let the pensive sage repine, Whose latent course resembles thine.

The view from it is a calm, tranquil scene of water, gliding through sloping ground, with a sketch through the trees of the small pond below.

The scene in this place is that of water stealing along through a rude, sequestered vale, the ground on each side covered with weeds and field flowers, as that before is kept close shaven. Farther on, we lose all sight of water, and only hear the noise, without having the appearance; a kind of effect which the Chinese are fond of producing, in what they call their scenes of enchantment. We now turn all on a sudden upon the high cascade which we admired before in vista. The scene around is quite a grotto of native stone running up it, roots of trees overhanging it, and the whole shaded over head. However, we first approach upon the left, a chalybeats spring, with an iron bowl chained to it, and this inscription upon a stone,-

Fons Ferrugineus Divae quae aecessv isto frvi concedit.

Then turning to the left, we find a stone seat, making part of the aforesaid cave, with this well applied inscription:-

Intus aquae dulces, vivoque sedilia saxo, Nympharum domus.

Which I have often heard Mr. Shenstone term the definition of a grotto. We now wind up a shady path on the left hand, and crossing the head of this cascade, pass beside the river that supplies it in our way up to the house. One seat first occurs under a shady oak, as we ascend the hill; soon after we enter the shrubbery, which half surrounds the house, where we find two seats, thus inscribed, to two of his most particular friends. The first thus:-

Amicitiae et meritis Richardi Graves. Ipsae te Tytyre! pinus, Ipsi te fontes, ipsa haec arbusta vocabant.

And a little further the other, with the following inscription:-

Amicitiae et meritis Richardi Jago.

From this last is an opening down the valley, over a large sliding lawn, well edged with oaks, to a piece of water, crossed by a considerable bridge in the flat,- the steeple of Hales,- a village amid trees,- making, on the whole, a very pleasing picture. Thus winding through flowering shrubs, beside a menagerie for doves, we are conducted to the stables. But let it not be forgot that, on the entrance into this shrubbery, the first object that strikes us is a Venus de Medicis, beside a basin of gold fish, encompassed around with shrubs, and illustrated with the following inscription,-

"Semi educta Venus".

To Venus; Venus here retired, My sober vows I pay, Not her on Paphian plains admir'd, The bold, the pert, the gay. Not her whose am'rous leer prevail'd To bribe the Phygian boy, Not her who clad in armour fail'd, To save disastrous Troy. Fresh rising from the foaming tide, She every bosom warms; Whilst half withdrawn, she seems to hide, And half reveals her charms.

Learn hence, ye boastful sons of Taste! Who plan the rural shade, Learn hence to shun the vicious waste, Of pomp at large display'd.

Let sweet concealment's magick art, Your mazy bounds invest; And while the sight unveils a part, Let fancy paint the rest.

Let coy reserve with cost unite, To grace your wood or field, No ray obtrusive pall the sight, In aught you paint, or build.

And far be driv'n the sumptuous glare Of gold from British groves; And far the meretricious air Of China's vain alcoves.

'Tis bashful Beauty ever twines, The most coercive chain; 'Tis she that sovereign rule declines, That best deserves to reign.

[The original beauty of the Leasowes has undergone many alterations, according to the caprices of different possessors, so as to exhibit a true picture of sublimary vicissitude. It is now the residence of John Atwood, Esq., a banker in Birmingham.]

Shenstone died at the Leasowes, of a putrid fever, February 11, 1763, and was buried by the side of his brother, in the church yard of Hales Owen. In person he was above the common statute, and somewhat inelegantly formed. His face, which at first sight seemed plain, grew very pleasing in conversation. He was negligent in dress, and was remarkable for wearing his hair, which became grey very early, in a peculiar manner, for he thought that every one should in some degree consult his particular shape and complexion, in adjusting his dress; and that no fashion ought to sanctify what is very ungraceful, absurd, or really deformed.

He was never married, though Dr. Johnson assures us that be might have obtained the lady, whoever she was, to whom his pastoral ballad was addressed. He is represented, by his friend Dodsley, as a man of great tenderness and generosity, kind to all that were within his influence; but if once offended, not easily appeased; inattentive to economy, and careless of his expenses.

The embellishment of his estate, necessarily made him exceed his income; but he had too much spirit to expose himself to insults for trifling sums, and guarded against any great distress, by anticipating a few hundreds, which his estate could very well bear, as appeared by what remained to his executors, after the payment of his debts, and his legacies to his friends and servants.

His mind, Dr: Johnson tells us, was not very comprehensive, nor his curiosity active; he had no value for those parts of knowledge, which be had not himself cultivated. His life was unstained by any crime; the "Elegy on Jesse", which has been supposed to relate an unfortunate and criminal amour of his own was known, by his friends, to have been suggested by the story of Miss Godfrey, in Richardson's "Pamela".

What Gray thought of his character, from the perusal of his letters, was this:-

'I have read too an octavo volume of Shenstone's letters. Poor man! he was always wishing for money, fame, and other distinctions; and his whole philosophy consisted in living against his will in retirement, and in a place which his taste had adorned, but which he only enjoyed when people of note came to see and commend it; his correspondence is about nothing else but this place, and his own writings, with two or three neighbouring clergymen, who wrote verses too'.

'The general recommendation of Shenstone's poetry', says Dr. Johnson, is easiness, and simplicity; its great defect, want of comprehension, and variety. Had his mind been better stored with knowledge, whether he could have been great I know not; he could certainly have been agreeable'.

HALFORD. A township in the parish of Bromfiold, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a chapel to Bromfield, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 10 houses, 51 inhabitants.

HALLON. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the hundred of Brimstry. Here the Saxon Lords of Worfield, had their castle and a part of their demesne. In this township stands Davenport house, with its beautiful grounds, so much admired by the poet Shenstone, who

Amidst these woods and lawns had rov'd,
And oft these rural scenes approv'd.

The residence of Valentine Vickers, Esq. 4 miles northeast of Bridgnorth.

HALL MILL. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford.

HALSTONE. An extra-parochial place in the hundred of Oswestry. 4 miles south-west of Ellesmere. Halstone demesne formerly belonged to the Knights Templars or Knights of St. John, of Jerusalem. See appendix. Knights Templers. The church or chapel is of exempt jurisdiction. Halstone is the seat of John Mytton, Esq.

It is called in ancient deeds Haly Stone or Holy Stone. Near it stood the abbey, which about a century ago was taken down. It had been formerly a sanctuary. Meyric Lloyd, lord of some part of Uwch Ales, in the reign of Richard the first, would not submit to the English government, to which the hundred of Dyffryn Clwydd and several others were at that time subject; and having seized some English officers, who came there to execute the laws, put several of them to death. For this fact his lands were forfeited to the King; he himself fled and took sanctuary at Halston, where its possessor, John Fitz- Alan, earl of Arundel, received him under his protection. In the Saxon era, the lordship of Halston belonged to Edric at which time, two Welshmen and one Frenchman resided in it. After the Norman conquest, Halston became the property of an earl of Arundel, and was given by that family to the Knights of St. John, of Jerusalem. (See appendix.) In the twenty sixth year of Henry the eighth, the commandery was valued at £160 14s. 10d. a year. Upon the abolition of many of the military religious orders, Henry the eighth empowered John Sewster, Esq. to dispose of this manor to Alan Horde, who made an exchange with Edward Mytton, Esq, of Habberley, which alienation was confirmed by queen Elizabeth. The church or chapel of Halston is a donative, without any other revenue than what the chaplain is allowed by the owner; and is of exempt jurisdiction. Halston was the birth place of the celebrated General Mytton, who was horn in 1608. In 1629, he married a daughter of Sir - Napier, Bart., of Luton, and being returned for the borough of Shrewsbury, he was, in 1645, chosen sheriff by the parliament, while Sir Francis Ottley, of Ottley park, held the same office from the King. Mytton in that capacity appointed a court to be held in Oswestry, August 27th, 1646, for the purpose of electing a representative for the County, in the room of Sir Richard Lea, of Lea Hall, Bart, who had been displaced. However, in the early part of the morning of that day, having only a few persons attending him, he secretly adjourned the meeting to Alberbury, at which place he returned his relative Mr. H. Edwards. Nearly a thousand freeholders assembled at Oswestry on this occasion, to give their suffrages in behalf of Andrew Lloyd, Esq., of Aston, of whom a great number petitioned parliament in Lloyd's favour, in consequence of the secret proceedings of Mytton. As a soldier, Mytton was able, active, and successful, on the side of parliament, during the Civil wars in the reign of Charles the first. By his courage and conduct, many strong holds in North Wales and Shropshire were subdued, and he greatly distinguished himself in several battles. The General had the honour of taking Harlech castle, the last fortress which held out for the King. An ardent love of liberty, and not ambition, seems to have been the motive which actuated general Mytton in all his conduct. Finding that Cromwell's views were different from his own, (which were merely to curb the arbitrary designs of the monarch,) he resigned his command, and retired. General Mytton died in London, in 1656, and his remains being conveyed to Shrewsbury, were deposited in St. Chad's church.

HALSTON, HINTON and FARLEY. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. Farley is 7 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

HAMPTON (Welsh). A parish in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill, a curacy, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. It formerly belonged to the Knights Templars. Part of Welshhampton is in the parish of Ellesmere. 2 miles north-east by east of Ellesmere. 75 houses, 478 inhabitants.

HANWOOD, GREAT. See Great Hanwood.

HANWOOD, LITTLE. A township partly in the parish of St. Mary, partly in the parish of Ford, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

HARCOURT. A township in the parish of Stottesden, and in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden.

HARCOURT; or HARCOT. A township in the parish of Stanton upon Hine- heath, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 4½ miles south-east of Wem. 5 houses, 34 inhabitants.

HARDWICK. A township in the parish of Ellesmere and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. The seat of the Rev. Sir Edward Kynaston, bart. 1½ mile south-west of Ellesmere.

HARDWICK SHOTTON. A township in the parish of Middle, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 5½ miles north-east by north of Shrewsbury. The seat of General Lord Hill. See appendix.

HARLEY. A township in the franchise of Wenlock. See Wigway and Harley.

HARLEY. A parish partly in the franchise of Wenlock, and partly in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover, a rectory, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 47 houses, 235 inhabitants. 10½ miles south- east of Shrewsbury.

The Rev. Benjamin Jenks, who was born either here or in some other part of Shropshire, in the year 1646, held the rectory of Harley fifty six years. He was a most exemplary and pious divine, and appears from the dedication of his books of devotion to Lord Bradford, to have been distantly allied to that family, for he claims kindred with the nobleman whom he addresses. He died in 1724. His works are, 1. Prayers and Offices of Devotion, for families, 12mo., a work once very popular, and even now, not uncommon. 2. Meditations on various important subjects, 5 vols. 8vo.

HARLESCOTT. A township in the parish of St. Alkmond, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

HARNAGE; or HARNAGE GRANGE. A township in the parish of Cound, and in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover. 8 miles south-east of Shrewsbury.

HASBURY. A township in the parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry. 1 mile sonth-west of Hales Owen.

HASTON. A township belonging to Hadnall Ease, in the parish of Middle, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 5½ miles north-east by north of Shrewsbury.

HATFORD. A township in the parish of Bromfield, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow.

HATTON. A township in the parish of Eaton, and in the franchise of Wenlock. 24 miles south-east of Church Stretton.

HATTON. A township in the hundred of Munslow.

HATTON. A township in the franchise of Wenlock.

HATTON. A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. 109 houses, 588 inhabitants. 2 miles south-east of Shiffnal.

HATTON, (Cold) See Cold Hatton.

HAUGHMOND; or HAGHMAN. An extra-parochial place in the hundred of Bradford, South. 4 miles north-east of Shrewsbury. It contains 60 inhabitants.

Haughmond Abbey is situated on a rising ground, and in its front commands an extended view of the plain of Shrewsbury, and its town and castle, and of the fine demesne of Sundorn.

This once stately building is now fallen into almost total decay. Even its foundations cannot be entirely traced. Nothing remains of the church but the south door of the nave, a beautiful round arch, resting on slender shafts, between which have been inserted a Gothick tabernacle, inclosing statues of St. Peter and St. Paul. The chapter house which remains entire, is oblong, and with the upper end forms two sides of an hexagon. The entrance is by a finely ornamented round arch having a window on each side, divided into two arched compartments, by slender, short pillars. The spaces between the shafts of these arches have niches and statues of the virgin Mary, the angel Gabriel, St. Catherine, etc. On the south of the chapter house, opposite the site of the church, there are remains of the rectory, and beyond it a large building consisting of a spacious hall, eighty one feet by thirty six. This hall is lighted by Gothick windows on each side, and at the west end by a larger one, which has formerly been filled with tracery. On the north side there is an antique fire place.

At the eastern extremity, at right angles, and having a communication with this, there is another apartment of nearly the same size, which was once evidently divided into two rooms. At the south end is an elegant long window, and above this part has been an upper room. It is supposed that this range of building was the abbot's lodging and hall. The abbey is part of the demesne of Sundorn.

It was erected in the last year of William Rufus, (1100,) by William Fitz-Alan, who endowed it with the land on which it stood, and all its appurtenances. The grants made to the canons (of the Augustine order,) are confirmed in the charter of the thirteenth of Edward the second. William Zonet also, by deed, confirmed to them the grant of the mill of Rocheford, made by his ancestors.

Henry the second, at the request of Alured, abbot of St. John's, of Haughmond, granted to William Fitz-Alan and his heirs for ever, the keeping of this abbey, and all his possessions, in times of vacation; so that neither Henry nor say of his successors, (Kings of England) should ever intermeddle in the affairs thereof upon the death of any abbot.

In the third year of Henry the fifth, the abbot Ralph, and the monks of Haughmond, at the request of Thomas, earl of Arundel and Surrey, granted to Robert Lee, of Uffington, a corrody for life, to be esquire to the abbot, with one servant, and two horses; taking sufficient meat and drink for himself and his servant, with hay and corn for his horses, whensoever he should be in the monastery. It was also granted to him to have cloth for the habit or livery usually worn by the rest of the abbot's esquires.

Richard, bishop of Coventry, authorised this monastery to appoint a sacrist under the abbot, who might baptize as well Jews as infants, and exercise parochial jurisdiction upon their friends and servants. The abbot Nicholas ordered a new kitchen to be built, assigning certain revenues for defraying the expense of fish and flesh, and twenty hogs to be kept for bacon.

Pope Alexander the third, in the year 1172, granted to the abbots and monks of this monastery, mnny valuable privileges and immunities, which were all confirmed by the popes Honorious the third, Nicholas the third, Boniface the ninth, and Martin the fourth.

Leland says there was an hermitage and chapel on this spot before the abbey was built. William Fitz-Allen and his wife, with Robert Fitz-Allen and others, are there buried, and also Richard Fitz-Allen, who fell out of his nurse's arms, from the battlements of Shrawardine castle.

The yearly revenues of this abbey, at the dissolution, were £269 13s. 7d., according to Dugdale; and £294 12s. 9d., according to Speed. It is registered as in the custody of one William Barker, in the year 1653, who with his family, it is said, are buried under an old tomb stone, in the vestry of St. Mary's Church, Shrewsbury.

Behind the abbey, on the verge of the hill, is an extensive wood. Emerging from it, we see the lands of Mr. Corbet, adorned on one side by a fine plantation and a hill, crowned with a shooting box in the form of an ancient turret. Near this place Lord Douglas, at the battle of Shrewsbury, was taken prisoner, in attempting to precipitate himself down the steep, when his horse fell under him, and he received a severe contusion on his knee. The piece of armour covering the knee pan, was, some years ago, dug up, and is now in possession of the Sundorn family.

William Clarke was born at Haughmond Abbey in the year 1696. He received his education at the free grammar school at Shrewsbury, under Mr. Lloyd, for whom his pupil always entertained the highest esteem. He afterwards removed to St. John's College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow, on the 22nd of January, 1716-17, for several nonjuring fellows having been removed about that time, by an act of parliament, the consequent vacancy occasioned Mr. Clarke's election at so early a period of life.

[The statutes require the fellows as soon as they as of that standing, to take the degree of B.D. But the oath of allegiance is required to be taken with every degree: so that after the revolution, several of the fellows not coming into the oath of allegiance, and the statutes requiring them to commence B.D., they were constrained to part with their fellowships. As to those who had taken the degree before the revolution, there was nothing to eject them upon, till their refusal of the abjaration oath, exacted on the accession of king George the first.]

In 1715, Mr. Clarke commenced B.A., and in 1719, became M.A. His reputation was so high that he was then chosen to be chaplain to Dr. Adam Ottley, bishop of St. David's, but the death of that prelate, in 1723, appears to have prevented Mr. Clarke from receiving any advantage in consequence of this appointment.

He afterwards held the situation of domestick chaplain to Holles, Duke of Newcastle. Here he continued not long before he was presented, by Archbishop Wake, to the rectory of Buxted, in Sussex. Partly on account of his uncommon merit, and partly from regard to the particular recommendation of the learned Dr. Wotton, whose daughter Mr. Clarke had married, this promotion was conferred upon him, without any solicitation of his own.

In the year 1730, Mr. Clarke gave a publick specimen of his literary talents, in an elegant Latin preface, prefixed to Dr. Wotton's Collection of the Welch Laws. Mr. Clarke took a copy of the famous Chichester Inscription; which he printed, and had it engraved in that preface. This plate was afterwards presented by the Rev. Edward Clarke, to the late Sir William Burrell; together with many curious papers relative to the county of Sussex; and a drawing of a piece of Roman pavement found in the Bishop's garden at Chichester, which by the preportions was supposed to have covered a room thirty feet square, and of which the Duke of Richmond gave the Society of Antiquaries a drawing, in 1749.

In September, 1738, Mr. Clarke was made prebendary and residentiary of Hova Villa, in the cathedral church of Chichester.

The "Discourse on the commerce of the Romans", a work which was highly praised by Dr. Taylor, in his " Elements of the Civil laws" was written by Mr. Clarke, and is reprinted in the volume of "Miscellaneous Tracts", and in "The Progress of Maritime Discovery", which has since been published by his grandson.

Maurice Johnson, in a letter to Roger Gale, Esq., dated March 17,1743-4, says: ' We had, last Tuesday, a letter from Mr. William Bowyer, the printer, a member, who wrote than his friend, Mr. Clarke, a prebendary of Chichester, (likewise a most learned and worthy member,) had informed him that there had lately been found in that city, a Roman coin, representing Nero and Drusus, sons of Germanicus, on horseback, and on the reverse, C. CAES. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P.M. TR. P. III. P.P. In the middle S.C. (which I find in Occo's Caligula A.W.C. 791 A.D. 40 p. 69) 'which' says he, 'though the very same which Putin on Suetonius, Mediobarbus, etc., have given us before, yet bring one advantage to the place where it was found, as it is a confirmation of the antiquity of the Chichester inscription, which, you know, is a little contested in Horsley, and proves the early intercourse of the Romans with the Regni, contrary to the opinion which Bishop Stillingfleet conceived for want of such remains'.

Mr. Clarke's principal printed work is "The Connexion of the Roman, Saxon, and English Coins; deducing the antiquities, customs, and manners of each people to modern times; particularly the origin of feudal tenures, and of parliaments: illustrated throughout with critical and historical remarks on various authors, both sacred and profane". This work was published in one volume, in 1767; and its appearance from the press was owing to the discovery made by Martin Folkes, Esq., of the old Saxon pound. In the dedication to the Duke of Newcastle, he takes a publick opportunity not only of thanking his Grace for the obligations he had received, but also of acknowledging that they were not the effects of importunity, but owing to that disposition of doing good to others, that spirit of beneficence by which his Grace was so remarkably distinguished. Mr. Clarke's performance was perused in manuscript, by the Right Honourable Arthur Onslow, Speaker of the House of Commons, who honoured him with some useful hints and observations; but he was chiefly indebted to Mr. Bowyer, the printer, who took upon him all the care of the publication, drew up several of the notes, wrote part of the dissertation on the Roman sesterce, and formed an admirable index to the whole. By this work, Mr. Clarke acquired a high and just reputation. Indeed it reflects honour upon the country by which it was produced; for there are few performances that are more replete with profound and curious learning.

Mr. Clarke obtained permission, in 1768, to resign the rectory of Buxted, (having held it more than thirty four years,) to his son Edward. This was effected by the unsolicited interest of Marquess Cornwallis; who was pleased to recollect the intimacy which had subsisted between himself and the Rev. Edward Clarke, in the island of Minorca.

In June, 1770, he was installed Chancellor of the Church of Chichester, to which office the rectories of Chittingley and Pevensey are annexed; and in August that year, was presented to the vicarage of Amport, on the death of Dean Harwood. Mr. Clarke did not long enjoy this preferment, dying October, 21, 1771, at the age of 75. He had been afflicted with the gout for three months, in the spring of that year.

So attentive was Mr. Clarke to the interests of the chapter of Chichester, and so admirably did he manage the jarring passions of its members, that it was observed after his death: 'The peace of the church of Chichester has expired with Mr. Clarke'.

The following inscription was written by him in 1746, intending that it should have been put up at the expense of the Dean and Chapter; but the rest of that body being averse, the plan was laid aside:-

"Hans Patrum et Episcoporum seriem quam sacravit olim Sherboniana pietas, ipso tandem operis vetustate evanidam fere et deletam, revocavit denuo at restituit Matthias Cicestriensis, A.D. 1746. Cujus beneficii memoriam Posteris traditam at conservatam esse voluerunt Decanus et Capitulum".

In addition to the writings already mentioned, Mr. Clarke joined with Mr. Bowyer, the celebrated printer, in the translation of Trapp's Lectures on Poetry, and in the Annotations on the Greek Testament; and was the author of several notes subjoined to the English version of Bleterie's Life of the Emperor Julian.

He left behind him a considerable number of manuscripts, among which were some excellent Sermons. The publication of these at the express recommendation of the late Bishop Begot, has not appeared. Some of the best were given, at his Lordship's request, to the late Bishop of Chichester, Sir William Ashburnham, Bart., and at his death were inadvertently burned with some other papers.

Among his MSS. are some very valuable letters from the different Literati of the age, who had corresponded with himself and Dr. Wotton.

He had also drawn up a short account of the " Antiquities of the Cathedral of Chichester", which was presented, by his grandson, to Mr. Hey, the historian of that city.

Some letters of Mr. Boyle, in the possession of the Rev. Henry Miles, F.R.S., of Tooting, increased by a part of the collection which had been communicated to Dr. Wotton, by Mr. Boyle, were presented by Mr. Clarke, to Dr. Birch.

In a letter to his friend Mr. Bowyer, Mr. Clarke says ' I find the Archbishop (Secker) and you are intimate, and that he trusts you with secrets; but I could tell you a secret, which nobody knows but my wife; that if our deanery should be ever vacant in my time, (which is not likely) I would not accept it. I would no more go into a new way of life, furnish new apartments, etc., than Mrs. Bowyer would go to a Lord Mayor's ball. I have learned to know that at the end of life these things are not worth our notice'.

[To this we may add the following fact. When the Duke of Newcastle had retired from the duties of his high station, and was one day in familiar intercourse with an old friend, that friend asked his Grace, how it happened, that amidst the many Divines he had raised to the Episcopal Bench, he never thought of Mr. William Clarke? 'thought of him!' replied the Duke, why my dear Sir, he was seldom out of my mind: but Mr. Clarke never asked me'.]

An honourable and classical tribute was paid by the Rev. Edward Clarke to his father's memory, in the following epitaph.

Memorial Sacrum Wilhelmi Clarke, A. M. Cancellarii et Canonici Ecclesiae Cicestriensis: Quem pietate, literis, moribus urbanis, humanitate et modestiâ ornatum concives et familiares sui uno ore ubique confessi stint; et si ipsi siluissent testarentur ipsius scripta: In commune vita comis, betas, utilis, facile omnes perferre ac pati promptus, ingenui pudoris, magni et liberalis animi In ecclesia suadens, facundus concionator, at non solum in cures fidelium, sed etiam in anima veridica stillaret oratio, precibus offerendis fervidus et profluens ut, tanquam sauctior Ilamma, In caelos ascendere viderentur: In parochia pastor vigil, laborum plenus, indoctis magister, aegris solamen, abjectis spec pauperibus crumena; tames eleemosynas suas adeo occulte adeo late disseminavit, ut illasonen nisi dies ultima judicii ultimo revelare potuerit: Natus est anno 1696, in comitatu Salopiensi et caenobio de Haghmon Primis literia imbutus in Salopiae schola; collegii Sancti Johannis, Cantabrigiae, socius: Primo Adamo Ottley, Menevensi Episcopo, postea Daci Novo-Castrensi, Thomas Holles a sacris domesticis: tandem ad rectoriam de Buxted inter Regnos a Willielmo Wake, Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi, propter sus et egregia soceri sui Wilhelmi Wottoni merits sine ambitu collatus. Obiit Cicestriae, Oct. 21, A.D. 1771'.

Sepulchrale marmor quo subjacet Cicestriae virenti adhsc viridi senecta mente solida et terms, sic inscripsit:

[This was not long before his death.]

The sic inscripsit refers to the following short Inscription, which is engraved upon the tomb-stone in Chichester Cathedral, behind the choir, near the entrance to the Duke of Richmond's vault:

Depositum Gulielmi Clarke, A.M. Canonici et Cancellarii hujus Ecclesiae, qui obiit [Octobris 21,] A.D. [1771,] aetatis [75.] Uxorem Annam, Gulielmi Wottoni, S.T.P, et Annae Hammondi filiam; et Liberos duos superstites reliquit'.

Mr, Hayley, the poet, was intimately acquainted with Mr. and Mrs. Clarke, and has left the following characters of his two excellent friends,

' Mr. Clarke was not only a man of extensive erudition, but he had the pleasing talent of communicating his various knowledge, in familiar conversation, without any appearance of pedantry or presumption. There was an engaging mildness in his countenance and manner, which brought to the remembrance of those that conversed with him, the countenance of Erasmus.- Indeed, he bore a great resemblance to that celebrated personage, in many particulars; in the delicacy of his constitution, in the temperance of his life, in his passion for letters, in the modest pleasantry of his spirit, and in the warm and active benevolence of his heart. As men they had both their foibles; but foibles of so trivial a nature, that they are lost in the radiance of their beneficial virtues.

' Antiquities were the favourite study of Mr. Clarke, as his publications shew: but he was a secret, and by no means an unsuccessful votary of the muses. He wrote English verse with ease, elegance, and spirit. Perhaps there are few better epigrams in our language than the following, which he composed on seeing the words Domus Ultima inscribed on the vault belonging to the Duke of Richmond, in the Cathedral of Chichester:

'Did he who thus inscribed the wall Not read, or not believe St. Paul, Who says there is, where'er it stands, Another house not made with hands; Or may we gather from these words, That house is not a house of Lords'.

[The inscription which is on a mural tablet at the east end of the Duke's vault, near St. Mary's chapel, is in these words,

Sibi et suis, posterisque eorum Hoc Hypogasum vivus F.C. Carolus Richmondiae, Liviniae, et Albiniaci dux anno aerie Christiana 1750: Haec est domus ultima.]

' Among the unstudied pieces of his classical poetry, there are some animated stanzas, describing the character of the twelve English poets, whose portraits, engraved by Vertue, were the favourite ornament of his parlour: but he set so modest and humble a value on his poetical compositions, that I believe they were seldom committed to paper, and are therefore very imperfectly preserved in the memory of those to whom he sometimes recited them. His taste and judgment in poetry appears, indeed, very striking, in many parts of his learned and elaborate "Connexion of Coins". His illustration of Nestor's cup, in particular, may be esteemed as one of the happiest examples of that light, which the learning and spirit of an elegant antiquary, may throw on a cloudy and mistaken passage of an ancient poet.

' He gave a very beneficial proof of his zeal for literature, by the trouble he took in regulating the library of the Cathedral, to which he belonged. He persuaded Bishop Mawson to bestow a considerable sum towards repairing the room appropriated to this purpose. He obtained the donation of many valuable volumes from different persons: and, by his constant and liberal attention to this favourite object, raised an inconsiderable and neglected collection of books, into a very useful and respectable publick library.

' As to his talents as a Divine, he might, I think, be esteemed an impressive and doctrinal, rather than a highly eloquent preacher. In the more important points of his professional character, he was entitled to much higher praise. In strict attention to all the duties of a Christian pastor, in the most unwearied charity, he might be regarded as a model to the ministers of our church. Though his income was never large, it was his custom to devote a shilling in every guinea that he received, to the service of the poor. As a master, as a husband, and as a father, his conduct was amiable and endearing; and to close this imperfect sketch with his most striking feature, he was a man of unaffected piety, and evangelical singleness of heart.

Having thus given a slight, but faithful account of Mr. Clarke, let me speak of the admirable woman who was the dear companion of his life, and the affectionate rival of his virtues. Mrs. Clarke inherited, from her father Wotton, the retentive memory by which she was distinguished, and she possessed the qualities in which Swift considered him as remarkably deficient,- penetration and wit. She seemed, indeed, in these points, rather related to the laughter loving dean of St. Patrick's, than to his solemn antagonist. The moral excellence of her character, was by no means inferior to the sprightly activity of her mind. Nature and education never formed, I believe, a more singular and engaging compound of good humoured vivacity and rational elevation. Her whole life seemed to be directed by the maxim, which one of our English Bishops adopted for his motto, 'Serve God, and be cheerful. [1] There was a degree of irascible quickness in her temper, but it was such as gave rather an agreeable than a dangerous spirit to her general manners. Her anger was never of long continuance, and usually evaporated in a comick bon mot, or in a pious reflection. She was perfectly acquainted with the works of our most celebrated divines, and so familiar with the English muses, that even in the decline of her life, when her recollection was impaired by age and infirmities, she would frequently quote, and with great happiness of application, all our eminent poets. She particularly delighted in the wit of Butler; and wrote herself a short poem, in the manner of Hudibras, Her sufferings on the death of her excellent husband, were extreme; and though she survived him several years, it was in a broken and painful state of health, Through the course of a long life, and in the severe maladies that preceded her dissolution, she displayed all the virtues of a Christian, with uniform perseverance, but without ostentation.

Mr. Clarke had three children, two of whom survived him. Edward, who became Rector of Pepperharrow, Surrey, in 1758, who was, like his father, a man of genius and learning, and the author of several learned works;- and a daughter, who inherited not only the virtues of her parents, but their passion for literature. She died at Chichester, and was buried in a cemetery adjoining the Cathedral. The celebrated traveller Dr. Edward Daniel Clarke, was the son of the above Rev. Edward Clarke, and the grandson of the Rev. William Clarke'.

[1] Dr. John Haoket, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry. It is inscribed on his print, prefixed to his century of Sermons.

HAUGHTON. A township partly in the parish of High Ercall, and partly in the parish of Upton Magna, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 4½ miles north east of Shrewsbury.

HAUGHTON. A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. ½ mile north-west of Shiffnal. The residence of B. Benyon, Esq., M.P.

HAUGHTON. A township in the parish of Ruyton of the Eleven Towns, and in the hundred of Oswestry.

HAUGHTON and CROFT. A township in the parish of Morvill, and in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden. 3 miles north-west of Bridgnorth.

HAWFORD. See Halford.

HAWKSTONE. A township in the parish of Hodnet, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 4 miles north-east of Wem.

The seat of Sir Rowland Hill, Bart. The mansion, long the residence of the ancient family of the Hills, is situated on the north side of a hill, a little out of the road from Shrewsbury to Whitchurch. The West Portico, the pillars of which are of the composite order, and are large and lofty, is considered as admirable piece of architecture. The Saloon, the Chapel, and the Library, are particularly deserving of attention. The former, a lofty, spacious room, is fitted up in a costly manner, and adorned with some fine paintings. Among these is the siege of Namur, of which piece, the principal characters were taken from life. They are William the third, the Elector of Bavaria, the Duke of Marlborough, Count Cohorn, and the Right Honourable Richard Hill, (great uncle to the late Sir John,) at that time paymaster to the forces, a member of the Privy Council, and Envoy at the court of Turin.

It does not certainly appear by whom the house was originally built; but Sir Rowland Hill, Bart., great grandfather of the present proprietor, added the wings, and made other considerable additions; and the family mansion, it is said, was at this place in the time of Sir Rowland Hill, Knight, who was Lord Mayor of London, in the reign of Edward the sixth, A.D. 1549.

The Chapel and Library are in the north wing, which is separated from the rest of the mansion, by a Colonnade. In the ceiling of the former, is a very masterly painting designed as emblematical of the reformation. Truth is represented appealing to Time to bring her to light, and Falsehood flies away affrighted.

The Park, which is very extensive, contains beauties which have often engaged the attention of persons of taste, for days together. Scenes, which in any situation, would merit the denomination of sublime, are here rendered doubly striking by their appearance in the midst of a fine fertile champaigne country, bounded on all sides by ranges of distant hills. On a clear day the eye may command the view of twelve, and sometimes thirteen counties, viz., Shropshire, Cheshire, Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire, Worcestershire, Herefordshire, Flintshire, Denbighshire, Montgomeryshire, Merionethshire, Radnorshire, and Blackstone Edge, in Yorkshire.

An easy ascent from the mansion, through the side of a wilderness of lofty trees, chiefly beeches, conducts to the Summer House, a handsome octagonal building, of free stone, the interior of which is painted in fresco, and represents the four seasons. From the window there is a pleasing prospect of a grand piece of water, and some verdant meadows, and in the distance appear the Broxton Hills, and Delamere Forest, in Cheshire. This scene is agreeably diversified by a farm house, built in the Gothick style, representing an Abbey, or Priory, among some scattered trees by the water side. A spacious Cold Bath, under the Summer House, is supplied by a chrystal spring issuing from the side of a bank, a few yards distant.

A pleasant walk interspersed with trees, leads from the summer house to a deep valley called the Gulf, which separates the Grotto rock from an opposite hill. Emerging from a beautiful lawn, the most romantick scenery suddenly presents itself to the eye of the spectator, and the valley on the left is scarcely inferior even to the Thessalian Tempe. Proceeding along a rising walk on the side of the rock, variegated with shrubs and trees, through which the water appears below, the traveller is at length conducted to the solemn entrance which leads to the grotto.

A profound and extended cleft in the rock had continued for ages undiscovered. The late Sir Richard Hill, uncle of the present Sir Rowland, caused all the earth, rubbish, and leaves, to be removed, when it was found that the two sides of the rock corresponded so nearly with each other, that it is not an improbable conjecture that they were once united, and that their separation was caused by an earthquake. Through this majestick aperture of massy stone, there is a gradual ascent to a sombre passage, which extends about one hundred yards, and from which all light is excluded. This passage conducts to the grotto, a vast subterranean cave, supported by rugged pillars, hewn in the solid rock. The grotto is formed of the most costly shells, inlaid with petrefactions and fossils.

The superb grandeur of this apartment is perfectly in character with the sublimity of the surrounding scenes, and its effect on the admiring stranger surpasses all description.

Through a colonnade of rude pillars, tinged with copper, this labyrinth of wonders is quitted by a door on the west, which opens on an awful precipice, and commands a view of huge pending crags, coloured with copper, or hoary with age, and of gaping chasms between the rocks, while the verdant lawn, the fertile, distant prospect, the wood and water below, form a fine contrast of the sublime, and the beautiful.

The traveller is next conducted to a delightfully retired spot in the midst of the thick wood, where he may repose himself on a rustick sofa, made of different sorts of curious mosses.

Turning under the grotto hill, by a stair-case cut out of the rock, and looking upwards, you behold enormous shelves of green copper hanging over you, as if on the very point of felling. This view is most striking near a place cut in the rock, where there are two opposite seats, called the Vis-a-vis.

This grand hill stretches itself out towards the south-west; and the stately rocks remind the beholder of the ruins of Palmyra, or Persepolis. They resemble so many demolished castles, fallen into ruin, and heaped upon each other. The noble Corsican general, Pascal Paoli, declared that in all his travels, he had seen nothing which had given him so much delight. This distinguished foreigner appeared to be most struck by a view under the grotto hill, where the red castle rock, breaks in upon the eye. This place is now distinguished by the name of Paoli's Point.

Leaving the grotto hill, you proceed by the side of stately oaks and rugged cliffs, [The most remarkable of these, called the SHIP'S BEAK, seems as if it had been once separated from the main rock by some violent convulsion of nature.] till you arrive at a natural cave called the Retreat, the top of which hangs in small rocky clouds overhead, and has in it some veins resembling mortar, and of a brackish taste. In this cave are some beautiful lines written by the pious Sir Richard Hill, while engaged in contemplating these delightful scenes.

Passing by the Canopy and the Indian Rock, which are both deeply tinged with variegated copper, you reach a little cottage in which there is the figure of a hermit, in a sitting posture, and with a table before him, on which are a skull, an hour glass, a book, and a pair of spectacles. The figure rises at the approach of strangers, and appears to repeat some lines which are fixed up in the inside of the habitation, under the motto,-

'Memento Mori'.

From the hermit's cottage the stranger is conducted to a place called the Fox's Nob, because a fox, some years ago, leaped from the top into a deep valley, and being followed by some of the dogs, the pursuers and the pursued perished together,

The next cariosity is Sir Francis's cave, the entrance to which is under the curious twisted root of a venerable yew-tree. After having groped for some time in darkness, a sudden transition into the light presents a most enchanting prospect of wood, hills, lawn, and water, mingled with the busy scenes of agriculture.

A turning a little to the left, leads by a gentle ascent to the summit of the Terrace. It is a verdant walk, with forest trees of every kind on each side, with openings at proper intervals, through which the distant prospect bursts upon the view, while hundreds of the feathered tribe charm the ear with their melodious notes.

A walk under the Terrace, which leads from the Fox's Nob to the Tower Glen, exceeds perhaps all the rest in its wonderful variety of fine large timber trees, lofty rocks, solemn dingles, natural caverns, and diversified prospects.

On the highest spot on the Terrace is erected the Grand Obelisk. It is built of white free stone, and is about one hundred and twelve feet high. From the top of this column, in the inside of which is a stone stair-case, the most unbounded prospect presents itself to view: hills beyond hills discover themselves all around, and England and Wales vie with each ether, in the loftiness of their mountains, and the richness of their plains.

The gallery of the obelisk forms an observatory for the astronomer, while the inscription on the base transmits to posterity the piety and noble acts of a venerable ancestor, a handsome statue of whom, in his Lord Mayor's gown, copied from an ancient monument, which stood in the church of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, before the fire of London, is placed on the top, holding the Magna Charta in his hand. The following is the inscription at the base,-


' The first stone of this Pillar was laid by Sir Richard Hill, Bart., member in several parliaments for this county, on the 1st day of October, in the year 1795, who caused it to be erected, not only for the various uses of an observatory, and to feast the eye by presenting to it at one view, a most luxuriant and extensive prospect, which takes in not less than twelve (or as some assert fifteen) counties;- but from motives of justice, respect and gratitude to the memory of a truly good man, viz. Sir Rowland Hill, Knight, who was born at the family mansion of Hawkstone, in the reign of King Henry the seventh, and being bred to trade, and free of the city of London, become one of the most considerable and opulent merchants of his time, and was Lord Mayor of the same, in the second and third years of Edward the sixth, anno 1549, and 1550, and was the first Protestant who filled that high office.

'Having embraced the principles of the reformation, he zealously exerted himself in behalf of the Protestant cause, and having been diligent in the use of all religious exercises, prayerful, conscientious, and watchful, (as a writer of his character expresses it) yet trusting only in the merits of his Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, he exchanged this life for a better, a short while after the death of that pious young monarch, being aged nearly seventy years.

For a considerable time previous to his dodge, he gave up his mercantile occupations, that he might with more devotedness of heart, attend to the great concerns of another world.

His lands, possessions, and church patronage were immense; particularly in the counties of Salop, and Chester: the number of his tenants, (none of whom he ever raised or fined) amounting to one thousand, one hundred and eighty one, as appears from a rental yet preserved, and copied front his own hand writing.

But his private virtues, good deeds, and munificent spirit were quite unlimited, and extended like the prospect before us, East, West, North, and South, far surpassing all bounds. "Being sensible" saith Fuller, (speaking of him in his Worthies of England,) "that his great estate was given him of God", it was his desire to devote it to His glory. He built a spacious church in his own parish of Hodnet, and likewise the neighbouring chapel of Stoke, at his own expense. He built Tern and Atcham bridges, in this county, both of hewn stone, and containing several arches each. He also built other large bridges of timber. He made and paved divers highways for the publick utility. He founded exhibitions, and educated many students at both Universities, and supported, at the inns of court, others who were brought up to the law.

He was the unwearied friend of the widow and the fatherless. He clothed annually, three hundred people in his own neighbourhood, both with shirts and coats; and in the city of London, he gave £500 (an immense sum in those days) to St. Bartholomew's hospital, besides (saith Fuller) £600 to Christ church hospital. He also gave most liberally to all the other hospitals, and at his death bequeathed £150 to the poor of all the wards in London.

He had no children, but his relations and kinsfolk were numerous; who all partook largely of his bounty, both in his life time, and at his death. He constantly kept up a great household, where be maintained good hospitality. Many resorted to him for his wise and salutary advice, and none who came to him were sent empty, or dissatisfied away.

Go and do thou likewise, as far as thy ability will paint, without injury to thy relations.

The following Latin inscription is under a portrait of him now in the house at Hawkstone.

Rowlandus Hill, miles Salopiensis, vir bonus et sapiens, quondam Major civitatis Londini, se dignissimus consul ejusdem existens. Qui auctoritate opibusque temporibus Regum Henrici Octavi et Edwardi Sexti florans, diversas terrae, praedia ac possessiones perquisivit, eaque omnis, salva conscientia, abeque omni aliorum injuria vel darane. Quo jam senescente (it should be Qui jam senescens) ac in ultimam aetatem vergente (vergens) a rebus acquirendis prorsus abstinuit, ac sua "sorte contentus, sibi quiete vixit, neque plura optabat. Multa praeterea praeclara opera egit, magnam alebat familiam. Bona qua acquisivisset (acquisivit) liberaliter impendit, pauperibus dedit. Scholastieis in utraque academia exhibuit, leguleios aluit, atque in alios pios usus eregavit. Liberos suscepit nullos, ideoque terras possessionesque suas inter cognates ac consanguineos divisit. Breviter, tanta pietate clariut, quod fama facta extendebet, quamque vitam suam vigiliis, timore ac contemplatione continuit, ad honorem summi Dei, ac in perpetuam nominis gloriam.

It is worthy of remark, that as Sir Rowland Hill was the first Protestant Lord Mayor, anno 1649, so his father, Thomas Hill, of Hawkstone, Esq., was the last Lord Mayor of the Roman Catholick persuasion.

A walk from the terrace, leads to the Tower, a large handsome building, in what is called the Gothick style, situated on a lofty projection on the south-west side of the Terrace, which forms a fine prospect of the country for several miles round.

The hill now turns round to the Vineyard, which is laid out like a fortification with turrets, walls, and bastions. Being well screened by the woods and rocks, behind and on each aide, and open only to the south sun, the situation was considered peculiarly adapted to the growth and culture of the vine; but though every effort was tried, the attempt did not succeed, and there is every reason to believe that no vineyard in this climate can ever be brought to any greater degree of perfection.

From the tower may be seen the town of Shrewsbury, and many of the Cambrian hills, with their pointed tops, propping the clouds;- Caer Caradoc, famous in history for a bulwark of stone, where Caractacus, the British chief, bravely defended himself against the Roman forces; (See Caer Caradoc,) and that magnificent mountain the Wrekin. There is a view also of the Briedden, Moel-y-Golva, and Caverokesken hills, the former of which is the pillar erected in honour of Lord Rodney.

About a mile from the tower is a hanging wood, called the Bury Walls. Here are the remains of a grand Roman camp, which is allowed by Antiquaries to be the most perfect in the kingdom. It encompasses nearly twenty acres of ground, and is secured on all sides but one, by an inaccessible rock. That side on which there is no natural defence, is strongly guarded by a triple entrenchment, which must have been a work of immense labour. [On the top of Hopley, a neighbouring bill, belonging to Andrew Corbet Esq., are some vestiges of another encampment, supposed also to have been Roman.]

From these heights, a beautiful walk, closed up with trees and rocks on each side, winds on to the Tower Glen, a steep dingle, into which the immediate descent is by a narrow walk, and many rude steps. On each side is a range of the most grotesque rocks and caverns, interspersed with underwood, and lofty, venerable oaks and elms.

Here there is an extraordinary cave (accessible by steps in the rock,) which is remarkable as having been the hiding place of an ancestor of the Hill family, in the reign of Charles the first. In memory of this gentleman, Sir Richard Hill caused a handsome urn, with the following inscription, to be placed near the cave,-

Anno 1784. This Urn Was placed here by Sir Richard Hill, Bart., Eldest son of Sir Rowland Hill, Bart., One of the Knights of this Shire, As a token of affection to the memory of his much respected Ancestor ROWLAND HILL OF HAWKSTONE, ESQUIRE;

'A gentleman remarkable for his great wisdom, piety and charity; who, being a zealous Royalist, hid himself in this glen in the civil wars, in the time of King Charles the first. But being discovered was imprisoned in the adjacent castle, commonly called Red Castle, while his house was pillaged, and ransacked by the rebels. The castle itself was soon afterwards demolished. His son Rowland Hill, Esq., coming to his assistance, also suffered much in the same loyal cause'.

The above account, taken from Kimber's Baronet age, as also from the traditions of the family, holds forth to posterity the attachment of this ancient house, to an unfortunate and much injured sovereign.

Passing over the top of the valley, you arrive at the foot of the Elysian Hill, on the south side of which is the Menagerie, in which there was formerly a choice collection of beasts and birds, both foreign and domestick.

At the distance of about a hundred yards is the Green-house, built of rough unhewn stone, from which, directing your course round the south-east end of the Elysian hill, and having crossed another part of the enchanting valley beneath, you arrive at the Red Castle Hill, which is so denominated from the colour of the rock, and of the stone, with which the castle is built.

Having ascended this lofty and delightfully romantick hill, you enter the edifice through a strong door, or gate way.

This venerable fortress, long the seat of warriors, and remarkable for its strength, and the prodigious thickness of its walls, is now a heap of ruins, and inhabited only by birds of prey.

Dugdale informs us that this castle was erected in the reign of Henry the third; but there is an ancient manuscript in the Audley family, which proves that its original existence was of much earlier date. It is there said that 'Maud, or Matilde, wife of William the Conqueror, gave to John de Audley and to his heirs, the lands about Red Castle, in the county of Salop, for certain services done by him to the state'.

On the Red Castle hill is a deep well, commonly called the Giant's Well, the circular walls of which, above the rock which forms the lower part, are of immense thickness, and are best seen by looking in at a door on the side.

By the side of this well, a coffin, almost entire, was found a few years ago, which on being exposed to the air mouldered into dust, and discovered several human hones, with the iron beard of an arrow, by means of which it is supposed that the person buried there, received his mortal wound.

Near this place is an immense excavation in the solid rock, at the end of which stands the stone statue of a lion.

Hawkstone park is highly adorned by a most magnificent piece of water, in the form of a navigable river, about two miles in length, and in some parts near one hundred yards in breadth, one end of which loses itself in a thick wood near the Lodge, on the road going to Prees and Whitchurch, and the other meets all the grand scenery in the park, concealing its termination behind the Red Castle hill, in the middle of a fine fertile valley. In sailing along this water, which is a boundary to the north and west sides of the Park, [the Menagerie water or river Eden is the boundary on the south-east.] all the enchanting and romantick scenes before described, open upon you as you advance. When the cannons of the yacht are discharged, the echoes, particularly on a calm day, are amazingly grand.

Immense as this undertaking was, on account of the strong high dams which go the whole length of the river Hawk, (as it is called) yet as Sir Richard Hill kept a great number of men constantly employed, this large piece of water was entirely completed in about three years. It is supplied as well from its own internal springs, as by a very large Toad cut out in stone, through the mouth of which, a copious torrent of clear water issues out, when the wind will serve to set a neighbouring mill at work, with sufficient force. [This mill is used for the purpose of making oil cakes, with which the cattle at Hawkstone are fed.]

[Hawkstone Inn stands at that end of the neighbouring village of Weston which is nearest the Park. It is very genteelly fitted up for the reception of company who resort thither to see the Park, and though secluded from the noise and inconvenience of a publick road,- is little more than 12 miles from Shrewsbury, 4 from Wem, 9 from Whitchurch, and the same distance from Drayton. It has the advantage of a very good road which leads through the park, and comprehends views of the House, the water, and some of the finest scenes among the rocks.]

At the commencement of the Park, near the Inn, is a plantation into which you enter under two large whale bones, over which are the following lines:-

Here, friend of taste, thy course begin, And Nature's charms admire; Where varied landscapes feast the eye, The feet forget to tire.

The distance is but a few steps to Neptune's Whim, which takes its name from a colossal statue of that god which, some time ago, stood behind the buildings, at the river's head. This figure had an urn under the arm, from which the water fell over some broken pieces of rock, while his Nereids below threw up the stream to a considerable height. Here Neptnne sat in great dignity, enthroned in a canopy of laurels and other trees, between two large ribs of a whale.

This whimsical edifice is built in the exact taste of the houses in North Holland, (with a windmill on the opposite bank of the river, painted quite in the Dutch style) and is ornamented in the inside, with a number of beautiful Swiss prints, and other curiosities. The stained glass in the windows has a very pretty effect.

Here are a Chinese temple and a flower garden, (called Amphitrite's flower garden,) in the middle of which, during the summer season, is pitched a tent which was brought by Colonel Hill, (the father of the present Sir Rowland) when he returned from Egypt. Over the entrance of this tent, is the following inscription,-

'This tent was brought by Colonel Hill, from Egypt to England. It originally belonged to the famous Murad Bey; was taken at the battle of the Pyramids, by the French; and taken from the French when Grand Cairo surrendered to the English, June 25th, 1801. Sir Sidney Smith assured Colonel Hill, it was the tent in which the Convention of El Arish was signed'.

HAWN. A township in the parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry.

HEATH. A township in the parish of Stoke St. Milborough, and in the hundred of Munslow, a chapel to Stoke St. Milborough. 7 houses, 41 inhabitants. 7½ miles north-east of Ludlow.

HEATH OVER. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the hundred of Ford. 30 houses, 504 inhabitants.

HEATH NETHER. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the hundred of Ford.

HEATHTON. A township in the parish of Claverley, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 6 miles east of Bridgnorth.

HEBBARIS; or HOBBARIS. A township in the parish of Clun, and in the Clun division of the hundred of Clun. 7 miles south-west by south of Bishopscastle.

HEM. A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. 1½ mile southwest of Shiffnal.

HEM MILL. A township, in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. 1 mile south of Shiffnal.

HEMPTON. A township in the hundred of Stottesden.

HENCOT. A township in the parish of St. Alkmond, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

HENLEY. A township in the parish of Staunton Lacy, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow.

HENLEY. A township in the hundred of Oswestry.

HIGFORD. A manor within the parish of Stockton, belonging to Thomas Whitmore, Esq., of Apley Park, where is a neat residence of several ladies of the Whitmore family, called Cotsbrook-house. This place had, in very early times, been the residence of the Huggefords, lords thereof.

HIGHFIELD. A township in the hundred of Bradford, North.

HIGH HATTON. A township in the parish of Stanton upon Hine-heath, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 6 miles south-east of Wem.

HIGLEY. A parish in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden, a vicarage, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 84 houses, 424 inhabitants. 6½ miles south-east by south of Bridgnorth.

HILL DIVISION. A township in the parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry.

HILTON. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 4 miles north-east by east of Bridgnorth.

HINDFORD. A township in the hundred of Oswestry.

HINSTOCK. A parish in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 128 houses, 671 inhabitants. 5 milks southeast by south of Drayton.

HINTON. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 1 mile north of Whitchurch.

HINTON. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 6 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

HINTS. A township in the hundred of Stottesden.

HISLAND. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry. 2 miles southeast of Oswestry.

HISSINGTON. A parish partly in the hundred of Purslow, and partly in Montgomery hundred, in the county of Montgomery. The church is in Montgomeryshire. The Shropshire part of Hissington, the township of Mucklewick, contains 53 inhabitants. 6 miles south-east of Montgomery. 3½ miles north-west by north of Bishopscastle.

HOBBARIS. See Hebbaris.

HOBENDRED. A township in the parish of Clun, and in the Clun division of the hundred of Clun. 47 houses, 255 inhabitants.

HOCKHAM; or HOCCOM. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 1 mile north-east by east of Bridgnorth.

HOCKLETON, A township in the parish of Chirbury, and in the upper division of the hundred of Chirbury. 7 miles north-west of Bishopscastle.

HOCKTON. A township in the hundred of Chirbury.

HODNET. A parish in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. A rectory in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 360 houses, 2,117 inhabitants. 6 miles east of Wem. See appendix. Hodnet is the seat of Richard Heber, Esq., M.P. for Oxford, whose brother, the present bishop of Calcutta, was long the rector of this parish.

A man whom but to name is to give him the highest praise; not more conspicuous for his elevated rank in the church, than for his virtue and his piety, his erudition and his refinement,- and now placed in a situation, which, connected with his talents and his disposition, justifies the brightest hopes of the friends of religion and of human nature. His lordship even in very early life gave to the world a specimen of his exqnisite skill in the Greek language, and of his cultivated taste, in his translation of some of the odes of Pindar.

Dr. Arnway, a celebrated divine of the sixteenth century, was born in Shropshire, and most probably either at Hodnet, or Ightfield, the rectories of which places he held till he was dispossessed by the civil wars both of them and his temporal estate. Dr. Arnway was educated at St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, where he took the degree of M.A. In 1640, he was created Doctor in divinity, at Oxford, and the King gave him the archdeaconry of Coventry, as a mark of royal goodness, but of no benefit, the contest between Charles and the parliament commencing about this time. After the murder of the King, Dr. Arnway passed over into Holland, where he wrote some pieces against the nobles, and defended the character of the King against Milton. He afterwards went to Virginia, where he died in 1653.

HOLDGATE. A township in the parish of Diddlebury, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow.

HOLDGATE. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 34 houses, 288 inhabitants. 7 miles southeast of Church Stretton. See appendix,

HOLLYHURST and CHINNELL. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. Chinnel is 1½ mile north-east of Whitchurch.

HOLT PREEN. A township in the parish of Cardington, and in the hundred of Condover.

HOLY CROSS and St. GILES; or ABBEY FOREGATE. A parish in the liberties, and adjoining the borough of Shrewsbury. 299 houses, 1,444 inhabitants.

HOME. A township in the parish of Wentnor, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow. 3½ miles north-east by east of Bishopscastle.

HOPE. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury. 8½ miles north-east by north of Bishopscastle.

HOPE BAGGOT; or BAGGOTSHOPE. A parish in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory discharged in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 17 houses, 71 inhabitants. 4½ miles east of Ludlow:

HOPE BOWDLER. A parish in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 28 houses, 179 inhabitants. 1½ mile south-east of Church Stretton.

HOPESAY, BARLOW, etc. A parish in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 100 homes, 612 inhabitants. 5½ miles south-east of Bishopscastle.

HOPTON; or HOPESTONE. A township in the parish of Claverley, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 4 miles east of Bridgnorth.

HOPTON and ESPLEY. A township in the parish of Hodnet, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 6 miles south- east by east of Wem.

HOPTON CASTLE. A parish in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 7 miles south of Bishopscastle.

HOPTON COURT. The seat of T. Botfield, Esq., about 2½ miles south- west of Cleobury Mortimer, in the hundred of Stottesden.

HOPYON IN THE HOLE; or HOPTON CAINGEFORD. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 6 houses, 24 inhabitants. 4½ miles north-east by north of Ludlow.

HOPTON WAFERS. A parish in the hundred of Stottesden, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Burford, and arch-deaconry of Salop. 98 houses, 459 inhabitants. 2½ miles south-west by west of Cleobury Mortimer.

Hopton Wafers is remarkable as giving a singular instance of longevity in William Hyde, who resided in this place, and lived to the advanced age of 106 years, He enjoyed health and activity nearly to the last, and at the time of his decease, 1798, had sons upwards of eighty years old.

HORDESLEY. An extra-parochial place, next to the parish of Edgton, in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. its population is reckoned to Edgton.

HORDLEY. A parish in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Purslow, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 53 houses, 308 inhabitants. 3 miles south-west of Ellesmere.

HORTON. A township in the hundred of Munslow.

HORTON. A township in the hundred of Pimhill.

HORTON. A township in the parish of St. Chad's, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

HORTON. A township in the parish of Wem, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 1½ mile north-west of Wem.

HOWLE. A township in the parish of Chetwynd, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 4 miles north-west of Newport.

HOWLE GALE. A township in the hundred of Munslow.

HUGHLEY. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 17 houses, 101 inhabitants. 3½ miles south-west of Wenlock.

HUNGERFORD, and MILBOROUGH. A township in the parish of Eaton, and in the franchise of Wenlock. 6 miles south east of Church Stratton. 8 miles south-west of Wenlock.

HUNNINGTON. A township in the parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry. 2½ miles south of Hales Owen.

IDSALL, commonly SHIFFNAL. A market town and parish in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry, a vicarage in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanary of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 866 houses, 4,411 inhabitants. Market on Friday; Fairs, 1st Monday in April, August 6, November 23. 18 miles south-east by east of Shrewsbury, 143 north-west of London.

Shiffnal was anciently called Idsall. It is a small town, near the borders of Staffordshire, in the direct road from London to Shrewsbury and Holyhead. With the exception of its parish church, which is a large and interesting cruciform building, it contains little that is worthy of particular remark. Under the square central tower of the church, there were formerly four semi-circular arches, which have been transformed into elegant painted ones. On the north aisle, the choir has ancient, round headed windows, with Saxon mouldings. There is a fine altar, and tombs of the family of Briggs. An inscription in this church informs us that William Wakely was baptised at Idsall, or Shiffnal, May 1, 1501, and was buried at Asbaston, November 28, 1714, his age being upwards of 124; that he had lived in the reigns of eight Kings and Queens, viz., Elizabeth, James the first, Charles the first, Charles the second, James the second, William and Mary, Anne, and George the first. Attached to the south aisle is a chantry. The roof of the nave, of oak, which is said to be richly carved, has been of late entirely obscured by a plaister ceiling. In 1810 the whole church was fitted up at considerable expense.

Shiffnal is the native place of Dr. Thomas Beddoes, a man justly eminent as well for his medical skill as for his general literary talent. He was born in the year 1754, or 1755, and was educated at the free school at Bridgnorth. When he had completed his school education, his father, who was a respectable tanner, sent him to Oxford, from whence he repaired to Edinburgh. During his residence at this celebrated school of medical science, Dr. Beddoes attended the lectures of the most eminent professors of the age, and probably became an ardent disciple of Dr. Brown, whose system was at that time exceedingly popular, and on which Dr. Beddoes seems to have founded many of his theories. He devoted a considerable part of his time to the study of chemistry, which wes his favourite science; and in 1786, acted as reader of chemistry at Oxford, where no professorship was then established. In the course of the following year Dr. Beddoes visiting France, became acquainted during his residence at Paris, with the great Lavoisier, with whom, after his return, he held a correspondence. In the latter end of the year 1792, he resigned his readership, and after deliberating some time on the choice of a residence, at length fixed upon Bristol. Here he applied with all his energies to the study and practice of his profession, and occasionally published the fruits of his lucubrations. His principal work was "Hygeia; or Essays, moral and medical, on the causes affecting the personal state of the middling and affluent classes". This work is characterised by much acuteness of observation. Its chief fault is too strong a bias to mere theory.

Dr. Beddoes died on the twenty fourth of December, 1808. His disorder was a dropsy of the chest, under which he had laboured for some time, though without any apprehension that his end was so near. His life had been devoted to experiment, enquiry, and correspondence with men of science, and his ardour in pursuit of medical knowledge was very exemplary. His style is in general vigorous, glowing and animated, but sometimes deformed by terseness and obscurity.

His talent for poetry was considerable, and he possessed the happy faculty of viewing every subject on the most brilliant side. His conduct in the private relations of life was marked by candour and benevolence.

IGHTFIELD. A parish in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North, a rectory remaining in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 26 houses, 261 inhabitants. 4 miles south-east of Whitchurch.

ILLEY. A township in the parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry.

INNAGE. A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry.

IRON BRIDGE. See Coalbrookdale.

ISLE, (The). A peninsula formed by the river Severn, about 4 miles from Shrewsbury. In shape it somewhat resembles a horse shoe, and is about five miles in circumference, being much larger than the peninsula on which Shrewsbury is built. It comprehends the townships of Up Rosshall, and Down Rosshall, and is the residence of Foliot Sandford, Esq. The situation of this mansion is very pleasing; it is built on an eminence, and commands several extensive prospects. On the isthmus, at the entrance to the isle, there is a large Woollen Factory.

ISOM BRIDGE. A township in the parish of Ercall Magna, or High Ercall, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 7½ miles north-east by east of Shrewsbury.

ISTON RHYNN. A township in the parish of St. Martin, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry. 198 houses, 935 inhabitants.

JACKFIELD. A curacy within the parish and township of Broseley, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop, and in the franchise of Wenlock. ¾ mile north-east of Broseley.

KEMBERTON. A parish in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry, a rectory in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 48 houses, 260 inhabitants. 2 miles sonth-west by south of Shiffnal.

KEMPTON. A township in the parish of Clunbury, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. 4½ miles southeast by south of Bishopscastle.

KENLEY. A parish in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover, a rectory, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 63 houses, 321 inhabitants. 3½ miles west of Wenlock.

KENSTON. A township in the parish of Hodnet, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 6 miles east of Wem.

KENWICK. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimshill.

KENWICK PARK. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhil. 3 miles south of Ellesmere.

KENWICK WOOD. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 4 miles south of Ellesmere.

KETLEY. A township in the parish of Wellington, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 1 mile south-east of Wellington. The residence of John Bucknell, Esq., and Henry Williams, Esq.

KEVENCALLONAGE. A township in the hundred of Clun.

KEYSET. See Whitcot Keyset.

KINGSLOW. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 6 miles northeast of Bridgnorth.

KING'S NORDLEY; Or NORDLEY REGIS; Or NORDLEY. A township in the parish of Alveley, and in the liberties of Bridgnorth. 6 miles southeast of Bridgnorth. See appendix.

KINLET. A parish in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 87 houses, 552 inhabitants. 4 miles northeast of Cleobury Mortimer. Kinlet Hall is the residence of William Laces Childe, Esq.

Kinlet was once the residence of the family of the Blounts, from which have descended persons illustrious by almost all the titles of honour which a nation can boast, allied more than once by marriage with the royal family, and employed in the first offices of the state almost in every reign since the conquest.

They were originally Normans, and are supposed to have derived their name Le Blound, from their having yellow hair. This place is now the property of William Childe, Esq. In the church, which is cruciform, handsome and ancient, having a nave with Saxon or early Norman round arches, are superb monuments of the family of Blount, of the reign of Henry the seventh and eighth.

KINNERLEY. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Oswestry, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of St. Asaph, and in the deanery of Marchia. (The archdeaconry of the diocese of St. Asaph is held by the bishop.) 215 houses, 1,167 inhabitants. 6½ miles southeast of Oswestry.

KINNERSLEY. A parish in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a rectory in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 48 houses, 268 inhabitants. 4 miles north-east by north of Wellington.

KINNERTON. A township in the parish of Wentnor, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow. 6 miles north-east of Bishopscastle.

KINSLEY. A township in the hundred of Stottesden.

KINTON. A township in the parish of Great Ness, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. 9 miles northwest of Shrewsbury.

KITTON. A township in the hundred of Chirbury.

KNOCKIN. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Oswestry, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of St. Asaph, and the deanery of Marchia. 46 houses, 236 inhabitants. 5½ miles south-east of Oswestry.

Knockin Castle was built by Lord L'Estrange, the first of whose family was Guy L'Estrange, a younger son of the Duke of Bretagne. He had three sons, Guy, Hamon, and John, all of whom held lands in Shropshire, by gift of Henry the second. The younger Guy was Sheriff of this county, from the sixth of Henry the second to the eleventh of Henry the second; and again from the seventeenth of Henry the second to the twenty fifth of Henry the second. Ralph, his son, gave (the first of Richard the first) the chapel of Knockin to the canons of Haughmond. He left no issue, and his three sisters became his coheiresses. John, grandson of Guy, in the thirty third of Henry the third, procured a market for the town on Tuesday, and a fair on the eve day, and day after the anniversary of the decollation of St. John the Baptist. Madoc, who was at the head of an insurrection against the King's officers in North Wales, marched against the Lord Strange, and defeated bin at Knockin. The male line of the family failed in John L'Estrange, who died in the seventeenth of Edward the fourth, leaving an only daughter, Joan, who married George, son and heir of Thomas Stanley, who was created Earl of Derby by Henry the seventh. The castle was first demolished in the civil wars in the reign of King John, and repaired by John Le Strange, in the third of Henry the third. The title of Knockin is still kept up, though the family is extinct, the eldest son of the Derby family being styled Lord Strange. At present there is scarcely a vestige of the castle remaining. The property having been entrusted to improper hands, the stones have been worked up to build the church yard walls, and a bridge over the brook: a few years ago a quantity of them was carried away, and broken to mend the roads. The Keep may still be seen; it has a few straggling fir trees upon it. The town has now neither market nor fair.

There is a singular story relating to this castle narrated by Phillips, on the authority of Mr. Gough's manuscript account of Middle and its neighbourhood. It is without date:-

' One Thomas Elkes, being guardian to his eldest brother's child, who was young, and stood in his way to a considerable estate, in order to remove the child, hired a poor boy to entice him into a corn field to get flowers. Elkes met the two children in the field, sent the poor boy home, took his nephew in his arms to the farther end of the field, where he had placed a tub of water, into which placing the child's head he left it there. The child being missed, and enquiry made after him, the poor boy told how he was hired, and where he had left him. Elkes fled, and took the road to London. The neighbours sent two horsemen in pursuit, who riding along the road near South Mims, in Hertfordshire, saw two ravens sitting on a cock of hay, making an unnsual noise, and pulling the hay about with their beaks; upon which they alighted, and found Elkes asleep under the hay: he confessed that these two ravens had followed him from the time he did the fact. He was brought to Shrewsbury, tried, condemned, and hung in chains on Knockin heath'.

KNOLTON HALL. The residence of Captain Kynaston. 5 miles north-west of Ellesmere, on the confines of Denbighshire.

KYNASTON. A township in the hundred of Oswestry.

KYNASTON'S CAVE. A cave at Nesscliffe, in the hundred of Pimhill.

When Lord Strange was Lord of Middle, he lived there part of the year, and the other part at Knockin castle; but when these lordships came into the family of the Earl of Derby, there was a constable or castle keeper appointed for Middle. Gough, in his manuscript history of Middle, gives the names of several of these keepers; at length we come to that of Sir Roger Kynaston, of Hordley, made keeper by commission, and after him, his youngest son, Humphrey Kynaston, who from his dissolute and riotous manner of life was surnamed The Wild. He had two wives, but of so low parentage that they would lay claim to any coat of arms, as appears by the card of the Kynaston's arms. There is a tradition that his first wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Meredith ap Howel ap Morice, of Oswestry, and another that she was daughter of William Griffith, of Oswestry, called Coch-William, or The Red, and that his second wife was by name Isabella. (Kynaston's will bears date 1534.) No record appears of any children he ever had. The enormous debts he contracted by his imprudent conduct caused him to he declared an outlaw upon which he fled from Middle Castle, which he had by neglect suffered to fall to ruins, and sheltered himself in a cave in the west point of Nesscliffe Rock, called to this day Kynaston's Cave. This cave is reached by a very high flight of steps, and is in that part of the rock which is quite perpendicular: close beneath is a fine thick wood of oak and birch, over which it commands a very extensive prospect to the west, bounded by the Welch mountains. From this point, perhaps, the majestick Breidden bills are seen to most advantage, with the river Severn and Vryuwy gleaming in the sun beneath. The cave is spacious and even comfortable, being divided into two rooms by a strong pillar of the rock, upon which is carved H.K. 1564. One of these apartments was the stall of the outlaw's celebrated horse, which the vulgar, to this day, believe to have been the devil. This horse was turned to graze in the neighbouring fields, and on his master's whistling would instantly ascend the steps of the cave; it would also kneel and do various tricks at command. All this may be very possible, from the well known docility of the horse; and it must be remembered, and is very apparent, that the steps to the cave were then more than twice the present width, and have been since cut away for building-stones, on the precipice side. In all his depredatory adventures, he seems to have regarded a sort of justice; for what he took from the rich he gavc freely to the poor, by whom he was as much beloved as he was dreaded by the wealthy. On the road, if he saw a cart with one horse, and another with three, he made them equal by taking the fore horse from the latter, and hooking it to the former. Most of the adventures ascribed to him, whether probable or improbable, seem to have been more dictated by whim, than a desire to plunder. He had a plentiful supply of hay, corn, and other necessaries from the people around: the rich paying him tribute through fear, and the poor from gratitude.

The place on Dovaston common, called Kynaston's horse-leap, received that name from the following circumstance:- Kynaston having been observed to go over Montford Bridge to Shrewsbury, the sheriff intending to take him, caused one of the divisions of the bridge, (which was then formed of planks laid upon stone pillars) to be taken up, and placed a number of men in ambush. When Kynaston had advanced on the bridge, the men came forth and blocked up retreat, upon which be put spurs to his horse, which bore him safely over the wide breach, and brought him to his cave at Nesseliffe:- though some say the horse leaped into the Severn, and carried him across. The length of this leap was afterwards measured on the common, near the village of Dovaston, with an H cut at one end, and at the other. There are many people in the village, now living, who remember these letters; but the common has since been inclosed, and the initials ploughed up. The letters were an ell long, a spade's graffe wide, and a spade deep, and were generally cleaned annually by order of Mr. Kynaston of Kington, as honest Gough says, in his quaint, though not unpleasing, account of Middle. Frequent applications have been made to the old people, about Dovaston, for the distance of the letters, but no accurate account could be obtained:- the vulgar are so fond of the marvellous, that they ever enlarge, and scruple not to say forty yards; if so, the bridge planks must have been of an enormous length, and trees, as well as men and horses, must have much degenerated: probably they have heard of forty feet, which is a tolerably decent leap for a modern fox hunter, even though stimulated by a sheriff at his back. After Wild Humphrey's time, Middle castle was deserted and suffered to go to ruin,- Humphrey was never taken, but died, as tradition says, in his cave.

KYNYNION. See Cynynion.

LACON. A township in the parish of Wem, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 4 houses, 45 inhabitants. 1½ mile north-east of Wem.

Part of Lacon is said to have belonged to one Bannister, who was steward to the unfortunate Duke of Buckingham, in the reign of Richard the third. The memory of Bannister is rendered infamous by his base treachery to his master.

It was chiefly through the counsels and the efforts of the Duke of Buckingham that Richard had been enabled to usurp the royal authority; but confederacies in crime are seldom long lived, and frequently end in the destruction of both the guilty parties. The cause of the rupture between the Duke and Richard is uncertain. Whether the Duke considered himself not sufficiently rewarded for his services, or the King thought his crown far from secure while this nobleman remained so powerful, or that when Richard through his means had attained to the crown, he became an object of envy to the person who had been the cause of his exaltation,- certain it is that the Duke endeavoured to excuse himself from being present at the coronation, and was induced at last to give his attendance, only by a peremptory message from the King. Immediately after the performance of the ceremony, the Duke retired to his own castle at Brecknock, where he bad the bishop of Ely in custody. Here he often conversed with that prelate, whose ready wit and solid judgment, so captivated the Duke that their conferences became daily longer and more frequent. It happened one day that the Dnke had opened his mind more freely than usual upon the present state of the kingdom, when the prelate who had observed the Duke's temper replied, 'you know my Lord that I was warmly attached to King Henry the sixth, and if I could have prevailed, his son, and not King Edward, should have inherited the crown, but finding that it was the will of God that Edward should reign, I was not so mad as to strive in favour of a dead man against the living. I therefore attached myself to King Edward, whose faithful servant I was during his life, and would have been glad that his son should have succeeded him. Since however the judgment of God has determined otherwise, I feel no disposition to set up that which God pulls down, and as for my Lord Protector, now King',- here the bishop made a full pause, and shortly after added- ' but I have already meddled too much with the world, and for the future, will employ myself only with my books and my beads'. The Duke's curiosity being greatly excited, he entreated the bishop to proceed, and to speak boldly all he thought, assuring him, that what he said should not be turned to his prejudice, and might be really beneficial to him. He added, I have long wished to ask your advice, which is the reason why I desired the King to give you into my custody. The prelate receiving this encouragement, proceeded,- ' In truth my Lord, I like not to talk much of princes, for however harmless may be my expressions, they are liable to misconstruction. I always think of the fable of Esop, that when the lion had caused proclamation to be made that no horned beast should remain in a certain wood, on pain of death, an animal that had a callous tumour on its forehead, was observed to fly at a rapid pace. A fox that saw him running, asked whither he made that haste. Faith said he, I neither know nor care, if I were once out of this wood, in which I dare stay no longer, because of the late proclamation. Why, fool, said the fox, thou mayest stay safely enough, the lion meant not thee, for that is no horn on thy head. No, replied the other, I know that well enough, but what if he call it a horn, where am I then ?' The Duke laughed heartily at the fable, and said 'My Lord, I give you my word that neither the lion nor the boar, shall take offence at any thing you say, for it shall never come to their ears'. In faith Sir', replied the bishop, 'if it did, what I was going to say, if it were taken as before God I mean it, would only deserve thanks, but, taken, as I fear it would be taken, it would do me little good, and you still less'. Upon this, the Duke was still more desirous to hear what it was. The bishop proceeded - my Lord, as for the late protector, now that he is King, I mean not to dispute his title, but for the good of this realm, I could wish he possessed those excellent virtues with which God has endowed your Grace',- and there stopped again. 'My Lord', said the Duke, 'I cannot help noticing your sudden passes, - you seem unwilling to declare in plain terms either your feelings towards the King, or your disposition towards me. I entreat you to lay aside all this obscurity, and open your mind fully, and I, upon my honour, promise to observe the most profound secrecy'. The bishop, upon the faith of this promise assumed greater confidence, and continued,- ' My Lord, I plainly perceive that the kingdom, under such a monarch as we have at present, cannot prosper, but must necessarily be brought into confusion, One hope I have,- when I consider your Grace's noble person, your justice, your ardent love for your country, and on the other hand, the great affection which the country bears towards you, I cannot but regard the kingdom as fortunate, in having a prince, so fit for government, in prospect'. And then, having accused the King of many cruelties and oppressions, he concluded by saying,- ' And now my Lord, if you love either God, your lineage, or your country, you must either take upon yourself the sovereign power, or devise some way in which the kingdom may again enjoy the advantages of good government; and if you could either set up again, the line of Lancaster, or match the eldest daughter of King Edward to some powerful prince, the newly crowned King would not long possess his ill acquired dignity, all civil war would cease, and our country be once more prosperous'. When the bishop had concluded, the Duke sighed and remained silent,- and the prelate fearing he had gone too far, changed colour, which the Duke perceiving, said 'Be not afraid my Lord, my promise shall be inviolably kept;' and then withdrew.

The next day the Duke sent for the bishop, and alluding to their last conversation, 'My Lord of Ely', said he, I am persuaded of your sincere affection to me, and I will now disclose to you, all that has passed within my own mind. After I had discovered the dissimulation and falsehood of King Richard, and particnlarly when I was informed of the murder of the two young princes, to which (God be my judge,) I never consented, I so much abhorred his sight, and much more his company, that I could no longer remain in his court, but making an excuse for my departure I returned hither, full of schemes to deprive this unnatural and bloody butcher of his crown. I remembered that Edmund, Dnke of Somerset, my grandfather, was with King Henry the sixth, within two or three degrees of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and certainly concluded that my mother being the eldest daughter of the duke of Somerset, I was the next heir of the house of Lancaster to King Henry the sixth. But as I travelled between Worcester and Bridgnorth, I met with Margaret, countess of Richmond, (now married to Lord Stanley) who is the daughter and sole heir of John Duke of Somerset, my grandfather's elder brother. This I had forgotten, as entirely as if I had never seen her. I now saw that she and her son, the earl of Richmond, have both of them, title preferable to mine, and accordingly determined to relinquish all claim to the crown, in my own person. I perceived that there could be no better way to settle the kingdom, than that the earl of Richmond, the true heir of the house of Lancaster, should marry the lady Elizabeth, the heiress of the house of York, and thus unite the two roses in one. ' And now', said the Duke, ' I have told you my mind'. When the Duke had concluded, the bishop overjoyed to find his Grace's sentiments coincide so entirely with his own, replied, since then your Grace proposes this match, we have to consider in the first place to whom it may be adviseable to confide our intention. Indeed, said the Duke, I believe we had better begin with the countess of Richmond, the earl's mother, who can inform us whether her son is a prisoner at large in Brittany. Accordingly one Reynold Bray was employed by the bishop to go to the countess of Richmond, who sent her physician, Dr. Lewis, to the lady Elizabeth, and despatched Hugh Conway, and Thomas Rame, to the earl of Richmond, to inform them of the intended plot, and to procure their promises to the proposed marriage, which it was no difficult matter to obtain. Sir Giles Daubeny, Sir John Cheyney, the bishop of Exeter, and others, were soon drawn into the confederacy. The earl of Richmond acquainted the duke of Brittany with his designs, who, though he had been strongly solicited through Hutton, King Richard's ambassador, to detain the earl in prison, readily promised both advice and assistance.

But though the affairs of the confederates were conducted with the utmost caution, and an oath of secrecy was exacted from all who entered into the plot, Richard soon received information of their intentions. Dissembling, however, his knoweledge of it, he sent for the duke of Buckingham, who alter he had formed many pretended excuses, was at length commanded, upon his allegiance, to present himself at court. To this preemptory requisition his Grace answered, ' that he owed no allegiance to such a perjured, inhuman butcher', and immediately prepared to defend himself by arms. His Grace had raised a considerable number of Welchmen, the marquess of Dorset was levying forces in Yorkshire, the two Courtney, (the bishop of Exeter and his brother) in Devonshire and Cornwall; and Rame, and Guildford, in Kent. King Richard set forward with his army, and the duke of Buckingham advanced to meet him, intending to pass the Severn at Gloucester, and join the two Courtney; but about that time there fell so great an abundance of rain that the river was rendered impassable. The Welch troops regarding this as an unfavourable omen, deserted so rapidly that the duke was soon left alone; and without so much as even a page to attend him, repaired to the house of Humphrey Bannister. In this man who had been raised from a low station by the duke and his father, he placed unbounded confidence; but the perfidious wretch hearing of Richard's proclamation, offering a thousand pounds for the apprehension of Buckingham, discovered him to John Mytton, High Sheriff of Shropshire, who apprehended him while be was walking in an orchard behind the house. The duke was hurried to Shrewsbury, and without any legal proceeding, was beheaded in the market place. The divine vengeance, it is said, appears to have followed his betrayer; the eldest daughter of Bannister was struck with a leprosy, his eldest son destroyed himself in a fit of lunacy, and his youngest was drowned in a shallow stream.

LACY, (Staunton.) See Staunton Lacy.

LADY HOLTON. A township in the parish of Bromfield, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow. 2 miles west of Ludlow.

LAKES OF SHROPSHIRE. The lakes in this county are neither numerous nor extensive. On the west side is Marton pool, 640 yards by 510 yards, and containing 45 acres 2 roods 15 perches. From this pool one small stream runs S.W., another N.E., and another N.W. Ellesmere, adjoining the town of that name, covers 116 acres; Whitemere, 62 acres; Colemere 87 acres; and Crosemere, 44 acres. Newtonmere, Blackmere, and Kettlemere, are in the same neighbourhood, but of less size. Near Whitchurch, are also two meres. North also of Severn, is another Marton-pool, from 40 to 42 acres; Fennymere, 46 acres; Llynclys-pool, 8 acres; Hencot (called Ancot,) 25 acres; and that at Shrawardine about 40 acres, lately made, or rather restored, and which is a fine sheet of water. South of Severn, is Beaumere, a beautiful, but small lake; and almost adjoining it is Shomere, which probably once covered the adjoining morass. Thus, that side of the county which abounds most in running water has few pools of any size. Such as serve the purpose of keeping fish, are general throughout the county.

At Walcot and Hawkstone, are artificial lakes, or rivers, of very considerable extent; the latter is two-miles long. Sundorn and Halstone have embellishments of the same kind. The water in Acton Burnel park, covers 25 acres, and that at Aston 11 acres.

LANGFORD; or LONGFORD. A parish in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a rectory in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 39 houses, 234 inhabitants. 1½ mile south-west of Newport.

LANGLEY. A township in the hundred of Brimstry.

LANGLEY. A parish in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover, a chapel to Acton Burnel, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 6 miles west of Wenlock.

LANLUGAN. An obscure village or hamlet near Shrewsbury.

That eminent grammarian and critick William Baxter, (great nephew of Richard Baxter, the nonconformist,) was born at Lanlugan in 1650. His education was in his youth much neglected, for when at the age of eighteen he went to school at Harrow on the Hill, he knew not one letter in a book, and understood not a word in any language but Welsh. He soon however retrieved his lost time, and at length became a man of profound and extensive erudition. The studies to which he chiefly applied, were those of antiquity and philology, in which he wrote several works. In 1679, he published a Grammar of the Latin language, entitled "De Analogia sive de arte Linguae Latinae Commentariolus; in quo omnia, etiam reconditioris Grammaticae Elementa, Ratione nova tractantur, et ad breviesimos Canones redigantar; in usum provectioris Adolescentiae, 1679", 12mo. In 1695, he published " Anacrecatis Teii Carmina, Plurimis quibus hactenus scatebant mendas purgavit, turbata metra restituit, notasque cum nova interpretatione literali adjecit, Willielmus Baxter, Subjicuntur etiam deo vetnatissima Poetrim Sapphus, elegantissima Odaria, una cum correctione Isaaci Vossi, et Theocriti Amacreouticum in mortaum Adonis", 8vo.; afterwards reprinted in 1710, with improvements. In 1711, his celebrated edition of Horace made its appearance, of which a second edition was finished by him but a few days before his death, and published by his son, John, under this title, " Q. Horatii Flacce Eclegue, una cum scholiis perpetuis, tam veteribus quem novis. Adjecit etiam ubi visum est, et sue, textumque ipsem plurimis locis vel corruptum vel turbatum restituit, Willielmus Baxter, 1725". Dr. Harwood, in his View of the Classicks, calls Mr. Baxter's Anacreon an excellent edition; and with regard to his Horace, expresses himself in the following strong terms: ' This second edition of Horace, in 1725, is by far the best edition of Horace ever published. I have read it many times through, and know its singular worth. England has not produced a more elegant and judicious critick than Mr. Baxter'. It has actually continued in such esteem abroad, that the learned Geasner gave a new edition of it, in 1752, at Leipsic, with additional notes; and it has been again printed at the same place, in 1722 and 1728. In 1719, Mr. Baxter's Dictionary of the British Antiquities wa published by the Rev. Moses Williams. His Glossary, or Dictionary of the Roman Antiquities, which goes no farther than the letter A, was published in 1726, by the Rev. Moses Williams, under the title of "Reliquiae Baxteriante, sive Willielmi Baxteri, Opera Posthuma. Praemittitur eruditi Auctoria Vitae, a seipso conscriptus, Fragmentum. Londini, ex Officina G. Bowyer, Sumptibus Editoris". And in 1731, this new title was printed for fifty remaining copies: "Glesearium Antiquitatum Romanarum, a Willielmo Baxter, Cornavio, Scholae Merciaviorrm Praefecto. Accedunt eruditi Auctoris Vitae a seipso conscriptae, Fragmentum, et selectae quaedam ejusdem Epsitolae". To this work Mr. Williams added an Index of all the words occasionally explained in it; as he had done before in the Glossary; and in 1731, he put out proposals for printing " Gulielmi Baxteri quae supersunt Enarratio, et Notae in D. Junii Juvenalis Satyras. Accedit Reram et Verberum observatione dignierum, quae in iisdem occurrent, Index locupletissimus. Accurante Gulielmo Mose, A.M.R.S.Soc".

Mr. Baxter had also a share in the English Translation of Plutarch. He was a great master of the ancient British and Irish tongues, and well skilled in the Latin and Greek, as well as the Northern and Eastern languages; and kept a correspondence with most of the learned men of his time, especially with the famous antiquary, Edward Llwyd.

Some of Mr. Baxter's letters to him are published in his "Glossarium Antiquitatum Romanarum". There are likewise in the Philosophical Transactions two letters of his to Dr. Harwood, one concerning the town of Veroconium, or Wroxeter, in Shropshire, No. 306: the other, concerning the Hypocansta, or sweating houses of the ancients, No. 401; and another to Dr. Hans Sloane, Secretary to the Royal Society, containing an abstract of Mr. Llwyd's Archaeologia Britannica, No. 311. In the first volume of the Archaeologia, are four Latin letters, written by Mr. Baxter to the late Dr. Geckie, (who had been his scholar,) when first entered at Cambridge. In these letters the learned critick shows how entirely his attention was devoted to etymological and philological enquiries. From the fourth letter it appears that Mr. Baxter was solicited to give a new edition of the writers De Re Rustick; but that he declined it on account of his age, and the difficulty of the undertaking.

Mr. Baxter spent most of his time in educating youth. For some years be kept a school at Tottenham, High Cross, in Middlesex, where he remained, till he was chosen master of the Mercers' school, in London. In this situation he remained above twenty years, but resigned it before his death. He married a woman without a fortune, but of a very good character, named Sarah Carturit, by whom he had three sons and three daughters, all born at Tottenham: Rose 1681; John 1683; Joseph 1689; Anne 1696; John 1697; and Sarah 1700. He died, May 31, 1723, in his seventy third year, and was buried June 4th, at Islington.

He wrote his own life, a transcript of which was in the library of the late Mr. Tutet, under this title. " Vitae Gulielmi Baxteri, sive Popidii, a seipso conscriptae, Fragmentum; ex ipsius schedis, manu propria exaratis erutum, Dec. 26, 1721, W.T".- W.T. means William Thomas, Esq., who wrote an English draught of (1) "A Dedication to Dr Mead of the Glossarium Antiquitatum Britannicarum", which he then translated into Latin; afterwards (3) a different one, which was turned into (4) Latin. by Mr. Timothy Thomas; and this last, after many corrections, was put into Dr. Mead's hands, who, with Mr. Maittaire, altered it to what it appears in print, except some few passages corrected by Mr. William Thomas, and the Rev. Moses Williams.

The papers marked 1, 2, 3 and 4, Mr. Tutet possessed; and the remainder of the information is in a note written by Mr. William Thomas, who also wrote the printed preface to Llwyd's 'Adversaria Posthuma', subjoined to the 'Glossarium Antiquitatum Britannicarum', but Mr. Tutet had a different one in his own hand writing. Mr. Thomas revised the whole before it went to press.

LAPALL. A township in the parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry.

LAWLEY. A township in the parish of Wellington, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 2 miles south-east by south of Wellington.

One of the bills in the eastern line of the plain of Shropshire.

LAWTON, and LITTLE SUTTON. A township in the parish of Diddlebury, and in the lower division of the hundred of Monslow. 8½ miles south- east by south of Church Stretton.

LEA. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 5½ miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

LEA. A township in the hundred of Pimhill.

LEAKE. A township in the parish of Westbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford.

LEATON. A township in the parish of St. Mary, Shrewsbury, and in the hundred of Pimhill. 51 houses, 228 tants. 4 miles north-west by north of Shrewsbury.

LEE. A township in the hundred of Pimhill.

LEEBOTWOOD. A parish in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover, a curacy, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 31 miles north-east by north of Church Stretton.

LEE BROCKHURST. A parish in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North, a curacy, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 2½ miles south-east of Wem. 27 houses, 162 inhabitants.

LEE GOMERY. A township in the parish of Wellington, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 1 mile north- east of Wellington.

LEG STREET. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry.

LEIGH. A township in the hundred of Condover.

LEIGHTON. A parish in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 76 houses, 375 inhahitants. 3½ miles north of Wenlock.

Near the village of Leighton, nine miles south-east of Shrewsbury, is the seat of Thomas Kynnersley, Esq., an indefatigable and persevering magistrate. The house is a respectable brick building, situated in a fertile valley, watered by the Severn, and has a charming prospect over a rich and highly cultivated country.

LEIGHTON. A township in the parish of Cardington, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow.

LEIGHTON. A township in the franchise of Wenlock.

LENWARDINE. A township in the hundred of Munslow.

LILLESHALL. A parish in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 519 houses, 3,143 inhabitants. 3 miles southwest of Newport.

Near the village of Lilleshall, in a solitary, and retired situation, and partly surrounded with wood, may be seen the ruins of Lilleshall abbey. A considerable part of the church which was attached to the abbey, remains. The great entrance on the west is a fine Norman arch, richly recessed with ribs, and running foliage. Of the church, the doors and windows are all that remain, the pillars and arches of the nave and transept having been entirely destroyed; but from that portion which has escaped the ravages of time, some idea may be formed of the original architecture. The south door, by which a communication was formed with the cloister, is, doubtless, one of the most highly ornamented Norman arches in the kingdom. A semicircular arch, overspread with ornaments peculiar to the Saxon and earliest Norman buildings, is supported by clusters of slender shafts, some of which are spiral; and others covered with lozenge work, having the intermediate spaces embellished with mouldings. The north and south windows of the choir are narrow, plain, and round headed but the east window is large, and has a beautiful pointed arch of the architecture of the fourteenth century, within which are some remains of tracery. The area of the cloister which has been converted into a farm yard, adjoins the south side of the nave. A fine Norman arch which formed the entrance of the chapter house was lately standing, and some scattered portions of other apartments remain. The walls of the refectory are now a farm house. The boundary wall of the precinct may be traced to a considerable distance from the abbey. The church, which was cruciform, and probably had two towers, one in the centre, and the other at the west end, measured in length 228 feet,- the breadth of the nave 36 feet. The stalls of the choir were, at the dissolution, removed to the collegiate church of Wolverhampton, where they in part remain. The abbey and its estate are now the property of the Marquess of Stafford.

The revenues of Lilleshall abbey at the time of the dissolution, in the reign of Henry the eighth, were rated by the commissioners at £229 3s. 1½d.; about £2,260 of our money.

LINCHES. A township in the parish of Westbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 5½ miles southwest of Shrewsbury.

LINEAL; or LINEAL; or LYNEAL. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 3 miles south-east of Ellesmere.

LINLEY. A township in the parish of More, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow. 8 miles north-east of Bishopscastle.

LINLEY. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop, holden with Broseley. 19 houses, 96 inhabitants. 2½ miles south-east of Broseley.

LITTLE BERWICK. A township in the parish of St. Mary, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 1½ mile north-west of Shrewsbury.

LITTLE BOLAS. A township in the parish of Hodnet, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 6½ miles north-west of Newport.

LITTLE BROMPTON. A township in the parish of Clunbury, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. 5½ miles south-east of Bishopscastle.

LITTLE HANWOOD. A township partly in the parish of Hanwood, or Great Hanwood, in the liberties of Shrewsbury, and partly in the parish of Pontesbury, in the hundred of Ford. 3 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

LITTLE LYTH, and WESTLEY. A township in the parish of Condover, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 4 miles south- west of Shrewsbury.

LITTLE NESS. A parish in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. A chapel to Baschurch, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 42 houses, 253 inhabitants. 7 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

LITTLE RYTON, and HAMLETS. A township in the hundred of Condover.

LITTLE STRETTON. A township in the parish of Church Stretton, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 1 mile south-west of Church Stretton.

LITTLE SUTTON. (See Lawton, and Little Sutton.)

LITTLE WENLOCK. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 184 houses, 965 inhabitants. 4½ miles south-east of Wenlock Magna, or Much Wenlock.

LIZARD GRANGE. 3 miles north-east of Shiffnal. The residence of R. Stanier, Esq.

LLANHOWELL. A township in the hundred of Clun.

LLANSILLIN. A parish in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry, partly in Chirk hundred, in the county of Denbigh. Soughton, the only township in Shropshire, contains 45 houses, 249 inhabitants. 5 miles south-west by west of Oswestry.

LLANVAIR WATERDINE. A parish in the Mainstone division of the hundred of Clun. A curacy not in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 87 houses, 477 inhabitants, 10 miles south-west of Bishopscastle.

LLANVORDA; or LLANFORDA. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry. 1½ mile south-west of Oswestry,

The seat of Henry Watkin Williams Wynn, Esq. John Davies, Esq., recorder, 1635, in his MSS. "Observations of Oswestry", says, "Rynerus, bishop of St. Asaph, suppressed the old church of the Mercians, called Llanvorda".

LLANYBLODWELL. A parish in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of St. Asaph, and the deanery of Marchia, 156 houses, 850 inhabitants. 6 miles south-west of Oswestry.

LLANYMYNECH. A parish in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry, a rectory in the diocese of St. Asaph, and the deanery of Marchia; the church is in Denbighshire. 89 houses, 454 inhabitants. 6 miles south-west by south of Oswestry.

Llanymynech, (or neich) signifies the Church District of the Monks, and has no relation whatever to mines. It was so called, because there was formerly a monastery there. This village is on the road leading to Poel.

The Romans had mine-works in Llanymynech hill, from which they obtained considerable quantities of copper. One vestige of their work appears in an artificial cave, of immense length, called Ogo, (more properly Ogof, which is a Welch word signifying a Cave.) The windings of this cavern are numerous and intricate. Some years ago, two men endeavouring to explore it, were so bewildered in its turnings, that they were found by some men sent in search of them, prostrate on the ground, despairing of ever seeing the light again. Skeletons, culinary utensils, etc., have been discovered in this cavern. One of the skeletons had a battle-axe by its side, and a bracelet of glass beads around its wrist. Several Roman coins have also been found in this place; and not long ago many coins, mostly of Constantine, were found in a parcel of earth which was washed down the side of the hill. The hill abounds in limestone. Great numbers of men are employed in raising, breaking, and burning the stone,

LLANYTIDMON; or LLYNTIDMON. A township in the hundred of Oswestry.

LLYNCHLIS; or LLYNKLIS; or LLYNKLYS. A township in the hundred of Oswestry.

It is a farm-house, 2 miles distant from Oswestry, on the Llanymynech road. The Lake of Llynclys, though not of very considerable extent, is of pleasing beauty and extraordinary depth, of which various strange and superstitious traditions are prevalent. It is bordered on some of its sides with reeds and rushes of extreme length; and the flower of a white water-lilly was pulled up not far from the shore, the stalk of which measured nearly fourteen feet. The fishery is the property of Lord Clive, and the water abounds with Pike, Bream, and Dare, the first of astonishing magnitude, from the impossibility of the pools being fished otherwise than with beagles, on account of its surprising depth. It is the scene of an interesting little ballad in the Poems of John F.M. Dovaston, Esq.

LLYNYMON; Or LLOYNYMAIN; or LLWYNYMAEN. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry. 1½ mile south-west of Oswestry.

LONGDEN. Including Longden upper and lower, one of the quarters of the parish of Pontesbury, in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. A chapel. 75 houses, 387 inhabitants. 5 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

LONG; or LONGDON UPON TERN. A parish in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a peculiar in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 3 miles north-west by north of Wellington. 14 houses, 95 inhabitants.

LONGFORD. See Langford.

LONGFORD. A township in the parish of Hodnet, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 2 miles west of Drayton.

LONGNER. A township in the parish of Atcham, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

It is the seat of the ancient family of the Burtons, and is distant three and a half miles S.E. from Shrewsbury, to the left of the London road. The house, which has been wholly rebuilt and decorated by its present owner, is delightfully situated on an eminence, commanding a beautiful view of the surrounding country, and of the Severn, which rolls immediately beneath it. Nature seems to have been extremely favourable to this spot; and art, where it was deemed necessary, has contributed to its embellishment; the views up and down the river, and over the adjoining highly cultivated and well wooded country, are peculiarly picturesque and beautiful, affording a great variety of fine landscape scenery.

In the garden is a tomb placed over the body of Edward Burton, Esq., who was buried here in consequence of the refusal of the Roman Catholic Curate of St. Chad's, Shrewsbury, to permit his interment in the common receptacle of the dead of that parish. He was a zealous protestant; and died suddenly, in a transport of joy, at Longner, in 1558, on hearing of the death of Queen Mary, and the release of the kingdom from the persecutions of the clergy. The following is the epitaph placed on the tomb, written by Sir Andrew Corbet, Bart., in 1614:-

' Was't for denying Christ, or some notorious fact,
That this man's body christian burial lack'd
O no! his faithful true profession
Was the chief cause, which then was held transgression:
When Pop'ry here did reign, the See of Rome,
Would not admit to any such a tomb
Within their Idol Temple walls:- but he,
Truly professing Christianity,
Was, like Christ Jesus, in a garden laid,
Where he shall rest in peace, till it be said,
Come faithful servant, come, receive with me,
A just reward for thy integrity.- 1614'.

The family of the Burtons have ever been esteemed for those virtues which adorn and dignify human nature, and for that unassuming piety which marks the christian. Nor has this character lost any thing in the person of the present possessor of the Longner estate- Robert Burton, Esq.; this gentleman, together with his amiable lady, being continually employed in distributing the bounties of providence in a judicious and benevolent manner.

In the hall at Longner are the following beautiful paintings:- Rome, Florence, Venice with the Rialto, the Bay of Naples, and a view in Italy, by Marlow,- A Storm, by Van Eest,- the Custom house at Venice, by Carnaletti,- A Spanish Bull Hunt, by Schneider,- Portraits of Mrs. Burton, and her sister, by Pickersgill, and of Judge Burton's lady, by Sir Godfrey Kneller. There is also a variety of beautiful prints, among which are the busts of two Zealand Youths, Tooi, and Teeterrie, who were on a visit some time at Longner.

LONGNOR. A parish in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover, a chapel to Condover, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. (A distinct patronage from Condover.) 47 houses, 222 inhabitants. 8 miles south of Shrewsbury.

Longnor Hall is the residence of the venerable Archdeacon Corbett. It is a good brick house, built in 1670, by Sir Richard Corbett, and is situated in a pleasing valley, commanding several fine views, particularly those of Caer Caradoc and the Lawley Hill. The portrait of the founder is in the house.- Here is an admirable portrait of Margaret, widow of James, earl of Salisbury, by Kindler. Her daughter, lady Margaret, by the same painter. A spirited half-length of lady Mildred, youngest daughter of Margaret, countess of Salisbury, and wife to Sir Uvedale Corbett, son of Sir Richard. A pleasing picture of her daughter Elisabeth, by Le Garde. A large picture of St. Peter denying his Lord, finely executed by Gerard Honthurst. An exquisite picture of Christ raising Lazarus, supposed to be one of Julio Romano's. This painting is altogether a fine composition.

Mr. Pennant concluded his third tour by an excursion from Longnor to Caer Caradoc. ' After a ride of three miles', says he, 'I fell accidentally on the steepest part, and after a laborious clamber up a green and smooth ascent, now and then mixed with small fragments of lava, I reached the summit, impeded a little by the first rampart, in a place, where, from the exceeding steepness, they seemed totally unnecessary. A little higher is a second ditch, with a vast agger of stones, now sodded over. The area is irregular, of rather considerable extent. Upon the more accessible side are three fosses and ramparts. The entrance and approach are very conspicuous, and may be travelled on horseback. The area slopes upwards, and ends in a peak. Notwithstinding this place is styled Caer Caradoc, it certainly. is not that which was attacked by Ostorius, described by Tacitus'.

Although the most skilful antiquarians have not been enabled to ascertain with precision the spot on which Caractacus last contended for the liberties of his country and himself, there is little doubt that Caer Caradoc was one of the posts of that heroick prince. Mr. Pennant, in his ascent to this place, mentions his having met with 'lava'. This is a mistake of the learned tourist: there is a stone there like lava, but it is toad stone, deprived of its glands by exposure to the air.

The valley in which Longnor is situated displays great fertility and richness of culture. It is well wooded and watered, and the prospect is enlivened by frequent glimpses of rich pastoral landscape, rendered more delightful by its contrast with the bold and naked hills.

Possessed of a highly cultivated mind, and a generous disposition, the proprietor of the Longnor estate is not only admired for his talents and knowledge, but is beloved for the amiable qualities of his heart. His liberality and piety are known to all, and his charities are extensively munificent, although justly discriminating: but his best eulogium is read in the affectionate regard of his numerous tenantry and the industrious peasantry who are within the circle of his benevolent exertions.

LONGSLOW. A township in the parish of Drayton, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 1 mile north-west of Drayton.

LONGSTANTON; or STANTON LONG. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 49 houses, 261 inhabitants. 8 miles south-east of Church Stretton.

LONGVILLE, LASHCOT, or LUSHCOT. A township in the parish of Eaton, and in the franchise of Wenlock. Longville is 5 miles east of Church Stretton, and Lushcot 6 miles north-east by east of Church Stretton.

LOPPINGTON. A parish in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. A vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 101 houses, 622 inhabitants. 3 miles north-west by west of Wem.

LOSSFORD. A township in the parish of Hodnet, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North.

LOTON HALL. In the hundred of Ford, near Alberbury. 9 miles west of Shrewsbury. The seat of Sir Baldwin Leighton, Bart.

LOUGHTON. A parish in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden, a chapel consolidated with Chetton, Deuxhill, and Glazeley, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 23 houses, 119 inhabitants. 6 miles northwest of Cleobury Mortimer.

LOWE and DITCHES. A township in the parish of Wem, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 13 houses, 93 inhabitants. Lowe, 1 mile north-west, Ditches, 1 mile north-west by west of Wem.

LOWER DOWN. A township in the hundred of Purslow.

LOWER HAYTON. A township in the parish of Staunton Lacy, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow.

LOWER PARK. A township in the parish of Diddlebury, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow. 4 miles north of Ludlow.

LOWER RIDGE. See Ridges.

LUDFORD. A parish partly in the hundred of Munslow, and partly in the county of Hereford. The Shropshire part contains 39 houses, 195 inhabitants. The entire parish contains 280 inhabitants. ¾ mile south-east of Ludlow.

LUDFORD HOUSE. ¾ mile south-east of Ludlow, in the hundred of Munslow, the seat of N.L. Charlton, Esq. See appendix.

LUDLOW. A market and borough town near the southern extremity of Shropshire.

LAT. 52.24 N. LON. 2. 49. W. Market on Monday, Fairs an Monday . before old Candlemas Day, Tuesday before Easter, Wednesday in Whitsun-week, August 21, September 28, and December 6.

Broad Street and Castle Wards contain 443 houses, 2,208 inhab. Corve Street Ward 160 740 Old Street Ward 403 1,272 1,006 4,820

Ludlow is situated on a hill, with a declivity on every side; it has an elegant and cheerful appearance, and is surrounded by a country full of delightful prospects, in every direction. It was formerly inclosed by a strong wall, which was about a mile in circumference, including the castle, which, as Leland says, hemmed in part of the town, and is the most prominent object of attention.

This edifice rises from the extremity of a headland, and its foundations are laid in a bare, grey rock. The part towards the north, consists of square towers, with high connecting walls, embattled with deep interstices. The old fosse, or ditch and part of the rock have been converted. into promenades, which the late Countess of Powis planted with beeches, elms, and lime trees. These, having now arrived at maturity, dispense a soothing and grateful shade, and add not a little to the beauty and solemn grandeur of the scene.

Parallel with the castle, on the western side, runs a naked and precipitate ridge, beautifully crowned with wood. Below is a chasm through which the broad shallow Teme pours its waters. The principal entrance is by a gateway under a low pointed arch. On the right hand are the ruins of the barracks, which when the castle was the residence of the lords presidents of Wales, were in constant use. Beyond these is a square tower, the embattled rampart of which, pierced with loops, remains in picturesque masses. On the left, a range of stone buildings presents itself, which is supposed to have been the stables. The arms of Queen Elizabeth, and those of the earl of Pembroke, who, on the death of his relation, Sir Henry Sidney, succeeded to the presidency, appear on these stables. Not far removed from them are the ruins of the Court-house, beyond which rises a lofty tower, called Mortimer's tower.

This tower has been denominated semilunar; but it forms rather a half oval than a semisphere. The lowest apartment appears to have been a prison, of which the original entrance was through a circular aperture, in the ponderous key-stone of its vaulted roof.

The castle is guarded on the north and west by a deep fosse cut in the rock, and the place of the ancient draw-bridge is supplied by a stone-bridge, with two arches. On this bridge are some remains of an embattled parapet.

The portal is a modern erection, having been built during the presidency of Sir Henry Sidney, and remarkable neither for strength nor beauty. The arch and the adjacent building have a mean appearance.

Over the portal, below the arms of England and France, is the following inscription:


In a compartment below, with the armorial bearings of Queen Elizabeth, and Sir Henry Sidney, is this inscription:-


The Sidney papers afford an explanation of the querulous commencement of this inscription. Sir Henry, who had been entrusted with the government of Ireland, had made, in the course of a rigid administration, many enemies, whose opposition to his measures, had proved successful. He therefore willingly retired to this place, where he employed himself in superintending the education of his son, the celebrated Sir Philip Sidney.

The interior of the castle, even at the first view, strikes us with solemn and awful feeling. The court is irregular, and not very spacious; but the lofty, embattled structure by which it is inclosed, preserving, though in ruins, its original outline - the masses of light and shade, produced by the deep recesses, - the rich tints of age, - the luxurious mantling of ivy, - and the sullen silence which holds its empire throughout these deserted towers, - once the seat of royal splendour, and feudal revelry - fill the mind with reflections on past magnificence, and present degradation. The tout ensemble is highly interesting. Near the gate are the various apartments of the Porter, the Warder, and the lower retainers of the Presidents, and adjoining the entrance are the remains of a beautiful doorway, with a frieze of quatrefoils, charged with shields, and flanked with small ornamental buttresses. This doorway conducts to a staircase,

The Keep is a large, square, embattled tower, of Norman Architecture, divided into four stories. It rises on the left side of the gate, to the height of 110 feet, and is covered with ivy. There is a small square turret at each of the angles, rising the whole height. The ground floor is the dungeon, half under ground. The arched roof is twenty feet in height. In the arch are three square apertures, which, communicating with the chamber above, served for the purpose of admitting and inspecting the prisoners, and were probably intended also for raising supplies of ammunition and provisions, during a siege. A strong arched doorway on the north side, was evidently inserted a long time after the erection of the tower. The ground. floor measures 31 feet by 16. In the northeast turret there is a winding staircase to the top of the Keep. On the second floor is a large room, 30 feet by 18; with a fire-place. This room communicates on the left with a square arched chamber, and on the right with a narrow, oblong room, which has a grand roof, having two deep recesses in the dividing wall. At the south-west angle of the larger apartment, is a lobby formed of three grand arches, which leads to a narrow passage, communicating externally with a walk, once probably a covered way, on the rampart, which conducts to a small, but strong tower at a distance. The arches of the doors and windows of this tower, were all round and plain, the latter approaching externally to narrow loops; many of them have been enlarged, and altered to pointed arches without,- but within they mostly bear their original forms. This tower measures 46 feet by 34, and the walls are from 9 to 12 feet thick. A wide fire-place in the wall marks the place of the kitchen. In that part in which the brew-house is said to have been situated, there is a deep well, nine feet in diameter. The oven is on the ground floor of a tower next to the outer wall, and near it is the bakehouse, measuring 15 feet in breadth by 9 in depth.

Facing the gate is the hall, which was originally approached by a flight of steps, now no longer in existence. Under the hall is a low room with five deep recesses in the south wall. The hall door is a beautiful pointed arch, in the style of Edward the fourth's reign, and is ornamented with delicate mouldings. The hall measures 60 feet by 80; its height is about 35 feet. On the north side, looking to the country, are three lofty pointed windows, diminishing outwardly to narrow lunettes, with trefoil heads. On the opposite side, next the court, are two windows in the same style, but of larger dimensions, each of them divided by a single mullion. Between these is a chimney, with an obtuse arch, of the time of Elizabeth. It is inserted within a more lofty pointed arch, which, from its similitude to those adjoining was, it is supposed, originally, a third window, answering to the same number opposite, since there were certainly, no fire- places in halls when this building was erected.

Neither roof nor floor now remains,- so completely dilapidated is this once elegant saloon, in which the splendid scene of Comus was first exhibited, where chivalry exhausted her choicest stores, both of wealth, and invention; and where hospitality and magnificence blazed for many ages in succession. Two pointed arches point to a spacious tower at the west end of the hall, in which are several apartments, one of which still bears the name of Prince Arthur's room. The room on the first floor measures 37 feet by 88. At the north-west angle is a deeply recessed closet, but all the floors are either much decayed, or entirely destroyed. At the opposite end of the hall, with a pointed arch door of communication, is another spacious square tower of three stories, of which the principal apartment is said to have been the banqueting room. A chamber above, appears to have been more ornamented than the rest; the chimney piece has an uncommon degree of rude magnificence, and the corbels of the ceiling are finely wrought into busts of men and women, crowned. A door on the south side of the room, on the ground floor, opens into a winding passage, which ends in some small gloomy rooms, and on the left to two angular recesses, terminated in narrow loops, looking outward. Each of these towers has a newel stair case, in an elegant octangular turret.

On the left hand is a circular building, with a window and doorway of the early Norman period. This is part of the chapel, of which the nave only is standing. A beautiful arch still remains, but the choir with which it communicated is destroyed; this, as well as that of the western window, is a rich Saxon arch, covered with chevron lozenge, and reticulated ornaments. The outside of the building is encircled by a band with a billeted ornament, and there are three windows circularly arched, ornamented with chevron mouldings. In the interior, rising from the floor, are fourteen recesses in the wall, formed by small pillars, with indented capitals, supporting round arches, which have alternately plain and zigzag mouldings. About three feet above this arcade are projecting corbels, carved as beads, capitals of pillars, etc. The whole length of the chapel extending to the eastern wall of the Castle, was, when entire, seventy feet, of which the choir was forty two, and the nave twenty eight.

From an inventory of goods found in Ludlow Castles bearing date, 1708, the seventh year of the reign of Queen Anne, we learn that about forty rooms were found entire at that period. Among these were the hall, council chamber, Lord President's and my Lady's withdrawing rooms, the Steward's room, great dining room, chief Justice's room, second Judge's room, Prince Arthur's room, Captain's apartments, etc.; also the kitchen, brew-house, etc., and as in this inventory a table and altar are stated to have been found in the chapel, we may presume the choir was at that time remaining.

The progressive stages of ruin to which this noble edifice was doomed to fall may be distinguished in the accounts of travellers who visited it at various periods. In the account prefixed to Buck's antiquities, published in 1774, it is observed that many of the apartments were entire, and that the sword of state, and the velvet hangings were preserved. An extract from a tour through Great Britain, represents the chapel as having abundance of coats of arms upon the panels, and the hall as decorated with the same kind of ornaments, together with lances, spears, fire-locks, and old armour. Dr. Todd, in his learned edition of Comus, says, 'a gentleman who visited the castle in 1768, has acquainted me, that the floor of the great council chamber was then pretty entire, as was the staircase. The covered steps leading to the chapel were remaining, but the covering of the chapel was fallen; yet the arms of the Lords Presidents were visible. In the great council chamber was inscribed on the wall a sentence from I Samuel, Chapter 12, Verse 3; all which are now wholly gone'.

Soon after the accession of George the first, an order is said to have came down for unroofing the buildings, and stripping them of their lead. Decay of course soon ensued. Many of the panels bearing the arms of the Lord Presidents, were converted into wainscotting for a publick house in the town, a former owner of which enriched himself by the sale of materials clandestinely taken away. There remains also a richly embroidered carpet, hung up in the chancel of St. Lawrence's church, said to be part of the covering of the council board.

The Earl of Powis, who previously held the castle in virtue of a long lease, acquired the reversion in fee, by purchase from the crown, in the year 1811.

The architecture of Ludlow castle may be referred to three distinct periods. The first is that of EARLY NORMAN ARCHITECTURE, from the time of William the conqueror, to that of Henry the first. The Keep of the castle is to be referred to this period, since it possesses the general characteristicks of the buildings erected by the first Norman barons,- towering height, massive strength, embattled turrets, etc. The whole range of buildings on the north side of the court, consisting of two great square towers, connected by a curtain, in which are the hall and the rooms of state, are attributed to the middle of the third period of architecture, from 1250 to 1400. This architecture was a mixture of Saxon and Norman, commonly, but improperly called Gothick. The sharp pointed arches, delicate ribbed mouldings, etc., direct us to this era, which appears also to have been that of the offices and ramparts. Lastly, the modern additions and repairs will be included in the fourth period, from 1400 to 1600. Some chimney pieces and arches, with several windows in the Keep, and a flat arched door, within a square inserted in it, as a new and more airy entrance to the dungeon, may be referred to the fifteenth century. The ornamented remains of a small door to a stair-case in the gatehouse, may be assigned to the time of Prince Arthur's residence, and the gate with its adjoining rooms are of Queen Elizabeth's reign, as are also the stables in the exterior court.

The castle in the approach to it from different parts of Whitecliffe hill has a grand and imposing aspect; it is also seen to advantage from the road to Oakley Park; from various other positions the effect is truly grand, and in some points of view, the towers are richly clustered with the largest in the centre.

The opening towards the north, displays the windings of the Teme, with the mansion of Oakley Park, half hid by trees, and is terminated by a bold outline, formed by the Clee hills, Caer Caradoc, and other hills near Stretton. The more confined view towards the west exhibits a bold eminence, partly clothed with wood, the rocks of Whitecliffe with the rapid stream at their base, and in short a full union of those features in rural scenery which constitute the picturesque. The loveliness of nature is heightened by contrast with the venerable grey towers of the castle, and the effect of the whole is calculated at once to awaken the enthusiasm of fancy, and to diffuse the calm of contemplation.

This castle was founded, according to generally received opinion, by Roger de Montgomery, soon after the conquest. It was held by his descendant, Robert de Belesme, on whose rebellion it was seized by Henry the first. Becoming thus a princely residence, it was guarded by a numerous garrison. In the succeeding reign, the governor Gervas Paganel having betrayed his trust in joining the Empress Matilda, [Rapin] King Stephen besieged and, according to some authors, took it, [Speed, p. 483] though others are of opinion that he abandoned the attempt. In conducting the operations of the siege, the king gave a signal proof of his courage and humanity. The young Prince Henry of Scotland, son of King David, who was actively concerned in this enterprise, having approached too near the walls of the castle, was caught from his horse by means of an iron hook fastened to the end of a rope. Stephen observing the perilous situation of the young prince, boldly advanced, and rescued him at the risk of his own life. [Matthew Paris] Henry the second, about the year 1176, presented the castle, together with the vale below it on the banks of the river, called Corve Dale, to his favourite Fulke Fitzwarine, surnamed De Dinan, to whom succeeded Joceas de Dinan. Between him and Hugh de Mortimer, Lord of Wigmore, terrible dissensions arose. In the predatory warfare which ensued, it happened that Mortimer, wandering about Whitecliffe Heath, was surprised and seized. He was conveyed to Ludlow castle and confined in one of the towers, which to this day bears his name. In the fifth of Richard the first, Gilbert Talbot had lands given him for the custody of Ludlow castle, and eight years afterwards, Hubert, Archbishop of Canterbury seized it for the crown. King John presented it to Philip d'Aubigny, from whom it descended to the Lacies or Lessais of Ireland. Walter, the last of the family, dying without issue, bequeathed it to his grand-daughter Maud, the wife of Peter de Geneva or Jeneville, a Poictevin of the house of Lorraine, by whose posterity it descended to the Mortimers, and from them passed by inheritance to the crown. During the troublesome reign of Henry the third, the ambitious Simon Montfort, Earl of Leicester, on his junction with Llewellyn, seized this castle as well as that of Hay.

During the next two centuries scarcely any thing of importance occurs respecting it. In the 13th of Henry the sixth it was, as we have elsewhere mentioned, in the possession of Richard Duke of York, who here drew up an affected declaration of allegiance to the king, pretending that his army of ten thousand men was raised for the security of the publick welfare. The subsequent conduct of Richard belied his professions, for, at the distance of eight years only, from the date of the declaration, he was again engaged in raising forces in the Welsh marches, and exciting the friends whom his recent success over Lord Audley at Bloor-heath, [see p. 110] had gained him, to meet at Ludlow. The king's adherents immediately took up arms to punish this perfidy; and through the influence and exertions of the Dukes of Somerset, Exeter and Buckingham, a force was speedily raised, superior to that of the Duke of York. On the arrival of the royal army at Worcester, the king sent offers of pardon to the rebels, on condition that they would lay down their arms and return to their allegiance. This proposal being contemptuously rejected, [it was called by them a staff, or reede, or glasse-buckler] the royalists advanced, and on the 13th of October, 1459, arrived at Ludford, a village near Ludlow. The Yorkists then lowered their tone, declaring in terms of the most abject submission, that they wished nothing more than the redress of certain grievances introduced into the government by the king's ministers, and that they hoped to be considered as good subjects and restored to favour. This piece of hypocrisy had an effect directly opposite to their design. The royalists concluding that fear had dictated the concession, determined to give battle the next day, and they contrived in the mean time to disperse the king's offers of pardon among the rebels, which worked so strongly that numbers began to desert, and a whole detachment under Sir Andrew Trollope went over to the king's camp in the night. This revolt was immediately followed by the flight of the duke and his two sons, the Earls of March and Rutland, with Warwick, Salisbury, and other chiefs leaving the rest to the mercy of the king, who, ordering a few executions for the sake of warning, granted a general pardon. The ill effects of these proceedings were severely felt; not only the castle but the town of Ludlow was given up to rapine and plunder. The king's troops seised every article of value, and, if we may credit the authority of Hall, the Duchess of York and her two sons, with the Duchess of Buckingham, were for a long time kept close prisoners in the castle. In the course of the war it came into the possession of Edward Duke of York, afterwards Edward the fourth, who then resided at Wigmore. On his accession to the throne he repaired the castle, and made it the court of his son the Prince of Wales. That monarch granted the first charter of incorporation to the town of Ludlow, which had been an ancient corporation by prescription. The charter bears date in the first year of his reign, and recites the grant to have been made in consideration of the services the faithful burgesses of the borough of Ludlow had done in aid of recovering the rights of the crown. On the death of Edward the fourth, [Speed, p. 900] the youthful prince, his son, was here proclaimed king, and shortly afterwards removed to London along with his brother, at the instigation of his uncle Gloucester, who had caused himself to be proclaimed protector, in order that he might the more securely effect the murderous usurpation of the crown.

After the close of that tyrant's short and turbulent reign, when the feuds of the kingdom were healed by the union of Henry the seventh with a princess of the house of York, Ludlow castle again became a royal residence. Arthur, the eldest son of that monarch, held here a court with great splendour and magnificence after his nuptials with Katharine of Arragon, the fourth daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. On this marriage, which had been negotiated during the course of seven years, Speed's words are ' the Lady Katharine being about eighteen years old, and born of so great, so noble, so victorious and virtuous parents, is with just majesty and solemnity openly married to Arthur Prince of Wales, aged about fifteen years, and eldest sonne to Henry the seventh, King of England, and Elizabeth his wife. The Archbishop of Canterbury, assisted by nineteen bishops and abbots mitred, joined their hands and performed all the other church rites upon that great day. The vulgar annals can tell you the splendour and glory thereof, in apparel, jeweils, pageants, banquets, guests, and other princely complements, the only weighty business of any weaker brains. A grave lady, as some have written, was laid in bed between the bride and bridegroom, to hinder actual consummation in regard of the prince's green estate of body; but others alleadge many arguments to prove that the consummation really took place; however she herself (when that afterwards came in question) appealed to the conscience of King Henry the eighth (her second husband) if he found her not a maid. But prince Arthur enjoyed his marriage a very short while, for in April following he died at Ludlow, being under sixteen years, being a prince in whose youth the lights of all noble virtues did clearly begin to shine'. [Hist. of Great Britain, p. 988] According to the same historian the body of this lamented young prince was buried in Worcester cathedral. There is a tradition that his bowels were deposited in the chancel of Ludlow church, and it is said that his heart, inclosed in a leaden box has been found. This account, generally discredited, seems to derive a degree of probability from the following circumstance: on opening a grave in the chancel of Ludlow church, a number of years ago, a leaden box was discovered, and sold by the grave-digger to a plumber of the town.

This affair coming to the knowledge of the then rector, the box was repurchased, and restored unopened to its former situation.[Hodge's Account of Ludlow Castle.] Such means of preserving the remains of the illustrious dead were in that age not unusual.

The most splendid era of Ludlow castle was the reign of Henry the eighth and that of Elizabeth, during which the lords presidents of the marches held their courts there with much grandeur and solemnity, and a continual concourse of suitors was attracted to the town. One of the most eminent of these lords was Sir Henry Sidney, who appears to have made the castle his favourite residence; and about the year 1554, put it into a state of thorough repair, adding much to its elegance. He introduced many salutary regulations and ordinances in the proceedings of the court, and devoted himself to the exercise of his office with exemplary fidelity and zeal. He died in the twenty eighth year of his presidency, at the bishop's palace in Worcester, A.D. 1586, and was conveyed thence to his house at Penshurst, in Kent. But previously to this his bowels, pursuant to his own request, were buried in the dean's chapel of Worcester cathedral, and his heart was taken to Ludlow, and deposited in the same tomb with his beloved daughter Ambrosia, within the little oratory he had made in the church. A leaden urn, said to be the same which contained his heart, was some years ago in the possession of Edward Coleman, Esq., of Leominster; it was about six inches in diameter at the top. The following inscription, was upon it:-


A print of this urn is given in the Gentleman's Magazine, Vol. LXIV. p. 785. Interesting as such a memorial of that great man may be, it is of less consequence to posterity, than the virtuous example which his life afforded, and which was reflected with fresh lustre in the character of his son Sir Philip Sydney. A model of accomplished learning and a mirror of chivalry, that extraordinary person, in the course of his brilliant life, attracted the admiration and esteem of the most eminent warriors, statesmen, and scholars of his time. His end was as heroic as his career was glorious; and he left behind him a name which will be venerated by Englishmen as long as a portion of their national spirit exists.

In 1616, the castle was honoured by a visit from Prince Charles, son of James the first, who there entered on his principality of Wales and earldom of Chester, with great pomp and magnificence. It was next distinguished by the representation of the Masque of Comus, in 1634, during the presidency of John Earl of Bridgwater. That exquisite effusion of the youthful genius of Milton had its origin in a real incident.

When the earl entered on his official residence he was visited by a large assemblage of the neighbouring nobility and gentry. His sons, the Lord Brackley and Mr. Thomas Egerton, and his daughter the Lady Alice, being on their journey

to attend their father's state And new intrusted sceptre,

were benighted in Heywood forest, in Herefordshire, and the lady for a short time was lost. The adventure being related to their father on their arrival at the castle, Milton, at the request of his friend Henry Lawes, who taught musick in the family, wrote the Masque. Lawes set it to musick, and it was acted on Michaelmas night; the two brothers, the young lady, and Lewes himself bearing each a part in the representation.

[The Lady Alice Egerton became afterwards the wife of the Earl of Carbery, who, at his seat called Golden Grove, in Carmarthenshire, afforded an asylum to Dr. Jeremy Taylor in the time of the usurpation. Among the doctor's sermons is one on her death, in which her character is finely pourtrayed. Her sister Lady Mary was given in marriage to Lord Herbert of Cherbury. CHALMERS'S BRITISH PORTS. Vol. VII. p. 274. note.]

This poem, familiar to every English reader, has been allowed by the most competent judges, to be one of the finest compositions of the kind in the English language, and will ever be held in peculiar estimation, as exhibiting the fair dawn of that genis which burst forth in full splendour in the divine poem of Paradise Lost. Its faults, however, called forth the rigorous animadversion of Johnson, who, sparing of his praise and profuse of his censure on all the works of the poet, considered this juvenile effusion without reference to the circumstances under which it was written. For this reason his opinion will lose its weight when compared with the candid and liberal criticism of Warton. We must not, observes that judicious writer, read Comus with an eye to the stage, or with the expectation of dramatick propriety. Under this restriction the absurdity of the spirit speaking to an audience in a solitary forest at midnight, and the want of reciprocation in the dialogue are overlooked. Comus is a suite of speeches, not interesting by discrimination of character, not conveying a variety of incidents, nor gradually exciting curiosity, but perpetually attracting attention by sublime sentiments, by fanciful imagery of the richest vein, by an exuberance of pictaresque description, poetical allusion, and ornamental expression. While it widely departs from the grotesque anomalies of the mask now in fashion, it does not approach nearly to the natural constitution of a regular play. There is a chastity in the application and conduct of the machinery; and Sabrina is introduced with much address after the brothers had imprudently suffered the enchantment to take effect. This is the first instance in which the Old English Mask was in some degree reduced to the principles and form of a rational composition; yet still it could not but retain some of its arbitrary peculiarities. The poet had here properly no more to do with the pathos of tragedy than with the character of comedy, nor can there be found any rule that should confine him to the usual modes of theatrical interlocution.

To this eulogy may be added the praise of having displayed the loveliness of virtue, and exposed the deformity of vice by a lively and consistent allegory, and by a succession of just and moral sentiments enforced with all the enchantment of poetic eloquence. So well sustained is the tone of Milton'a numbers throughout the piece, that to give a specimen of its excellence any passage might be promiscuously taken.

The song, with which the benighted lady concludes her soliloquy, in order to make herself heard by her brothers, who are in search of her, is most happily introduced, and has a wildly pleasing melody well adapted to its subject:-

Sweet echo! Sweetest nymph that liv'd unseen Within thy airy shell, By slow meander's margent green; And in the violet embroidered vale, Where the lovelorn nightingale Nightly to thee her sad song mourneth well; Canst thou not tell me of a gentle pair, That likest thy Narcissus are? O, if thou have Hid them in some flowery cave, Tell me but where: Sweet queen of party, daughter of the sphere ! So may'st thou be translated to the skies, And give resounding grace to all heav'n's harmonies.

In the conduct of his fable, in the structure of his blank verse, and in certain peculiarities of diction, he closely copies Shakespeare. The following passage is a curious instance of the success with which he studied his model:-

He that has light within his own clear breast, May sit th' centre and enjoy bright day: But he that hides a dark soul and foul thoughts, Benighted walks under the mid-day sun; Himself is his own dungeon.

The conclusion of the Masque strongly evinces that the author never intended it for general representation, and that on the contrary he had no other view but to answer the particular purpose for which, at the hint of his friend, be undertook it. The scene changes from the magick palace of Comus to a view of the town and castle of Ludlow; and one of the songs is addressed to the earl and his countess, congratulating them on the constancy of their children, in the trials to which their virtues had been exposed.

It is observable that this composition met with a reception much more favourable than the later and more mature works of Milton, being represented by noble actors on a stage and before an auditory equally noble. But whatever honours accrued to the poet on this account, were in the lapse of a few ages to reflect on his patrons from the splendour of his name. The pomp and pageantry, the princely magnificence that attended the court of the marches were soon to disappear, and the stillness of desolation was to succeed the bustle of festivity and merriment. This proud castle, which once held dominion over a whole principality was to be abandoned to decay, to be spoiled of every memorial of its illustrious inhabitants, and to be left an awful monument of the mutability of human affairs. Yet even in this state it might still excite interest; though ruined it might be venerable, though solitary it could never be wholly deserted, and the traveller, who turned aside to view its ruins, would pause, ere he passed on, to do homage to the memory of the divine poet, who had hallowed them with his immortal strains:-

Here Milton sung.- What needs a greater spell To lure thee stranger, to these far-fam'd walls? Though chroniclers of other ages tell That princes oft have graced fair Ludlow's halls. Their honours glide along oblivion's stream, And o'er the wrecks a tide of ruin drives; Faint and more faint the rays of glory beam That gild their course - the bard alone survives; And when the rude unceasing shocks of time, In one vast heap shall whelm this lofty pile, Still shall his genius, towering and sublime, Triumphant o'er the spoils of grandeur smile; Still in these haunts, true to a nation's tongue, Echo shall love to dwell, and say, here MILTON sung.

To return from this digression to the history of the castle, during the civil wars in the reign of Charles the first, it was for some time kept as a garrison for the king. In the summer of 1645, a force of near two thosand horse and foot, drawn together out of the garrisons of Ludlow, Hereford, Worcester, and Monmouth, were by a less number of the parliament forces defeated near Ludlow. [Sir E. Walker's Historical Discourses. fol. p. 129.] The castle was delivered up on the 9th of June in the following year.

At the restoration, during the presidency of the Earl of Carbery, the celebrated Butler, who was made secretary to that nobleman, wrote in one of the towers of this castle, a part of his incomparable Hudibras. It was about this period that he married Miss Herbert, a gentlewoman of good family, and he seems to have enjoyed in his retreat, a life of comfort, though not of affluence, and to have had leisure to revise and correct his work. In 1663, the first part containing three cantos, was published, and in the year following the second part appeared. Its success drew him forth into the publick world, sure of praise, and full of hopes of emolument. His poem was universally admired; the king quoted, the courtiers studied, and the royalists applauded it, but the author was the dupe of promises which were trifled with and forgetten: in the midst of disappointment and neglect he published the third part in an unfinished state, and in 1680 he died in indigence.

The church of Ludlow stands on the highest part of the town, and is a stately and spacious structure in the form of a cross, with a lofty and well adorned tower in the centre, in which is a melodious ring of eight bells. The principal entrance from the town is by a large hexagonal porch. The nave is divided from the aisles by six lofty pointed arches on each side, springing from light clustered pillars, each consisting of four taper shafts, with the intermediate spaces hollowed. Above them is a clere story, with a range of heavy unpleasing windows. The great eastern window is entirely modernised, and its highly ornamented mullions destroyed. The four great arches under the tower are remarkably bold; beneath the eastern arch is the choral rood left, the lower part of which is embellished with open carved work, but upon it has been erected a modern gallery. Above the gallery stands a large and very fine-toned organ, given by Henry Arthur, Earl of Powis, in the year 1764; it cost £1,000. A set of chimes was put up at the expense of the parish, in the year 1795, to play seven tunes for the respective days of the week; viz., the 104th. Psalm; Conquering Hero; Highland Laddie; Innocence; Rule Brittania; Life let us Cherish; and Britons strike home.

The choir is spacious, and is lighted by five lofty, pointed windows on each side, and one of much larger dimensions at the east end, which occupies the whole breadth, and nearly the whole height of this part of the building. This great window is entirely filled with painted glass, though not of rich colouring, representing chiefly the legend of St. Lawrence, the patron saint of the church. In the side windows are also large remains of stained glass, principally figures of saints, of richer colouring than those of the eastern window. The oak stalls are still perfect, but injudiciously daubed over with paint.

On each side of the choir is a chantry chapel, and at the north transept is a square building, called 'fletchers chancel', on the top of which is an arrow. It is a probable conjecture, that this erection was for the use of a company of arrow-makers, or fletchers, (as they were anciently denominated) who are supposed to have held their meetings here, and to have kept their books and records in the recess, at the north-east corner of the building.

In the windows of the north chancel, (called St. John's chapel) are paintings representing the history of the apostles, and also very splendid remnants of stained glass, pourtraying the story of the ring presented by some pilgrims to Edward the confessor, who, as the Chronicles relate, "was warned of his death certain days before he died, by a ring that was brought him by certain pilgrims, coming from Hierusalem, which ring he had secretly given to a poore man that asked his charity in the name of God, and saint John the Evangelist. These pilgrims, as the legend recites, were men of Ludlow".

The whole of this noble parish church is ceiled with fine oak, and embellished with carving. The extreme length from east to west is 203 feet, of which the nave is 93, the space under the tower 30, and the choir 80. The breadth of the nave and aisles is 82 feet; the transept measures 130 feet; and the breadth of the choir is 22 feet. The tower rises 131 feet, and, forming a prominent object, gives considerable beauty to many prospects from the neighbouring country. It is quadrangular, and the upper part near the battlements was originally formed with highly finished statues of saints, etc. These were deemed by Oliver Cromwell's officers, when they were possessed of this town, superfluous and irreligious, and were accordingly, either much mutilated or entirely destroyed. Numerous similar works in various parts of the church, suffered the same fate.

In the church there are two highly finished effigies of Judge Bridgeman and his lady, but much mutilated. The head of Sir John Bridgeman's Tomb was opened in 1806, (on sinking a grave for the body of Mrs. Turner) when the hair of both Sir John and his lady was found perfectly entire; the coffins mouldered on exposure to the air. There are monumental inscriptions of Ambrosia Sydney, a daughter of Sir Henry Sydney, 1574 ' Sir Robert Towneshend, Knyght, chief Justice of the counsell in the marches of Wales and Chester, and his wife - Edmund Walter, Esquire; and chieffe Justice of three shiers in South Wales, and one of his Majestie's councill in the Marches of Wales, and Mary his wife, 1592. Dame Mary Eyre, wife of Ralphe Lord Eyre, Baron of Malton, Lord President of the Principallities, etc., 1712, and Theophilus Salwey, Esq. who was the eldest son of Edward Salwey, Esq. a younger son of Major Richard Salwey, who, in the last century, sacrificed all and every thing in his power in support of publick liberty, and in opposition to arbitrary power. 1760'.

Sacram Memoriae Dui Johannis Brydgman, Militis, servientis ad legem, et capitalis Justiciarii Cestriae, Qui Maximo omnium Bosorum Maerore (cum 70 annos, vixisset) 5 Feb. anno 1636. Pic Placideque animam Deo reddidit.

Francisca uxor maestissima posuit.

O Quisquis ades
Reverere manes Inclytos
Edoardi Vavghan, e Trawscoed, Arm.
Johannis Vavghan, Equitis Herois,
Haeredis ex Traduce;
Proin' patris magn' ad instar
Per onmigenae literaturae, sive academicae, sive forensis
Huc eccerrime vel a puero contendit;
Vt Principi et patriae
Egregie inserviret;
Quod feliciter assecutus est,
Utrique gratus et amabilis,
Et spectatissimus civis
in ipsa temporum
Ut scias hic condi quem antiqui dixere
Virum cubicum
Et divinum.
Talis tantusq; flentibus etiam inimicis,
Commorientibus paene amicis,
Ipso solo Iaeto et lubente,
Receptus est
In Beatorum patriam
Conjugi, parentiq; desideratissime
Vidua sum liberis
Perpetim Iugens
Hoc mortale momentum
Ipso sibi immortale epitaphium.

The time of the building of this church is not recorded, but from an attentive survey of its architecture, it is supposed to have been erected early in the sixteenth century. Though it was never, strictly speaking, collegiate, it possessed a chantry of ten priests, supported by the Palmers, [he pilgrims who brought the ring to Edward the Confessor. See page 258.] which gave to its choral service, the splendour of a cathedral. It is a rectory, and its present value is said to be £200 per ausum. There are a reader and a lecturer, whose salaries are paid partly by the corporation, and partly by the parish. It is in the bishoprick of Hereford, and Ludlow is the capital of this division of the diocese.

The visitations, or ecclesiastical courts, are held twice a year, generally in May and October, for proving wills, granting letters of administration, etc. The Proctors reside at Hereford. Four apparitors officiate, who reside at Ludlow.

Adjoining the church is a handsome structure, containing thirty three very comfortable apartments. It was founded by Mr. John Hosyer, a merchant, in the year 1486, but was rebuilt in 1758, at the expense of the corporation.

It is intended for the accommodation of poor people, to each of whom is allowed 4d., but nothing further is discoverable respecting its origin, or its founder. Over the door, and under the arms of the town, is the following inscription:-

Domum hanc Eleemosynariam
Munificentia Johannis Hosyer, mercatoris,
Anno salutis MCCCCLXXXVI primits extructam,
Temporis injuria labefactam din et ruituram,
In Dei optimi Maximi gloriam, pii funditoris
Memoriam, et commodiotem
Pauperum receptionem; ab ipsis usque
Fundamentis propriis sumptibus,
Resuscitarunt, Ampliarunt, Ornarunt,
Ballivi, Burgenses, et communitas
Villae hujus de Ludlow,
Anno Demiai MDCCLVIII,
Augustissimi Regis, Georgii secundi
Tricesimo primo.

The allowance to the poor by this charity has been advanced by the corporation to two shillings and sixpence weekly.

Besides Hosyer's, there are the following charities,-

Walter's. Left by James Walter, Esq., £10 annually to the poor, and £10 to the parson and preacher.
Tomlyne's. £33 6s. 8d. annually to the poor.
Candlaud's. Left by Thomas Candland, £1 annually to the poor.
Archer's. Ditto Ditto.
Susan Gay's. £6 annually to the inmates of Hosyer's, and the Corve street alms-houses.
Morgan Lloyd's. 13s. 4d. annually among the inmates of Hosyer's foundation.
May Beetenson's. £2 13s. 4d. half-yearly to be divided among the thirty three alms people.
Ann Smith's. £2 10s. 8d. annually to the poor.
Susannah Smith's. The interest of £100 in the navy, 5 per cents given half yearly to the poor.
Lane's Charity. Left by Thomas Lane,- the rent of land amounting to £23 10s. 0d, per annum, distributed to the poor in twelve nine-penny loaves, to twelve poor widows.
Phillips, Charity. Left by Evan Phillips,- the sum of £34, laid out in land, which produces £13 a year, distributed among decayed old men and women.
Alderman Darien's. Left by Alderman Richard Davies, amounting to £ 6 annually, to eight poor " widows.
Mrs. Sandford's. Left by Mrs. Eleanor Sandford, the interest of £25, to the poor of Castle street ward.
Long's. The interest of £20 annually; to twenty selected poor persons of the parish of St. Lawrence.
Mrs. Robinson's. Called in the charity book, the bishop of Londen's Lady; the interest of £100 in equal portions, to the charity school, and twenty poor-house keepers.
Meyricke's and Sir} £140 to be lent to poor tradeimen, and
Timothy Turner's.} £40 a year to the charity schools.
Gwilliams's Charity. Left by Richard Gwilliams, £3 annually to the parish of Ludlow; the Vicar of King's chapel, and the vicar of Leominster, £1 of which to be by each of them distributed yearly to poor impotent persons in those places.
Dr. Sonnibank's. Left by Charles Sonnibank, D.D., £13 13s. 8d. per annum, to be given quarterly to ten poor widows of Ludlow, by the rector, who is allowed 6s. 8d. for his trouble in the distribution.
Horne's Benefaction. Left by Robert Horne, £10 per annum to the rector of Ludlow, for the time being.
Mrs. Higginson's Charity. Left by Mrs. Jane Higginson of Doddingtoh, in the parish of Whitchurch, £5 per annum, to five decayed tradesmen's Widows who are to keep clean the chancel of the church; and £5 per annum, to the Rector of Ludlow.
Morgan's Charity. The Rev. Richard Morgan, rector of Clungunford, left to the rector, Lecturer and Reader of Ludlow, for the time being, £140 in trust, to pay for the schooling of poor children.
Hollingsworth's Charity. Left by Thomas Hollingsworth and Richard Nash; the interest of £150 which is distributed in bread to the poor.

There were formerly other charities, which are now lost. Some of the most important of these were from the Palmer's Guild, or Club, of which ancient fraternity little is known.

There was anciently a college of white friars situated out of Corve gate. It was demolished at the dissolution, in the time of Henry the eighth;- an alms house has however survived the chapel, and, according to the will of its founder, is contributory to the maintenance of four poor and impotent persons, two from the parish of Bromfield, and two from Ludlow.

Near the bottom of Corve street is a chapel belonging to the independents. The original institution of this society seems to have been between the years 1731 and 1738; and its advancement from a private meeting of about 20 persons, to a number capable of supporting an officiating minister, was, it appears, owing in a great degree, to the injustice of persecution.

On Sunday, March 21, in the year 1781, somewhat more than twenty persons met together in the house of Mrs. Jones, in High street, Ludlow, for the purpose of religious worship, which had scarcely commenced, when a mob collected, who furiously attacked the house, and threw stones through the windows, to the great terror and danger of the persons within; on which Mrs. Jones, Peter Griffin, and James Wynde, went to the High Bailiff, Mr. Henry Davies, to request his assistance. But he, instead of helping, charged them with the riot, threatening to prosecute them with the utmost rigour of the law, notwithstanding Mrs. Jones and her friends produced a license for religious worship in her house, signed by fourteen justices of the peace. The mob hearing how matters stood, returned to the charge, and broke every window in the house. Mrs. Jones and her friends were now ordered before the bailiffs, and a justice of the peace, who told them they stood fined in £20, and bound to appear at the next Quarter Sessions. In the mean time, after urgent and repeated solicitations, the riot act was read, and the mob dispersed. A narrative of this case having been presented to the London Committee of Dissenting Ministers, the celebrated Dr. Samuel Chandler, who was one of that body at the time, advocated the Cause of the sufferers, and by a legal process compelled the Ludlow magistrates to make ample compensation. In the preface to a narrative of this transaction, published by Mrs. Mary Marlowe, it is stated that ' it is well known that the gentlemen who by their offices and stations should have suppressed the mob, were subpoenaed to London, and there fined, reprimanded, and brought to beg pardon on their knees. Yet the good people generosly forgave the fine, and required no more than to have the damages repaired, and the charges defrayed, as they only desired peace and quietness'.

Corve river which gives denomination to Corve street, passes under a handsome stone bridge, at the bottom of it. This bridge was built by the corporation in 1787, and the foundation is said to have been made with stones from the chapel of St. Leonard,

A little above Corve gate is an antique building, known by the name of the Feathers Inn, which has formerly been an elegant mansion. In the mantle-piece of one of the front rooms, well preserved specimens of carved work remain, from which the traditionary account of its having helonged to one of the jstices of the court of the marches, is sufficiently confirmed; and the initials I.R. over the royal arms, point out the time of James the first.

From the top of Corve street, three other streets branch out in opposite directions, forming there an area or square of considerable dimensions. This was formerly an open place, but is now encumbered with buildings. From its having been the theatre of the barbarous amsement of bull baiting, it is, still known by the name of the Bull- ring.

Eastward from the Ball-ring is Goalford tower, the common prison of the town, which has of late been much improved. On the front is the following inscription:-

'This building was erected at the charge of the corporation, in MDCCLXIV, in the fourth year of King George the third; for the common prison of this town; is the place of Goalford's tower, an ancient prison and gate, by length of time, having become ruinous'.

From the road which strikes off in as eastern direction from, Goalford gate, at the place where the range of buildings called Lower Goalford terminates, there passes a narrow lane, called Friar's lane, which joins the bottom of Old street, at the place where Old gate formerly stood, and where there are yet to be seen some remains of the gate-way. This street comes in a direct line southward from the Bull-ring; and the lane below it, paying a chief rent to the manor of Holdgate, is called Holdgate fee. Behind Old street there is a suite of gardens, occupying a triangular piece of ground, bounded on one side by lower Goalford, and on the other by Friars' lane. On this inclosure was situated the religious establishment for Augustine Friars, or Friars Eremites. The founder of this Friary is not known. Edmund de Pontibus, that is Bridgeman, was a benefactor. The first religious house of this order established in England, was Wodd House, near Cleobury.

Passing along the road which leaves the town at the bottom of Holdgate fee, we come to a small mound of earth and stones; which marks the boundary of the township. The name of the Weeping Cross' still retained by this landmark, serves to preserve the traditionary record of a Cross, and indicates the probability that not far distant from it, there may in ancient times, have been a monkish cell or anchoretage. It is generally believed that the Maen Achwynfan, or stone of lamentation, was peculiar to the ancient Britons, and erected by them, sometime previously to the mission of St. Augstine. Erections of this denomination consisted of one solid stone; upwards of twelve feet high, with a rounded head, on which was the figure of a cross, ornamented with singular sculptures. Beside the sacred pillars the weeping penitent was conducted to confess his sins to the officiating priest.

Adjoining to Old gate is the workhouse, with a small prison or cell attached to it, called the House of Correction, for securing Vagrants, and other delinquents. The original institution of this parochial establishment was by an individual of the name of Thomas Lane, of Ludlow, who had, in early life, been a domestick servant in the Charlton family, and who by will, dated 20th. November, 1674, bequeathed the greater part of his estate to Sir Job Charlton, and two others, to be by them disposed of as he should appoint, or, in default of such appointment, to such charitable use as they judged best.

From the will of Sir Job Charlton, the last survivor of these trustees, dated December 6th., 1691, it appears that the money derived from this bequest had been employed in repairing and furnishing an old house, which had been granted to the trustees of Ludlow, and in purchasing certain lands in Middleton, called the Measles, of the annual value of about £30, and, by his said will, Sir Job Charlton. desires his son Francis to take care that the charitable fund of his grateful servant Thomas Lane, be employed to maintain a work-house, and a house of correction, (which it appears he had already established in the old house above-mentioned,) for the benefit of the poor of Ludlow, and the neighbouring villages; and he directs that the rents and profits of the lands at Middleton, and whatever else should arise from the property bequeathed, should go for the maintenance of the master of the said work-house, and for keeping it in repair; and that his right heirs, or in default thereof, the rector of Ludlow, and the vicar of Ludford, and the chief magistrate of Ludlow, should nominate one of the chamber, or at least one of the inhabitants of Ludlow, to be the master of the said work-house. Under the residuary clause of Thomas Lane's will, a reversion passed to the use of this charity, of certain premises granted to his widow, during her life. These consisted of a house in Broad street, now let to Mr. W. Smith, joiner, for £20 a year; and also a garden near Brand Lane, a meadow between Mill street mills, and Ludford bridge, and a meadow in the township of Halton. These last-mentioned premises, together with the lands in Middleton, were exchanged with Sir Charles William Rous Boughton, Bart., for some meadow and pasture lands called East Fields and Partners, in the parish of Staunton Lacy, let for £56 a year in 1790; these lands are let from year to year, to Benjamin Flounders, Esq., a a rent of £100. There was in 1820, in the bands of E. L. Charlton, Esq., of Ludford, (the present trustee of the charity, as heir of Sir Job Charlton,) the sum of £16 8s. 3d, the amount of a balance due in 1816 arising from the savings of income. This sum was destined by Mr. Charlton to the erection of a new house of correction, the present one, a singla small apartment at the back of the work-house, being totally unfit for the purpose; but the design has been for the present suspended, in consequence of a proposal new in agitation, for building a house of correction, in the jail yard, at the joint charges of the corporation and the charity.

The income of this charity, now amounting to £120 a year, was, in 1818, applied as follows:-

£. s. d.
Governor's Salary: 20 0 0
Repairs: 24 8 8
Raw materials and charges for weaving and dyeing: 45 5 6
Taxes: 7 16 0

Total: 97 10 2

Leaving a surplus of income (which in 1818 was £114, the rent of the house in Broad street being only £14,) of £16 9s. 10d; and in 1816, there remained in the hands of the Receiver, a surplus of £14 9s. Od. exclusive of the sum of £216 18s. 3d, paid in that year to Mr. Charlton.

The Governor is appointed by Mr. Charlton, and receives from the parish an additional salary of £20.

From the Workhouse, the narrow lane called Frog Lane conducts us to the bottom of Broad Street. The foundations of the Town Wall may be traced here, and the Fosse has been converted into Garden ground.

The arched passage of Broad Gate remains entire; from which, lower Broad street conducts us to Ludford Bridge, near which, to the left, is a field called St. John's close, indicating the place where St. John's college formerly stood. In the catalogue of suppressed religious houses, neither the time of the foundation of this college, nor the founder's name, is to he found; but it is stated in the Monasticon, that "St. John Baptist's Hospital, founded by Peter Undergot, near the river of Temede water, for a master and religious brothers, was endowed by him with several lands, that the brothers, after his death, were authorised to choose their own masters for ever without any obstruction; and that the said masters and brothers may admit such as they should think fit into their brotherhood, and receive the poor and infirm, and do all such other things as should become religious men".

Perfectly consistent with this account is that of Leland, if we consider Jordan of Ludford to have been the descendant or heir of Undergot;- He says "there was formerly on the north side of the bridge, a church of St. John, standing without Broad gate, which had a college, with a Dean and Fellows, of the foundation of Jordan de Ludford". The historical account of Walter Lacie, and Gilbert his son, as benefactors, and of Peter Undergot, as patron or founder of this college, mark out distinct periods of antiquity, approaching to, and almost coeval with, the conquest; and as long as the name shall remain which the site of this religious foundation has given to the inclosure on which it stood, the traditionary record of its former existence will not be forgotten.

The well built stone Bridge is supposed to have been erected by the corporation, but at what time is not known: the river here parts the two counties of Salop and Hereford.

Near the top of lower Broad street, is a chapel or meeting house, belonging to the Wesleyan Methodists, built in the year 1800. Service was first performed there, the 18th. of August, in the same year.

The stranger who enters Ludlow through Broad gate, will see the town in an advantageous point of view; the gate itself is an interesting object, and upper Broad street is spacious and well built.

From Broad gate, (the gate-way to which is the only one now remaining entire,) Barnaby lane passes into the bottom of Mill street. Barnaby lane receives its name from an ancient religious foundation called Barnaby house, famous in the age of pilgrimages, as the temporary resting place of the numerous devotees passing through Ludlow, on their way to the holy well of St. Wenefrede, in North Wales. Adjoining this building, there formerly stood a chapel dedicated to St. Mary of the Vale, on the site of which a silk factory was sometime since erected, which is now converted into a wool warehouse. This vicinity has received the name of Merry Vale, derived from the familiar epithet of Mary Vale, applied to the chapel.

The gate-way of Mill gate is at the end of Barnaby lane, and Mill street, like Broad street, rises in a northern direction, up a considerably elevated ascent, many of the buildings on each side of which, are suited to the liberal dimensions, and elegant appearance of this street. A little above Mill gate, to the right, is the free grammar school, the original foundation of which, is not known.

The school premises comprise two houses, in which the two masters reside; and the school room and bed rooms over it. Some years ago the enlargement and repairs cost near £700; and the head master's house is now sufficiently large to accommodate forty boarders. The masters live free of rent and parochial rates, but pay the king's taxes. They are allowed to take boarders without restriction.

All children who apply to the head master, who are able to read decently, and reside in the town, are immediately admitted. The scholars are taught Latin and Greek, if they wish it, and read English, gratis. For reading and arithmetick, the boys in the lower school pay three guineas per annum, and in the upper, two guineas. The under master teaches writing and arithmetick, and receives the whole emolument. Four boys of this school receive a benefaction of £2 13s. 4d. each, by the year, under the will of Dr. Langford; these four boys are to be nominated by the Bailiffs, ' out of such poor and towardlie for learning as are born in the town of Ludlow', to be nine years of age, and to continue until sixteen, and no longer. These boys wear black gowns on Sundays, when they go to church, and are called Langfordian boys.

The school is also entitled to two exhibitions to Baliol college, Oxford, upon the endowment of the Rev. Richard Greaves, in the year 1604, the trusts of which are vested in the college. The annual expenditure of this school, is as follows.

£. s. d.
Salary of the head Master: 80 0 0
Ditto of the under Master: 60 0 0
Average of Repairs: 15 0 0
Poor and Parish Rates: 10 0 0

Total: £65 0 0

Opposite the school is an old building formerly a distillery, now converted into a Theatre, which is occasionally occupied by the Worcester company of actors, especially during the Races. Toward the top of this street is the Guildhall,- an elegant modern building erected at the expense of the corporation, in the year 1768, on the site of the old building of that name, originally belonging to the Palmer's' Guild.

The suburbs below Mill Gate receive the name of Lower Mill Street, from which place distinct traces of the town wall are to be seen, almost to the new Bridge. This is a plain, wooden bridge, on stone piers, over the Teme, nearly opposite the castle.

The lane leading from the bottom of Mill street to Dinham, bears the name of Camp lane, from the frequent encampments of soldiers on the ground extending from it to the river. In 1786 Dinham gateway remained entire, and many persons now living remember the Chapel, approached by a flight of steps to the right, on entering the town. We might have been induced to believe this the chapel built by Roger Mortimer, in the year 1329, had it not been distinctly recorded to have stood within the outer court of the castle, and, as is generally believed, contiguous to the courthouse. Immediately under the south wall of the castle, is a handsome brick built mansion, the occasional residence of the Clive family. This building receives the name of Dinham house, and the neighbourhood that of Dinham from the original name of Dinan, iudicating the existence of a Palace or princely residence, which doubtless stood here, when the Britons occupied Ludlow, previously to the time when the kingdom of Mercia began to extend itself beyond its ancient boundary, the Severn.

Dicas and Dinas, are words frequently occurring in the accounts of British antiquities, and are sometimes found applied to pieces of apparent insignificance, yet a careful investigation will generally discover that places so denominated, have been formerly occupied by some Chief, or Prince, of the country.

Towards the close of the late war, Lucien Buonaparte, being detained a prisoner in England, was conducted to Ludlow, and Dinham house was selected for his residence.

Out of Dinham we pass into Castle street, in which is a plain brick building, called the Market house, containing large and convenient rooms, used for meetings of the Corporation, Balls, Subscription Assemblies, etc. Beneath is an open space for the corn market. Attached to this building are two reservoirs, to one of which, water is raised from the river by machinery, at the bottom of lower Mill street; the other receives spring water from a place called the fountain, under Whitecliff coppice.

Raven lane passes from the Market house into the Cross lane, called Bell lane, which connects Mill street and Broad street; in a line with which, is Broad lane, passing from Broad street into Old street. Near the end of this lane is the house appropriated to the use of the girls belonging to the National school, which was opened on the 11th. of February, 1814. The school room is lofty and spacious, measuring in length upwards of 28 feet, and 15 in breadth; the number of scholars is about 80. The school room for the boys belonging to this institution is over the Market cross, at the top of Broad street, and is that formerly occupied by the Blue Coat school, with which it is incorporated. The room measures in length 52 feet 6 inches; in breadth 28 feet 8 inches, and in height 11 feet. The number of scholars taught, is about 200. The National school was first established on the 3rd. of February, 1818. It is supported by voluntary subscriptions, by annual collections made in the church, and by various legacies, together with the income arising from the funds of the Blue Coat school.

The annual income of this establishment will vary according to circumstances, but perhaps the differenee not be very material; the followhg it an abstract of the account for the year 1821:-

£ s. d.
Receipts: 253 12 11
Payments: 267 7 11

Leaving a balance in favour of the charity of £46 5s. 0d.

The Market Cross is a modern erection, chiefy occupied by market women, who expose for sale, butter and other productions of the farm; on which account it is sometimes called the Butter Cross. In the cupola of this elegant building is a bell, formerly belonging to the chapel of St. Leonard, on which is the following inscription,- All prayse and glory to God for evermore. 1684.

Eastward from the top of Broad street, is King street, leading to the Bull-ring; and the opposite street which conducts is to the Market house is called High street.

Here the circuit of the town ends; in the course of which every thing remarkable has been noticed, that can be supposed to interest the passing traveller, or the more attentive observer of the relicks of former ages. Except the castle and the friary of St. Mary, the more ancient buildings cannot be distinctly traced back to their origin; though it is sufficiently evident that some of them were of great antiquity.

The town of Ludlow had previously to its first charter given by the fourth Edward, been governed as at present, by the twelve and twenty five, through a period defectlve in historical records, and extending far beyond human recollection. Hence an enquiry into the origin of its former and present civil institutions would be altogether fruitless. The phrase Free Burgh, is understood to be synonimous with the Roman appellation of Municipal, or free city; both of them denoting, in reference to the place to which they were applied, an exemption from the immediate jurisdiction of any foreign power. The system sanctioned by Edward the fourth for the government of Ludlow, was nearly the same as it had previously enjoyed: the citizens were too much attached to their ancient constitution to desire any alteration, and the monarch's gratitude for the important services he had received in his greatest difficulties would not allow him to oppose their wishes. This character was renewed, and in some particulars altered, during the succeeding reigns, from Edward the fourth to Charles the second, but in the time of William and Mary, in the year 1690, its original form was restored, in conformity to the wishes of the principal inhabitants, who petitioned parliament for that purpose.

Ludlow is governed by a Recorder, two Bailiffs, two Justices, twelve Aldermen, twenty five Common Council Men, a Town Clerk, a chief Constable, a Coroner, and several other inferior officers.

In the process of forming this civil establishment, thirty seven individuals are first selected from among the burgesses of the town. Out of these twelve are chosen as Aldermen, or principal Burgesses, and one of this number is selected High Bailiff. The remaining twenty five are the Common Council, from which the low Bailiff is chosen.

The privilege of Burgesship is inherited by the sons of Burgesses, and those who marry their daughters are entitled also to be admitted into this body; for which purpose they are required to petition, according to the prescribed form given in the bye law, made in the year 1663.

The annual election of the bailiffs is on the 13th of October, and they enter upon their office on the 28th. of the same month, on which occasion, a publick dinner is provided, which is always numerously attended by the principal inhabitants of the towns and by the neighbouring nobility and gentry. A ball is afterwards given, and the whole of these entertainments is on a liberal scale, splendid and extensive, far above any thing of the kind in this part of the country.

The Quarter Sessions are held here, before the Recorder, the high Bailiff, and the Justices of the town. This court has, in former times, passed sentence of death, but the Recorders of late years not being Barristers, all persons liable to be tried for capital offences are removed by Habeas Corpus to the county jail.

A court of Record is held every Tuesday, the Recorder and Bailiffs presiding as Judges.

Ludlow was authorized to send two representatives to Parliament, by King Edward the fourth, in the year 1461, the first of his reign; which privilege it appears ever since to have enjoyed. The right of electing is understood to be in all the resident Burgesses; and the Bailiffs are the returning officers.

Among the customs peculiar to this town, that of the Rope Pulling is not the least extraordinary. On Shrove Tuesday the Corporation provide a rope three inches in thickness, and in length thirty six yards; which is given out at one of the windows of the Market-house, as the clock strikes four; when a large body of the inhabitants, divided into two parties; one contending for Castle street and Broad street wards, and the other for Old street and Corve street wards, commence an arduous struggle; and as soon as either party gains the victory, by pulling the rope beyond the prescribed limits; the pulling ceases; which is however renewed by a second and sometimes, by a third contest; the rope being purchased by subscription from the victorious party, and given out again. Without doubt this singular custom is symbolical of some remarkable event, and a remnant of that ancient language of visible signs, which, says a celebrated writer, ' imperfectly supplies the want of letters, to perpetuate the remembrance of publick, or private transactions'. The sign in this instance, has survived the remembrance of the occurrence it was designed to represent, and remains a profound mystery. It has been insinuated that the real occasion of this custom is known to the Corporation, but that for some reason or other, they are tenacious of the secret. As obscure tradition attributes this custom to circumstances arising out of the siege of Ludlow, by Henry the sixth; when two parties arose within the town, one supporting the pretensions of the Duke of York, and the other wishing to give admittance to the King: (See Drayton) one of the Bailiffs is said to have headed the latter party. History relates, that in this contest many lives were lost, and that the Bailiff, heading his Party in an attempt to open Dinham gate, fell a victim there. If this custom were intended to represent the scene of civil strife referred to, we will leave our readers to judge, whether or not it be an apt emblem of it.

In common with other ancient places, Ludlow still preserves the custom of walking over the limits once a year. This procession is on the Wednesday before Holy Thursday; on which day the boys of the different schools, attended by one of the clergy, proceed from the church to a place near Corve Bridge, where a cross formerly stood. Here the Epistle of the preceding Sunday is read. From hence, passing to the Weeping Cross the boys again kneel down, and the Gospel for the same day is read by the Clergyman, after which the ceremony is completed at the Guild hall.

A publick dispensary was established in the year 1780, which by the benevolent exertions of the presiding Physician, and the assistance of very liberal subscription, proves extensively useful in administering relief to the diseased poor. There is also a society for the relief of lying-in women, who are in indigent circumstances. The persons relieved are poor men's wives, of reputable character, to whom shirts, napkins, bedgowns, caps, and various other necessary articles are supplied, during the time of their confinement; to be returned on their recovery. In some came, pecuniary relief is also given. A committee of twelve ladies conducts the business of this society. Each subscriber is allowed to recommend one woman, for the annual sabsctiption of 10s. 6d. This very excellent charity is well supported.

Three companies yet remain of the incorporated tradesmen. First, that of the Stitchmen, consisting of glovers, tailors, breeches makers, stay makers, etc. Second, the Hammer men, blacksmiths, braziers, masons, etc. The Third, Leather men, tanners, curriers, shoemakers, etc. These have annual feasts, which they call 'Halls' from their having been formerly held in the town Guild.

Ludlow cannot boast of any particular manufactory on a large scale; the greater part of the town being inhabited by genteel families, attracted probably by the healthy and pleasant situation of the place. Its chief trade is in gloves, in the manufacture of which, a great number of persons of both sexes are employed, Besides this, there is a considerable business done in paper making, tanning, the timber trade, and cabinet making.

The town is built on a foundation partly rock, and partly a hard gravel; and the water, which on digging rises through the strata, is superior to that which is supplied by pumps in the generality of the town. Upon evaporation this water leaves a small portion of a whitish salt on the sides and bottom of the vessel, which deliquidates on exposure to the air, and is conceived to be muriate of lime, a substance frequently formed in wells contiguous to buildings.

The town being excellently supplied with water, there is little occasion to seek for springs in the neighbourhood, though there are several worth attention, particularly one, in a field beyond Linney, called the Boiling Well, another called Sugar Well, near the Paper Mills, and the far-famed well of St. Julian, in Ludford.

The river Teme, after being joined by the Corve, at a short distance north of Ludlow, embraces its southern and western sides. In this river are found Pike, Trout, Greyling, Perch, Eels, and various other kinds of fish; the Corve supplies Trout, Greyling, Chubb, etc.

The Corve in its course by the bottom of Corve street and Linney, turns a wheel to grind bark for the tanners, and puts in motion machinery for manufacturing cordage, sacking, etc. and on the Teme are several Corn Mills, a Paper Mill, and at the foot of Ludford Bridge, a small Factory, belonging to an industrious thriving individual who manufactures Woollen Cloth; Flannels, Yarn, Blankets, etc.

Thomas Johnes Esq. was born at Ludlow, in the year 1748. He received his early education at Shrewsbury school, and at Eton, and from the latter place removed to Jesus College, Oxford, where, in 1783, he took his degree of master of arts. Previously to this he made the tour of Europe, and had been elected into parliament for the borough of Cardigan. He was also appointed auditor for the principality of Wales, and colonel of the Carmarthenshire militia. In 1795, he was returned knight of the shire, for the county of Radnor. It is impossible to speak too highly of this much respected and learned man, this local patriot, and friend of literature. His death caused a vacancy in society which cannot soon be filled. His extensive improvements at Hafod, afford abundant proof of the benevolence and taste of its late inhabitant, Before the year 1783, when Mr. Johnes began to erect his first residence, the roads were impassable, and there was not a post chaise in the county. He transformed the miserable huts of the peasantry into comfortable habitations, and supplied medical attendants. He employed the population in planting millions of forest trees, upon the cheerless barrenness of the wastes and mountains, and instituted schools, which he and Mrs. Johnes personally attended.

Having in view the twofold design- to patronize literature and the arts, and to combine objects which, together with the natural grandeur of the scenery, might induce travelling to this remote part of the principality, and thus increase the wealth, and ameliorate the condition of the natives, he enriched his residence with paintings and sculptures by the best masters,- stored his library with the most valuable literature, ancient and modern; and in his pleasure grounds developed and gave increased effects to the sublime scenery of nature. So intent was Mr. Johnes on improving the agriculture of this forlorn country, that he brought farmers from Scotland, and other districts, and proposed at one time, to introduce 100 Grison families, and place them on the uncultivated grounds; but various circumstances and objections prevented the latter plan. An agricultural society was commenced for the purpose of encouraging cottagers, by giving premiums, and purchasing their productions; and he wrote and distributed an excellent tract, entitled "A Cardiganshire Landlord's advice to his tenants". While Mr. Johnes was thus employing his talents and his fortune for the benefit of his country, a destructive fire in 1807, consumed his house, with much of its valuable contents; the loss amounting to £70,000. Notwithstanding this disaster, Mr. Johnes resolved to re-inhabit his Eden, and Hafod was rebuilt and adorned anew. Amidst these various occupations, and his business in Parliament, Mr. Johnes indulged his passion for elegant literature, by translating and publishing superb editions of the travels of Brocquire, 1 vol., 4to. The Chronicles of Froissart, 4 vols., folio; Monstrellet, 4 vols., and Joinville, 2 vols., 4to. The three latter were printed at his own press at Hafod. During the last few years of his life, he continued indefatigable in his improvements at Hafod, and in making roads and erecting bridges, for the accommodation of the publick. He also succeeded in establishing a fund for the relief of families who might suffer by casualties. In the winter of 1814, Mr. Johnes had an alarming illness, from which however he appeared to have recovered; and he purchased a residence in Devonshire, 'for a cradle', as he expressed it, 'for his age'. Here it was that the hand of death arrested him, after a short illness. His remains were removed to the church which he had built at Hafod, and were deposited in the same vault with those of his daughter, for whom a marble monument of interesting design and exquisite workmanship, was executed in London. They who have beheld the romantick situation of Hafod church, embosomed in plantations, upon the elevated point of a hill, may imagine how such a scene would accord with the melancholy procession, followed through the entangling path ways, by the numerous peasantry, who here bade their last farewell to the master spirit of Hafod. [See a description of this enchanting spot, in the " Cambrian Traveller's Guide".]

The late Richard Payne Knight, Esq. was, for many years, a member of parliament for the borough of Ludlow. He was long distinguished in the literary circles of Europe, having the reputation of being one of the most eminent Greek scholars of his day, and being deeply conversant in all matters of literary antiquity. In 1786, he published a work entitled " An account of the Remains of the Worship of Priapus, lately existing at Ionia, in the Kingdom of Naples, to which is added a discourse on the worship of Priapus, and its connection with the Mystick Theology of the ancients, 4to". This work excited great attention at the time of its appearance, but from the nature of the subject, was not likely to come into general circulation. Mr. Knight was known to be eminently skilled in matters of Vertue; and his fine collection of bronzes, pictures, and various other valuable articles, abundantly demonstrates his taste and knowledge in those subjects. He was also a poet, and his works display great ease, learning, and taste. He is supposed to have been for some years a voluntary contributor to the Edinburgh Review; for his fortune placed him above all pecuniary recompence. He was reserved, and by no means conciliating in his manner, but not repulsive. He was ready to give information on all subjects of learning that were submitted to his judgment, and his observations were always marked by courtesy and intelligence. He was hospitable in his disposition, and desirous of cultivating literary connections, and the acquaintance of persons distinguished for knowledge and talents in the Fine Arts. He was formerly very intimate with the late Mr. Kemble; and and some literary communications which took place between him, and that gentleman, respecting the state of Dramatick Performances, and the estimation in which Actors were held, in ancient Greece, some of whom acted as Ambassadors, and even as Legislators, would be well worthy of publick attention, not only at the present period of theatrical taste, but as meriting a place in the records of general literature.

Mr. Landseer, in his Sabean Researches, pays the following compliment to Mr. Knight: 'The known value of your opinion on subjects connected with ancient art and mythology, combined with your candour, and your caution in admitting novel and ill-principled interpretrations have induced me to address the present essay to you. Your knowledge of ancient languages too (not to mention your astronomical science) by seeing where I sink, may, as I flatter myself, come in aid of that mutual conviction, and that publick information which are my eventual purposes'.

Mr. Knight bequeathed his matchless collection of medals, drawings, and bronzes, worth at least £30,000 to the British Museum. They include a single volume of drawings, by the inimitable Claude, which was purchased for £1,600 from a private individual, who a short time previously had given £3 for the same volume

The first part of this collection contains principally compositions, and memoranda of pictures, which he had painted, draws on paper mostly in brown, with an occasional mixture of grey, and heightened with white, but all by Claude himself. Many of these are masterly, and others are valuable even though it be from the associations inseparable from the certain knowledge that we touch the very paper that had delighted his intelligent mind, under his living hand.

Many of these have been engraved, and are familiar to the collector. In the same volume, which is a large folio, the drawings lately purchased are inserted, and have been cut out of the book in which they were brought over and carefully laid on coloured paper, and arranged by Mr. Payne Knight. Very few of the original drawings which are engraved is the "Libor Veritatis", and of several of the same character in various private collections, can be compared with these, or are capable of elating the same interest; for here we behold the studies of the painter as he wrought from nature, with that pictorial identity and severe truth which can be inspired only upon the spot.

In 1805, Mr. Knight published "An Analytical Inquiry into the principles of taste",- a work which establishes his character, both as a man of taste, a classical scholar, and a philosopher. As a specimen of this work we select the following extract from the second chapter of the second part, p. 223.

'Rules and Systems have exactly the same influence upon taste and manners, as dogmas have upon morals. If a person is polite by rule, how just soever his rules may be, or with whatever strictness and exactitude he may observe them, his behaviour wlll be constrained and formal; and void of all that graceful ease, and ready adoption to every varying shade of circumstance and situation which constitute what is called good breeding, and which can only proceed from a just and discriminating tact, cultivated and reined by habitual exercise. Persons, who attempt to display their taste and talents in art or literature by rule, always err in exactly the same manner. Their rules and systems can never reach every possible case; and, even if they could, the very act of applying them would distract the attention from the sentiment excited; and, consequently, prevent or destroy all just feeling, by making them hesitate and doubt whether they ought to feel, or not, till they had tried their sentiments by the standard of their opinions: but sentiment, that is checked or impeded, is at the same time enfeebled; and thus, though rules and theories may prevent those who have no just feeling or natural tact, from judging totally wrong, they, in an equal degree, prevent those who have, from judging entirely right.

More than a century has now elapsed, since the taste and magnificence of the principal sovereigns of Europe first formed academies in their respective kingdoms, for the study of the arts of painting, sculpture, etc.; in which professors of all the different sciences, connected with those arts, were appointed, models provided, and such of the students as seemed to make the greatest progress, and possess the most promising talents, sent to travel at the expense of the institution, that they might profit by a comparative view of the different styles and manners of all the different schools, and acquire all the information which the remains of antiquity, and the most perfect works of their predecessors in the respective arts, could afford. Under the fostering influence of institutions so favourable, it might naturally be supposed that these arts must have been ever since in a progressive state of improvement; and, considering the high degree of excellence from which that of painting started, that it must be little short of abstract perfection. This is, however, so far from being the case, that not one of these academies has yet produced an artist, whom publick opinion has ranked among painters. [The candid reader will observe that I am speaking only of the regular students of academies, and not of thorn who have incidentally belonged to them.]

Heaven-born geniuses have been continually announced by them; and students of the highest expectation, every year sent forth; but all went and returned through the same beaten track of mediocrity, and just acquired enough of the art to make them miraculous boys, and contemptible men.

This effect has been so uniform and universal, during so long a period of time, that it cannot be merely accidental, or proceed from the casual incapacity of individuals; but must be owing to some radical vice in the institutions themselves: which radical vice, I believe to be nothing more than system: which whether it be good or bad, true or false, equally teaches men to work by rule, instead of by feeling and observation. Those who live and study together, naturally and imperceptibly imitate each other: whence every academy acquires a style and principle of its own; which, by degrees limits and cramps all the exertions of those who belong to it. Whatever they look at, either in nature or art, is seen through a particular medium of their own, which characterizes and vitiates every copy or imitation which they make from it. Hence whatever acquisitions they make, either of theorical knowledge or practical facility, are merely the knowledge and facility of doing wrong; so that the figures with which they cover canvass, become as much the result of mechanick labour as the canvass itself.

That which constitutes the great characteristick difference between liberal and mechanick art; and which gives to the former all its superiority, is feeling or sentiment; a quality, that is always perceived, but incapable of being described. It is this which gives in different ways, those inexpressible charms and graces to the works of Corregio, of Rubens, of Rembrandt, and of Claude; which, amidst inaccuracies, that every student of every academy knows how to reprobate and avoid, still continue to fascinate every beholder; and will continue to do so, as long as a trace of them shall remain.

The most complete establishment of the kind, that has ever existed, is the French academy: but though France produced several great painters before its institution, it has not produced one since. Generations of academicians have arisen and passed away one after the other, each the pride and wonder of their day; but we look in vain for a Pousain, a Le Sueur, or a Bourdon among them.

Had these great artists been bred in the trammels of an academy, they also would have avoided their inaccuracies: but the same cases that restrained their deviations one way, would have restrained them another; and by preventing them from transgressing rules, prevented them from soaring above them. Their knowledge in this case might have been more correct, and their practice more regular: but their observation would have been less various and extensive; their use and application of it less free and vigorous; and their execution more mannered, and less adapted to the respective subjects, upon which it was occasionally employed.

If, however, academical science and precision can be united with feeling and sentiment, there is no doubt that the result would be a degree of perfection hitherto unknown to the art; and which perhaps the limited powers of human nature are, not capable of reaching. Annibal Caracci has combined them in a greater degree than any other painter: but yet how inferior is he, in the first, not only to the great artists of antiquity, but to Raphael; and in the second, to the great Flemish. painters, Rubens, Vandyke, and Rembrandt! In the expression of sentiment and passion, he is indeed superior to all the moderns, except Raphael; but the sentiment or feeling, of which I am now treating, is of a different kind; and belongs to the execution, rather than the design of the picture. It is that felicity in catching the little transitory effects of nature and expressing them in the imitation, so that they may appear to be dropped as it were, fortuitously from the pencil, rather than produced by labour, study or design: it is that, in short, which distinguishes a work of taste and genius, from one of mere science and industry; and which often raises the value of an inaccurate original above that of the most correct copy.

Mr. Knight died April 23, 1824, at his house in Soho square, of an apoplectick affection.

"Sir John Walter, son to Edmund Walter, chief Justice of South Wales, was" says Fuller, "born at Ludlow, in this County; and bred a student of our common Laws, wherein he atteined to great learning, so that he became when a pleader, eminent; when a Judge, more eminent; when no Judge, most eminent.

1. Pleader. The character that learned James Thuanus gives of Christopher Thuanus, his father, being an Advocate of the Civil Law, and afterwards Senator of Paris, is exactly agreeable to this worthy Knight:

' "Ut bonos a calumniatoribus, tenuiores a potentioribus, doctos ab ignorantibus oppromi non pateretur" '.

' "That be suffered not good men to be born down by slanderers; poor men by more potent; learned men by the ignorant" '.

2. Judge. Who (as when ascending the Bench, entering into a new temper,) was most passionate as Sir John; most patient as Judge Walter; and great his gravity in that place. When Judge Denham, his most upright and worthy associate in the Western Circuit, once said unto him, "My Lord, you are not merry!", "Merry enough" returned the other "for a Judge".

3. No Judge. Being outed of his place, when Chief Baron of the Exchequer, about the illegality of the Loan, as I take it. He was a grand Benefactor, (though I know not the just proportion) to Jesus College, in Oxford; and died anno 1630, in the parish of the Savoy, bequeathing £20 to the poor thereof",

LUDSTONE. A township in the parish of Claverley, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 5 miles north-east by east of Bridgnorth. See appendix.

LURKINGHOPE. A township in the parish of Stow, and in the Stow division of the hundred of Purslow. 10 miles south of Bishopscastle.

LUSHCOT. Part of a township in the franchise of Wenlock. See Longville.

LUTWICH. A township in the parish of Rushbury, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow.

LWYNTLANAN, A township in the parish of Llanymynech, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry.

LYDBURY NORTH. A parish in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 139 houses, 822 inhabitants. 3 miles south-east of Bishopscastle.

LYDHAM. A parish partly in the county of Montgomery, and partly in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. The parish contains 225 inhabitants. The Shropshire part, 18 houses, 113 inhabitants. 2 miles north-east by north of Bishopscastle.

LYDLEYSHAYS. A township in the parish of Cardington, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow, 4 miles north-east of Church Stretton.

LYTH. See Birch and Lyth.

LYTH, GREAT. A township in the parish of Condover, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 2 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

LYTH WOOD. A township in the parish of Condover, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 3 miles south-west of Shrewsbury. The residence of Thomas Parr, Esq.

MADELEY. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 1,081 houses, 5,379 inhabitants. LAT. 52. 40 N. LONG. 2. 33 W. 148 miles north-west of London. Fairs,- January 26, May 29, and October 12.

Madeley stands in an elevated situation, fifteen miles southeast of Shrewsbury. It has a Market on Fridays, called Madeley Wood Market, which is well supplied with provisions, and is of late become a considerable mart for corn. Near the church are the house and barn which afforded shelter to the unfortunate Charles the second, after his defeat at the battle of Worcester. (See Boscobel.) The house is now the residence of the Rev. John Bartlett. On the opposite side of the road is Madeley Hall, belonging to Sir Henry Hawley, Bart.

The court house, now converted into farm-houses, the property of Mrs. Dyott, was formerly the residence of the ancient family of Brooke, as the inscriptions under their monuments in the church record. These monuments were removed when the church was pulled down, and when that edifice was rebuilt in 1796, they were again placed at the east end, in niches made for that purpose.

Here is a Roman Catholick chapel, with a residence for the Priest, who holds also another chapel at Middleton Priors, near Bridgnorth, under the jurisdiction of the Rev. Dr. Milner, Vicar Apostolick of the Midland district.

Two miles from the church, in a south-easterly direction, is Coalport, which takes its name from the termination of the Shropshire canal, which is seven miles in length. The coals brought by this conveyance, from the extensive mines of Ketley, Dawley, and other places, are landed on the banks of the river Severn, and are thence transported in barges to different parts of the counties of Worcester and Gloucester, to the average amount of fifty thousand tons annually.

The large and flourishing Porcelain Manufacture of John Rose, and Co., the only one of the kind in this county, where the arts of modelling and painting have reached a high degree of perfection, is carried on at Coalport. This article in the beauty of its composition,- the superior taste displayed on its surface, and the elegance of the workmanship, is no where excelled. From four to five hundred persons are constantly employed in this manufacture, which is the sole support of at least fifteen hundred inhabitants of the Salopian soil, and the source from which many individuals have amassed great wealth. There is also a rope, and a timber yard, on an extensive scale, and a neat iron bridge over the Severn, erected in 1817, in the place of a wood one.

Near this bridge is a remarkably large wheel, 240 feet in circumference. It turns a mill for expressing oil from linseed. This mill is the property of William Horton, Esq., and not far from it, is the residence of that gentleman, delightfully situated on the banks of the river.

About a mile distant, between the above-mentioned bridge, and the old one erected in 1779, (See Coalbrook Dale which is in this parish) are the large furnaces of the Madeley Wood Company, used for the making of pig iron of superior quality. At a little distance is a neat villa, the residence of William Anstice Esq., one of the proprietors of these works, and farther to the left, is the Hay, a place of great antiquity, the seat of Robert Feriday, Esq.

There is in this neighbourhood a tunnel made by order of the late William Reynolds, Esq., for the more easy conveyance of coals, which are here the chief article of commerce,

This tunnel was discontinued from some unknown cause. Its length is about one mile in a direct line, and it is arched with brick nearly the whole way. It is remarkable that a quantity of tar flows from the interstices in the sides. The tar (falling upon the surface of a small stream which runs in a narrow channel to the entrance) is there deposited in the form of a sediment, and at convenient times is put into barrels for use. The quantity thus obtained, when the excavation was first made, exceeded one barrel per day; and each barrel was worth about three guineas. But ever since that period, the quantity has gradually diminished, and is now not more than twenty barrels in the year. It is therefore probable that in a few years, this bounty of nature will be exhausted.

In the month of May great numbers of that species of fish, called the shad, are caught in this part of the river Severn, in the following singular manner. A man having taken his stand with a casting net over his shoulder, in a place where the stream is very shallow, and inclines towards the shore,- remains in this position till he observes the playing of the fishes, which always come in shoals; when he throws his net over them, and generally succeeds in taking one, and sometimes four or six, at a single throw. They have been caught of the weight of six pounds, though rarely;- in general they do not weigh more than two or three pounds each. When first in season, they are considered a well flavoured fish, but they soon become unpalatable. It is supposed that these fish come up the river to spawn, for when they return, which they do in a very short time, they are so lean as not to be thought worth taking. No obstacles impede them in their progress up-the river; in which respect they resemble the salmon.

Boats which are fastened by a weight suspended at the bottom of the stream, are sometimes used in taking this fish.

There are some publick walks near the Iron Bridge, from which the Welsh mountains and the surrounding country appear very beautiful. These walks are not much frequented by persons of respectability, though kept in good order.

The life of Fletcher of Madely has been very elegantly written by that respectable clergyman, the Rev. Robert Cox, perpetual curate of St. Leonard's, Bridgnorth, from whose narrative the following biographical sketch is extracted.

'Jean Guillaume De La Flechere, or, as he was generally designated in this his adopted country, John William Fletcher, was born in Switzerland, at Nyon, in the Pays de Vaud. His father, in the former part of his life had been an officer in the French service, but on his marriage retired from the army, and afterwards became a colonel in the militia of his own country. Of this gentleman Mr. Fletcher was the youngest son.

An early reverence for the scriptures happily preserved him from many of the vices peculiar to youth. His conversation was modest, and his whole conduct marked by a degree of rectitude rarely found in persons of his age. As he grew up, his filial obedience and fraternal affection were exemplary; nor is it remembered that be ever uttered an unbecoming expression either as a son or as a brother.

Having passed the early part of his boyhood at Nyon, young Fletcher was sent, with his two brothers, to the university at Geneva, where he was soon distinguished by the superiority of his talents, and the intensity of his application, and gained the first prize for which he was a candidate, with considerable applause; though be had many competitors, some of whom were nearly related to the professors.

About this period Fletcher met with many providential escapes, which he never afterwards mentioned without the strongest expressions of gratitude. Of these deliverances the following is the most memorable. He lived for some time at a place very near the Rhine. In that part the river is broader than the Thames at London bridge, and extremely rapid: but having been long practised in swiming, he made no scruple of going in at any time, being careful to keep near the shore, that the stream might not carry him away. Once, however, being less careful than usual, he was unawares drawn into the mid-channel, where the course of the water was very swift. He endeavoured to swim against it, but in vain, till he was hurried far from home. When almost spent, he rested upon his back, and then looked about for a landing place, finding he must either land or sink. With much difficulty he got near the shore; but the rocks were so rugged and sharp, that he saw if be attempted to land there, he should be torn in pieces, and was therefore constrained to turn again to the mid- stream. At last, despairing of life, be was cheered by the sight of a fine smooth creek, into which he was swiftly carried by a violent stream. A building stood directly across it, which he did not then know to be a powder mill. The last thing he could remember, was the striking of his breast against one of the piles, on which it stood. He then lost his senses, and knew nothing more till he rose on the other side of the mill. When he came to himself, he was in a calm, safe place, perfectly well; nothing was amiss, but the distance of his clothes, the stream having driven him five miles from the place where he had left them. Many persons gladly welcomed him on shore; and one gentleman in particular said "I looked when you went under the mill, and again when you rose on the other side. The time of your being immerged among the piles was exactly twenty minutes".

After Fletcher had gone through the usual course of study, at the University, he was sent by his father to Lentzbourg, a small town in the Swiss cantons, where, in addition to his other literary pursuits, he studied German; and on his leaving this place, he remained sometime at home, diligently engaged in learning Hebrew, and reading the higher branches of the mathematicks.

Hitherto, it had been the intention of Fletcher, to enter into the church, but contrary to all expectation, before he had arrived at the age of twenty, he manifested views of a very different nature. Disgusted by the necessity of subscribing to the high calvinism of the Geneva articles, and disinclined to enter upon so sacred an office, from any secular motives, he yielded to the desire of some of his friends, who advised him to enter into the army.

The objects of his pursuit were now changed. Fortification became his favourite study; the systems of theologians were superseded by those of Vauban and Cohorn, and he determined to seek preferment as a soldier of fortune. With this design he went to Lisbon, where he obtained a commission in the Portuguese service, and was ordered to hold himself in readiness to sail for Brazil;- but, an accident, occasioned by a servant's overturning a kettle of boiling water on his leg, confined him to his bed until the ship had sailed. Being disappointed in a subsequent attempt to enter into the Dutch service, by the ratification of peace, be resolved to visit England, partly from a desire of further improvement, and partly from a hope of obtaining some situation for his support in life.

After his arrival in this country, Fletcher resided about eighteen months in the house of a Mr. Burchell, in Hertfordshire, under whose direction he studied the English language and various branches of polite literature, and at length engaged himself as tutor in the family of Mr. Hill, member of parliament for Shrewsbury, who resided at Tern Hall, in the parish of Atcham. When Mr. Hill went to London to attend his parliamentary duties, he generally took his family, and the tutor with him. On one of these journeys, while they stopped at St. Alban's, Mr. Fletcher accidentally met with a poor woman, who, he said, talked to him so delightfully of Jesus Christ, that he knew not how the time passed away.

This little circumstance, ohserves his biographer, was attended with the most important result. Feeling his deficiency he determined to make serious enquiries; he sought the society and advice of Christian friends, compared his own state of mind and hopes of salvation with the scriptures, and prayed with much importunity that he might not be deceived in so momentous an investigation. At first he felt somewhat indignant at the idea of his being still imperfectly acquainted with the nature of religion. 'Is it possible' he said, 'that I, who have always been accounted so religious, who have made divinity my study, and received from the learned professors of Geneva a golden medal, for the best prize essay on Christian godliness; is it possible that I should yet be ignorant of the real nature of faith? But the more he examined himself, and considered the subject, the more he feared that this was really the case. At the same time, an increasing sense of the evil of sin, and the depravity of his nature, convinced him that it was impossible to obtain reconciliation with God, upon any plea of human merit. At length, continues Mr. Cox, to adopt the appropriate language of a modern prelate, he obtained 'that lively faith, which, through the grace of God, will incite men to do all which they can do; whilst it teaches them to rely upon nothing which they have done'.

Shortly after this period, Mr. Fletcher's attention was again directed to the work of the ministry; but being diffident of his qualifications for so weighty an office, two years elapsed before his ordination. 'Before' said he 'I was afraid, but now, I trembled to meddle with holy things. Yet from time to time I felt strong desires to cast myself and my inability on the Lord, knowing that be could help me, and shew his strength in my weakness'.

Things were in this state, when a living, with a prospect of early presentation was offered him by his patron. But he declined accepting it, as he then conceived that if he ever went into orders, he should be better qualified to preach in his native country and in his own language. 'I am in suspense' said he, on one side, whenever I feel any degree of the love of God and man, my heart tells me, I must try; on the other, when I examine whether I be fit for it, I so plainly see my want of gifts, and especially of that soul of all the labours of a minister, Love, continual, universal, ardent Love, that my confidence disappears, and I accuse myself of pride in daring to entertain the desire of one day supporting the ark of God.

At length, his reluctance heing overcome, he solemnly determined to offer himself as a candidate for holy orders, in the English church; and was accordingly ordained deacon at the chapel royal St. James's, on the 6th of March, 1757, and priest on the following Sunday. As he had at present, no stated cure, after having preached a few times to some French refugees in his own language, and also in two of the chapels belonging to Mr. Wesley with whom he was now acquainted, he determined to return to the charge of his pupils, at Tern Hall.

He now occasionally preached in some of the neighbouring churches. Atcham, Wroxeter, the Abbey church in Shrewsbury, and St. Alkmonds, in the same town, were the scenes of his gratuitous services. But the decided tone of his preaching, in connexion with the national fervour of the Swiss, which does not exactly comport with our more phlegmatick notions of pulpit eloquence, rendered him far from popular. Indeed, at present, neither his talents, nor his virtues appear to have been properly understood, beyond the immediate circle of his friends.

About the close of the summer of 1759, Mr. Fletcher was frequently engaged in performing the duty of Madeley; and during the following year, through the influence of Mr. Hill, was presented to the vicarage of that place, about three years after this ordination. This living he accepted in preference to another of above douhle the value, which was offered to him about the same time; his previous intercourse with the people having excited within him an affection, which would not suffer him then to be separated from them, and which remained unabated till his death.

But the circumstances connected with his appointment to Madeley are so remarkable, and at the same time so characteristic of Mr. Fletcher, as to deserve farther notice. One day Mr. Hill informed him that the living of Dunham, in Cheshire, then vacant, was at his service. 'The parish' he continued 'is small, the duty light, the income good, (£400 per annum) and it is situated in a fine, healthy, sporting country'. After thanking Mr. Hill most cordially for his kindness, Mr. Fletcher added 'Alas! Sir, Dunham will not suit me; there is too much money, and too little labour'. 'Few clergymen make such objections', said Mr. Hill; 'it is a pity to decline such a living, as I do not know that I can find you another. What shall we do? Would you like Madeley?' 'That Sir would be the very place for me'. 'My object, Mr. Fletcher, is to make you comfortable in your own way. If you prefer Madeley, I shall find no difficulty in persuading Chambray, the present Vicar, to exchange it for Dunham, which is worth more than twice as much'. In this way he became Vicar of Madeley, with which he was so perfectly satisfied, that he never afterwards sought any other honour or preferment.

Previously to Mr. Fletcher's presentation to the living of Madeley, its inhabitants, with some exceptions, were notorious for their ignorance and impiety, They openly profaned the sabbath, treated the most holy things with contempt, disregarded the restraints of decency, and ridiculed the very name of religion. In this benighted village, Fletcher stood forth as a preacher of righteousness; and during the space of twenty five years, appeared as a burning and a shining light.

For several months after his ordination, Mr. Fletcher had been in the habit of writing down the whole of his sermon: but being by this time fully acquainted with the English language, he generally trusted to his extemporary powers, having merely sketched out some of the particulars of his intended discourse. The deep attention he had paid to the recesses of his heart enabled him to form no inadequate idea of the internal feelings of others. Hence he knew when to probe, and when to heal; when to depress, and when to encourage: and no person's case was so perplexed or desperate, but he was in some measure prepared to explain and relieve it. A happy talent which he possessed, of selecting at a moment, the most appropriate passages of scripture, clothed his words with a divine authority, and enabled him to speak as one who was conscious of his high credentials.

'There was an energy in his preaching, says Mr. Gilpin, that was irresistible'. His subjects, his language, his gestures, the tone of his voice, and the turn of his countenance, all conspired to fix the attention, and affect the heart. Without aiming at sublimity, he was truly sublime; and uncommanly eloquent without affecting the orator. He was wondrously skilled in adapting himself to the different capacities and conditions of his hearers. He could stoop to the illiterate, and rise with the learned; he had incontrovertible arguments for the sceptick, and powerful persuasions for the listless believer; he had sharp remonstrance for the obstinate, and strong consolation for the mourner. To hear him without admiration was impossible: without profit improbable. The unthinking went from his presence under the influence of serious impressions, and the obdurate with kindled relentings'. Mr. Wesley describes him as superior to Whitfield in his qualifications for a publick preacher. ' Instead of being confined' says he 'to a country village, he ought to have shone in every corner of our land. He was full as much called to sound an alarm through all the nation as Mr. Whitfield himself; nay, abundantly more so, seeing he was much better qualified for that important work. He had a more striking person, an equally winning address, together with a richer flow of fancy, a stronger understanding, a far greater treasure of learning, both in languages, philosophy, philology, and divinity; and, above all, which I can speak with fall assurance, (because I had a thorough knowledge both of one and the other) a more deep and constant communion with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ'. Another friend of his adds, ' I would rather have heard one sermon from Mr. Fletcher viva voce, than have read a volume of his works. His words were clothed with power and uttered with effect. His writings were arrayed in all the garb of human literature; but his living word soared an eagle's flight above humanity. In short his preaching was apostolick; while his writings, though enlightened, are but human'.

After due allowance for the partiality of friendship, and the figurative and highly wrought strain of some of these expressions, that man's preaching must be allowed to have been of no ordinary stamp, which elicited such descriptions; and to these, many other testimonies; might be added of its transcendent excellency.

It is not to be supposed that so zealous a minister of the gospel would meet with no opposition. The publicans and the colliers were his special enemies. To preach against drunkenness, and to cut their purse, were considered by the former as the same thing; and the latter were indignant at his opposition to their brutal amusement of bull-baiting. The rage of the publicans generally spent itself in impotent revilings: but the fury of the colliers was near being attended with more serious consequences. One day while a mob of them in a state of intoxication were baiting a bull near a place where he was expected to preach, they determined to pull him off his horse; set the dogs upon him, and, in their own phrase, ' bait the parson'. But just as he was going to set out, notice was brought him that a funeral was on the road; and that previous information respecting it had been omitted. He waited, in consequence, some time for its arrival, and after interring the corpse, proceeded to the spot, where he met his friends, and went through the duty without the least molestation; for before he came, the bull had broken loose and overturned the booth in which many of them were drinking; and the rest of the rabble being intimidated by the disaster, had quietly dispersed.

But drunken colliers and self-interested publicans were not his only opposers. The voluptuary detested his temperance and self-denial; the proud poured contempt on his humility, and condescension; the licentious were offended at his gravity and strictness; and the formal were roused to indignation by that spirit of zeal and devotion which influenced his whole conduct and conversation. And to these opponents must be added some of the neighbouring clergy and magistrates, who, with more reason, objected to his well-intended, but unauthorized interference in their parishes.

In spite, however, of the opposition which his piety and his peculiarities jointly exerted, he gradually won upon the people by the invincible benevolence, which was manifested in the whole tenor of his life. In the meantime, his church which at first had been so thinly attended, that he was discouraged by the smallness of the congregation, began to overflow, and, what must have been to him a source of far greater comfort, he saw an effectual change take place in many of his flock, and a restraint from the commission of open sin, brought upon the parish in general.

Madeley abounded with persons who, either from improvidence or misfortune, were reduced to a state of extreme indigence. Over this destitute part of his flock, Mr. Fletcher watched with peculiar concern. The profusion of his benevolence is indeed scarcely credible. The whole rents of his small patrimonial estate were set apart for charitable uses; and he drew so liberally from his other funds as, at times almost to deprive himself of the necessaries of life. ' That he might feed the hungry', says Mr. Gilpin, he led a life of self-denial and abstinence; that he might cover the naked, be clothed himself in the most homely attire; and that he might cherish such as were perishing in a state of extreme distress, he submitted to hardships of a very trying nature.

After ten years of indefatigable exertion at Madeley, Mr. Fletcher paid a visit of about five months duration to the continent, accompanied by his friend Mr. Ireland, having previously preached a sermon against the Roman Catholicks, who had lately opened a chapel in Madeley, and had drawn over to their communion some individuals of his flock.

About a year previously to this journey, the Countess of Huntingdon had established a seminary at Trevecca, in South Wales. The terms of admission were, ' that the students should be truly devoted to God, and resolved to dedicate themselves to his service'. During three years they were to be boarded, clothed, and instructed at her ladyship's expense, and at the end of that period they were to take orders in the established church; or, if they preferred it, to enter the ministry among the Dissenters. At the earnest request of the Countess, Mr. Fletcher had undertaken the care of superintending this society in occasional visits, when he was to give advice in regard to the appointment of masters, and the admission or exclusion of students; to overlook their studies and conduct; to assist their piety; and to judge of their qualifications for the work of the sanctuary.

But, though for some time, nothing could appear more prosperous than the state of this society, the college of Trevecca was impregnated with the seeds of division, which needed only the hot-bed of controversy to luxuriate in all the fatal and disgusting fruits of animosity and schism. Lady Huntingdon, the founder, leaned to supralapsarianism; Mr. Walter Shirley, the president, to sublapsarianism; Mr. Fletcher, the superintendent, maintained the doctrine of general redemption; and Mr. Henderson, who had just resigned to Mr. Benson his office of classical master, was an Universalist. The superior talents, eminent piety, and conciliatory manners of the superintendent might for some time longer have neutralized these jarring elements, had not Mr. Wesley, in his zeal to check the progress of antinomianism, publickly borne his testimony, in his minutes at conference, against that error, in language which was supposed to border on Palagianism.

Lady Huntingdon, accordingly, declared that whoever did not fully disavow the doctrines contained in the minutes, must quit the college. Mr. Fletcher, therefore, resigned his appointment, wishing that her ladyship might find a minister less insufficient than himself, and more willing to go certain lengths in what appeared to him, party spirit.

Mr. Wesley's minutes proved a fruitful source of angry controversy. Augustus Toplady, vicar of Broad Hembury, in Devonshire, and the two brothers, Richard, afterwards Sir Richard, and Rowland Hill were the most conspicuous writers on the part of the Calvinists. Mr. Wesley, after having briefly vindicated some of his expressions, and explained others, left two of his preachers, men of low extraction, and little education, though of strong minds, to carry on the contest.

This circumstance provoked Toplady, some of whose writings had previously been attacked by Wesley. ' Let Mr. Wesley' said he ' fight his own battles. I am as ready as ever to meet him, with the sling of reason, and the stone of God's word in my hand. But let him not fight by proxy: let his coblers keep to their stalls; let his tinkers mend their brazen kettles; let his barbers confine themselves to their blocks and basins; let his blacksmiths blow more suitable coals than those of nice controversy. Every man in his own order'.

The controversy on the part of the Arminians, devolved, at length, almost entirely on Mr. Fletcher; and never, says Mr. Cox, did a controvertist unite greater sweetness of spirit, strength of argument, and felicity of illustration, than are to he found in his writings. On sending the manuscript of his first check to antinomianism to a friend much younger than himself, he says ' I beg, as upon my bended knees, you would revise and correct it, and takeoff " quod durius sonat " in point of works, reproof, and style. I have followed my light, which is but that of smoking flax: put yours to mine. I am charged hereabouts with scattering firebrands, arrows, and death. Quench some of my brands; blunt some of my arrows, and take off all my deaths except that which I design for antinomianism'.

At the commencement of our unhappy contest with the Americans, Mr. Wesley published a political tract, in which be examined the question, whether the English parliament had power to tax the colonies. This pamphlet excited no little indignation among the English partisans of the Americans, and produced a spirited reply from Mr. Caleb Evans, a Baptist minister at Bristol. Urged by the pressure of more immediate concerns, Mr. Wesley delegated his cause to his friend Mr. Fletcher, who, in the course of his controversy, displayed no less ability than zeal. He maintained that if once legislation was affirmed to belong to the people as such, all government would be overturned, and that a scheme which had a direct tendency, so to level authority as to subvert all government, and abolish all subordination in the universe, could not be too strongly opposed,- that it ought to be totally extirpated. ' Archimedes, ' he continued, said once, 'Give me a point on which I may fix my engine, and I will move the earth out of its place;' and I may say, 'Give me Dr. Price's political principles, and I will move all kings out of their thrones, and all subjection out of the world'.

That Mr. Fletcher was perfectly disinterested in engaging in this controversy, no one could doubt who had any acquaintance with him. Had a desire of emolument been his object, it might have been abundantly gratified; for on his tracts being shewn to the King, by the chancellor, an offer of preferment was immediately made; but he answered with his characteristick simplicity, that he wanted nothing but an increase of grace.

Mr. Fletcher's incessant labours in publick and in private, in connexion with intense application to his studies, in which he frequently spent fourteen or sixteen hours in the day, had by this time greatly impaired his health. Having tried in vain, various means of restoration, he was induced once more to visit Switzerland, on what appeared a forlorn hope of deriving benefit from his native air. It was in the beginning of December, 1777, that Mr. Fletcher, accompanied by his old fellow traveller Mr. Ireland, and some other friends, sailed from Dover to Calais. Arriving at Aix, they remained there a few weeks, and Mr. Fletcher's health appeared to be considerably improved.

Early in the spring, his brother met him at Montpelier, and conducted him from thence to Nyon, the place of his nativity. Here he resided in his paternal house, in the midst of affectionate relations, who took care that he should want neither the best advice, nor any attention that could possibly contribute to the re-establishment of his health. ' This country', says he is delightful. We have a fine shady wood near the lake, where I can ride in the cool all the day, and enjoy the singing of a multitude of birds. But this, though sweet, does not come up to my dear friends in England. There I meet them in spirit, several hours in the day'.

Mr. Fletcher continued at Nyon, and its vicinity, for nearly three years; during which period, though his health was gradually improving, he was still too weak to undertake much publick duty. His time, however, was both fully and profitably occupied. He now completed his "Portrait of St. Paul", finished a religious poem, which he had began some years before, and wrote several minor pieces in his native language. The greater part of these were afterwards translated into English. He was also much engaged in instructing children in the first principles of religion, and in giving private exhortations to various persons who came to him for that purpose.

The fearless intrepidity of Mr. Fletcher's Christian character was strikingly exemplified in his conduct towards one of his nephews during his residence in Switzerland. This young man had been in the Sardinian service, where his profligate, ungentlemanly conduct had given such general offence to his brother officers that they were determined to compel him to leave their corps, or to fight them all in succession. After engaging in two or three duels with various success, he was obliged to quit the service, and returned to his own country. There he soon dissipated his resources in profligacy and extravagance. As a desperate man, he reverted to desperate measures. He waited on his eldest uncle, General De Gone; and having obtained a private audience, he presented a pistol, and said,- ' Uncle De Gons, if you do not give me a draft on your banker for five hundred crowns, I will shoot you'. The General, though a brave man, yet seeing himself in the power of a desperado capable of any mischief, promised to give him the draft, if he withdrew the pistol, which, he observed, might go off and kill him before be intended it. ' But there is another thing Uncle, you must do: you must promise me on your honour, as a gentleman and a soldier, to use no means to recover the draft, or to bring me to justice. The General pledged his honour, gave him a draft for the money, and at the same time expostulated freely with him on his infamous conduct. The good advice was disregarded, and the young madman rode off triumphant with his ill-gotten acquisition.

In the evening, passing the door of his Uncle, Mr. Fletcher, the fancy took him to call and pay him a visit. As soon as be was introduced, be began to tell him with exultation, that he had just called upon his Uncle, General De Gons, who had treated him with unexpected kindness, and generously given him five hundred crowns. ' I shall have some difficulty', said Mr. Fletcher, 'to believe the last part of your intelligence'. ' If you will not believe me, see the proof under his own hand', holding out the draft. ' Let me see', said Mr. Fletcher, taking the draft, and looking at it with astonishment. ' It is, indeed, my brother's writing; and it astonishes me to see it, because he is not in affluent circumstances: and I am the more astonished, because I know how much and how justly he disapproves your conduct, and that you are the last of his family to whom he would make such a present'. Then folding the draft and putting it into his pocket, ' It strikes me, young man, that you have possessed yourself of this note by some indirect method; and in honesty I cannot return it, but with my brother's knowledge and approbation'. The pistol was immediately at his breast; and he was told, as he valued life, instantly to return the draft. ' My life', replied Mr. Fletcher, 'is secure in the protection of the Almighty Power who guards it; nor will He suffer it to be the forfeit of my integrity, and of your rashness'. This firmness drew from the other the observation that his Uncle De Gone, though an old soldier, was more afraid of death than he was. ' Afraid of death', rejoined Mr. Fletcher;- ' do you think I have been twenty five years the minister of the Lord of life, to be afraid of death now? No, Sir; thanks be to God, who giveth me the victory ! It is for you to fear death, who have reason to fear it. You are a gamester and a cheat, yet call yourself a gentleman! You are the seducer of female innocence, and still you say you are a gentleman ! You are a duellist, and your hand is red with your brother's blood; and for this you style yourself a man of honour ! Look there, Sir; look there ! See, the broad eye of heaven is fixed upon us. Tremble in the presence of your Maker, who can in a moment kill your body, and for ever punish your soul in hell'. By this time the unhappy man was pale: he trembled alternately with fear and passion; he threatened, he argued, he entreated. Some times he withdrew the pistol; and, fixing his back against the door, stood as a sentinel to prevent all egress; and at other times he closed on his uncle, threatening instant death: Under these perilous circumstances Mr. Fletcher gave no alarm to the family, sought for no weapon, and attempted neither escape nor manual opposition. He conversed with him calmly; and at length, perceiving that the young man was affected, addressed him in language truly paternal, until he had fairly disarmed and subdued him. ' I cannot', said he, 'return my brother's draft; yet I feel for the distress in which you have so thoughtlessly involved yourself, and will endeavour to relieve it. My brother De Gons, at my request, will, I am sure, voluntarily give you a hundred crowns. I will do the same. Perhaps my brother Henry will du as much; and I hope your other family will make out the sum among them. He then prayed with him and for him. By Mr. Fletcher's kind mediation the family made up the sum he had promised; and with much good advice on one side, and many fair promises on the other, they parted.

One of the years which Mr. Fletcher spent in Switzerland, was memorable for the death of three celebrated men in those parts,- Voltaire, Rousseau, and Haller, a senator of Berne. The closing scene of their lives was characteristick of the individuals, and was thus described by him. 'Tronchin, the physician of the duke of Orleans, being sent for to attend Voltaire, in his illness at Paris, Voltaire said to him, 'Sir, I desire you would save my life,- I will give you the half of my fortune, if you lengthen out my days only for six months. If not, I shall go into hell fire, and you will follow me'.

Rousseau died more decently, as full of himself as Voltaire was of the wicked one. He paid that attention to nature and the natural sun, which the christian pays to grace and the Sun of righteousness. These were some of his last words to his wife:- ' Open the window that I may see the green fields once more. How beautiful is nature! How wonderful is the sun! See what glorious light it sends forth ! It is God who calls me. How pleasing is death to a man who is not conscious of any sin ! O God, my soul is now as pure, as when it first came out of thy hands, crown it with thy heavenly bliss'. ' God deliver us from self and Satan,- the internal and the external fiend. The Lord forbid we should fall into the snare of the Sadducees, with the former of these two famous men, or into that of the Pharisees with the latter'.

Baron Haller Wan a great philosopher, a profound politician, and an agreeable poet; particularly famous for his skill in botany, anatomy, and physick. He has enriched the republick of letters by such a number of publications in Latin and German, that the catalogue of them is alone a pamphlet. This truly great man has given another proof of the truth of Lord Bacon's assertion, that, 'although smatterers in philosophy are often impious, true philosophers are always religious'. I have met with an old apostolick clergyman, who was intimate with the Baron, and used to accompany him over the Alps in his rambles after the wonders of nature. ' With what pleasue', said the minister , 'did we admire and adore the wisdom of the God of nature, and sanctify our researches by the praises of the God of grace'. When the emperor passed this way, be cut Voltaire to the heart by not paying him a visit: but he waited on Haller, was two hours with him, and heard from him the most pious and edifying conversation. The Baron was then ill of the disorder which afterwards carried him off. Upon his death-bed he suffered severe conflicts about his interest in Christ; and sent to the old minister, requesting his most fervent prayers, and wishing him to find the way through the dark valley smoother than he found it himself. However, in his last moments, he expressed a renewed confidence in God's mercy through Christ, and died in peace. The old clergyman added, that be thought the baron went through this conflict to humble him thoroughly; and, perhaps, to chastise him for having sometimes given way to a degree of self-complacency at the thoughts of his amazing parts, and of the respect they procured him from the learned world. He was obliged to become least in his own eyes, that be might become first and truly great in the sight of the Lord'.

In the beginning of March, 1781, Mr. Fletcher took a final leave of Switzerland; and proceeded to the south of France, where he was engaged to meet his friend Mr. Ireland, and to return with him from thence to England. Nothing particular is known of his journey, except that during the short time he stopped at Montpelier he somewhat impaired his health by too great exertion in the pulpit; and on their arrival at Paris his attendance on a sick person would have brought on him the censure of an intolerant church, had not Mr. Ireland, who was mistaken for him by the police officers, quietly suffered them to remain in their error, until Mr. Fletcher, who was apprised of his danger, had proceeded too far on his journey to be overtaken. The friends afterwards joined each other; and arrived safely in England in the middle of April, after an absence of three years and four months.

About the time of Mr. Fletcher's taking orders, he had become acquainted with Miss Bosanquet, a young lady of respectable family and eminent piety, and one who in age, temper, and acquirements, appeared calculated to make him a suitable partner for life. From their first acquaintance they were deeply sensible of each other's worth, and felt the secret influence of a mutual attachment. But Mr. Fletcher's deep humility led him to despair of the accomplishment of his wishes; and his dread of finding in any other woman a hindrance, rather than an aid to his piety and usefulness, gave him, for a long time, a distaste to matrimony.

For many years after this period, little or no intercourse subsisted between them, though both were zealously engaged in the cause of religion. While be was exhausting his strength in the service of his flock, she was no less sedulously employed in devoting her time and fortune to the relief and instruction of the indigent and helpless. In these occupations they spent the prime of their days, rejoicing in the occasional accounts they had of each other's labours, without, however, entering into any immediate correspondence.

Towards the close of his last visit to his native country, his attention was again directed to the subject of marriage. 'I have been so well' said he 'that my friends have thought of giving me a wife; but what should I do with a Swiss wife at Madeley'. While however, he objected to a Swiss lady, he seems to have admitted the propriety of their general reasonings, and, accordingly, a few weeks after his return to England he renewed his acquaintance with Miss Bosanquet, and made her an offer of marriage; on Monday, Nov. 12, 1781, they were united, and the day was kept in a manner perfectly suitable to their eminent piety.

It has already been mentioned that Mr. Fletcher's family was both ancient and noble: but he was so silent on every subject which did him honour, that very few of his most intimate friends were acquainted with the circumstance. Even Mrs. Fletcher, for some time after her marriage, supposed that he was sprung from very low parentage. One day when, in the course of conversation, something led to a discussion of the value of birth and fortune, Mrs Fletcher, probably from a delicacy of feeling for her husband, spoke with some contempt of such adventitious distinctions. 'Surely', my love, ' said Mr. Fletcher, you carry the matter too far; for though a christian will not be proud of birth and fortune, nor despise another for wanting them, yet they are real and great advantages, if we improve them aright. When we speak of a respectable family, we mean to include not only some portion of wealth and rank, but also moral worth, education, and polished manners. And how many and great are the advantages of spending our childhood and youth in the bosom of such a family, to say nothing of our happily escaping the many evils which attend humbler birth. ' Well, my dear', said she, you have got over the disadvantages of your humble birth'. ' You mistake', he replied; my family is respectable; I enjoyed every advantage I could wish. 'I thought', said she, you had been the son of a common soldier'. How came you to think so I' 'When I first saw you; many years ago, one of the company asked you what your father was; and you answered, my father was a soldier'. ' I now recollect it', said Mr. Fletcher; 'and I said true, for my father was a General: not that I meant to conceal it; but I was then young in my English. I hesitated for a term; and seeing a private pass the window, I pointed to him, and said, my father was a soldier; meaning to designate his profession, and not his rank'. ' But, my dear', observed Mrs. Fletcher, 'when you must have perceived our mistake by our astonishment, why did, you not set us right?' ' I certainly did perceive your innocent mistake', Mr. Fletcher replied, 'but it was not worth while for me or you to correct it'.

A short time after this conversation took place, Mrs. Fletcher, while searching his desk for some paper, found a handsome seal. 'Is this yours?', she enquired. ' It is mine: but I have not used it for many years'. ' But why do you not use it?' 'Had you examined it', said Mr. Fletcher, ' yon would not have asked the question. You see it bears a coronet, nearly such as is the insignia of your English dukes. Were I to use that seal, it might lead to frivolous enquiries about my family; and, what is worse, subject me to the censure of valuing myself on such distinctions'. [The last intimation Mrs. Fletcher had of the respectability of her husband's family was received from one of his nephews, who visited England after the death of his uncle. ' You know, aunt', said he, ' that our family is allied to the House of Sardinia'. ' No, my dear, I never heard any thing about it'. ' That is strange', said the young man; ' did my uncle never tell you that we were allied to the House of Sardinia?' 'No, my dear', was the reply, ' he did not; and he had so many good things to tell me, in which we both took so much interest, that it is not at all strange that he forgot to mention the House of Sardinia'.]

From the time. of his marriage, Mr. Fletcher experienced no return of his consumptive symptoms. His general health also appeared materially unproved, and his strength so far reestablished as to enable him to perform the whole duty of his parish, without the assistance of a curate.

Mr. Fletcher had long lamented the melancholy situation of poor uninstructed. children, and had some years before, established a day school in his parish, which he regularly superintended during his residence at Madeley. He now determined to form a Sunday school. Institutions of this description, though at the present day almost universal, were at that time, nearly confined to a few of the principal towns in the kingdom. Finding that the attempts which he made were attended with considerable success, he urged upon his parishioners the importance of raising a sufficient sum for the erection of a suitable building for a school, in addition to an annual subscription for defraying its current expenses. His proposals met with the general approbation and support of his parishioners; and in a short time he was gratified with the sight of a convenient school room, which was erected in one of the most populous parts of his parish.

In the summer of 1783, Mr. and Mrs. Fletcher in compliance with the very earnest solicitations of some Irish friends, spent a few weeks in Dublin. During his continuance there, we are assured by his biographer that Mr. Fletcher's private and publick exhortations, were attended with a remarkable blessing, that numbers of careless sinners were awakened to a sense of the importance of Divine things, and that the general tone of religion was evidently raised among the more serious characters, with whom he conversed.

In compliance with the earnest solicitation of Mr. Wesley, Mr. Fletcher was sometimes present at the annual conference, when his sermons, and pious conversation became the theme of every tongue. At the last conference he attended, when Mr. Wesley was about to read over his own name and those of all the preachers, that any present might object to whatever was deemed reprehensible in them, Mr Fletcher rose to withdraw. He was eagerly recalled, and asked why he would leave them. 'Because', said he ' it is improper and painful to my feelings for me to hear the minute failings of my brethren canvassed, unless my own character were submitted to the same scrutiny'. They promised, if he would stay, that his character should be investigated. On these terms he submitted; and, when his name was read, an aged preacher rose; bowed to him, and said, ' I have but one thing to object to Mr. Fletcher: God has given him a richer talent than his humility will suffer him duly to appreciate. In confining himself to Madeley, he puts his light, comparatively, under a bushel; whereas, if he would come out more among us, he would draw immense congregations, and would do much more good'. In answer to this, he stated the tender and sacred ties which bound him to his parish: its numerous population; the daily calls for his services; the difficulty of finding a proper substitute. his increasing infirmities, which disqualified him for horse-exercise; his unwillingness to leave Mrs. Fletcher at home; and the expense of travelling in carriages. In reply to his last argument, another preacher arose, and observed that the expense of his journeys would be cheerfully paid; and that, though he knew and highly approved Mr. Fletcher's disinterestedness and delicacy in pecuniary transactions, yet he feared there was a mixture of pride in his objections; for that by no importunity could he be prevailed on to accept a present to defray his expenses on his late visit to Ireland. 'A little explanation', replied Mr. Fletcher, with his characteristick meekness, ' will set that matter right. When I was so kindly invited to visit my friends in Dublin, I had every desire to accept their invitation: but I wanted money for the journey, and knew not how to obtain it. In this situation I laid the matter before the Lord, humbly requesting that, if the journey were a providential opening to do good, I might have the means of performing it. Shortly afterwards I received an unexpected sum of money, and took my journey. While in Dublin, I heard our friends commiserating the distresses of the poor, and lamenting the inadequate means they had to relieve them. When, therefore, they offered me a handsome present,- what could I do? The necessary expenses of my journey had already been supplied; my general income was quite sufficient; I needed nothing. Had I received the money, I should have given it away. The poor of Dublin most needed, and were most worthy of, the money of their generous countrymen. How then could I hesitate to beg it might be applied to their relief? You see, brethren, I could not in conscience do otherwise than I did'.

But it was a sense of duty, rather than choice, which occasionally drew Mr. Fletcher from his own neighbourhood. He would willingly have lived and died among his people; and after every little excursion, he returned with increasing pleasure to his parish, and to the superintendence of his flock.

The account he gave of himself, about this time, is so beautiful and characteristick, that it would be an injury to the reader to give it in any words but his own. 'I keep', said be 'in my sentry-box till Providence remove me; my situation is quite suited to my little strength. I may do as much or as little as I please, according to my weakness. And I have an advantage which I can have no where else, in such a degree: my little field of action is just at my door; so that if I happen to overdo myself, I have but a step from my pulpit to my bed, and from my bed to my grave. If I had a body full of vigour, and a purse full of money, I should like well enough to travel: but, as Providence does not call me to it, I readily submit. The snail does best in its shell. My wife is quite of my mind with respect to the call we have to a sedentary life. We are two poor invalids, who between us make half a labourer. She helps me to drink the dregs of my life, and to carry with ease the daily cross. Neither of us are long for this world: we see it, we feel it; and, by looking at death and his conqueror, we fight beforehand our last battle with that last enemy, whom our dear Lord bath overcome for us'.

In the mean time nothing seemed hard, nothing wearisome to him, which tended to produce the good of his neighbours. Mrs. Fletcher was frequently grieved to call him out of his study two or three times in an hour; especially when she knew he was engaged in some important work. But on such occasions he would answer, with his usual piety, 'O, my dear, never mind. It matters not, if we are but ready to meet the will of God. It is conformity. to his will alone that makes any employment excellent'. No occupation ever appeared to him mean, or beneath his character, which was not sinful. If he overtook a poor person on the road, with a burden too heavy for him, he did not fail to offer his assistance to bear part of it; and, under such circumstances be would not easily take a denial.

No employment of Mrs. Fletcher's seemed more pleasing to him, than that of being engaged in preparing food or medicines for the poor. On Sundays he provided for numbers of poor people who came to his church from a distance; for his house, as well as his heart, was devoted to their convenience. Indeed he scarcely seemed ever to enjoy his meals, unless he knew that some sick or indigent neighbour should partake of them. But, with all his generosity, he was still careful to live within his income. And as a means of effecting this, it was his custom to pay for every thing when he purchased it, considering at the same time that this method was best calculated to keep the mind disencumbered, and free from perplexing cares. In short his property, his time, his all, might be considered as consecrated to the service of his flock.

Thus quietly glided away the last years of this excellent man; blessed in himself, and an eminent blessing to all around him. 'As he approached the end of his course', said Mr. Gilpin, 'the graces he had kept in continual exercise for so long a season, became more illustrious and powerful: his faith was more assured, his hope more lively, his charity more abundant, his humility more profound, and his resignation more complete. To those who were intimately conversant with him at this season, he appeared as a scholar of the highest attainments in the school of Christ; or, rather, as a regenerate spirit in his latest state of preparation for the kingdom of God: and this extraordinary eminence in grace was discoverable in him, not from any high external professions of sanctity, but from that meekness of wisdom, that purity of conversation, and lowliness of mind, by which his whole carriage was uniformly distinguished.

A few weeks before his last illness, Mr. Fletcher was peculiarly penetrated with a sense of the nearness of adversity. There was scarcely an hour in which he was not calling upon these around him, to drop every worldly thought and care, and to prepare for the coming of the Lord. The termination of his life and labours was just at hand; and no less happy was he in the triumphal close of his mortal existence, than is the accomplishment of his wish as to the occasion of his death. When an infectious fever had once been in his parish, and its ravages had intimidated, even some of his pious flock from performing the offices of humanity and christian charity, he had reproved them to this effect,- ' If the children of this world forsake their sick and dying friends, from the fear of infection, I am not surprized. Their portion is in the world, and whatever menaces their life, strikes at their all. But when christians who profess to have their lives hid with Christ in God, are guilty of the same pusillanimous conduct, I am exceedingly astonished, for such conduct is a dereliction of the faith, hope, love, and every other principle of our holy religion'.

After lingering some time under the pressure of disease, or to speak more properly, of an exhausted constitution, but supported by the hopes and consolations of christianity, Mr. Fletcher calmly expired, on the 14th of August, 1785, in the fifty sixth year of his age. His biographer gives the following summary description of his person and character.

As to the person of this great and good man,- He was above the middle stature, strongly built, and well proportioned. The contour of his face was interesting and noble; his eye was active and penetrating; his nose was moderately aquiline; and his whole countenance such as peculiarly accorded with the extraordinary grace and elevation of his character. His deportment and manners were of the most engaging and courteous kind, presenting such a combination of gravity, condescension, and gentleness, as few have ever witnessed. Humility and dignity are seldom seen familiarly associated in the same person: but in this master of Israel they grew together in so exact a proportion, that while he every where discovered a sort of angelick superiority in his air, his carriage, and his conversation, that superiority was inseparably blended with all the meekness and simplicity of a little child.

His figure was wonderfully adapted to all the sacred offices he had to perform: but of his appearance in the pulpit it may especially be said, that the liveliest fancy could not frame for any of the ancient saints an aspect more venerable or more apostolick.

Having followed this holy and exemplary man through the interesting and instructive scenes of his pious and laborious life, and having likewise attended him to its solemn and affecting close, it may be well to conclude the narrative with a few general observations respecting him, as a Writer, a Clergyman, and a Christian.

As a Writer, Mr. Fletcher was considerably above mediocrity. The principal defects in his style were an exuberant diffuseness, and national floridness of expression. In some of his letters also there is an occasional quaintness of phraseology, which too generally distinguishes a certain class of religions publications which are known by the term spiritual; and which, owing to this circumstance, are exceedingly limited in point of circulation, and consequently of usefulness. This fault, however, is almost exclusively confined to the small volume of his letters; which, it should be remembered, was a posthumous publication, and was never intended by him to meet the publick eye. Rich, however, in their intrinsick excellence, they will ever be read by truly religious characters with peculiar pleasure, and will perhaps be regarded by them as the most valuable part of his writings.

His " Checks to Antinomianism"; his "Appeal to matter of Fact"; his political, and in short the whole of his other publications, manifest a degree of elegance, which would hardly have been expected from a foreigner. His imagination is always lively; his descriptions animated; his illustrations uncommonly happy; and his reasoning acute, clear, and convincing. Had he been a candidate for literary distinction, he had talents to have occupied no inconsiderable rank, either as a humourist, a poet, or an impassioned writer. But the piety which predominated in his mind not only diffused itself through his writings, but directed his attention almost exclusively to subjects of a religious nature. [Considering Mr. Fletcher as a man of general literature, who in early life had been well acquainted with the poets and dramatick authors of Greece, Rome, and France, his neglect of works of mere genius and imagination was perhaps more extraordinary than his indifference to family distinctions. One trait on this subject may suffice. Not long before his death a friend, in the course of conversation, cited a passage from Shakspeare, when Mr. Fletcher said,- ' You will think it as strange as it is true, that though I have heard so much in the praise of your immortal Shakspeare, and have often wished to read him, yet to this day I have been so much occupied, that I never could find time to do so'.]

As a Clergyman, he was never exceeded in zeal, disinterestedness, affection for his flock, or anxiety for their spiritual welfare. His heart was in his profession; and he was carried on with an impetus which no opposition or discouragement was able to counteract. He did not consider the work of the ministry as a mere duty; it was his pleasure and delight: and if, in the discharge of this important work, his health and strength declined, and became eventually a sacrifice to the ardour of his feelings, it cannot be regarded as a matter of surprise. The votary of pleasure may be told that his course of life will injure his health, exhaust his finances, and finally ruin him. He will admit the justness of your remarks: but he will still persevere; for life would cease to be tolerable without his accustomed pursuits. And such was the persevering ardour of this truly apostolick man: 'Instant in season, and out of season;' ' always abounding in the work of the Lord'.

The principal, the only defect that appeared in his ministerial character, was a want of due attention to the prescribed regulations of the established church. As a foreigner, indeed, it would have been unreasonable to have required from him that reverence for our ecclesiastical polity which is naturally expected from a native clergyman. Had he, during his residence in England, continued a layman, he might consistently enough have been a christian at large, freely associating with the best informed and most pious of every denomination, without actually connecting himself with any party. But, after he had deliberately taken orders, consistency of character required, that whilst his liberal heart rejoiced in the spiritual welfare of other denominations, his ministerial labours should have been confined within the prescribed sphere of his own parish, and the pale of his own communion.

The fact appears to have been, that the abundant current of his charity, too large for any single channel, flowed in affection towards all; while the ardour of his zeal, ever prompting him to the most extensive usefulness, did not stop to calculate upon those remote consequences which a more accurate attention to the well-grounded regulations of our established church would no doubt have presented to his mind.

As a Christian, he shone pre-eminent,

'Velut inter ignes,
Luna minores'.

Faith, patience, spirituality, deadness to the world, humility, meekness, purity, and every grace which can adorn the human mind, seemed to have in him their perfect work. ' They who saw him only at a distance', observes Mr. Gilpin, ' revered him as a man of God; while they who enjoyed a nearer acquaintance with him were held in a state of constant admiration at his attainments in the Divine life. Naturally formed for pre-eminence, no common degrees of grace were sufficient to satisfy his unbounded desires. He towered above the generality of Christians, earnestly desiring the best gifts, and anxious to walk in the most excellent way. While others are content to taste the living stream, be traced that stream to its source, and lived at the fountain-head of blessedness. Wherever he was called by the providence of God, he was acknowledged as a burning and a shining light. The candle of the Lord eminently shone upon his head and the secret of God was upon his tabernacle. When he went out through the city, or took his seat in the company of the righteous, he was saluted with unusual reverence, and received as an angel of God. The young men saw him and hid themselves and the aged arose, and stood up. Even those who were honoured as princes among the people of God, refrained talking, and laid their hands upon their mouth. When the ear heard him, them it blessed him; and when the eye saw him, it gave witness unto him. His character was free from those inconsistencies which are too generally observable among the professors of Christianity. Whether he sat in the house, or whether he walked by the way; in his hours of retirement, and in his publick labours, he was constantly actuated by the same spirit, When he spoke, his conversation was in heaven; and, when he was silent, his very air and countenance bespoke an angelick mind, absorbed in the contemplation of God. In all the changing circumstances of life, he looked and acted like a man whose treasure was laid up in heaven. There his affections were immovably fixed, and thitherward he was continually tending, with all the powers of his soul. He spoke of heaven as the subject of his meditation; and looked to it, as travellers to their appointed home. He was an instrument always in tune: and none can tell, but those who have heard, how sweetly it would answer to the touch of Him who strung it. He was an instrument of uncommon compass, and wondrously adapted to every occasion. Every breath that swept over the chords of this living lyre drew from it some according sound:- if from man, it produced strains of affection and gratitude;- if from God, it called forth higher sounds of gratitude and devotion.

This sketch of the life of Fletcher, has been given almost entirely in the words of his reverend biographer the Rev. Robert Cox. Of the man himself, and of his life, the opinions of mankind will differ. They who believe that a complete change in the understanding and the disposition of men is ahsolutely necessary to their eternal well being, cannot but regard such a character as that of Fletcher, whose life was devoted to the promotion of such a change in the minds and hearts of his fellow men, with mingled feelings of admiration and of love;- to others he must necessarily be,- according to their various dispositions, the object of their ridicule, or their pity, their hatred or their contempt.

' Fletcher', say the Quarterly Reviewers, ' was a man of heavenly temper, a saint in the ancient and high sense of the term, whose enthusiasm was entirely unmixed with bitterness, and whose life and death were alike edifying'. No age or country; observes Southey has ever produced a man of more fervent piety, or more perfect charity, no church has ever possessed a more apostolick minister'.

MAESBROOK; or MEESBROOK. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry.

MAESBURY. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry. 3 miles south-east of Oswestry.

MAES TERVIN BRIDGE. 1 mile north-east of Halston. The residence of J. M. More, Esq.

MAINSTONE. A parish partly in the Mainstone division of the hundred of Clun, partly in the county of Montgomery. The entire parish contains 451 inhabitants. The Shropshire part 49 houses, 296 inhabitants. A rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 4 miles south-west of Bishopscastle.

MALIN'S LEE. A township in the parish of Dawley Magna, or Great Dawley, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 3½ miles north-west of Shiffnal.

MARCHAMLEY. A township in the parish of Hodnet, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 6 miles east of Wem.

MARKET DRAYTON. See Drayton Magna, or Drayton in Hales.

MARRINGTON. A township in the parish of Chirbury, and in the upper division of the hundred of Chirbury. 6 miles north-west of Bishopscastle.

MARSH. A township in the parish of Westbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 10 miles south-west by west of Shrewsbury.

MARTIN'S ST. See St. Martin's.

MARTON. A township in the parish of Chirbury, and in the upper division of the hundred of Chirbury. 15½ miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

MARTON. A township in the parish of Middle, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill.

MARTON. (New) A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill.

[This article is given in the language of Dr. Bray's biographer, whose style, it is almost unnecessary to remark, is exceedingly vicious and obscure.]

"Doctor Thomas Bray, an eminent, learned, and pious Divine of the seventeenth century, was born at Marton in Shropsshire, in 1656. His parents who were persons of good reputation, discovering his promising parts, he was early sent to school at Oswestry, in the same county. His close application to school-learning soon qualified him for a removal, and determined his parents to dedicate him to religion and learning. Accordingly, he was entered of Hart-hall in Oxford. Here he soon made a considerable proficiency in Divinity, as well as in other studies necessary for the profession for which he was intended: but, labouring under the common disadvantages of a narrow fortune, his circumstances not permitting longer residence at Oxford, he left the university soon after he had commenced Bachelor of Arts. About this time he entered into holy orders, and the first parish in which Providence placed him to exercise his spiritual functions, was near Bridgnorth in Shropshire, his native county, from which curacy be soon removed into Warwickshire, officiating as Chaplain in Sir Thomas Price's family, of Park-hall, and had the donative of Lac Marsin given him by Sir Thomas, which proved a very advantageous change of situation for him; for living now in the neighbourhood of Coleshill, his exemplary behaviour, and distinguished diligence in his calling, introduced him to the acquaintance of Mr. Kettlewell, Sir Charles Holt, and the Lord Simon Digby. One incident which contributed to establish his character at this juncture, was his preaching the assize sermon at Warwick, on which occasion Mr. Bray, though but young, acquitted himself to the satisfaction of the whole audience, particulaily the Lord Digby, who was afterwards pleased to honour him with many proofs of his friendship and esteem, recommending him to the honourable patronage of his worthy brother, the late Lord Digby,who some time after gave him the vicarage of Over Whitacre in the same county, since augmented by the uncommon generosity of his patron who endowed it with the great tythes.

In the year 1690, the rectory of Sheldon being vacant; by the refusal of Mr. Digby Bull to take the oaths at the Revolution, his Lordship prompted Mr. Bray to it. This preferment he held till about a quarter of a year before his death, when be resigned it on account of his advanced age, and the known worth and abilities of his appointed successor. December 12, 1693, he took his degree of Master of Arts in Hart-hall, in the university of Oxford. In the parish of Sheldon he composed his Chatechetical Lectures, a work which met with general approbation and encouragement, the publication of which, the first fruits of his piety and learning, drew him out of his rural privacy to London, and introduced him into a more conspicuous and remarkable scene of action; for the reputation Mr. Bray had acquired by these Chatechetical Lectures, and the other shining qualities with which he adorned his function, immediately determined Dr. Compton, Bishop of London, to pitch upon him as a proper person to model the infant Church of Maryland, and establish it upon a solid foundation.

Accordingly, in April 1696, he proposed to Mr. Bray to go on the terms of having the judicial office of Commissary, valued, as was represented to him, at four hundred pounds per annum, conferred upon him, for his support in that service. Mr. Bray, disregarding his own interest, and the great profit which would have arisen from finishing his course of Lectures on the plan he had formed, soon determined, in his own mind, that there might be a greater field for doing good in the Plantations, than by his labours here. Being, therefore, always willing to be so disposed of in any station, as should appear most conducive to the service of God's Church, he no longer demurred to the proposal, than to enquire into the state of the country, and inform himself what was most wanting to excite good Ministers to embark in that design, as well as enable them most effectually to promote it. With this sort of view he laid before the Bishops the following considerations:- That none but the poorer sort of clergy could be persuaded to leave their friends, and change their native country for one so remote; that such persons could not be able sufficiently to supply themselves with books; that without such a competent provision of books, they could not answer the design of their mission;- that a library would be the best encouragement to studious and sober men to undertake the service; and that, as the great inducement to himself to go, would be to do the most good of which he could be capable, he therefore proposed to their Lordships, that if they thought fit to encourage and assist him in providing parochial libraries for the Ministers that should be sent, he would then accept of the Commissary's office in Maryland.

This proposal for parochial libraries being well approved of by the Bishops, and due encouragement being promised in the prosecution of the design, both by their Lordships and others, he set himself with all possible application to provide Missionaries, and to furnish them with libraries, intending, as soon as he should have sent both, to follow after himself. But upon his accepting of this employment of Commissary of Maryland, it fell to his share to solicit at home whatever other matters related to that church, more particularly to the settlement and establishment thereof, which with other matters conducive to the good and welfare of the church, he laboured to promote with unwearied diligence, and spared neither expense nor trouble. Above all, it was his greatest care, to endeavour to send over to Maryland, and the other colonies, pious men, of exemplary lives and conversations and to furnish those whom he had a hand in sending, with good libraries of necessary and useful books, to render them capable of answering the ends of their mission, and instructing the people in all things necessary to their salvation: and these truly found him employment enough, though, on account of the more than ordinary service such a magazine of Divine knowledge might be of, he could never be brought to regret the undertaking, however chargeable as well as laborious it proved: one half of either cost or pains in which it engaged him, must have discouraged any one less sensible to the impressions of a religious zeal, from prosecuting it. His only comfort was that the libraries he had begun and advanced more or less in all the provinces on the Continent and in most of the islands of America, as also in the factories in Africa, did not only serve the then ministers with whom they were first sent, but by the care of some of the governments, and by acts of assembly, settling the rules he had prescribed for their use and preservation, they might be also of advantage to many succeeding generations. The sense of the clergy and inhabitants, with respect to this, was testified by the solemn letters of thanks returned him from the assemblies of Maryland, from the vestries of Boston and Braintree in New England, from Newfoundland, Rhode Island, New York, Philadelphia, North Carolina, Bermudas, and by the acknowledgments of the Royal African Company, on account of those procured for their factories. About the same time it was that the Secretary of Maryland, Sir Thomas Lawrence, with Mr. Bray, waited on the then Princess of Denmark, on behalf of that province, humbly to request her gracious acceptance of the governor's and country's dutiful respects, in having denominated the metropolis of the province, then but lately built, from her Royal Highness's name, Annapolis: and Mr. Bray being soon after favoured with a noble benefaction from the same royal hand, towards his libraries in America, he dedicated the principal library in those parts, fixed at Annapolis, and which has books of the choicest kind belonging to it, to the value of four hundred pounds, to her memory, by the title of the Annapolitan Library, which words were inscribed on the several books, as well in gratitude to her Majesty, as for the better prevention of loss or embezzlement.

Another design was also set on foot, much about the same time, by Dr. Bray, having a reference to some service at home as well as abroad. This was to raise lending libraries in every deanery throughout England and Wales, out of which the neighbouring clergy might borrow the books they had occasion for, and where they might consult upon matters relating to their function, and to learning. Upon this, many lending libraries were founded in several parts of the kingdom, besides above a hundred and fifty parochial ones in Great Britain and the Plantations; from ten to fifty pounds value, those in South Britain being afterwards secured to posterity, by an act of parliament passed for that purpose in 1708. Soon after, upon the repeated instances of the governor and some of the country, Mr. Bray was at the charge of taking the degree of Doctor of Divinity, which degree, though it might be of some use with respect to his having a better respect paid to the church as well as himself, did, however, then but ill comport with his circumstances. He took his degrees of Bachelor of Divinity, and Doctor, together, by accumulation, not of Hart-hall where he was entered, but of Magdalen college, December 17, 1696. Soon after, the better to promote his main design of libraries, and to give the Missionaries directions in prosecuting their theological studies, he published two books, one intitled, Bibliotheca Parochialis; or, A Scheme of such Theological and other Heads, as seem requisite to be perused, or occasionally consulted by the Rev. Clergy, together with a Catalogue of Books, which may be profitably read on each of those points, etc. The other, Apostolick Charity, its Nature and Excellency considered, in a discourse upon Daniel, xii. 3. preached at St. Paul's, at the Ordination of some Protestant Missionaries to be sent into the Plantations. To which is prefixed, A general View of the English Colonies in America, in order to shew what provision is wanting for the propagation of Christianity in those parts, together with proposals for the promoting the same, and to induce such of the clergy of this kingdom, as are persons of sobriety and abilities, to accept of a mission.

During this interval, viz, in the year 1697, a bill being brought into the House of Commons to alienate lands given to superstitious uses, and to vest them in Greenwich Hospital, he preferred a petition to the House, that some share of them might be appropriated to the propagation of the true religion in the Plantations, and that the same should be vested in a body politick, to be erected for that purpose; which petition was received very well in the House, and a fourth part of all that should be discovered, after one moiety to the discoverer, was readily and unanimously allotted by the committee for that use, it being thought by far more reasonable to appropriate some part at least of what was given to superstitious uses, to uses truly pious, than altogether to other, though charitable, purposes: but the bill was never suffered to be reported. In the year 1698, failing of a publick and settled provision by law, for carrying on the service of the church in Maryland, and the other plantations, he addressed his Majesty for a grant of some arrears of taxes due to the crown; and some time after was obliged to be at the charge and trouble of going over to the King in Holland, to have the grant completed. The recovery of these arrears of taxes was represented as very feasible and very valuable, and also without any grievance to the subject: but as they proved troublesome to be recovered, so they were scarcely of any value, All designs failing of getting a publick fund for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts, he thereupon formed a design, of which he then drew the plan, of having a Protestant congregation, pro fide propaganda, by charter from the King. But things did not seem ripe enough to encourage him to proceed at that time in the attempt, and so he laid it aside till a more favourable opportunity.

However, to prepare the way for such a charter-society, he soon after made it his endeavour, to find worthy persons ready to form a voluntary society, both to carry on the service already begun for the Plantations, and to propagate Christian knowledge as well at home as abroad, hoping afterwards to get such a society incorporated. This he laid before the Bishop of London, in the year 1697, and a society was constituted on this plan; and though the design of having them incorporated by charter could not then be brought to bear, yet they still subsisted and acted as a voluntary society. But their number and benefactions at last increasing, a different constitution, and more extensive powers, appeared necessary for the success of the undertaking: application was, therefore, made by Dr. Bray, to his then Majesty King William, for his royal charter. The Doctor's petition to his Majesty, with other papers relating to the corporation to be erected for the propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts, was read May 5, 1701, and his Majesty's letters patent, under the great seal of England, for erecting a corporation, by the name of The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in foreign parts, was laid before the society, and read the ninth of June following. He received no advantage all this time from his Commissary's place in Maryland; neither was any allowance made him at home, or preferment given him, to support the charge of living altogether in town, to solicit the establishment and endowment of the church of Maryland, and to provide Missionaries for that, and all the colonies on the Continent; which, excepting lay upon him. All the benefactions that were received, were to be laid out to raise them libraries; which also he did faster than money came in to answer the charge. This being observed by some of his friends, they endeavoured to persuade him to lay his design of going abroad aside, and take two good preferments that were offered him at home, of as good or better value than what was proposed to him in Maryland, that of Sub-Almoner, and the donation of Aldgate, in the City of London. But he declined all offers that were inconsistent with his going to Maryland, as soon as it should become proper for him to take that voyage.

By the year 1699, having waited upwards of two years for the return of the Act of Religion from Maryland, with such amendments as would render it without exception at the court of England; and it being presumed by his superiors, that it would be requisite the Doctor should now hasten over, as well to encourage the passing of that Act in their assemblies, as to promote other matters for the service of religion there, it was signified to him from them, they would have him take the opportunity of the first ship: and indeed, the Doctor having, by this time, tried all ways he could think of, and done all he was able. to do here, to serve those parts, and according to proposal having provided Maryland, as also many other colonies, with a competent number of Missionaries, and furnished them with good libraries, to he fixed in the places where they were sent, to remain there for ever; he was himself eager to follow, and did so accordingly, even in the winter, though he had no allowance made him towards his charge of the voyage, and the service he was to do, but was forced to dispose of his own small effects, and, raise money on credit to support him. With this poor encouragement, and thus, on his own provision, he took the voyage, December 16, 1699, and set sail from the Downs the twentieth of the same month; but was driven back from Plymouth-sound on Christmas-eve, and remained in harbour almost all the holidays, where his time was not unusefully spent, in the recovery of a tolerable library there out of dust and rubbish, which was also indebted to him for a benefaction of books; and where he left a proposal for taking in subscriptions to make it a sea-port library, for the use of Missionaries and Sea-Chaplains, as well as others. After an extremely tedious and dangerous passage, the Doctor arrived at Maryland the twelfth of March, where not being so much concerned at his own, as the church's unsettlement, he applied himself immediately and wholly to repair the breach made in the settlement of the parochial clergy; in order to which he consulted, in the first place, the governor, whom he found ready to concur in all proper methods for the re-establishment of their maintenance. Before the next Assembly, which was to be in May following, he sent to all the clergy on the western shore, who could only come together in that season, to be acquainted from them with the disposition of the people, and their sentiments on this occasion, and to advise with them what was proper to be done, in order to dispose the members of the Assembly to re-enact their law next meeting. Soon after he had dismissed the clergy, he made his parochial visitation, as far as it was possible for him at that season; in which visitation he met with very singular respect from persons of the best condition in the country, which the Doctor, by a happy conduct (of which he only was not sensible,) turned to the advantage of that poor church. During the sessions of the Assembly, and whilst the re-establishment of the church was depending, he preached very proper aud seasonable sermons, and all of them with a tendency to incline the country to the establishment of the church and clergy; all which were so well received that he had the thanks of the Assembly, by messages from the House, for them, and for the service done to that church and province. The Doctor was providentially on such good terms with the Assembly, that they ordered the Attorney-general to advise with him in drawing up the bill; and that he himself might be the better advised in that case, he sent for the most experienced clergy within reach, to suggest to him, what, upon their own and their brethren's experience, they found would be of advantage to them and the church, to be inserted in or left out of it; by which means the constitution of that church has much the advantage of any in America. It may not be amiss to observe in this place, that as well during the general Court of Assize, which preceded the Assembly and lasted thirteen days, as during the sessions of the Assembly itself, he was under a necessity of much civil, but chargeable, entertainment of the gentlemen of the province, who universally visited him; a charge, however which he thought requisite as circumstances then were, that he might strengthen his interest in them, the better to promote the establishment of the clergy's maintenance. The bill being prepared, passed with a nemine contradicente; but it was on all hands declared and confessed, that it was very providential that Dr. Bray came into the country at that juncture. Soon after the Assembly was up, the Commissary cited the whole clergy of the province to a general visitation at Annapolis, to be held May 22, 1700. At the close of this visitation, the clergy taking into consideration that the opposition of the Quakers against the establishment of that church would in all probability continue, so as to get the law for its establishment so lately re-enacted, annulled again at home; they entered into debates, whether it would not be of consequence to the preservation and final settlement of that church, that the Doctor should be requested to go home with the law, and to solicit the Royal assent. It had been before voted, at the passing of the bill in the house of Burgesses, that he should be desired to request his Grace of Canterbury, and the Bishop of London, to favour that good law, by obtaining his Majesty's royal assent to it with all convenient speed; and the members who gave him an account of passing their vote told him withal, that it was the general opinion of the House, that he could be most serviceable therein by waiting personally on their Lordships, rather than by letters, in which he could not crowd all that might be necessary to be represented concerning the then state of the church, and the necessity, at that time, of their utmost patronage: and it was in debate, whether this should not be the desire of the Assembly: but it was thought too unreasonable a request from them, who were sensible of the great danger and fatigue he had already been at in the service of that province, as they had a few days before acknowledged by a message of thanks from that house. Such were the sentiments of the members of the Assembly, as to the necessity of his coming home to solicit the establishment of that church; and the clergy meeting at their visitation, some weeks after, as they had time to know more fully the sense of the province upon it; so they represented it to him, as the earnest desire of the more sensible persons throughout the country, as well as of the Assembly- men, that he should go over with the law for England; being aware that the Quakers would this time openly, and the Papists covertly, make the utmost efforts against the establishment of that church, by false representations at home of the number and riches of their party, and by insinuating, that to impose upon them an established maintenance for the clergy, would be prejudicial to the interest of the province, by obliging so many wealthy traders to move from thence; the falsity of which, or any other suggestions, they thought him best able to make appear, by the information he had gained from this visitation. There were also many other advantages to the church in those parts, which they proposed by his coming home at that time, which were urged as reasons for it; upon the consideration of all of which, though there was no provision could be made there to support him in that charge, and the Commissary's office would also yield him no profit, it not being tenable by the law of the country but by one residing in it, yet upon the consideration of much publick good, he determined himself, and took his voyage soon after. He was no sooner arrived in England, but he found their apprehensions in Maryland not ill grounded; for the Quakers forthwith bestirred themselves so exceedingly that it was amazing to see what prejudices they had quickly raised in those who had then the cognizance of Plantation affairs, and what formidable computations they gave in of the clergy's charge to the country; which suggestions, when they were found to stick even with some that seemed well affected to that church, Dr. Bray refuted, by a printed memorial, representing truly the state of the church at Maryland, to the full satisfaction of all to whom it was communicated. Happy was the province of Maryland in having its concerns managed, at this critical juncture, by such an able and indefatigable agent.

The Quakers' opposition to the establishment now depending, was carried by united councils and contributors; but the Doctor refuted their specious objections by unanswerable reasons, and placed the affair in such an advantageous light, that his Majesty decided, without any appearance of hesitation, in the Church's favour, and gave the royal assent in these words: Have the Quakers the benefit of a toleration? let the Established Church have an established maintenance. This chargeable and laborious undertaking having swallowed up the Doctor's own small fortune, Lord Weymouth generously presented him with a bill of £300 for his own private use, a large portion of which the Doctor devoted to the advancement of his farther designs. Though he was vested with the character of Commissary, yet no share of the revenue proposed was annexed to it; and this disappointment, though injurious in the highest degree, was not made by him either matter of complaint there, or of remonstrance here: nay, his generosity even induced him to throw in two sums of fifty pounds each, that were presented to himself in Maryland, towards defraying the charges of their libraries and law. But his generosity and indefatigable endeavours to promote the interest of the church, together with the success which attended all his measures, for completing and perfecting the polity and establishment of it, would swell this account too much, for which reason we shall refer the reader to the places where he may find those heads treated of more at large. [See the several Orders of Council, and Dr. Bray's own Letters to the Governor, Speaker, and Attorney General of Maryland.] After the return of Dr. Bray from thence in 1701, he published his Circular Letters to the Clergy of Maryland, a Memorial, representing the present state of religion on the Continent of North America, and the Acts of his Visitation held at Annapolis; for which he had the thanks of the Society above-mentioned. Not only the Bishop of London approved entirely of all these transactions, but also the Archbishop of Canterbury declared that he was well satisfied with the reasons of Dr. Bray's return from the West Indies, and added, that his mission there would be of the greatest consequence imaginable to the establishment of religion in those parts. In 1706, he had the donative of St. Botolph without Aldgate offered him again, which he then accepted of, worth about £150 per annum, being allowed by the impropriator. In the year 1712, the Doctor printed his " Martyrology; or Papal Usurpation, in folio". That nothing may be wanting to enrich and adorn the work, he established a correspondence with learned foreigners of the first distinction, and called in the assistance of the most eminent hands. This work consists of some choice and learned treatises of celebrated authors, which were grown very scarce, ranged and digested into as regular an History as the nature of the subject would admit. He proposed to compile a second volume, and had, at no small expense and pains, furnished himself with materials for it; but he was afterwards obliged to lay the prosecution of his design aside, and bequeathed by Will his valuable collection of Martyrological Memoirs, both printed and manuscript, to Sion-college. He was, indeed, so great a Master of the History of Popery, that few authors could be presumed able, with equal accuracy and learning, to trace the origin and growth of these exhorbitant claims which are made by the See of Rome. He was happily formed by nature both for the active and for the retired life. Charity to the souls of other men, was wrought up to the highest pitch in his own: every reflection on the dark and forlorn condition of the Indians and Negroes, excited in his bosom the most generous emotions of pity and concern. He conceived nothing so desirable, as to be the instrument of recovering those lost sheep, and bringing them into the fold of their heavenly pastor.

His voyage to Holland, to solicit King William's protection and encouragement to his good designs, and the proofs he gave of a publick spirit and disinterested zeal, in such a series of generous undertakings, obtained him the esteem of M. d'Allone of the Hague, a gentleman not more celebrated for his penetration and address in state affairs, than for a pious disposition of mind. An epistolary correspondence commenced very early between him and the Doctor upon this subject; the result of which was that M. d'Allone gave in his life time a sum to be applied to the conversion of Negroes, desiring withal the Doctor to accept the management and disposal of it. But that a standing provision might be made for this purpose, M. d'Allone bequeathed by Will a certain sum, viz. 900 pounds, out of his English estate, to Dr. Bray and his associates, towards erecting a capital fund or stock, for converting the Negroes in the British plantations. This was in the year 1723, much about which time Dr. Bray had an extremely dangerous fit of illness, so that his life and recovery were despaired of. In the year 1726, he was employed in composing and printing his Directorium Missionarium, his Primordia Bibliothecaria, and some other tracts of the like kind. About this time he also wrote a short account of Mr. Rawlet, the author of the Christian Monitor; and reprinted the life of Mr. Gilpin. Some of these were calculated for the use of the Mission; and in one he has endeavoured to shew that civilizing the Indians must be the first step, in any successful attempt for their conversion. In his Primordia Bibliothecaria, we have several schemes of parochial libraries, and a method laid down to proceed by a gradual progression from strength to strength, from a collection not much exceeding one pound in value, to one of a hundred. His attention to other good works occasioned no discontinuance of this design, the success of which was so much the object of his desires; and accordingly benefactions came in so fast, that he had business enough upon his hands to form the libraries desired, and to discharge himself of them. As the furnishing the parochial clergy with the means of instruction, would be an effectual method to promote christian knowledge, so another expedient, manifestly subservient to the same end, would be, he thought, to imprint on the minds of those who are designed for the ministry, previously to their admission, a just sense of its various duties, and their great importance. With a view to this, he reprinted the Ecclesiastes of Erasmus, a name of great authority in the Republick of Letters, and to whom the re-establishment of polite literature was principally owing. In the year 1727, an acquaintance of Dr. Bray's made a casual visit to Whitechapel prison; and his representation of the miserable state of the prisoners had such an effect on the Doctor, that he immediately applied himself to solicit benefactions in order to relieve them; and he had soon contributions sufficient to provide a quantity of bread, beef, and broth, on Sundays, and now and then on the intermediate days, for this prison and the Borough Compter. To temporal, he always subjoined spiritual provisions; and to enure them to the most distasteful part of their office, the intended missionaries were here employed in reading and preaching. On this occasion the sore was first opened, and that scene of inhumanity imperfectly discovered, which afterwards some worthy patriots of the house of Commons took so much pains to enquire into and redress: that zeal and compassion which led them to carry on this inspection, and regulate many gross abuses, could not but procure them the esteem of one distinguished by such an extensive benevolence as Dr. Bray.

The divine guardianship apparently accompanied hoth his designs of founding libraries and converting Negroes. The former, particularly, was advanced under the patronage of persons in the highest stations: but being now far advanced in years, and continually reminded of his approaching change, by the imbecility and decays of old age, he was desirous of enlarging the number of his associates, and adding such to them, in whose zeal and integrity he might repose an entire confidence. An inquiry into the state of the gaols, made him acquainted with Mr. (afterwards General,) Oglethorpe, who accepted the trust himself, and engaged several others, some of the first rank and distinction, to rank with him and the former associates. To these two designs of founding libraries, and instructing Negroes, a third was now added, which, though at first view it appears to be of a different nature, has a perfect coincidence with them. The miserable condition of multitudes for want of employment, had of late excited the highest degree of compassion in the breasts of all charitable persons: the provision which the legislature had made, by a late Act, for the erecting parish work-houses, proved insufficient; and therefore, out of the same charitable regard to mankind, a design was formed of establishing a colony in America, than which nothing could be better intitled to consideration and encouragement. The advantages which might accrue to the publick from such a settlement, is a subject of too large extent to be considered here. In short, most of the religious societies and good designs in London, owe grateful acknowledgment to his memory, and are, in a great measure, formed on the plans he projected; particularly the Society for the Reformation of Manners, Charity-schools, and the Society for the Relief of poor Proselytes, etc. The Doctor having thus happily lodged his principal designs in the hands of able managers, and being on the verge of the grave, could not but review his undertakings with complacency, and thank the good Providence of God, which appeared to lay such trains for their advancement. His conscience crowned him with a secret applause, which was an inexhaustible source of comfortable reflections; and joyful presages, in his last minutes, which happened on the fifteenth of February, 1780, in the seventy third year of his age, leaving issue only one daughter.

MARTON. (Old) A township partly in the parish of Whittington, and partly in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the hundred of Oswestry. 3 miles south-west by west of Ellesmere.

Mr. John Pridden, who was born at Old Marton Hall, was one of the many instances in which integrity and perseverance have introduced their votaries to ease, affluence, and satisfaction; and a few particulars respecting this truly worthy man, may be useful in animating others to appreciate the value of unsullied honour, and to bear up against the torrent of stern oppression.

His parents were respectable, and rather wealthy, but his father dying when he was only twelve years old, and his mother marrying again, the subject of this memoir soon experienced the withdrawn protection of a mother, and the most unmerciful and cruel treatment of a step-father. The severity with which he was treated, was so great that he was frequently laid up, and often rescued by the neighbours from the tyrannick grasp of his father-in-law. But, nothing could subdue the inexorable temper of his foster-father, and the oppressed youth determined at last to leave his home, and seek his fortune in the metropolis. This happened soon after the commencement of the French war, in 1744, when having proceeded on his journey as far as Worcester, and finding there a hot press for soldiers, he did not relish the probability of a military attachment, but adopting what he considered the least of two evils, returned home. For this self-defensive offence he was regularly and systematically thrashed every Tuesday and Saturday, the days of his exit and return, for three years, when unable any longer to endure his unmerited sufferings, he once more bade an eternal adieu to his unpropitious habitation, and arrived in London, on the 25th of March, 1748, where he soon found protectors in Mr. John Nourse, in the Strand, and Mr. Richard Manly, Ludgate-hill; the latter of whom, he succeeded in business. The libraries of many eminent and distinguished characters passed through his hands; his offers, on purchasing them, were liberal; and, being content with small profits, he soon found himself supported by a numerous and respectable set of friends, not one of whom ever quitted him. Before the American Revolution, his house was the rendezvous of the clergy, of that country: and when that unfortunate event took place, both his purse and his table were open to their wants. About the year 1782, he became totally blind, but was relieved from that malady by the judicious hand of Baron De Wenzel, and enjoyed his eye sight to the last. He was naturally of a weak habit of body, but his extreme temperance and uninterrupted complacency of mind, insured to him an almost constant flow of health and spirits. To do good, was his delight; to communicate happiness to all around him, was his unceasing aim. He was a most amiable and indulgent parent, a sincere friend, and in the strictest sense of the terms, an honest man. The following anecdote appeared in one of the publick prints, immediately on his death, no doubt inserted by some grateful friend as a memorial of the goodness of his heart: "Seven years ago, on the failure of his less fortunate next door neighbour, he invited him to his house, and relinquished business to give him the opportunity of continuing on the spot: his kind intentions met with success; and he frequently expressed the pleasure he felt at seeing his friend prosper under his roof". He married, March 27, 1757, Anne, daughter of Mr. Humphrey Gregory, of Twemloes, near Whitchurch, Shropshire, by whom he had fourteen children, nine of whom died young, of the small pox; and two sons and three daughters survived him. His wife died April 1, 1801: he survived till March 17, 1807. John, the eldest son, was educated at St. Paul's school, and at Queen's college, Oxford; B.A. 1781, M.A. 1789,- he became vicar of Caddington, in Bedfordshire, a minor canon of St. Paul, London, and of St. Peter, Westminster; and one of the Priests of his Majesty's chapels Royal. The other son, Humphrey Gregory, was, for a short time, a Bookseller, and was lately living, but wholly retired from business. The daughters, all married respectably.

MAWLEY HALL. In the hundred of Stottesden, 1½ mile south-east of Cleobury Mortimer. The seat of Sir Edward Blount, bart.

MEADOWLEY. A township in the hundred of Stottesden.

MEADOW TOWN. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury.

MEDLICOTT. A township in the parish of Wentnor, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow. 3½ miles north-west by west of Church Stretton.

MEESON. A township in the parish of Bolas Magna, and in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 6 miles north-west by west of Newport.

MELVERLEY. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Oswestry, a chapel to Llanvorda, in the diocese of St. Asaph, and the deanery of Marchia. 43 houses, 226 inhabitants. 10 miles north-west by west of Shrewsbury,

MENETHESNEY. A township in the parish of Llanvair Waterdine, and in the Mainstone division of the hundred of Clun.

MEOLE BRACE; Or BRACE MEOLE. A parish in the liberties of Shrewsbury, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Pontesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 218 houses, 1,348 inhabitants, including the inmates of the House of Industry, or Workhouse, (for all the parishes of Shrewsbury,) which lies in this parish. 2 miles south of Shrewsbury.

This lovely village, is not surpassed in beauty of situation and the decorations of rural scenery by many in the kingdom. The handsome small church and parsonage - the neat aspect of the cottages, with the luxuriance of highly cultivated farms, and the decent appearance of all descriptions of inhabitants, furnish the idea of plenty and content; and must bring to the recollection of the gratified beholder the beautiful description Goldsmith gives of Auburn, which forms an opening to that inimitable poem, the Deserted Village:

" Sweet AUBURN! loveliest village of the plain,
" Where health and plenty cheer'd the lab'ring swain,
" Where smiling spring its earliest visit paid,
" And parting summer's ling'ring blooms delay'd.
" Dear lovely bowers of innocence and ease,
" Seats of my youth, when every sport could please,
" How often have I loiter'd o'er thy green,
" Where humble happiness endear'd each scene!
" How often have I paus'd on ev'ry charm,
" The shelter'd cot, the cultivated farm,
" The never.failing brook, the busy mill;
" The decent church, that tops the neighb'ring hill;
" The hawthorn bush, with seats beneath the shade,
" For talking age and whisp'ring lovers made!

As a favourite resort of opulence, Meole has a large assemblage of pleasing villas, the habitations of those who drew their first breath amid the smiles of plenty, or the residence of those who, nurtured in the lap of labour, have, through the indefatigable exertions of honesty and industry, acquired a tolerable share of the conveniences and comforts of this life. The best situation for viewing this pleasing village is perhaps from the bank, just on crossing the bridge. On the summit of the adjoining bank stands the church, which, with the neat erections which skirt its brow, have an interesting effect. In the front is the beautiful little bridge, thrown over the brook which meanders through the rich meadows which present themselves on the right, studded with numerous plantations. The back ground is composed of Lyth Hill, entirely mantled with fine woods, and a distant prospect of Shrewsbury, which, with its turrets, spires, and a pleasing variety of objects, serves to excite the most delightful sensations in the observer, and adds much to the picturesque beauty of the surrounding scenery.

That handsome brick building called the House of Industry, which lies in this parish, and is situated on the side of the river Severn, opposite to the Quarry, was erected in 1765, as a Foundling Hospital, at an expense of £12,000. Numhers of children were sent here from London, and placed out at nurse during their infancy, with the neighbouring cottagers, under the superintendence of the surrounding gentry. When arrived at a proper age, they were brought into this house and employed in various branches of a woollen manufactory, and afterwards apprenticed to various individuals. About 1774, however, the governors finding their funds inadequate to the support of the charity, the house was shut up; and a few years after was rented by government, who in the American war used it as a place of confinement for Dutch prisoners.

In 1784, an act of parliament was obtained to incorporate the five parishes of Shrewsbury and Meole Brace, as far as related to their poor, and to erect a general House of Industry. The governors of the Foundling Charity, were glad of an opportunity to dispose of their erection at a considerably reduced rate, the building was purchased, together with about twenty acres of land, for about £5,500, and it was opened for the reception of paupers, in December, in that year. For a short period they were employed in the fabrication of woollen cloths, but this being found injurious to the pecuniary resources of the house, it was discontinued, and at present their employment chiefly consists in manufacturing the various articles of their clothing. They breakfast, dine, and sup, in the dining-hall, a very large room; the men, women, boys, and girls, being each placed at separate tables. Divine service is performed each Sunday, in a neat chapel parallel with the hall. There is also an infirmary, where the sick and infirm are lodged in proper wards, and attended to by nurses, and the apothecary belonging to the house, The whole is under the management of twelve directors, chosen from persons assessed in the associated parishes at £15, or possessed of property to the amount of £30 per annum, who appoint a governor and matron, to superintend the domestick economy of the establishment.

Mr. Nield, the worthy disciple of the philanthropick Howard, remarks of this place, which he visited in 1807, 'This House of Industry is certainly a house of plenty, for the books every where bear record of good living, and the famous beef slaughtered here. The average number in the house is 340; the children delicate and pampered, from being accustomed to abundance and variety of provisions, and comfortable rooms, very dissimilar to the hardy peasant, and therefore ill calculated to rear up useful assistances in the employments of agriculture, or to make useful servants in this agricultural county. They would prefer a race of hardy lads, inured front their infancy to combat weather and temporary want; whose nerves are strong by early exertions, and their understandings furnished with some knowledge of rural life'.- Mr. Nield's extensive observation and experience, qualified him to judge of the most proper aliment and employment of this class of persons, far better than most of the directors and governors of similar institutions can reasonably be expected to do; and as indulgence and plenty cannot be supposed to be the portion of the children of the poor in their progress through life, we may indulge a hope that the directors will speedily devise some plan for the initiation of their young dependants into habits of judicious labour and healthy abstinence.

Along the north front of the house is a beautiful gravel walk, from whence the town is seen to great advantage. On the right, the Abbey- foregate, with its two venerable churches, various manufactories, Lord Hill's column, and a great extent of fertile land are seen, backed by the Wrekin, Haughmond Hill, etc. In front, the river Severn flowing close underneath, the beautiful verdure of the quarry, and the town, present themselves; whilst on the left are descried a large portion of this extremely fertile county, together with the distant Montgomeryshire and Denbighshire hills. This extensive prospect over the neighbouring country, with the endless variety of scenes that present themselves to the spectator are finely described in the following lines:

Ever charming, ever new,
When will the landscape tire the view
The fountain's fall, the river's flow,
The wooded valleys warm and low;
The windy summits wild and high,
Roughly rushing on the sky!
The pleasing seat, the ruin'd tow'r,
The naked rock, the shady bow'r,
The town and village, dome and farm,
Each give each a double charm,
As pearls upon an Ethiop's arm.

It was from this house, that the benevolent but eccentrick Mr. Day, deluded by the fascinating eloquence of Rousseau, selected two girls on whom to try an experiment on female education, in which he proposed to unite the delicacy of a modern female, with the bold simplicity of a Spartan virgin, and form a woman who should despise the frivolity and dissipation of the present corrupted age.

Having obtained the object of his wishes, he repaired with them to France, taking no English servant, in order that they might receive no ideas but those which he chose to instil. After spending about eight months in France, he placed the one in a respectable situation in London, and with his favourite actually proceeded in the execution of his project; but experience and mature reflection at length convinced him that his theory of education was impracticable, and he renounced all hope of moulding his protegee after the model his fancy had formed. He therefore placed her in a boarding school at Sutton Coldfield, in Warwickshire; and after completing her education, she resided some years in Birmingham, and subsequently at Newport, in this county: and by her amiable deportment secured a great number of friends. Mr. Day frequently corresponded with her parentally. In her 26th year she married Mr. Bicknell, a gentleman who accompanied Mr. D. to Shrewsbury, at the commencement of this singular experiment.

MERRINGTON. A township in the parish of Preston Gobalds, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 5½ miles northwest by north of Shrewsbury.

MICKLE WOOD. A township in the parish of Leebetwood, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 7½ miles south-west by south of Shrewsbury.

MICKLEY. A township in the parish of Prees, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North.

MIDDLE. A parish partly in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill, and partly in the liberties of Shrewsbury, a rectory remaining in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 240 houses, 1,196 inhabitants. 7 miles north-west by north of Shrewsbury.

The Lords Le Strange held Middle by the service of one knight's fee under the Fitz-Alans, earls and lords of Cloane (Clun). In the twentieth of Edward the First a quo warranto against John Le Strange de Infangthef free warren and wayff, in the manors of Ness, Kington, and Middle, who pleads a grant of free warren in Middle, and the other liberties of Ness and Kington he pleads by prescription, which the jurors allowed. This John levied a fine, the twenty seventh of Edward the First, whereby John de Wallascote de Criddon was interested in the manor. The Lord John Le Strange, his son, obtained licence to make a castle of his house at Middle, which lay less exposed to the incursions of the Welsh than his castles of Knockin and Bayton, which often felt the fury of that people. In the third of Edward the third he had a grant of free warren, the view of frankpledge and waif in this manor. In the sixteenth of Edward the third, John Le Strange, and in the forty-eighth of Edward the third, Roger Le Strange, levied fines of the manor of Middle. A settlement made by Richard Le Strange may be found in the Chancery rolls, the eighteenth of Henry the Sixth. In the sixth of Edward the fourth, Roger Kynaston de Middle, Esq. late sheriff of Shropshire, obtained the king's general pardon. In the thirteenth of Edward the Fourth John Molineaux died seized of Middle. In the thirty-ninth of Elizabeth, the queen gives licence to Thomas Barnston, Gent. and Elizabeth, his wife, to sell lands in Middle to Robert Cherleton and his heirs.

As to the present state of Middle, it is merely a straggling hamlet, of very little thoroughfare, pleasantly situated on a hill, with a few ruins, and one prominent tower of the castle. See Kynaston's Cave.

MIDDLEHOPE. A township in the parish of Diddlebury, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow. 28 houses, 180 inhabitants.

MIDDLETON. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry. 2 miles south-east of Oswestry.

MIDDLETON. A township in the parish of Chirbury, and in the upper division of the hundred of Chirbury. 6½ miles north-west by north of Bishopscastle.

MIDDLETON. A township in the parish of Bitterley, and in the hundred of Munslow, a chapel to Bitterley, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of Salop. 2½ miles north-east of Ludlow.

MIDDLETON SCRIVEN. A parish in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 19 houses, 86 inhabitants. 4½ miles southwest of Bridgnorth.

MILFORD. A township in the parish of Little Nees, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. 7 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

MILLEN HEATH. A township in the parish of Prees, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North.

MILSON; or MILSTON. A parish in the hundred of Overs, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Burford, and archdeaconry of Salop. Connected with Neen Solars. 80 houses, 125 inhabitants. 3 miles south-west of Cleobury Mortimer.

MINDTOWN. A parish in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 6 houses, 31 inhabitants. miles north-east by east of Bishopscastle.

MINERALS. See appendix.

MINSTERLEY. A township in the parish of Westbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. A curacy not in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ponteabury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 145 houses, 758 inhabitants. 9½ miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

MINTON. A township in the parish of Church Stretton, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 2½ miles south-west of Church Stretton.

MINUTTON. A township in the hundred of Clan.

MIREHOUSE; or MEREHOUSE, and NEWTOWN. A township in the parish of Baschurch, and in the hundred of Pimhill.

MIREBANK. A township in the parish of Baschurch, and in the hundred of Pimhill.

MONK HOPTON. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, a curacy not in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 34 houses, 168 inhabitants. 4 miles south of Wenlock.

MONK MEOLE, and GOOSEHILL. A township in the parish of St. Chad, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

MONK MOOR. A township in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 1 mile east of Shrewsbury.

MONTFORD. A parish in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 76 houses, 517 inhabitants. 4½ miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

MONTFORD BRIDGE. The seat of Sir F. B. Hill.

MOOR; or MORE. A parish in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 47 houses, 277 inhabitants. 2½ miles north-east of Bishops-castle.

MOOR with BATCHCOT. A township in the parish of Richard's Castle, and in the hundred of Munslow. 2½ miles south-west of Ludlow.

MORE. A township in the franchise of Wenlock.

MORETON. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the hundred of Oswestry. A curacy, in the diocese of St. Asaph, and the deanery of Marchia. 3½ miles south of Oswestry.

MORETON CORBET. A parish in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 40 houses, 235 inhabitants. 4½ miles south-east of Wem.

Moreton Corbet Castle is the property of Sir Andrew Corbet, Bart., of Acton Reynold. It is situated about 8 miles north of Shrewsbury. From its rich remains there can be little doubt that originally it was a magnificent pile; a considerable portion of the walls are still standing, but its roof has been some years demolished. Several dates may be discovered upon different parts of the building, but the time of its erection is uncertain. Although it has by no means the appearance of having been intended for a fortress, it is certain that it was garrisoned in 1644 by the parliament, against Charles the first. The King having possession of Shrewsbury and several places in the neighbourhood, the parliament sent part of the garrison from hence against Shrewsbury, which soon after surrendered to their forces. This castle, after for ages being the theatre of no common scenes, is now sunk into insignificance and dilapidation. Such are the changes of this transitory state !- A few sheep browsing on the bushes that vegetate in the crevices of its walls, serve to point out its desertion-

" Thus do these ivy mantled ruins,
Like hoary-headed age, nod o'er their own decay".

MORETON SAY; or SEA. A township in the parish of Hodnet, (but having a separate minister and assessment) and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North, a chapel to Hodnet, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 138 houses, 762 inhabitants. 3 miles north-west by west of Drayton.

MORFE. In the liberties of Bridgnorth. ½ mile east of Bridgnorth.

Morfe, was, in Leland's time, 'a hilly ground, well wooded; a forest or chase, having deer'. It has not at present a single tree. It had its forester and steward from the time of Edward the first to Elizabeth. In it King Athelstan's brother was said to have led an hermit's life in a rock. The place is still called the Hermitage, and is a cave in the rock. On Morfe are five tumuli in quincunx. In the middlemost, at about nine yards over in the depth of one foot to the solid rock, was found only an iron shell of the size of a small egg and supposed to be the boss of a sword, and, in a hollow in the gravel, some of the larger vetebrae and other human bones, as in the other tumuli,

A few miles northward from hence stood the very ancient mansion of one of the oldest families in England, the Gatacres of Gatacre; (See Gatacre;) the walls of which were remarkable on account of their being built of a dark grey free-stone coated with a thin, greenish, vitrified substance, about the thickness of a crown-piece, without the appearance of any joint or cement to unite the several parts of the building, so that it seemed one entire piece; a most effectual preservative against bad weather. The hall was nearly an exact square, singularly constructed. At each corner and in the middle of each side, and in the centre, were immense oak trees hewed nearly square, and without branches, set with their heads on large stones, laid about a foot deep in the ground, and with their roots uppermost, which roots, with a few rafters, formed a complete arched roof. The floor was of oak boards three inches thick, not sawed but plainly chipped. The whole is now pulled down, and a new house built at a little distance,

MORVIELD; Or MORFIELD; Or MORVILL. A parish in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden, a curacy, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 96 houses, 430 inhabitants. 3 miles north-west by west of Bridgnorth,

MORVILL HALL. The seat of Henry Acton, Esq.

MORTON and BOWLEY. A township in the parish of Stanton upon Hine- heath, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 3½ miles south-east of Wem. Moston contains 11 houses, 66 inhabitants,

MUCH WENLOCK. A parish in the franchise of Wenlock, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 481 houses, 2,200 inhabitants. 12 miles south- east of Shrewsbury, 148 miles north-west of London. LONG. 2, 39 W. LAT. 52, 37½ N.

The town is ill built, consisting only of two streets, but is a very ancient corporation, and is said to have been the first town that sent members to parliament, by a writ from Edward the Fourth in 1478, when it sent one member; but now, together with Broseley and Little Wenlock, it returns two. The free burgesses, who are the electors, amount to one hundred and ten.

The corporation, by charter from Charles the first, consists of a bailiff, recorder, two justices of the peace, and twelve capital burgesses.

Wenlock gives name to a deanery, and to that part of the hundred, which in Doomsday Book is called Patinterne Hundred. The British name is Llan Meilein, or St. Milburg's church. In the reign of Richard the second, this place was as famous for copper mines, as it is at present for quarries of lime-stone. Leland describes it as 'a markett towne, where was an abbey of blak monkes, passing over an high hille, called Wenlock Edge'. But Wenlock owes its celebrity principally to the remains of an ancient ABBEY, subsequently converted to a MONASTERY for CLUNIACS.

This house was, as it is said, founded about the year 680, by Milburga, daughter of King Merwald, and niece to Wolphere, King of Mercia; she presided as abbess over it, and at her death was buried there. According to Matthew of Westminster, her grave was long after discovered by accident, when many miracles were performed. The monastery was destroyed by the Danes, but restored by Leofric, Earl of Chester, in the time of Edward the confessor; but again falling into decay, and being forsaken, it was, in the fourteenth of William the conqueror, rebuilt and endowed by Roger de Montgomery, Earl of Arundel, Chichester, and Shrewsbury, a person of vast possessions in those parts, so says William of Malmsbury; but both Brompton and Leland attribute its restoration to Warine, Earl of Shrewsbury.

This last refounder (whoever be was) placed therein a prior and convent of Cluniac monks, who were looked upon as a cell of the house de Caritate, in France; and suffered the same fate with other alien priories till the 18th of Richard the Second, when it was made indigenous, or naturalized. In Rymer this is called the second house of the order; but Prynne mentions it as a cell to the abbey of Cluni. It was dedicated to St. Milburga, and, at the 26th of Henry the Eighth, had revenues to the yearly value of £401. 7d. q. clear according to Dugdale, and £434. 1s 2d, ob. in the whole. It was granted thirty sixth of Henry the eighth, to Augustino de Augustini. This monastery was first called Wimnicas, but in after times its legal style was Wenlock Magna, or Moche Wenlock.

In the Monasticon is the patent of King Edward the third, reciting and confirming the charter of Isabel de Say, Lady of Clun, whereby she granted to these monks the church of St. George, at Clun, with seven chapels depending on it; namely the chapel of St. Thomas, in Clun; of St Mary, at Waterdune; of St. Swithin, at Clumbierie; St. Mary, at Clintune; St. Mary, at Appitune; with those of Eggedune and Subbledune. There is likewise an inquisition, taken the twenty ninth of Edward the first, determining the right of presentation to the cell of Ferne to be in the monks of Wenlock.

In Stevens's Supplement, seven deeds are translated into English from the Latin originals, in the hands of Francis Canning, of Foxcote, Esq. in the county of Warwick, viz. the deed of Geoffrey de Say, for the manner of Dointum; a confirmation of that deed by Henry the Second; another deed of the same king, granting that these monks might always enjoy the said manor, unless he and his heirs gave them eleven pounds per annum, in churches or other things, in lieu of it; the charter of Henry the Third to them for the said manor, anno regni, 46. p. 15. The deeds of William Mitleton and Adam Fitzwilliam, about a yard-land in Mitleton. A composition between Simon, Dean of Brug, and the prior and convent of Wenlock, about the chapel of Dudinton.

GERVAS PAGANEL, pursuant to his father's design, founded at Dudley, in Staffordshire, anno 1161, a priory for the invocation of St. James, for the monks of St. Milburga, of Wenlock, giving them the ground on which the said church of St. James stood, as also the church of St. Edmond and St. Thomas, at Dudley, and those of Norkphel, Segesle, Ingepoune, and Bradvil, with the tithe of his bread, game, and fish, as long as he resided at Dudley, or at Herden; also grazing, wood, and divers other privileges. This house was always considered as a cell to Wenlock, and after the Dissolution, its lands were granted as a parcel thereof.

The following list of priors is collected from Browne Willis's History of Abbeys, and his Series of Principals of Religious Houses, printed in Tanner's Notitia; and from the former are taken the sums that remained in charge.

Imbertus, prior about the year 1145, Peter de Leja, promoted from this dignity, anno 1176, to the see of St. David's, Joybertus occurs Prior anno 1198, he was also prior of Daventry and Coventry. Richard, elected 1221. Guycardes 1265, Arno de Montibus, 1270, who was succeeded in 1272, by John de Tyeford. John Turbe occurs Prior in the beginning of the reign of Edward the First, about the year 1277. His successor was Henry de Bonville, anno 1291 and 1297; Henry elected 1326; Henry de Myons elected 1363; Roger Wyvel 1395; John Stafford 1422; William Brugge, on whose resignation anno 1437, 16th of Henry the Sixth, Roger Barry was admitted prior; William Walwyn elected 1462; John Stratton elected 1468; John Shrewsbury elected 1479; Thomas Sutbury elected 1482; Richard Wenlock 1485; Richard Singar-Rowland Graceful, elected 1521; John Cressage, alias Bayliss, who, surrendering this convent January 26th, 1539, had a pension assigned him of £80 per annum. Anno 1563, here remained in charge £7 13s. 4d. in fees, and £75 10s. 6d. in annuities and corrodies; and these pensions namely, to Richard Fennymore and William Benge, £6 each. William Morphew, John Leighe, Thomas Balle, and John Hopkins, £5 6s. 8d. each. The arms of this monastery were azure three garbs, or, in a pale a croisier argent.

The rich Cluniac Monastery of Wenlock is situated in a low valley, on the south side of the town, adjoining the east end of the church- yard. Towards the country it is surrounded with gentle eminences, now bare indeed, but once, no doubt covered with wood. The entrance from the town was by a strong gate-way, one massive tower of which is now standing. Very considerable fragments still remain, especially of the church: of this a large portion of the south side of the nave, the whole south wing of the transept, several arches of the north, and the foundations of the choir and Lady Chapel still appear. The church was a very spacious and magnificent fabrick. It is evident from the vestiges yet existing, that this structure was of the pure early Gothick of the thirteenth century. The west front consisted of a large triplet lancet window, as may be determined from the style of the jamb of one of the lights, still to be traced, with its slender round shafts; and deep mouldings bound with rings. The ornamental parts of this front were composed of several tiers of small arches with trefoil heads, in the manner of those of Salisbury, Wells, etc. Underneath are the outlines of the great door of entrance, which appears to have been deeply recessed; but the pillars and ribs of the arch are gone. The fragment of the south side of the nave consists of three pointed arches, which have never been open; but within them are inserted lower arches of a similar form on octagonal pillars which originally communicated with the south-side aisle. Over the higher arches are the remains of a beautiful gallery, which ran along the whole second story of the church, and consisted of a series of two pointed arches, divided by slender clustered pillars, within the span of each greater arch below: above these are single lancet windows, forming the clere-story. Between every arch runs a slender clustered pilaster, and, where they break off at the top, are remains of the ramifications of a groined ceiling. Part of the south side aisle is now a stable; it has a plain groined roof, and over it is a large vaulted chamber of the same size. This room probably adjoined to the dormitory of the monks, and was occupied by those whose task it was to perform the midnight office in the choir. The south wing of the transept consisted of three pointed arches, with a gallery and clere-story, similar to those of the nave.

The lower members of two of the great columns which supported the centre steeple are visible, and appear to have been richly clustered. There are no other remains of the choir than the foundations of six pillars which are round. The Lady Chapel, or Chapel of the Virgin Mary, was eastward of the choir, and may be traced by its foundations, which seem to have been of a later date than the rest of the church. The dimensions of this stately abbey church prove it to have been inferior in size, as well as beauty, to most cathedrals. Whole length from east to west, 401 feet; of nave, 156; of space under middle tower, 39; choir, 156; Virgin Mary's chapel, 48 by 40; breadth of naves and aisles, 66. Adjoining the south side of the nave, was the great cloyster, which was encompassed by the refectory, dormitory, chapter-house, etc. Of the former, considerable, but imperfect, fragments remain. The whole shell of the chapter-house is standing, a most singular and curious specimen of early Norman architecture. It is an oblong square, 66 feet by 31. The entrance is by a rich round arched door, on each side of which is a broad round headed window. The walls are divided into three compartments on each side by short pilasters with indented capitals, from whence arises a groined roof. The portion of wall between these spaces has a stone seat below, and over it a series of interlaced arches arising from a row of small shafts, which arches rise one over the other in many tiers to the very roof.- South-eastward of the great cloister was the house or lodge of the prior, which seems to have inclosed a quadrangular court, now converted into a farm house. The buildings on the eastern and north sides are nearly entire, and were the living apartments of the prior. The whole eastern side has a singular cloister or ambulatory in front, consisting of very narrow pointed arches now open, but once evidently glazed and divided into an upper and lower story.- This leads to the principal rooms: two chambers in the upper story have been little altered; traces of ancient painting, particularly the figure of St. George, may be observed on the walls.- In one is a deeply recessed window, in which is a sort of stone trough, and a singular kind of gutter to carry off moisture, etc. Perhaps this may have been a lavatory.

Below is the prior's private oratory, now a dairy; the altar, a very fine slab of red stone, remains entire. Fragments of this opulent monastery are scattered to a great distance. The whole precinct including full thirty acres. This priory, with almost the whole of the town, is the property of Sir Watkin William Wynne, Bart.

Somewhat above half a century ago, a considerable part of the ruins were taken down by an agent of the manor to rebuild some houses of which he had a lease; but the late Sir Watkin William Wynne put a stop to any farther demolition. Here are no remarkable monuments nor inscriptions, neither have any such been dug up, although it is said that the body of King Merwald was found in a wall of the church.

The common people have an absurd tradition of a subterraneous communication between this house and Buildwas Abbey, which has not the least foundation in truth, the nature of the ground rendering such an attempt impracticable; but indeed there is scarcely an old monastery in England which has not had some such story told of it, especially if it was a convent of men, and had a nunnery in its neighbourhood. These reports were probably invented and propagated in order to exaggerate the dissolute lives of the monks and nuns, and thereby to reconcile the multitude to the suppression of religious houses.

This monastery and manor, soon after the Dissolution, came into the possession of Thomas Lawley, Esq., who lived in the house. By marriage with a Lawley it devolved to Robert Bertie, Esq., of the Ancaster family, and from him it passed into the family of Gage, but whether by marriage or purchase, Grose, whom we are now quoting, says he had not been able to learn. Sir John Wynn, of Wynnstay, in the county of Denbigh, bought it of Lord Viscount Gage, and devised it, with his other estates, to his kinsman, the late Sir Watkin William Wynne, Bart., whose son of the same name is the proprietor.

The parish church of Wenlock, a vicarage of the annual value of £12 9s. 7d. adjoining the ruinous priory, bears many marks of Saxon antiquity. A large round arch separates the nave of the church from the chancel: at the west end is a square tower, with circular headed windows, from which arises a very neat slender spire of wood, covered with lead. On the right of the altar are some Gothick niches; but there is no monument of sufficient antiquity or sculpture to attract the notice of the antiquary, though its interior is well fitted up

But, whatever deficiency there may be in this respect, as far as concerns the present church of Wenlock, the famous monastery, which we have just attempted to describe, has attached to it one of the most important instances of genealogical and biographical enquiry that has perhaps ever engaged the attention of readers curious in such matters.

The real origin of the royal family of the Stuarts has long perplexed the most ingenious and indefatigable genealogists; it is, therefore, with some satisfaction, that we are able to trace this renowned family to the county of Salop; a circumstance that cannot fail to yield some degree of pleasure to the natives of this district, whose high and noble spirit will prompt them to venerate the name, however their more enlightened views may induce them to reject the principles, of that illustrious house.

The several histories, particularly Symon's Historical Account, all trace this family to a Thane of Lochaber, who is said to have flourished in the ninth century; but Lord Hailes has demonstrated that these histories are all of them fabulous genealogies, without being able to determine, where, and what was the commencement of this family. This opinion is adopted by the late Andrew Stuart, who wrote the Genealogical History of the Stuarts; but he had not been able to make any advances, in the road of discovery, towards the true origin. Lord Hailes, however, acknowledges that Walter, who flourished under David the first, and Malcolm the fourth, was indeed the Steward of Scotland. But the question of what family was this Walter remains unanswered. He is known to historians only as Walter, the son of Alan; no satisfactory account having yet been given, (if we except the respectable author and indefatigable scholar, on whose authority we rely in this narrative) of who this Alan was. This, however, appears to be the only clue to the discovery in question if the genuine descent of Alan, the father of Walter, and the first of the Stuarts can be ascertained, the great difficulty is surmounted. We are of opinion, therefore, that by laying before our readers the very satisfactory account of this family, given by Dr. Chalmers, we shall render a service to genealogists, and considerably enrich our own work. I propose, says Mr. Chalmers, to show, from the most satisfactory evidence, that Walter, the son of Alan, came from Shropshire, in England; that he was the son of Alan, the son of Flaald, and the younger brother of William, the son of Alan, who was the progenitor of the famous house of Fitz-Alan, the Earls of Arundel. The great exploit of Walter, the son of Alan, was the founding of the monastery of Paisley, during the reign of Malcolm the fourth, by transplanting a colony of Cluniac monks from the monastery of Wenlock, in Shropshire. Such, then, was the connection of Walter, the first Stuart, with Shropshire, with Wenlock, with Isabel de Say, who married William, the brother of Walter. Alan, the son of Flaald, married the daughter of Warine, the famous sheriff of Shropshire, soon after the Norman conquest; and of this marriage William was the eldest son of Alan, and the undoubted heir, both of Alan and of Warine. Alan, the son of Flaald, a Norman, acquired the manor of Oswestry, soon after the conquest. Alan was undoubtedly a person of great consequence, at the accession of Henry the first. He was a frequent witness to the king's charters, with other eminent personages of that splendid court.

Mr. Chalmers next proceeds to prove the fraternal connection between William, the son of Alan, by a transaction, which had before been as new to history as it is singular in itself. We shall hereafter see that Oswestry, in Shropshire, was the original seat of Alan on the Welsh border. Clun, in the same county, was added to his family by the marriage of his son, William, who built Clun castle; and John Fitz-Alan, Lord of Clun and Oswestry, by marrying Isabel, the second sister of William de Albany, the third Earl of Arundel, who died in 1196, became Earl of Arundel, and changed his residence from Shropshire to Sussex.

Now Richard Fitz-Alan, the Earl of Arundel, being with Edward the third during the year 1335, and claiming to be Steward of Scotland by hereditary right, sold his title and claim to Edward the third, for a thousand marks, which purchase he had cautiously confirmed to him by Edward Baliol; but Richard Fitz-Alan had not any right to the Stewardship of Scotland: Walter, who was the first purchaser of this hereditary office, was the younger brother of William, the son of Alan, the progenitor of Richard Fitz-Alan, the claimant; and, till all the descendants of the first purchaser had failed, the claim could not ascend to the common father of the two families. But Robert, the Stuart, who was born of Margery Bruce, on the 2nd of March, 1315-16, and became King of Scots, on the 22nd of February, 1370-1, under the entail of the crown, was then in possession of the heriditary office of Steward, by lineal descent.

Walter, the son of Alan, undoubtedly obtained from David the first, and from Malcolm the fourth, great possessions, a high office, and extensive patronage. And, it may be reasonably asked, by what influence he could acquire, from two kings, so much opulence and such an office? David the first was a strenuous supporter of the claim of his niece, the Empress Maud, in her severe contest with Stephen. William, the brother of Walter, influenced by the Earl of Gloucester, the bastard son of Henry the first, and the powerful partisans of his sister, the Empress, seized Shrewsbury in September 1139, and held it for her interest. He attended her, with King David, at the siege of Winchester, in 1141, where they were overpowered by the Londoners, and obliged to flee. Such then, were the bonds of connection between David the first, and the sons of Alan, who were also patronized by the Earl of Gloucester. It was, probably, on that occasion, that Walter accompanied David into Scotland. William, the son of Alan, adhered steadily to the Empress, and was rewarded by Henry the second, for his attachment. Thus Walter, the son of Alan, could not have had more powerful protectors, than the Earl of Gloucester with David the first, and Henry the second with Malcolm the fourth.

When Walter, by those influences, obtained grants of Renfrew with other lands, and founded the monastery of Paisley, for Cluniac monks from Wenlock, he was followed by several persons from Shropshire, whom he enriched, and by whom he was supported. He married Eschina, of Moll, in Roxburghshire, by whom he had a son Alan, who succeeded him in his estates and office, when he died, in 1177. Six descents carried this family, by lineal transmissions, to Robert, the Steward, whose office, as we have already seen, was purchased by Edward the third, and became King of Scots in 1371. Walter, the son of Alan, was followed by his brother Simon, who was the progenitor of the family of Boyd, according to the genealogists; but it is not necessary to trace this matter further. Mr. Chalmers, both here and in his account of Renfrewshire, has treated, in the most satisfactory manner, the history of the Stuarts, whose blood as be observes, ran in a thousand channels.

MUCKLESTON. A parish partly in Pimhill hundred, in the county of Stafford, and partly in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. The church is in Staffordshire. The entire parish contains 1,753 inhabitants. The Shropshire part 829 inhabitants. 3½ miles north-east of Drayton.

MUCKLETON. A township in the parish of Shawbury, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 7 miles south- east of Wem.

MUCKLEWICK. A township in the parish of Hissington, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury. 12 houses, 53 inhabitants.

MUNSLOW; or MOUNSLOW. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a rectory, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 108 houses, 706 inhabitants. 6 miles south-east of Church Skelton.

MUXTON and DONNINGTON. A township in the parish of Lilleshall, and in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South. Muxton is 3½ miles, and Donnington 4 miles south-west of Newport.

NASH. A township in the parish of Burford, and in the hundred of Oven. Nash, Tilsop, and Weston, contain 74 houses, 377 inhabitants. 6 miles south-east of Ludlow. Nash is a chapel to Burford, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Burford, and archdeaconry of Salop. It is served by one of the rectors of Burford.

NEACH HALL near Bonningale. 3 miles south-east of Shiffnal, the seat of - Bishton, Esq.

NEEN SAVAGE; or NYEND SAVAGE. A parish in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden, a vicarage remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 87 houses, 486 inhabitants. 1 mile north of Cleobury Mortimer.

NEEN SOLARS; or NEEN SOLLARS. A parish in the hundred of Overs, a rectory in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Burford, and archdeaconry of Salop. 42 houses, 281 inhabitants. 2½ miles south of Cleobury Mortimer.

In the church of Neon Solars there is a monument to Humphrey Conyngsby Esq. On the top is a fair coat of arms of the Conyngsbys, with the motto, Jacta Libertas. Below this is written in four columns as follows:-

'Time cutteth down the body,
But Christ raiseth up the spirit.
Here, Conyngsby, in lively shape thou liest,
Who sometimes wert the champion of Christ;
Didst travail Europe for his only sake
(And, found the foe) his quarrell undertake;
What greater valour, piety, could be,
Than bleed for him who shed his blood for thee ?
Alas our life, although we stay at home,
Is but a toylsom pilgrimage on earth,
But thou a double pilgrimage didst roam.
Thou wast almost abroad, ever from thy birth.
Thy journey's end was heaven, of homes the best,
Where till thou camest, thou never couldst take rest.
One life is lost, yet livest thou ever,
Death has his due, yet diest thou never'.

'This statue and monument were made in commemoration of Humphrey Conyngsby, Esq., only son of John Conyngsby, [In the Visitation, Worcester, Harl MS No 1486, made and taken 1571, Anne daughter of Thomas Barnaby, (and Joyce, daughter and heir to Walter Acton, of Acton, com. Wigorn) married John Conisby, of the Mind, and had issue Humphrey and Catharine Conisby.- Ex. MSS. Jacksonian. Collect. H.G. No. 56, fol. 92.] of Nees Were, Esq. and of Anne his wife daughter of Thomas Burnaby, of Hull, in the parish of Brockleton, and county of Worcester, Esq., which Humphrey Conyngsby was late Lord of this Neen Solars and patron of this Church; and was heir of the eldest line and family of Conyngsbys from whom all the rest are derived: which before King John's time were barons of England, and then resided at Conyngsby in Lincolnshire; he was a perfect scholar by education, and a great traveller by his own affections: he began his first travails in April 1594, being 27 years of age and two months, and for four years and upwards remained in France, Germany, Italy, and Sicily, and then returned home for a little while, and took his journey again into Bohemia, Polonia, and Hungary, where for the defence of the Christian faith, he put himself under the banner of Rodulph, the second Emperor of the Romans, (as a voluntary gentleman,) at the siege of Stregonium, in Hungary, against the Turk; afterwards to satisfie his desire, which was to see the most eminent persons and places, he went into Turkey, Natolia, to Troy, in Asia, by Sestos and Abydos, through the Hellespont, and into the Isles of Zant, Chios, Rhodes, Candy, Cyprus, and divers other places in the Archipelago.

He visited sundry antient and famous places of Greece, as Arcadis, Corinth, Thessalonica, Ephesus, and Athens; went over the plains of Thermopylae, by which Xerxes passed into Greece,- and so arrived at Constantinople, in the reign of Mahomet, the third Emperor of the Turks; who to do him honour, gave him a Turkish gown of cloth and gold, and his mother, the Sultana Ebrits, gave him another rich gown of cloth and silver, and 60 chequins in gold. After 12 months abode there, he returned into England, to the joy of his friends; where staying awhile, he went into Spain, and came back in safety; and again the fourth time took his journey from London to Venice, the 10th day of October, 1610, from which day he was never after seen by any of his acquaintance, on this side the sea, or beyond, nor any certainty known of his death, where, when, or how: from his first journey to his last was 16 years, and six months. He lived a bachelor, leaving behind one sister of the whole blood, named Joyce Jeffreys, whom he made executrix of his last will and testament, appointing her thereby to erect him a tomb, with an inscription of his condition, life, and death, which she hath here performed, though short of his perfections'.

'Tempera mutantur. Anne Domini, 1624.
Man, stay, see, read, muse, and mind thy end,
Flesh, pomp, time, thoughts, world, wealth, as wind doth pass,
Love, fear, hate, hope, fast, pray, feed, give, amend,
Man, beast, fish, fowl, and all flesh is as grass;
See here thyself, frail flesh, as in a glass,
No odds between us but uncertain hours,
Which are prescribed by the heavenly powers,
For death in fine all kind of flesh devours.

Respice finens.
Farewell then, sister flesh, and think of me,
What I am now, to morrow thou mayst be'.

In the glass window of the chancel where this monument is, is written-

'These arms here set up in the memory of Humphrey Conyngsby Esq., some time Lord of Neen Solars, by his half sister and executrix, Joice Jeffreys, Anne Domini, 1628'.

NEENTON. A parish in the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 23 houses, 119 inhabitants. 6 miles south-west of Bridgnorth.

NESSCLIFF. A township in the parish of Great Ness, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill; the chapel which was in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop, is dilapidated, and a school now occupies its place. 8 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

This village is remarkable for a Cave in its rock, called Kynaston's Cave, so named from the eccentrick exploits of Humphrey Kynaston, son of Sir Roger Kynaston, of Hordley. See Kynaston's Cave.

The top of Nesscliff rock is occupied by a beautiful wood, and the steep sides are marked with deep waved regular furrows, like those which have been exposed to the dashing of the sea. Upon the front of the publick school is the following singular inscription:-

" God protect the publick good,
" A school erected where a chapel stood".

The red stone of which the Castle, Abbey, Town Walls, and most other old buildings in this are formed, was in all probability brought from this place.

NESS; (Great) or NESTRANGE. A parish in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 104 homes, 580 inhabitants. 7 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

NESS. (Little) A parish in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill, formerly a chapel to Baschurch, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 42 houses, 253 inhabitants. 7½ miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

NETHER HEATH. A township in the parish of Worthen, .ad in the hundred of Ford.

NETLEY. A township in the parish of Stapleton, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 6½ miles south-west by west of Shrewsbury.

NEWCASTLE. A township in the parish of Clun, and in the Clun division of the hundred of Clun. 87 houses, 315 inhabitants. 6½ miles south- west of Bishopscastle.

NEW MARTON. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 4 miles west of Ellesmere.

NEWNES. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 1 mile south-west of Ellesmere.

There is a curious tradition that the celebrated Whittington was born at this place. There can be no doubt that many fabulous circumstances have crept into the history of this remarkable character, and no authentick account of his life being extant, to ascertain the truth of many particulars recorded of him, the popular tradition must be followed, and the judgment of the reader must decide what he is to believe, and what be is to reject.

Whittington left Shropshire at an early age, about the year 1366, and repaired to the metropolis. By the way he chiefly subsisted on the charity of well-disposed persons, and on his arrival in London, he made an application to the Prior of the hospital of St. John, Clerkenwell, where he was kindly relieved; and being handy and willing, was soon put into an inferior post in the house. How long he remained here is uncertain, but to this charitable foundation he was certainly indebted for his first support in London. His next reception was in the family of Mr. Fitzwarren, a rich merchant, whose house was in the Minories, near the Tower. Here he undoubtedly acted as under scullion, for his keep only.

In this situation he met with many crosses and difficulties; for the servants made sport of him; and particularly the cook, who was of a morose temper, used him very ill, and not unfrequently with a sturdy arm, laid the ladle across his shoulders; so that, to keep in the family, he had many a mortification to endure; but his patience carried it off, and at last he grew used to her choleric disposition.

This was not the only misfortune under which he laboured, for lying in a place for a long time unfrequented, such abundance of rats and mice had bred there, that they were almost ready at times to dispute the possession with him, and full as troublesome by night as the cook was by day, so that he knew not what to think of his condition, or how to mend it. After many disquieting thoughts, he at last comforted himself with the hopes that the cook might soon marry, or die, or quit her service, and as for the rate and mice, a cat would be an effectual remedy against them.

Soon after a merchant came to dinner, and it raining exceedingly, he stopped all night. The next morning, Whittington having cleaned his shoes, this gentleman gave him a penny. Going along the streets on an errand, he saw a woman with a cat under her arm; and desired to know the price of her: the woman praised her for a good mouser, and told him sixpence; but he declaring that a penny was all his stock, she let him have her. He took the cat home, and kept her in a box all day, lest the cook should kill her if she came into the kitchen, and at night he set her to work for her living. Puss delivered him from one plague; but the other remained, though not for many years.

It was the custom with the worthy merchant, Mr. Hugh Fitzwarren, that God might give him a greater blessing on his endeavours, to call all his servants together when he sent out a ship, and cause every one to venture something in it, to try their fortunes. Just at this juncture he had a ship ready to sail, and all but Whittington appeared, and brought things according to their abilities; but his young mistress being present, and supposing that poverty made him decline coming, she ordered him to be called, on which he made several excuses. Being however, constrained to come, he said he hoped they would not jeer a poor simpleton for being in expectation of turning merchant, since all he could lay claim to as his own, was but a poor cat, which be had bought for one penny, and which had much befriended him in keeping the rats and mice from him. On this the young lady offered to lay something down for him, but her father told her that according to the custom, what he ventured must be his own. He then ordered him to bring his cat, which he did, but with great reluctance, and with tears delivered her to the master of the ship, called the Unicorn, which had fallen down to Blackwall, in order to proceed on her voyage. [Though much ridicule has been thrown on this part of the tradition, it seems highly probable that the venture of the cat was, at least, the commencement of his fortunes. Over the old gaol at Newgate, which was originally built by Whittington, there was the figure of a man with a cat at his feet; the allusion, there can be little doubt, was to this or some similar circumstance.]

No sooner had this vessel arrived at Algiers than the intelligence reached the Dey, who immediately ordered the captain and officers to wait upon him with presents; for then, as well as now, nothing could be done without a bribe. After this first ceremony was over, trade went on pretty briskly, at the conclusion of which, his Moorish majesty gave a grand entertainment, which according to custom, was served upon carpets, interwoven with gold, silver, and purple silk. This feast was no sooner served up than the scent of the various dishes, brought together a number of rats and mice, who unmercifully fell on all that came in their way.

These audacious and destructive vermin did not shew any symptoms of fear upon the approach of the company, but on the contrary, kept to it as if they only were invited. This excited the astonishment of the captain and his people, who, interrogating the Algerines, were informed, that a very great price would be given by the Dey, for a riddance of those vermin, which were grown so numerous and offensive, that not only his table, but his private apartments, and bed, were so infested, that he was forced to be constantly watched for fear of being devoured.

This information put the English in mind of poor Dick Whittington's Cat, which had done them great service on the passage; and wishing to serve the youth, thought this the best time to come forward with the little industrious animal. Accordingly she was brought the next day, when her presence suddenly kept off most of the vermin; a few only of the boldest daring to venture forward, she dispatched them with wonderful celerity. This pleased his Highness so much, that he immediately made very advantageous proposals to the factor of the ship for the possession of this surprising and useful animal. At first the crew seemed very reluctant to part with her; but his liberality soon overcame every objection; and her purchase amounted, in various commodities, to several thousand pounds. During the time the English remained here, her industry in destroying those vermin so completely pleased the Moorish Chief, that, on their departure, he again loaded them with rich presents.

The cook, who little thought how advantageous Whittington's cat would prove, incessantly persecuted the youth on account of his penury, so that he grew weary of enduring it, and resolved rather to try his fortune again in the wide world, than lead such a disagreeable life. Accordingly he set out early on Allhallows morning, resolving to go into the country, and get into a more agreeable service.

As he went over Finsbury Moor, since called Moor Fields, his mind began to fail; he hesitated, and halted several times: he grew pensive, and his resolution left him. In this solitary manner he wandered on till he reached Holloway, where be sat down upon a large stone, which is still called Whittington's stone. Here he began to ruminate upon his ill luck, and in the depth of his meditation, he suddenly heard Bow bells begin to ring. This attracted his attention; and as he listened, he fancied they called him back again to his master. The more he hearkened, the more he became confirmed in this notion, conceiting the bells expressed the following distich:

"Return again Whittington,
" Thrice Lord Mayor of London".

This proved a happy thought for him; and it made so great an impression on his fancy, that finding it early, and thinking he might get back before the family were stirring, he instantly returned, and entered unperceived, to pursue his usual daily drudgery.

Things were in this situation when the news arrived of the success of the voyage. When the bill of lading was presented to the merchant, the principal part was found to belong to Whittington, amongst which was a cabinet of rich jewels, the last present of the Dey. This was the first thing brought to Mr. Fitzwarren's house, it being deemed too valuable to remain on board. When the servants' goods for their ventures were all brought up to be divided, Whittington's portion was too bulky to be unpacked before them; but the pearls and jewels alone were estimated at several thousand pounds.

This story, however improbable, is not without a parallel in the history of another country, for in a description of Guinea, published in 1665, it is recorded, that Alphonso, a Portuguese, being wrecked on the coast of Guinea, and being presented by the king with his weight in gold for a cat to kill their mice; and an ointment to kill their flies; this he improved within five years to six thousand pounds on the place, and returning to Portugal after fifteen years traffick, became, not like Whittington the second, but the third man in the kingdom.

The humility of Whittington's mind prevented him from displaying the least degree of arrogance, petulance or superciliosness on this sudden change of his fortune. At first he could scarcely be prevailed upon to quit the scullery, but Mr. Fitzwarren, who, it would appear took him into partnership, omitted no opportunity of promoting his interests, introducing him at court, and to the principal characters in the city.

In this new career Whittington's success must have been truly extraordinary, for we find that in a few years, King Edward the third, being at war with France, and soliciting of his subjects a subsidy to carry it on, Whittington paid towards the contribution offered by the city of London, no less than ten thousand pounds, an astonishing sum in those days, for an individual's share, when it is considered that history has almost left us in the dark as to the remuneration expected. Be that as it may, history places it in the forty sixth year of that king's reign, A.D., 1372. The success did not answer his great preparations; for his fleet was dispersed by contrary winds, and he was forced to disband his soldiers.

What contributed much at this time in favour of Whittington, was the absence of the Lombard merchants, who withdrew themselves from London, on account of the oppression of the king, which became excessive towards the latter end of his reign, by continued draughts to support his ambition in France. These, and the Jews abroad, conducted at that time the whole financial commerce of the city of London; but Mr. Whittington, upon their departure, came in for a considerable share of it.

In the 52nd year of Edward's reign, the Lords and Commons granted the king a poll-tax, of four-pence a head, for every man and woman passing the age of fourteen years, beggars excepted. The king demanding of the city of London to advance him £4,000 upon this poll, and the Mayor, Adam Staple, proving backward in complying, he was by the king turned out of his office; and Sir Richard Whittington put into his place, to finish the year; and this is the first mention of his being knighted, and of his great importance in the city at that time, being only about ten years after his first coming thither.

According to Stow, Sir Richard Whittington was a great dealer is wool, leather, cloth, and pearls, which were universally worn at that time by the ladies. In 1377, the first year of king Richard the second, he was called by summons to the parliament which met at London.

In 1395, the eighteenth of this king's reign Edmund, Duke of York, the king's uncle, held a parliament at London, the king being absent in Ireland, and relating to the citizens the great straits the king was reduced to in Ireland, they granted him a tenth upon their personal estates; first protesting that they were not in strict justice obliged to it, but that they did it out of affection. The mission to this parliament, we are particularly informed by Sir Robert Cotton, from Leland's papers, was managed by the uprightness of Sir Richard Whittington. It also appears from the parliamentary Rolls, that the citizens only granted this for four years, on condition that it should be bestowed upon the wars; that the king should be advised by his council; and that the wars ceasing before the time expired, payment might determine.

Thus he grew in riches and fame the most considerable of the citizens, greatly beloved by all, especially the poor, several hundreds of whom he publickly or secretly assisted or supplied.

About this time it was that he married his master's daughter, Miss Fitzwarren. According to the pretorian banner, once existing in Guildhall, but destroyed by the fire which consumed the city archives, Whittington served his first mayoralty in 1397. He was now near forty years of age, and was chosen into the office by his fellow citizens, whose approbation of his conduct, after having once before filled the office when put in by king Edward, is a proof that he was a good, loyal, and patriotick man.

He was one of those who went from the city to the tower to king Richard the second, to put him in mind of his promise to relinquish the government; and was accordingly constituted one of the king's proxies to declare his renunciation. According to Stow and Collier, he assisted at the coronation of Henry the fourth, when he took the oath of homage and allegiance to him. He assisted at the great council which that king soon after summoned, to demand aid of the Lords spiritual and temporal against his enemies, the kings of France and Scotland, who were then preparing to invade England; in which council the city of London, as well as the barons and clergy, unanimously granted the king a tenth to support him in the war, which was undertaken by Charles the ninth, of France, to restore his father-in-law, Richard the second, who was yet alive. Whittington's name stands second, Scroop, archbishop of York, being first, of those privy counsellors who were commissioned to treat on the king's part with the earl of Northumberland, about the exchange of castles and lands. But the designs of Whittington and the city were frustrated by the death of the unfortunate Richard.

Whittington's second mayoralty occurred in 1406. His third and last service of mayor happened in 1419, in Henry the fifth's time, in which situation he behaved with his usual prudence. Though age had now taken of much of his activity, yet he was the most vigilant magistrate of his time. Soon after Henry's conquest of France, Sir Richard entertained him and his queen at Guildhall, in such grand style, that he was pleased to say, ' Never prince had such a subject', and conferred upon some of the aldermen the honour of knighthood.

At this entertainment the king particularly praised the fire, which was made of choice wood, mixed with mace, cloves, and all other spices; on which Sir Richard said, he would endeavour to make one still more agreeable to his majesty, and immediately tore, and threw into the fire, the king's bond for 10,000 marks due to the company of mercers; 12,500 to the chamber of London; 12,009 to the grocers; to the staplers, goldsmiths, haberdashers, vintners, brewers, and bakers, 3,000 marks each. "All these", said Sir Richard, "with divers others lent for the payment of your soldiers in France, I have taken in and discharged to the amount of £60,000 sterling. Can your majesty desire to see such another sight?" The king and nobles were struck dumb with surprise at his wealth and liberality.

Sir Richard spent the remainder of his days in honourable retirement, in his house in Grubb Street, beloved by the rich and the poor. By his wife be left two sons. He built many charitable houses, founded a church in Vintry Ward, dedicated to St. Michael. Here he constructed an handsome vault, for the sepulchre of his father and mother-in-law, and the remainder of the Fittwarren family, and there himself and wife were afterwards interred.

In 1413, he founded an alms-house and college in the Vintry. The latter was suppressed by order of council in king Edward the sixth's time; but the former, on College Hill, still remains.

The munificence of Whittington, who was an inhabitant of Vintry Ward, was nevertheless felt and acknowledged all over the city. The library of the famous church of the grey friars, near the spot where Christ Church, in Newgate street, now stands, was founded by him in 1429. In three years it was filled with books to the value of £556, of which Sir Richard contributed £449, the rest being supplied by Dr. Thomas Winchelsey, a friar. This was about thirty years before the invention of printing. He also rebuilt Newgate, [See Note p. 355.] contributed largely to the repairs of Guildhall, and endowed Christ's Hospital with a considerable sum. Whittington as well as his master, Mr. Fitzwarren, were both mercers. How long he lived is uncertain, as his Latin epitaph in the Church of St. Michael, Paternoster, in the Vintry, where he was buried, does not specify his birth.- His will, however, is dated December 21, 1423. In the above-mentioned church, Sir Richard Whittington was three times buried; first by his executors, under a handsome monument; then in the reign of Edward the sixth, when the parson of the church thinking to find great riches in his tomb, broke it open and despoiled the body of its leaden sheet; then burying it a second time. In the reign of Queen Mary, she obliged the parishioners to take up the body, and restore the lead as before, and it was again buried; and so he remained till the great fire of London violated his resting place a third time. This church also, which his piety had founded, together with a college and alms- houses near the spot, became a prey to the flames in the great conflagration of 1666.

The capital house called Whittington College, with the garden, was sold to Armagill Wade, in the second year of Edward the sixth. The alms-houses which he founded for thirteen poor men, are still supported by the Mercers' Company, of which he was a member, and in whose custody are still extant the original ordinances of Sir Richard Whittington's charity, made by his executors, Coventre, Carpenter, and Grove.- The first page curiously illuminated, represents Whittington lying on his death-bed, his body very lean and meagre, with his three executors, a priest, and some other persons standing by his bed-side.

Dame Alice, the wife of Sir Richard, died in the sixty third year of her age; after which he never remarried, though he outlived her near twenty years. At last he expired like the patriarch, full of age and honour, leaving a good name and an excellent example to posterity. The following curious epitaph is said to have been cut on the upper stone of his vault, and to have continued perfect till destroyed by the fire of London:

Beneath this stone lies Whittington,
Sir Richard rightly named;
Who three times Lord Mayor served in London,
In which he ne'er was blam'd.

He rose from Indigence to Wealth,
By industry and that,
For lo ! he scorn'd to gain by stealth,
What he got by a Cat.

Let none who reads this verse despair
Of Providence's ways:
Who trust in him, he'll make his care,
And prosper all their days.

Then sing a requiem to departed merit,
And rest in peace till death demands his spirit.

NEWNHAM. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 5 miles south-west of Shrewsbury, the residence of J. Niccols, Esq.

NEWPORT. A market town and parish in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South. A curacy, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 478 houses, 2,343 inhabitants. Market on Saturday. Fairs, the first Tuesday in February, Saturday before Palm Sunday, May 28th, July 27th, September 25th, and December 10th. 18 miles north-east of Shrewsbury, 139 north-west of London. LONG. 2. 28½ W. LAT. 52. 48 N.

It is on the borders of Staffordshire, near the Watling Street. It anciently belonged to the Audleys, and to a family of its own name, to whom it gave the title of baron. The parish church stands in the middle of the main street which forms the town. It is an ancient structure but the side-aisles have been rebuilt in a modern style with brick, while the other portions have all the venerable marks of age. Hence it exhibits a most incongruous and fantastick jumble of mouldering stone and gay red brick work,- gothick arches and battlements, and Grecian embellishments. Within is an ancient monument of a judge Salter. From some remaining specimens it appears that the original architecture of the interior (previously to its sad mutilation about a century ago) was beautiful, and of the fifteenth century. The abbot and convent of St. Peter and St. Paul at Shrewsbury were patrons of thc Church at Newport; from them it was purchased in the twentieth of Henry the sixth by Thomas Draper, citizen of London, who made it collegiate, placing in it a custos and four fellows. The custos was the parish priest. The college property was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Edmund Downing, and Peter Ashton.

The free-school was founded by W. Adams, Esq., a native of this town, and haberdasher and alderman of London. It is a stately brick building, and has a library for the use of the scholars, who are here qualified for the university. Its lands, which are in the parish of Knighton Grange, Staffordshire, were exempted from parliamentary, parochial or any other kind of taxes, by a grant from Oliver Cromwell. At a short distance are two alms-houses built and endowed by the munificent founder of the school, who gave £550 towards the building of a town house. Newport sustained great damage by a fire which broke out on the 16th of May, 1666; it consumed one hundred and sixty houses, the loss of which, with what they contained, was estimated at £30,000.

This town contends with Shiffnal for the honour of having given birth to that humorous but licentious poet, Tom Brown. From Newport school he entered at Christ Church, Oxford. It does not appear that he remained long there, for taking advantage of a remittance from an indulgent father, and trusting that his wit would help out his learning, he dashed off for the capital, and entered into all its gaieties. Having drained the cup of pleasure to the dregs, and dissipated the last carolus in his purse, he retired to Kingston upon Thames, and trusting to his proficiency in the ancient and modern languages, opened a school. The drudgery of the employment soon disgusted him: he returned to London and to his former way of life, drawing notes on Parnassus to discharge his tavern reckonings, and wasting his rich fund of wit and humour in low abuse and frivolous satire. Admired and shunned, laughed at and despised, he passed the latter part of his life in great indigence. It is said that Lord Dorset, pitying his misfortunes, invited him to a Christmas dinner, where Tom, to his grateful surprise, found a bank note of fifty pounds laid under his plate. He died in the year 1704, in extreme poverty, and was interred in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, near the remains of Mrs. Behn, with whom he had in his life time been intimate. His whole works were printed in 1707, in four volumes, consisting of dialogues, essays, declamations, satires, letters from the dead to the living, translations, amusements, etc. These writings exhibit the character of the author's mind; they are replete with wit and humour, seasoned with learning, but degraded by indelicacy.

NEWTON. A township in the parish of Brace Meole, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 2½ miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

NEWTON. A township in the hundred of Munslow.

NEWTON. A township in the hundred of Ford.

NEWTON. A township in the parish of St. Mary, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

NEWTON, OATLEY, and SPOONHILL. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 1½ mile east of Ellesmere.

NEWTON. A township in the hundred of Bradford, North.

NEWTON ON THE HILL. A township in the parish of Middle, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 7 miles north of Shrewsbury.

NEWTON. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 3½ miles north-east by north of Bridgnorth.

NEWTOWN and MEREHOUSE; or MIREHOUSE. A township in the parish of Baschurch, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill. 7 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

NEWTOWN. A township in the parish of Wem, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 14 houses, 72 inhabitants. 4 miles north-west of Wem.

NEW WOOD-HOUSES. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 3 miles north- east of Whitchurch.

NOBOLD. A township in the parish of Brace Meole, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 1½ mile south-west of Shrewsbury.

NONNELEY; or NONELEY. A township in the parish of Loppington, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. 2 miles south-west of Wem. The greater part of this township is the property of Richard Noneley, Esq.

NORBURY. A parish in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow, a chapel to Lydbury, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Clun, and archdeaconry of Salop. 72 houses, 877 inhabitants. 4 miles north-east of Bishopscastle.

NORDLEY REGIS; or KING'S NORDLEY; or NORLEY. A township in the parish of Alveley, and in the liberties of Bridgnorth. 5 miles south-east of Bridgnorth.

NORLEY. 1 mile before Stanley, the seat of Sir Thomas Tyrwhitt Jones, bart.

NORTHWOOD. A township in the parish of Wem, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 38 houses, 182 inhabitants. 4 miles north-west of Wem.

NORTON. A township in the parish of Wroxeter, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 5½ miles south-east of Shrewsbury.

NORTON. A township in the franchise of Wenlock.

NORTON. A township in the parish of Condover, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 4 miles south of Shrewsbury. The seat of Miss Oakley.

NORTON. A township in the parish of Stockton, and in the hundred of Brimstry. In Norton stands the hundred house, where Thomas Whitmore, Esq., the lord of the hundred of Brimstry, holds his half yearly rents. 5 miles north of Bridgnorth.

NORTON. A township in the hundred of Munslow.

NORTON IN HALES. A parish in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 44 houses, 241 inhabitants. 3½ miles north-east of Drayton.

NOX. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 5 miles southwest of Shrewsbury.

NURSERY. (The) near WEST FELTON. 4½ miles south-east of Oswestry, in the hundred of Oswestry. The seat of J.F.M. Dovaston Esq.

OAKS. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 6½ miles southwest of Shrewsbury.

OAKEN GATES; or OAKEN YATES. A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. 3½ miles north-west of Shiffnal.

OAKEN GATES. A township in the hundred of Bradford, South.

OAKLEY. A township in the hundred of Purslow. The seat of the Hon. R. Clive. 1 mile south-east of Bishopscastle.

OAKLEY PARK. (Munslow) 2 miles north-west of Ludlow.

OATLEY; Or OTLEY; NEWTON and SPOONHILL. A township in the parish of Ellesmere, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. mile east of Ellesmere. The seat of Lady Tarra.

ORLEY. A township in the parish of Clunbury, and in the hundred of Clun. 7 miles south of Bishopscastle.

OFFA'S DYKE. Commonly called the Devil's Ditch.

This ditch called also Clawdd Offa, extended from the river Wye along the counties of Hereford and Radnor, in Montgomeryshire; from Pwll y piod, an alehouse on the road between Bishopscastle and Newtown; thence it passes northward near Mellington Hall, near which is an encampment called Caerdin, by Brompton-mill, where there is a mount; Limor park, near Montgomery, Forden-heath, Nantcribba, at the foot of an ancient fortress, Leighton Hall, and Buttington church. Here it is lost for five miles; the channel of the Severn probably serving for that space as a continuation of the boundary. Just below the conflux of the Bele and the Severn, it appears again, and passes by the churches of Llandysilio and Llanymynech, to the edge of the vast precipitous limestone rock. From this place it runs by Tref y clawdd, over the horse-course on Cefn y bwch, above Oswestry, then above Sellatyn; whence it descends to thc Ceiriog, and then to Glynn, where there is a large breach, supposed to be the place of interment of the English who fell in the battle of Crogen. It then goes by Chirk Castle, and below Cefn y wern, crosses the Dee and the Ruabon road near Plas Madoc, forms part of the turnpike road to Wrexham, to Pentrybychan, where there is a mount; then by Plas power to Adwy'r clawdd, near Miners; by Brymbo, crosses the Cedigog river, and through a little valley upon the south side of Bryniorkyn mountain, to Coed talwrn, and Cae-dwn, a farm near Treyddin chapel, in the parish of Mold, (pointing towards the Clwydian hills) beyond which there can no farther traces be discovered. It seems probable that Offa imagined that the Clwydian hills, and the deep valley that lies at their base, would serve as a continuance of this prohibitory line: he had carried his arms over most part of Flintshire, and vainly imagined that his labours would restrain the Cambrian inroads in one part, and his orders prevent any incursions beyond these natural limits, which he had decreed to be the boundaries of his new conquests. It is observable, says Pennant, that in all parts the ditch is on the Welsh side; and that there are numbers of small artificial mounts, the sites of small forts along its course. These were garrisoned, and seem intended for the same purpose as the towers in the famous Chinese wall, to watch the motions of their neighbours, and to repel hostile incursions. The folly of this great work appeared on the death of Offa: the Welsh, with irresistible fury, despised his toils, and carried their ravages far and wide on the English marches. Superior force often repelled them. Sanguinary laws were made by the victorious Harold against any that should transgress the limits prescribed by Offa. The Welshman that was found in arms on the Saxon side of the ditch, was to lose his right hand.

OLDBURY. A parish in the Chelmarsh, or Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Stottesden, and archdeaconry of Salop. 18 houses, 110 inhabitants. ¾ mile south-west of Bridgnorth.

OLDBURY; Or OWLBURY. 2 miles north-west by north of Bishopscastle, on the borders of Montgomeryshire.

At this place, in the year 1549, was born Hugh Broughton, a divine of great eminence for his extensive Hebrew, and Rabbinical learning. He was descended from an ancient family. Dr. Lightfoot says, that it is uncertain in what school he was instructed in grammar learning; but, according to the writers of the life of Bernard Gilpin, he was brought up in the school founded by that excellent man at Houghton, and by him sent to Cambridge. It is certain that he was educated at that university, and that he became one of the fellows of Christ's College. Here he laid the first foundation of his Hebrew studies, under a Frenchman, who read upon that tongue in the university. His parts and learning soon rendered him very conspicuous at Cambridge, and also attracted the notice of the Earl of Huntingdon, who became a liberal patron to him, and greatly encouraged him in his studies. From the university he repaired to London, where he distinguished himself as a preacher, and increased the number of his friends, some of whom were of high rank. He still, however, continued to prosecute his studies with the most unremitting assiduity; so that he is said frequently to have spent sixteen hours out of the four and twenty, at his books.

[The family of which be descended was ancient, and of very great rank, worth and estate, and at the same time bred this great scholar, and a brother of his, a Judge. It gave, for its coat of arms, the Owls: which is mentioned the rather, because this our author would sometimes say merrily, that it was a good prognostic that be should be a Grecian, because his coat bore the bird of Athens. And by this may be unriddled, that, for which, it may be, every one is not, or hath not an Oedipus ready, which is this: In some editions of the Genealogies set before our Bibles, you shall find two owls pictured, holding either of them a burning torch: which meaneth this that it was Mr. Broughton that gave the light in that work.]

In 1588, he published a piece, intitled, "The Consent of Scriptures". This was a work in which he was employed several years; and which, therefore, he used to call ' his little book of great pains'. It excited much attention at its first publication; but was strongly opposed by Dr. Reynolds at Oxford. This gave great offence to Mr. Broughton; who had a very earnest and absurd desire, to have the dispute between him and Dr. Reynolds, concerning the Scriptural Chronology, settled by publick authority. He addressed on this subject, Queen Elizabeth, Dr. Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Dr. Aylmer, Bishop of London.

His work was opposed not only at Oxford, but at Cambridge, where Mr. Lively, a professor, read publickly against it. He was, therefore, induced to read lectures in defence of his own performance. He continued several years in London, where he procured many friends. One of these was Sir William Cotton, whose son Rowland, who was afterwards knighted; he instructed in the Hebrew tongue. In the year 1589, Mr. Broughton want over into Germany, accompanied by Mr. Alexander Top, a young gentleman who had put himself under his care, and travelled with him, that he might continually receive the benefit of his instructions. He was some time at Frankfort, where he had a long dispute in the Jewish synagogue, with Rabbi Elias, on the truth of the Christian Religion. He appears to have been very solicitous for the conversion of the Jews, and his taste for Rabbinical and Hebrew studies naturally led him to take pleasure in the conversation. of those learned Jews whom he occasionally met with in the course of his travels; he had also disputes with the Papists; but in his contests both with them, and with the Jews, he was not very attentive to the rules either of prudence or politeness.

It appears, that in the year 1590, he was at Worms; but in what other places is not mentioned. In 1591, he returned again to England, and met at London with his antagonist Dr. Reynolds; and they referred the decision of the controversy between them, occasioned by his ' Consent of Scripture', to Dr. Whitgift, archbishop of Canterbury, and Dr. Aylmer, Bishop of London. Another piece which he published, intitled, ' An Explication of the article of Christ's Descent to Hell', was a source of much controversy, and was vehemently opposed; though his opinion on this subject is now generally and justly received. Two of his opponents in this controversy were Archbishop Whitgift, and Bishop Bilson. He addressed on this subject ' An Oration to the Genevans', which was first published in Greek. In this piece he treats the celebrated Beza with much severity. In 1592, he was in Germany again and published a piece called, ' The Sinai Sight', which he dedicated to the Earl of Essex. About the year 1596, Rabbi Abraham Reuben wrote an epistle from Constantinople to Mr. Broughton, which Wilk directed to him in London; but he was then in Germany.

He appease to have continued abroad till the death of Queen Elizabeth; and during his residence in foreign countries, cultivated an acquaintance with Scaliger, Raphelengius, Junius, Pistorius, Serrarium, and other eminent and learned men. He was treated with particular favour by the Archbishop of Mentz, to whom had dedicated his translation of the Prophets in Greek. He was also offered a Cardinal's hat, if he would have embraced the Remish religion; but that offer he refused to accept, and returned again to England, soon after the accession of King James I. In 1608, he preached before Prince Henry, at Oatlands, upon the Lord's Prayer. In 1607, the new translation of the Bible was begun; and Mr. Broughton's friends expressed much surprise, that he was was not employed in that work. It might probably be disgust on this account which again occasioned him to go abroad; and during his stay there, he was for some time preacher to the English at Middleburgh. But finding his health decline, having a consumptive disorder, which he found to increase, he returned again to England, being desirous to die in his own country. In November, 1611, he arrived at Gravesend, which being soon made known to his friends in London, several of them went down to him thither, to accompany him up to town. He lodged in London, during the winter, at a friend's house in Cannon street; but in the spring he was removed, for the benefit of the air, to the house of another friend, at Tottenham High Cross, where he died of a pulmonary comumption, on the fourth of August, 1612, in the sixty third year of his age. Daring his illness he made such occasional discourses and exhortations to his friends, as his strength would enable him, He appears to have had many friends and admirers even to the last; and his corpse was brought to London, attended by great numbers of people, many of whom had put themselves in mourning for him. He was buried in St. Antholin's church, where his funeral sermon was preached by the Reverend James Speght, B.D., afterwards D.D., minister of the church in Milk street, London. Lightfoot mentions it as a report, that the Bishops would not suffer this sermon to be published; but it was afterwards printed at the end of his works.

His person was comely and graceful, and his countenance expressive of studiousness and gravity. His indefatigable attention to his studies, gave him an air of austerity; and, at times, there appears to have been no inconsiderable degree of moroseness in his deportment: notwithstanding which, he is represented as behaving in a very kind and affable manner to his friends, and as being very pleasant in conversation with them, especially at his meals. He would also be free and communicative to any persons who desired to learn of him, but would be very angry with scholars, if they did not readily comprehend his meaning. Open impiety and profaneness were always opposed by him with great zeal and courage. He was much dissatisied, as appears from several passages in his works, that his great learning had not procured him more encouragement, and he evidently thought that he had a just claim to some considerable preferment. He was unquestionably a man of very uncommon erudition, but extremely deficient in taste and judgment. Be was also of a testy and cholerick temper, had a high opinion of his own learning and abilities, was extremely dogmatical, and treated those who differed from him in opinion, with much rudeness and scurrility; though some allowance must be made for the age in which he lived, in which that mode of writing was much more common among divines and scholars, than it is at present. From the general tenor of his life and of his works, and the opinion formed of him by those who were the best acquainted with him, it seems equitable to conclude, that with all his failings, he meant well; nor do we apprehend, that there is any sufficient ground for the extreme severity with which his moral character has been lately treated.

He translated the Prophetical writings into Greek, and the Apocalypse into Hebrew. He was desirous of translating the whole New Testament into Hebrew, which he thought would have contributed much to the conversion of the Jews, if he had met with proper encouragement. And he relates, that a learned Jew with whom he conversed, once said to him, 'O that you would set over all your New Testament into such Hebrew as you speak to me, you should turn all our nation'.

Most of his works were collected together, and printed at London, in 1662, nnder the folldwing title: 'The Works of the great Albionean Divine, renowned in many Nations for rare Skill in Salem's and Athens' Tongues, and familiar Acquaintance with all Rabbinical Learning, Mr. Hugh Broughton'. This edition of his works, though bound in one large volume, folio, is divided into four tomes. Dr. Lightfoot, who was himself a great master of Hebrew and Rabbinical learning, says, that in the writings of Broughton, 'the serious and impartial student of them will find these two things. First, as much light given in Scripture, especially in the difficultest things thereof, as is to be found in any one author whatsoever; nay, it may be, in all authors together. And, secondly, a winning and enticing enforcement to read the Scriptures with a seriousness and searching more than ordinary. Amongst those that have studied his books, multitudes might be named, that have thereby grown proficients so far, as that they attained to a most singular, and almost incredible skill and readiness, in his way, in the understanding of the Bible, though otherwise unlearned men. Nay some such, that, by the mere excitation of his books, have set to the study of the Hebrew tongue, and come to a very great measure of knowledge in it; nay, a woman might be named that hath done it. This author's writings do tarry in them, I know not what; a kind of holy and happy fascination, that the serious reader of them is won upon, by a sweet violence, to look into the Scripture with all possible scrutinousness; and cannot choose. Let any one but set to read him in good earnest, and, if he find not, that he sees much more in Scripture, than ever he could see before, and that he is stirred up to search much more narrowly into the Scripture, than ever he was before, he misseth of that, which was never missed of before by any that took that course, if multitude of experiences may have any credit'.

It will justly be thought in the present age, that Dr. Lightfoot formed too high an opinion of the value of Broughton's writings; but in whatever estimation they may now be held, the celebrity of Broughton in his own time, and his extraordinary learning, gave him a reasonable claim to some memorial in a work of this kind.

OLDBURY. A chapel, in the parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry, in the diocese of Worcester, the deanery of Kidderminster, and archdeaconry of Worcester, 4 miles north-east of Hales Owen.

OLD HEATH. A Township in the parish of St. Mary, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. 2 miles north-east by north of Shrewsbury.

OLDINGTON. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 3½ miles north-east by north of Bridgnorth.

OLD MARTON. See Marton (Old.)

OLD OSWESTRY. This fine military post lies about one mile from Oswestry; in the parish of Sellatyn, upon an insulated eminence of an oblong form, surrounded by two ramparts and fosses of great height and depth. Another deep foss or ditch at the bottom of the hill, surrounds the whole, and ends, as do the two others, at the two entrances; which are placed diagonally opposite to each other. On the slope of the hill, on both sides of the original entrance, are a range of oblong trenches, running transversely between the second ditch and another, which seems to be designed for their immediate protection; for the first extends no farther than these trenches; the other, to no great distance beyond them. The top is an extensive area, containing fifteen acres, three roods, and eight perches of fertile ground; and the fortifications which encompass it, cannot be less than forty or fifty acres, covered with timber, brushwood, and brambles. A well, probably for the purpose of hiding treasure, was discovered here; a pavement in another place, perhaps to prevent the horses, etc., from injuring the ground; and pieces of iron, like armour. In 1767, as much timber was cut down from the ramparts as sold for £17,000. ' Remarking to a gentleman', says Mr. Hutton, 'that I had gleaned some anecdotes relative to Oswald, he asked me if I had seen Old Oswestry, where, he assured me, the town formerly stood. I smiled, and answered him in the negative. He then told me, 'that the town had travelled three quarters of a mile to the place where it had taken up its present abode'. This belief, I found had been adopted by others with whom I conversed'.

This place is also sailed Hen Ddinas, (old place) and anciently Caer Ogyrfan, from Ogyrfan, a hero, co-existent with Arthur. There is no certainty of the origin of it: some ascribe it to Oswald or to Penda, and imagine that it was possessed, before the battle of Maserfield, by one of these princes. Others think it to have been the work of the ancient Britons; for its constrnction, even to the oblong trenches, is British; that of Bryn y Cloddiau, on the Clwydian hills, which divide Flintshire from the vale of Clwyd, is a similar work. It is evident that this magnificent work was not a sudden operation, like that of a camp, but that it was a work of immense labour and ample security. There are two or three out-posts. Of the ancient Britons, Speed speaks thus: ' Now touching their domestick matters, their buildings were many, and like to them of the Gauls: notwithstanding they gave the name of towns to certain combersome woods, which they have fortified with rampires and ditches, whither they retreat and resort to eschue the invasions of their enemies. Which stand them in good stead, for when they have, by felling of trees, mounted and fenced therewith a spacious round plot of ground, there they build for themselves houses and cottages; and for their cattell set up stals and folds, but those for the present use only, and not for long continuance'.

A great dyke and foss, called WATT's DYKE, is continued from each side of this post. This work is little known, notwithstanding it is equal in depth, though not in extent, to that of Offa, with which it has been frequently confounded. Of the formation of this dyke as to time or occasion, no authentick information can be found. It runs nearly in a direction with that of Offa, (See Offa's Dyke,) but at unequal distances, from five hundred yards to four miles. The space intervening between the two was considered as free ground, where the Britons, Danes, etc., might meet with safety for commercial purposes. Camden says, that below the castle of Whittington, Wrenoc, the son of Meyric, received certain lands, which he was to hold by the service of being the King's (Henry the second) latimer or interpreter between the parties.

'There is a famous thing
Called Offa's Dyke, that reacheth farre in length;
All kind of ware the Danes might thither bring,
It was free ground, and called the Britons' strength.
Watt's Dyke, likewise, about the same was set,
Between which two, the Danes and Britons met,
And traffic still, but passing bounds by sleight,
The one did take the other pris'ner streight.

Watt's dyke appears at Maesbury, in the parish of Oswestry, and terminates at the Dee, below the abbey of Basingwerk. The southern end of the line is lost in morassy grounds; but was probably continued to the river Severn. It extends its course from Maesbury, to the Mile-oak; from thence, through a field called Maes y garreg lwyd, between two remarkable pillars of unhewn stone; passes by the town, sad from thence to Old Oswestry, and by Pentreclawdd, to Gobowen, the site of a small fort called Bryn y Castell, in the parish of Whittington; runs by Prys Henlle and Belmont; crosses the Ceiriog, between Brynkinallt and Post y Blew forge, and the Dee below Nant y Bela; from whence it passes through Wynn-stay-park, by another Pentreclawdd, to Erdigg, where there was another strong fort on its course; from Erdigg it runs above Wrexham, near Melia Puleston, by Dolydd, Maesgwyu, Rhos-ddu, Croes-oneiras, etc.; goes ever the Alun, and through the township of Llai, to Rhydin, in the county of Flint; above which is Caer-estyn, a British post: from hence it runs by Hope church along the side of Molesdale, which it quits towards the lower part, and turns to Mynydd Sychdyn, Monachlog, near Northop, by Northop mills, Brynsmoel Coed y Llys, Nant y Flint, Cefn y Coed, through the Strand fields, near Holywell, to its termination below the abbey of Basingwerk. A dyke and rampart, similar in appearance, and not unlike in name, runs through the counties of Wilts and Somerset, called Wans Dyke, perhaps from gwan, a perforation.

OLD STREET. One of the wards of the parish of St. Lawrence, in the borough of Ludlow. 403 houses, 1872 inhabitants.

OLD WOOD-HOUSES. A township in the parish of Whitchurch, and in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 3 miles north- east of Whitchurch.

OLLERTON. A township in the parish of Stoke upon Tern, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 30 houses, 133 inhabitants. 7 miles north-west of Newport.

ONIBURY; Or ONNYBURY. A parish in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow, a rectory remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Ludlow, and archdeaconry of .Salop. 66 houses, 445 inhabitants. 4½ miles north-west of Ludlow.

The tower of its rural church is overshadowed with ivy, and the surrounding scenery is of the most interesting description.

There is a school at this place, first established in 1563, by William Norton, who by will bequeathed to it the sum of £6 6s. 8d. yearly; which, with an additional allowance from the parish funds, is advanced to the yearly stipend of £12. The Rector has also further added a convenient house and garden, originally belonging to the parsonage house.

The scholars are taught reading, writing, and arithmetick, and the school is, free for the admission of all who apply.

ONNY. (River) See appendix.

ONSLOW. A township in the parish of St. Chad, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. The seat of John Wingfield, Esq.

ORLETON. The seat of W. Cludde, Esq., and of Edward Cludde, Esq. 1 mile west of Wellington.

OSWESTRY. A market town and parish in the Oswestry division of the hundred of Oswestry, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of St. Asaph, and the deanery of Marchia. [1] Oswestry parish, not including the town, contains 692 houses, 3,613 inhabitants. The town, 844 houses, 3,910 inhabitants. The entire parish contains 1,536 houses, 7,523 inhabitants. 17½ miles north-west of Shrewsbury, 179 miles north-west of London. Market on Wednesday, Fairs 3rd Wednesday in January, March 15, May 12, Wednesday before Midsummer-day, August 15, Friday before September 29, December 10. LAT. 52. 53½ N. LONG. 3. 9 W.

Previously to the reign of Edward the first, this part of England, which is on the very borders of Wales, was termed the Northern Marches, and was governed by a Lord President, who kept his court at Ludlow Castle, and who, down to the reign of Charles II. lived in a style little inferior to that of royalty.

Oswestry was called by the Britons Tre'r-cadeiriau; literally, the town of chairs, or, seats commanding an extensive view, (as Cadair Idris, the chair of Idris, and others) as there are several eminences commanding such views in the neighbourhood.

We find that Oswael, one of the sons of Cunedda Wledig, as a reward for his services in driving the Irish from Gwynedd, in conjunction with his brothers, obtained that district called Osweiling, where the present town of Oswestry is situated, The town may ascribe its foundation and name to this Oswael; who, it is said, erected a place of religious worship there.

The Saxons called this place Maserfield, derived from Maes Hir, (brit.) the long field; and Felle, (sax.) fierce, cruel, outrageous; in allusion to the battle between Penda, king of Mercia, and Oswald, king of Northumberland; or more probably Feldt, a field, added by the Saxons, the looking on Maes hir merely as an epithet, without knowing its signification. It is conjectured that the Welsh called it Croesoswallt, and the English Oswald's-tree, from a circumstance which is thus related: Oswald, previous to the battle with Cadwallon, near Severus's Wall, set up a cross of wood, and making intercession overthrew his adversary.

The town was also termed Blanc-minster, White-minster, and in ancient records, Candida-ecclesia, and Album-monasterium, from its ' fair and white monastery'. During the time when Meredydd ab Bleddyn inherited Oswestry, the inhabitants called it Trefred, a contraction of Tre Meredith, Meredith's Town, This prince dying in 1129, the name was lost, and the town resumed its former appellation.

It is supposed that Oswestry was founded about the end of the fourth century. It formed part of Powisland, which when entire extended in a direct line, from Broxton hills, in Cheshire, to Pengwern Powis, or Shrewsbury, (including a large tract of land of both of those counties,) and from the latter place, stretched through the eastern limits of Montgomeryshire, comprehending all that county and part of Radnorshire and Brecknockshire. It then turned northward, included the Cwmmuds of Mowddwy, Edeyrnion, and Glyndyfrdwy and Merionethshire, and came along a part of the Clwydian Hills, to the summit of Mael-famma, including all Denbighshire, except those parts which at present constitute the lordships of Denbigh and Ruthin. From hence, taking a south-easterly direction, it extends to Molesdale, Hopedale, and Maelor, in Flintshire. It was perhaps of much greater extent under the reign of Brochwel Ysgythrog, who was defeated by the Saxons at the battle of Chester, in 607. After this event, the borders became a scene of rapine; the Welsh and Mercian, alternately making most terrible inroads into each other's dominions.

Oswald and Oswy were sons of Ethelfrid the Wild, king of Northumberland. Redwald, king of East Anglia, having defeated and slain their father, in 617, Oswald and Oswy were taken into Scotland, where they continued during the reigns of Edwin and Osric. After the latter were defeated and slain by Penda and Cadwallon, Oswald and Oswy returned from Scotland, in 634, where they had been baptised in the Christian religion, according to the Church of Rome. Oswald having united the kingdoms of Deira and Bernicia, (Northumberland) and promoted this religion there, prepared to meet Cadwallon, the Briton, who had attacked his dominions. Over this prince he gained a decisive victory. Encouraged thus far, he wished to curb his restless, ambitious neighbour, Penda.

August 5th, 642, the contending armies of Oswald, king of Northumberland, and Penda, king of Mercia, met here: Oswald approached with his army to what is called Maes-y-Alan, or Churchfield, then open. About four hundred yards west of the church is a rising ground, where the battle began. The assailant appears to have driven Penda's forces to a field nearer the town called Cae Nef. [Cae Nef is situated on the left of the turnpike road leading to the free-school: it signifies Heaven-field. The Hefenfeld in Northumberland is said to have received its name on account of Oswald attributing the victory over the Britons solely to the interposition of Heaven.]

Here Oswald fell. Penda, with a savage barbarity caused the breathless body of Oswald to be cut to pieces, and stuck on poles, as so many trophies of his victory. [In a MS. account of the town, written in 1635, there is the following observation ' There was an old oake lately standing in Mesburie, within the parish of Oswestry; whereon, by tradition, one of king Oswald's arms hung.]

Oswald's strict virtue, great humility, and zeal for the advancement of the religion he had embraced, gained him the love and esteem of his subjects. He had been a great benefactor to various monasteries, and his character was so much revered by the monks, that a short time after his death, he was canonized; and the field in which he was slain, became celebrated for the numerous miracles that were believed to have been wrought in it.

Oswald's Well is situated a little to the west of the free-school, and is supplied by a spring flowing from the elevated ground above it. The well is a small square basin, in a recess formed by a stone wall, and arched over. On the back is a rudely-sculptured head of king Oswald; and the front was secured by an iron grate. A second recess of the same kind is divided from the former, by a slight stone wall; and in this recess, there is water also, which was, perhaps, granted for common uses, whilst the other may have been held sacred. There was formerly a chapel or cell near it, but no vestige of either remains; and the well itself is in a very ruinous state, but the water is good. There is a tradition, that when Oswald was slain, an eagle tore one of the arms from the body, and flying off with it, fell down and perished upon this spot, from which the waters flushed up, and have continued to flow ever since, as a memorial of the event.

On the place of martyrdom, as the monks have termed it, a Monastery was founded, dedicated to St. Oswald; but there are no evidences at present extant of the time either of its foundation or dissolution. In the reign of Henry VIII. no part of the building was left; for Leland, who then visited this place, says that the cloister only was standing within the memory of persons then living.

From the above it appears, that the White Monastery was in or near the town itself. In another poem he says,- 'it was on the south-side of the town;' which is the situation of the present church, with respect to the ancient walls of the town. There is, also, a spot of ground near the church, still called Erw Myneich, that is, Monk's Acre; and, as the ancient name of the church was Blanc-minster, there can be little doubt but that the monastery was adjoining to the church. Some traces of the foundation are still discoverable, in digging graves in the churchyard. A celebrated writer is inclined to think it to have been collegiate; a kind of establishment very frequent in places of martyrdom or of assassination, reverential or expiatory, according to the nature of the event.

Until the year 777, Oswestry was possessed by the Britons; when the warlike king Offa passing the Severn with a mighty force, expelled them from their fruitful seats on the plains, and reduced the kingdom of Powis to the western side of the celebrated ditch still known by his name. The princes of Powis were then constrained to quit their ancient residence at Pengwern, or Shrewsbury, and remove to one not less fertile, to Mathrafel, in the beautiful vale of Myfod. From this period, their kingdom was called indifferently that of Powis, or of Mathrafael. The plains of Shropshire became a confirmed part of the Mercian kingdom; and the parts beyond the Severn of Gloucestershire and Worcestershire, and the county of Hereford submitted to the yoke. The Britons still alive to their injuries, privately formed a plan of revenge. They entered into an alliance with the king of Sussex and Northumberland, and made a breach in the rampart during the night, passed the boundary, at early dawn attacked the camp of Offa, in an unprepared state, and put great numbers to the sword. The Mercian monarch narrowly escaped with a small remnant of his army.

The tract which forms the country above Croes-oswallt or Oswestry, and the two Maelors, (Gymraeg or the present Bromfield, and Saesnag or the present Flintshire Maelor) with many other Cwmmwds, relapsed to their natural masters. Such was its state till 843, the reign of Roderic the Great, prince of all Wales; who, in his mother's right, possessed North Wales; in that of his wife, South Wales; and by that of his grandmother, Nest, sister and heiress to Congen ab Cadell, king of Powis, he added Powisland to his dominions. He according to the destructive custom of gavel-kind, divided his principality among his children. To Anarawd he gave North Wales; to Cadell, South Wales; to Mervyn, Powisland. Each wore a Talaith or diadem of gold, beset with precious stones; whence they were styled Y Tri Tywysog Taleithiog, or the three crowned princes. After the death of Mervyn, Cadell usurped the portion of his brother. His eldest son Hywel Dda, or the Good, in 940, again united all Wales into one government. He left four sons, who divided South Wales and Powis between them; while North Wales was assumed in 948, by Iago ab Idwal Voel, and Ieuav. Edgar made them pay tribute of wolves' heads, and in forty five years those animals were greatly lessened.

The confusion that ensued on account of this partition, prevents any thing being said with certainty, until Bleddyn ab Cynvyn, who ruled Wales jointly with his brother, at the time of the Conquest, re- united the kingdoms of North Wales and Powis. The succession to the whole principality passed from his children; but Powisland devolved to his sons, and came at length entire to Meredydd, the eldest born, after the contentions and slaughter usual after such partitions. Oswestry was called Trefred, in honour of this prince. He made the division which finally destroyed the power of the once potent kingdom of Powis. To his eldest son, Madog, he gave the part which bore afterwards the name of Powis Vadog: to Gryffydd, the portion called Gwenwynwyn. POWIS VADOG, which belongs more particularly to our history, consisted, according to the division of the times, of five Cantrefs or a hundred townships; and these were subdivided into fifteen Cwmmwds.

Cantrefs. Cwmmwds. In what Shires.

{ Dinmael, Denbighshire.
{ Edeyrnion, Merionethshire.
{ Glyndyfrdwy, Ibid.

{ Yale, or Jal, Denbighshire.
{ Ystrad Alan, or Mold, Flintshire.
{ Hope, Ibid.

{ Merfford, Flintshire.
{ Maelor Gymraeg or Bromfield, Denbighshire.
{ Maelor Saesnag, Flintshire.

{ Croes-vaen, and Tref y Waun, or Chirk, Denbighshire.
{ CROES-OSWALLT, or Oswestry, Shropshire.

{ Mochnant-is-Rhaiadr, Cynllaeth, etc., Denbighshire.

{ Nan-heudwy, Whittington, Shropshire.

Madog married Susanna, daughter of Gryffydd ab Conan, prince of North Wales, by whom he had two sons; Gryffydd Maelor, and Owen ab Madog. To the first, he gave the two Maelors, Yale Hopedale, Nan-heudwy, Mochant-is-Rhaiadr, etc.: to Owen, the land of Mechain Is-coed; and, to his natural son, Owen Brogyntyn, a young man of great merit, Edeyrnion and Dinmael. Madog's chief residence was at Oswestry; where he built the castle, about 1140, according to the Welsh records. His second wife was Maud Vernon, an English woman of noble birth. He died at Winchester, and his body was honourably conveyed to Powis, and buried at Myfod. His widow married Fitzalan, Lord of Clun; who in right of his wife, obtained the town and castle of Oswestry. This William was a descendant of Alan who came in with the conqueror, and was the first of the Fitzalans that was baron of Oswestry. Alan was of the stock of the Fitzalans, earls of Arundel, a powerful race, that existed, with fewer checks than common to dignity, for about five hundred years. Fifteen of these enjoyed the baronage of Oswestry, in addition to their other great estates.

The title of baron of ' Oswaldestre', is now held by the duke of Norfolk. His ancestor, Thomas, duke of Norfolk, married lady Mary, daughter of Henry, last earl of Arundel of the name of Fitzalan, 13th Eliz., when the lordship of Oswestry was conveyed to the duke. The Powis family afterwards became possessed of the manor, etc. in which it now continues,

The nation being divided in the reign of Stephen, concerning his right to the crown, many of the nobility rose in support of the empress Maud. William Fitzalan espoused the cause of the latter, and united his forces with the noblemen of that party. However he was at length obliged to fly, leaving his estates, etc., to the mercy of the exasperated king. True to his honour, he did not deviate from those principles, which he had, at the risk of his life and fortune, supported: and firmly adhering to the interest of the empress, until her son, Henry II. succeeded to the throne, his integrity was faithfully rewarded; and his honours and estates, among which were the Castles of Oswestry and Clun, restored to him.

In 1164, Henry the second, after the fatal battle of Eulo, in Flintshire, determined once more to attempt the subjugation of Wales, and to revenge the ravages carried through the borders by its gallant prince, Owain Gwynedd. For that purpose, be assembled a vast army at Oswestry, where he encamped, and stopped a considerable time; till hearing that Owain and Cadwaladr with all the strength of North Wales, prince Rhys with South Wales, and all the power of Powis had met together and pitched their tents at Corwen, he then marched from Oswestry to the banks of the Ceiriog. Recollecting his misfortunes in the forests of Eulo, he directed his advanced guard to clear the passage, by falling the trees, in order to secure himself from ambushment. The pikemen, and flower of his army, were posted to cover the workmen. The spirit of the Welsh soldiery grew indignant at this attempt; and, without the knowledge of their leaders they fell with irresistible fury on these troops. The conflict was obstinate and bloody, and numbers of brave men perished. In the end, the Welsh retired to Corwen. Henry reached the summit of the Berwyn; but was so distressed by dreadful rains, and by the activity and prudence of Owain, who cut him off from all supplies, that he was obliged to return with great loss of men and equipage. He however wreaked his vengeance on the unfortunate hostages which the Welsh had sent to him some time before, by putting out their eyes !

This contest is sometimes termed The Battle of Corwen; but with more propriety that of Crogen, for it took place beneath Castell Crogen, the present Chirk castle.- The place is still called Adwy'r Reddau, or pass of the graves of the men.who were slain here.

Considerable privileges have been granted to the town by its lords. The first charter of Oswestry was given by William earl of Arundel, in the reign of Henry II.; and, from its brevity, was called by the Welsh, SIARTER CWYTA, or the short charter. The following observations occur in it: ' I have received in Protection my Burgesses and Blanc-minster. [There are many charters of Protection. The gentleman who furnished the above translation, has one in his museum.] Richard de Chambre was Constable of White-minster. Thomas de Rossal of John Fitz Alan, in Chief, of one Knight's Fee at White- minster. [A Knight's Fee is so much inheritance of land, as is sufficient to maintain a kight; which in the reign of Henry III. was £15, or two hundred acres of land.]

The aforesaid William in levying an aid for the marriage of the king's daughter, in 1165 certified his knight's fees to be in number thirty five and a half; whereof nineteen were de Veteri feofmento and sixteen and a half de novo. He magnificently entertained Giraldus Cambrensis and the archbishop of Canterbury, in his castle of Oswestry on their journey to incite the people to arm themselves for the intended Crusade. Giraldus seemed to think the entertainment savoured too much of luxury. In a scutage made in the reign of king John, the said earl was not to do ward at any place but Blancminster, for the knight's fees held by him; nor to furnish more than ten soldiers, horse or foot, in the county of Salop; or more than five out of it.

Early in the reign of John, Gwenwynwyn, lord of Powis, went to Shrewsbury, to meet the king's council. He was dishonourably made prisoner, and confined in the castle of that place, to deter the Welsh from ravaging the borders. Notwithstanding this treatment of their prince, they actually sent a child under seven years old, in 1212, as an hostage for their performance of a treaty just made; but owing to some infringment of the peace, on the part of the Welsh, the child was hanged in inrewsbury, by one of the king's creatures.

In 1214, Llyweln ab Grufydd ab Madog, made his complaint to the archbishop of Canterbury, against the constable of Oswestry, for disturbing him in the third part of the ville of Ledrod, and compelling him to send two young noblemen to be put to death, after an ignominious manner, in derogation of their birth and extraction; which disgrace their parents would not have undergone for three hundred pounds sterling ! He states, also, that the constable had twice imprisoned sixty of his men, when each man was compelled to pay ten shillings for his liberty: and that when the Welsh people came to Oswestry fair, the constable would seize their cattle, by driving them into his castle, and refuse to pay for the same.

1216. Lewis, the dauphin of France, being invited by the English barons against king John, landed in the isle of Thanet, and marching forward to London, received homage of all the barons who were in actual war against the king. John removed to Hereford, in the marches of Wales. He sent to prince Llywelyn and Bruce, imploring their assistance, but they did not hearken to his proposals. In revenge, he caused twenty eight hostages, children of eminent Welsh families, to be hanged at Shrewsbury. Radnor and Hay castles he destroyed; and Oswestry, which belonged to John Fitzalan, who had taken part with the barons, was burned to the ground.

After the death of that prince, John Fitzalan was reconciled to his successor, Henry III.; and in 1227, procured for his manor of Blanc- minster, the GRANT of a fair on the eve, the day, and the day after St. Andrew's feast. The bailiffs were also made clerks of the market, with privilege to imprison nay person detected in forestalling; for which was paid twenty marks as a consideration. These persons sometimes abused their prerogative; and it cannot be surprising that the grievances which the Welsh complained of to Edward I. should chiefly arise from this town.

In the rebellion of the earl of Pembroke, against Henry III. in 1233, Oswestry again experienced the dreadful effects of revenge. The confederates taking advantage of the perpetual animosity subsisting between the Welsh and English, joined Llywelyn ab Jorwerth, a prince who long supported a character distinguished for enterprise and bravery; burned the town; plundered the inhabitants of the marches, and laid waste the country: then entering Shrewsbury, made great booty there; put a great number of the inhabitants to the sword, and burned a considerable part of the town.

In 1277, Edward I. made Shrewsbury the chief seat of government for several months, that he might be ready to receive the necessary aid from his courts, in the subjugation of Wales, an enterprise long meditated. He surrounded Oswestry with walls, that it might be less liable to plundering excursions, and as a key to his intended conquest. A murage or toll was imposed upon the county, (the burgesses of the town of Shrewsbury excepted) for six years, for the building of the same; in which period it is presumed they were completed. It appears they were about a mile in circumference, with an entrenchment on the outside, which could be filled with water from the numerous streams in the vicinity. The remains of this fortification are still visible. ' Several strong towers were erected on the walls', but not a vestige of either is to be seen at this time. There were also four gateways, the only inlets into the town. These gates, in latter days, became extremely inoonvenient for the passage of carriages, etc. The Black-gate was taken down by consent of the earl of Powis, and pillars erected in their place. The corporation also entered into an agreement, in 1782, with the succeeding lord of the manor, for the demolition of the remaining three gates, and appropriating the materials to the erecting of a prison within the town. This was carried into effect, and pillars were also substituted in their stead.

The New-gate was built in the reign of Edward II. It was used as a prison and guard-room for soldiers. The horse with an oak branch in his mouth, over the arch way, was the crest of the Fitzalans, and is borne by the present earl-marshal of England, as the dexter supporter of his shield. The oak branch on the seal of king Oswald, as mentioned in the MS. of John Davies, esq., Recorder, 1635, was a mere ornament; as on those of the bailiffs of Shrewsbury, and several royal seals in the time of Edward I. There is a very ancient carving of the horse and oak bough in the old house at Tren-ewydd, near Whittington.

The Beatrice-gate was probably erected by Thomas, earl of Arundel, in the beginning of the reign of Henry IV., who named it in compliment to his wife, Beatrice, natural daughter to the king of Portugal. Over this gate were the arms of the Fitzalans; a lion rampant- Willow-gate (properly Wallia-gate) took its name from being the thoroughfare to Wales, over the boundary of Offa. The precise time of its erection, or that of the Black-gate, which was taken down in 1766, is not known.

In 1400, the town was burned during an insurrection of the Welsh. After a peaceable submission of upwards a century, they made an attempt to regain their ancient independence under the renowned Owain Glyndwr. He was squire of the body to Richard II., whose cause he favoured, and therefore had no interest at the court of Henry IV. His resentment against the usurper was incited by wrongs publick and private: by the murder of the unhappy Richard, to whom he was strongly attached by being a personal favourite, and by the strong partiality the Welsh had for their late king.

Owain first appeared in arms in the summer of 1400. Lord Grey of Ruthin, had unjustly seized upon some part of Glyndwr's estates, which mostly lay between Llangollen and Corwen. Owain sought justice without having recourse to violence: he laid his case before parliament, but he met with no redress. He therefore commenced his warlike career by attacking his enemy, lord Grey; and immediately recovered the lands which that nobleman had deprived him of. Aided by the inaccessible mountains of his country, and soldiers, on whose valour he relied, he set at defiance the whole power of England. Glyndwr animated by his descent from the ancient line of British Princes, caused himself to be proclaimed Prince of Wales, September 20th, 1400.

In 1403, he assembled his forces at Oswestry, in order to join lord Percy, (surnamed Henry Hotspur) against the king. The Welsh chieftain had sent off only his first division, amounting to four thousand men, whose valour was conspicuous in the day of action; in which fell his brother-in-law, Sir Jenkin Hanmer. Henry prevented him from proceeding with the rest, by posting himself between Oswestry and Shrewsbury, just at the critical time when Percy appeared before its walls. Eager to give battle, Percy withdrew his army to an advantageous ground about three miles from Shrewsbury. Henry's 'courage failing' he sent the abbot of Shrewsbury to offer terms, but the earl of Worcester artfully misrepresented the message to Percy, who, in return, sent defiance to Henry; and placing himself upon an eminence, he animated his soldiers by a warm speech, when the battle began with a heavy discharge of arrows from both armies. After three hours dreadful conflict, the fall of Percy closed the tragick scene. His friends fled in great confusion, leaving six thousand, of their side dead on the field. On the king's side there fell about sixteen hundred, and three thousand were wounded. Glyndwr, at the head of twelve thousand men, had the mortification of being obliged to remain innctive at Oswestry; but probably pressed forward, when the king's forces removed to the field of action, for Gough observes, that about two miles from Shrewsbury, where the Pool road diverges from that which leads to Oswestry, there stands an ancient decayed oak tree, of which there is a tradition, That Glyndwr ascended it to reconnoitre; but finding that the king was in great force, and that the earl of Northumberland had not joined his son, Percy, he fell back to Oswestry, and, immediately after the battle, retreated precipitately into Wales. However, Glyndwr carried on a marauding war, and plundered the marches.

Shall it be said earl Douglas wyll
Avenge not Hotspur's death?
Long as Scots' bloode does my veins fyll
I'll weare the sanguine wreathe.

Oh GLYNDWR ! with thy hardye traine,
Why had we not THY aide?
Curst was my fate- Oh ! thousands slain
Of freyndes are yonder laide!'

Owain is unjustly censured for his conduct on this occasion, and blamed for what, it seems, he could not effect. His great oversight appears to have been the neglect of attacking Henry immediately after the battle, when the royal forces had sustained a vast loss, and were overcome with fatigue; when his own followers, and the remains of the northern troops, would have formed an army nearly double that of the king.

In 1409, he began to make head again. He made great devastations on the marches, and in those parts of Wales that were well affected to the English government. The estates of lord Powis suffered greatly. Henry, therefore, directed a writ to that nobleman, to raise his forces, and suppress, in the most vigorous manner, this new disturbance. He was at the same time desired not to quit the country, but to keep his castles garrisoned, and not to permit any of his estates to be deserted. Similar orders were issued to Thomas, earl of Arundel; Reginald, lord Grey, etc. This activity proved fatal to Rhys Ddn, and Philip Scudamore, two of Owain's best officers, whom he had sent into Shropshire, where they committed great excesses. They were both made prisoners, sent to London, and executed. Towards the close of the year, several of the officers of the lords marches, either through dislike to the war, or for the sake of preserving their country from the fury of the Welsh, by their own authority, formed a truce with Glyndwr and his partizans. This only served to enable them to make their inroads on other parts with more security. Many of the loyal borderers were slain, and others plundered, in consequence of these agreements. Henry was highly irritated, and immediately issued writs from Northampton to Thomas, earl of Arundel; Sir Richard L'Estrange, lord of Knockyn, Ellesmere, and other bordering manors; Edward Charlton, lord Powis; and Reginald, lord Grey of Ruthin; and to the deputy lieutenant of Herefordshire, directing them to cause such illegal compacts to be rescinded, and Glyndwr and his adherents to be pursued, and attacked with the utmost vigour.

From this period, Owain never made any attempts worthy of historick notice. Numbers of his followers deserted; which obliged him to confine himself within that extensive tract that forms the Alps of Wales, and act entirely upon the defensive. He kept his prisoners so securely confined, that even Henry in 1412, was under the necessity of entering into a treaty with him about the redemption of some prisoners. The prison where Owain confined his captives, was not far from his house, in the parish of Llansantfraid Glyndwrdwy; and the place is to this day. called Carchardy Owen, Glyndwrdwy. Glyndwr maintained his situation, for in 1415, his affairs bore so respectable an appearance, that Henry V. condescended to enter into a treaty with him; and for that purpose deputed Sir Gilbert Talbot, with full powers to negociate with Owain, and even to offer him and his followers a free pardon, in case they should request it. It is said, that this grace was obtained by the mediation of David Holbetch, steward of the manors of Oswestry, Bromfield, and Yale, and founder of the free-school in this town. The event of this affair does not appear. It was probably interrupted by the death of Owain, which happened on the 20th of September, in the same year.

1471. Welsh cloths and cottons were formerly brought to Oswestry, as the common market, and there brought principally by the Shrewsbury drapers. The Welsh wished to draw the trade more into their own country, bnt the English purchaser could not be persuaded to follow them on account of the unsettled state of the principality. In the corporation records at Shrewsbury, relating to the drapers, is the following order: 'twenty fifth Elizabeth, 1583. Ordered that no draper set out for Oswestry market on Monday before 6 o'clock, on forfeiture of 6s. 8d. and that they should wear their weapons all the way, and go in company.- Not to go over the Welsh bridge before the bell toll 9'. This precaution appeared necessary, in consequence of the frequent robberies in the marches.

The plague raging in Oswestry, in 1585, ' a market was kept at Knocking, (about ten miles from Shrewsbury) and a half-penny paid by the drapers for every piece of cloth bought'. When that calamity ended, the drapers resorted to Oswestry, as usual. The 'covetous and ambitious company of drapers' frequently disagreeing with the inhabitants, and perhaps wishing to dispense with their Monday's travel to our town, resolved to remove the mart to Shrewsbury. But, through the interference of the earl of Suffolk, in the reign of James I. their resolution was ineffectual. The lordship of Oswestry, was at this time possessed by that nobleman, who, jealous of his interests, obliged the Shrewsbury drapers to relinquish the attempt to establish the trade in their own town. In 1618, the earl being dismissed from his high offices under the crown, and heavily fined, his influence probably decreased; for we find that the drapers in '1621, Agreed to buy no more cloth in Oswestry'. The MS. of John Davies, esq., recorder, observes that 'Oswestry flourished and was happy indeed by reason of the market of Welsh cottons. £1,000 in ready money was left in the town every week: sometimes far more. But now (1633) since the staple of cloth is removed to Shrewsbury, the town is much impoverished, Shrewsbury having now ingrossed the said market: whether better I cannot say; but I say,

Montua, vae! miserae nimium vicina Cremonae'.

The amount of webs annually brought to Shrewsbnry, according to Mr. Pennant, was about 700,000 yards; but this is far short of the total quantity made in North Wales. The Welsh manufactures still 'coveting to draw the trade more into their own country', have of late years fixed it at Welsh-pool, whither the purchasers repair once a fortnight.

In 1542, there was a fire in this town, by which two long streets, with extensive property were consumed. It began at two o'clock in the morning, and ended at four, to the great marvelling of many, says Camden, that so great a spoil happened in so short a time. The houses were then principally bnilt of timber, and slated.

As the register of burials, marriages, etc., for part of the year 1567, is ' dymynished and lost', probably the church or at least the place where the register was deposited, did not escape the flames. This is the more probable, as the extremity of the suburbs in which that edifice is situated, is now denominated Pentrepoeth, which signifies, the burnt end of the town.

The plague visited Oswestry, in April, 1559, and continued throughout the principal part of the year, during which time, upwards of five hundred people were swept away. The disease commenced with a violent perspiration, (from which it was termed the sweating sickness) which lasted till either the death or recovery of the afflicted. It seldom continued above twenty fear hours; those persons who were seized in the day, were put to bed in their clothes to wait the issue; and these who were seized in the night, were desired to stay in bed, but not to sleep.

This remarkable and dreadful malady, which raged for many years in the kingdom, is said to have originated among the levies raised abroad by Henry VII. from hospitals and gaols; and who, regardless of health or cleanliness, were thronged on board the transports.- About half-a-mile from the town, on the Welshpool road, is Croeswylan. At this place is the base of an old cross, said to have been erected when the plague was in the town; and during that time the market is said to have been held at this cross, lest the country people by coming into the town should be infected; or because of their fears if they did so.

This dreadful scourge, again appeared in Oswestry; which is thus recorded in the parish register: "This yere, the xviijth daie of March, 1585, the plague began in this towne, and contynued until the xxth of July; whereof died three score and four persons, and no more". The flannel market was held at Knocking until that calamity abated.

In the troubles of Charles I. the county of Salop was strongly attached to the cause of that unfortunate monarch. The gentlemen of the county on the eighth of August, 1642, signed a declaration in his favour; and the corporation of Shrewsbury resolved in common council, that ' If his Majesty came to that place, the town should make him the best entertainment the troublesome times could afford:' which affectionate reception he experienced on his arrival there, September 20th. Oswestry was garrisoned for the king in the begining of the civil wars. It was rendered by its walls a place of considerable strength, and fearful lest the enemy shonld annoy the place from the tower steeple, the governor pulled it down to the body of the church, part of which structure was likewise demolished.

After several unsuccessful attempts to obtain possession of the town by the parliament forces, it was at length on the 22nd of June, 1644, besieged by the earl of Denbigh and general Mytton, with a detachment from the main body of the army which then lay at Drayton. This force consisted of only two troops of horse and two hundred foot soldiers. The attack was so furious, that in the short space of an hour, and with the loss of one man killed and three wounded, a breach was effected in the wall, by which the infantry entered. The cannon then played smartly against the Newgate, which was soon destroyed, when a bold youth named George Cranage, went with his hatchet, and let down the chains of the drawbridge, over which the horsemen passed immediately. The royalists retired into the castle, and the inhabitants, in consternation, fled there for shelter. Thither they were soon followed. Cranage was persuaded by some of the parliament officers to fasten a petard to the castle gate. Being enlivened with wine, he undertook the dangerous enterprise. With the petard hidden, he crept unperceived from one house to another, until he got to that next the castle, from which he sprang to the gate: he fixed his engine, set fire to it, and escaped unhurt. This, by the force of its explosion, burst open the castle gate, when the garrison finding it was useless to make further resistance, surrendered on assurance of quarter. The deputy governor, four captains, and about three hundred men were made prisoners. The king's party received a great check on the taking of Oswestry. However, only a week after that event, the royalists, consisting of about three thousand foot and fifteen hundred horse, under the command of colonel Marrow, attempted to retake the town. Intimation of their approach was immediately sent to Sir Thomas Middleton, then at Knutsford, in Cheshire, who hastened to the assistance of the garrison; attacked the king's troops, and completely routed them; took two hundred common men, seven carriages, and one hundred horse. In consequence of severe losses in other parts, the cause of royalty drooped, and soon after its partisans were effectually dispersed.

General Thomas Mytton was born in the year 1608, at Halston, the ancient seat of the Myttons. In 1629, he married a daughter of sir - Napier, bart. of Luton. He was returned for the borough of Shrewsbury; and in 1645, was chosen sheriff by the parliament, while sir Francis Ottley, of Ottley, knt., held the same office from the king. Mytton, in that capacity, appointed a court to be held in Oswestry, August the 27th, 1646, for the purpose of electing a representative for the county, in the room of sir Richard Lea, of Lea Hall, bart., who had been displaced. However, in the early part of the morning of that day, having only a few persons accompanying him, he secretly adjourned the meeting to Alberbury, at which place he returned his relative, Mr. H. Edwards. Nearly a thousand freeholders assembled at Oswestry on this occasion, for the purpose of giving their suffrages in behalf of Andrew Lloyd, of Aston, esq.; a great number of whom, petitioned parliament in his favour, in consequence of the secret proceedings of Mytton. As a soldier, Mytton was able, active, and successful on the part of parliament, during the civil wars in the reign of Charles I. By his military prowess, most of the strong holds in North Wales and part of Shropshire, were subdued, and he greatly distinguished himself in several battles. The general had the honour of taking Harlech castle, being the last fortress which held out for the king. Love of Liberty, it appears, was the motive which actuated general Mytton in his conduct, and not ambition; but finding that Cromwell's views were different from his own - which were merely to curb the arbitrary designs of Charles - he resigned his command and retired. He died in London in 1656, and his remains were conveyed to Shrewsbury, and interred in St. Chad's church.

Sir Thomas Middleton of Chirk castle, was related to Mytton, by marriage, and ably supported the cause of that distinguished general. The repairs of one of the wings of his castle in Cromwell's time, cost nearly £28,000. Towards the close of his life, he found that he had established a more intolerable tyranny than that which he had formerly opposed. In 1659, upon the rising of the royalists in Cheshire, under sir George Booth, sir Thomas, then eighty years old, took up arms to restore the ancient constitution. He proclaimed Charles II. in Wrexham, which greatly encouraged the friends of the king in Denbighshire and Shropshire. However, sir George was defeated by the vigilant Lambert; and sir Thomas obliged to take refuge within his castle, where, after two or three days shew of defence, he was compelled to yield to such terms as the conqueror was pleased to dictate. When this fortress was besieged, by the parliament forces, one side, with three of its towers were thrown down by the enemy's cannon. These were rebuilt in twelve months, but at the enormous expense of £80,000. In the church at Chirk there are several monuments in memory of the Middletons: the best is a bust of the aforesaid sir Thomas Middleton, armed, with a peaked beard, and long hair. By it, is another of his lady, a Napier of Luton.

Oswestry is situated on the north-west border of Shropshire. The Parish contains the townships of Oswestry, Middleton, Hisland, (anciently Hides-land) Wooton, Aston, Measbury, Morton, Cricketh, Weston Cotton and Sweeny, [in one township] Treflach, Trefonnen, Trefarclawdd, Pentregaer, Kynynion, (in old deeds, Conynion) and Llanfords. The outer parts of the town, with respect to its ancient walls comprise four Suburbs; namely, the southern, which includes Church street, Upper and Lower Brook street and Pentrepoeth; the western, part of Willow street; the northern, part of Beatrice street; which, when Leland passed through Oswestry, in the reign of Henry VIII. had "many barns for corn and hay, to the number VII score several barns:" the eastern Black-gate, in which there were "XXX barns for corn, with other houses 'longing to the townesmen". Leland's account of Oswestry is very copious: he observes, "there be, withyn the towne X notable streates: the iii most notable streates be, the Cross streate, the Bayly streate, and Newgate streate. The houses within the towne be of timbre, and slated. There is a castelle, set on a mont be likelihood made by hand; and ditched by south-west, betwixt Beatrice-gate and Willow-gate, to the which the wall commith. The towne standeth most by sale of cloth made in Wales. There goith thro' the towne by the Crosse, a broke, comming from a place caullid Simon's well, a bow-shot without the waulle by N. W. This broke commith in through the waulle betwixt Willow-gate and New-gate, and so renning through the towne, goith oute under the Black-gate. There be no towers in the waulles beside the gates. The town is dickid about, and brokettes ren ynto it, The chirch of St. Oswalde is a very fair leddid chirch, with a great tourrid steple, and it standeth without the New-gate; so that no chirch is there within the town".

Of late years, the town of Oswestry has made great progress in the taste and number of its buildings; yet several of those vestiges of antiquity, timber buildings, still remain. Several houses in Bailey street may be ranked under that head; particularly the Three-tuns, which in former days was the principal inn in the town, and the chief resort of the drapers. The feast of St. David is annually celebrated in this venerable mansion, which is usually attended by most of the gentlemen of the town and neighbourhood. On the opposite side of the street is another spacious antique edifice, the stories of which, project considerably over the street. On the front of this house, facing Cross street, is the figure of a spread eagle, raised on the plaster. The Lloyds of Trenewydd, etc. bore the eagle in their coat of arms, and probably one of that family may have been the founder. The decay of our woods was the cause of disusing timber in building in most parts of England, about the middle of the sixteenth century; but in this town, it was certainly the mode of building rather later. To this cause, may be ascribed the rapid progress of the fires with which it has been so often unfortunately visited.

The town is seated on a gentle acclivity, and the prospects from the rising ground above it, are perhaps not surpassed by any of the kind. The rich and luxuriant Vale of Shropshire, is, as it were, a map beneath the feet: Hawkstone, the seat of sir Rowland Hill, bart. nephew of the gallant general lord Hill; the Staffordshire hills, Nescliff rock, the celebrated retreat of Humphrey Kynaston, surnamed the Wild; (see Kynaston's Cave,) the Wrekin, the lofty spires of Salopia, the Styperstones, etc. are seen in the distance. Towards Wales, the Alpine heights and lowly vales are seen in rich profusion: here the traveller may glance upon a country which was eminently distinguished as the birth-place and residence of the children of freedom - a people, who, by their independent spirit and martial prowess, for centuries chastised rapacity and injustice, and made oppression and tyranny tremble upon the throne.

The corporation of Oswestry consists of a mayor, recorder, steward, twelve aldermen, fifteen common council men, coroner, murenger, town- clerk, marshal, sergeants, etc.

The charter, by which the corporation acts, was granted by Charles II. The first royal charter was given by Richard II. but the burgesses enjoyed great privileges from their lords long before that reign.

The population in 1801, amounted to 5,839, and the number of houses to 1,217. The trade in Welsh flannels was of considerable importance, but has completely fallen off. Excellent coals are procured near the town, and also lime and building stone. The Ellesmere canal, which unites with the Montgomeryshire line at Llanymynech, is about three miles from Oswestry.

The remains of the Castle, are on an artificial mount on the outside of the town, being little more than a heap of shattered walls and mortar. It had a deep ditch extending to the Beatrice-gate on the one side, and Willow-gate on the other. According to Powell, the castle was founded in 1149, by Madog ab Meredydd ab Bleddyn, prince of Powis. A tower here, went by the name of Madog's Tower, says Leland, which seems to confirm the account respecting the founder of the castle. The English historians, however, assign to it a more ancient date: they inform us that it was in being before the Norman conquest, (1066) and that Alan, a noble Norman, had the town and castle bestowed upon him by William the Conqueror, soon after his accession. The Norman period began with the system of subjugating this country, by previously parcelling it out, and granting such parcels to various military adventurers, who should acquire them by negociation or force.- These territories were to be held in capite of the crown. Alan was the stock of the Fitzalans, earls of Arundel. The castle and manor continued in the possession of this family, with little interruption, until the reign of queen Elizabeth, when it became extinct. Dugdale says, there was a castle here at the Conquest: which is probable, for the artificial mount on which it stood, shews it to have been in existence before the Normau epoch. The Britons and the Saxons gave their fortresses this species of elevation. The Normans built on the firm and natural soil or rock: but often made use of those mounts, which had been the sites of Saxon castles. This appears to have been the case with the one in question. A Fitzalan, probably, repaired or rebuilt, and added to that which he met with here. A tower, also, might have received the appellation of Madog, in compliment either to the son of Meredydd, or to some other great personage of the same name.

The square, which is still called the Bailey-bead, was the ballium or yard of the castle: a mount in the Castle-field, on the outside of the great ditch is the scite of its Barbican or outer gate, at which the halt and blind were usually relieved. This mount, from its use, bears the name of Cripple-bank or gathe, to this day. By an inquisition, 21st Richard II. after the death of Richard, earl of Arundel, it appears that there was a free chapel dedicated to St. Nicholas, infra Castrum de Oswaldestre, and that the advowson belonged to the earls of Arundel.

Sixth Henry the II. Guy le Strange, sheriff of Shropshire accounted in the Exchequer for salaries paid out of the king's revenues to the wardens in the castle of Blancminster, (Oswestry) the inheritance of William Fitzalan, then lately deceased. 15th John. John, nephew of William Marshall, earl of Penbroke, being guardian of the Marches of Wales, was at the same time made governor of the castles of Blancminster and Shrawardin, in com. Salop. Henry III. John Fitzalan, as heir to Hugh de Albany, earl of Arundel, had upon the death of of that earl, assigned for his purpary, the castle of Arundel; and, upon paying £1000 fine, was admitted to the possession of his castle here. 24th Henry III. On the death of John Fitzalan, John le Strange had a grant of the custody of the lands of John, his son, (then a minor) with an allowance of 300 marks per ann. for guarding Blanc-minster, Serawarthin, and Clun. 1st Edward I. John de Oxinden had the custody of the castle of Blanc-minster, upon the death of John, earl of Arundel.- 3rd Edward I. Bogo de Knovil was sheriff of the county, and keeper of the castle of Blancminster, 8th Edward I. Isabel, mother of Richard, earl of Arundel, had the custody of the castle of Blancminster, and also of the hundred of Oswaldster, daring the minority of her son; but two years after, her brother, Edmund de Mortimer, supplanted her, and got the grant to himself. 18th Edward I. Adam de Montgomery, died governor of this castle. 27th Edward I. Peter Meuvesine de Berwicke, juxta Akinton, died in the same office. 27th Edward II. After the attainder of Edmund, earl of Arundel, Roger Mortimer, lord of Wigmore, had a grant of the castle. 21st Richard II. Richard, earl of Arundel; being attainted and executed, the king seized upon his lands and manors, and granted them to William Scrope, the newly-created earl of Wiltshire. 7th Henry IV. Thomas, son of the attainted earl, after he was restored in blood, freed the burgesses from many impositions of the constable of the castle, etc. Sometime after this date, the name of John Trevor Vaughan, occurs as constable of the castle; and after him, that of Jeffrey Kyffin. 25th James I. Thomas, earl of Suffolk, his wife, lord Walden, sir Arnold Herbert, and William Hayward, grant to the lady Craven, sir William Whitmore, George Whitmore, and their heirs, the lordship, manor, and castle of Oswestry.

The castle was garrisoned for Charles I. in the beginning of the civil wars: a colonel Lloyd was governor. Sir Absetts Shipman succeeded him, and continued in that post, until the town and castle surrendered to the parliament forces under the earl of Denbigh and general Mytton, the 22nd June, 1644. From hence, the earl hastened to other service, and left Mytton governor of the town. After the death of the king; this fortress was demolished.

Besides the tenants of the lordship and hundred of Oswestry there were many in the hundred of Bradford and Pimhill, whose tenure was to do service at this castle.

The Church is dedicated to St. Mary. The present structure is of no great antiquity: it is spacious, and not inelegant. The bold square tower at the west end is furnished with eight harmonious bells, upon which is a set of " ill-measured chimes". It appears that the chancel commonly called St. Mary's, was demolished "in the late wars, anno 1616; " and that the tower, and part of the body of the church were demolished in the civil wars, 1644. The vicarage-house, situated on a piece of ground adjoining to the church yard, with many other buildings, was burnt to the ground in the same year, in consequence of the town being besieged. The church was probably stripped of every article of value in those unhappy times: its ancient "well-toned organ" graces one of the churches in London, at the present day.

The interior has undergone great improvements of late years: a handsome organ was erected by subscription in 1812. The salary of the organist is £40. per annum. The velvet cushion and cloth in the pulpit, and the velvet cloth on the communion table having the royal arms and " A.R. 1702" worked thereon, were bequeathed by John Mucklestone, esq. alderman - mayor in 1692. The service of plate belonging to the church consists of a silver bowl, the gift of Richard Mason. esq.; ditto, the gift of Richard Mason, gent.; ditto, the gift of Mr. David Edwards; a silver plate and salver, the gift of Mrs. Roderick; a large silver flagon, three silver covers to the bowls, silver cup, salver, and a pewter dish. The iron gates facing the town and the smaller one adjoining, were put up by the parish, in 1738, at the expense of £46, 1s. 4d. The elm trees in the church yard were planted at the cost of the Rev. Thomas Owen, when vicar of the parish, between the years 1707 and 1713.

Among the monumental inscriptions are the following:

"In memory of Mr. HUGH YALE, alderman of this town, and DOROTHY, his wife, daughter of Roger Roden, esq. of Burton, in the county of Denbigh, whose bodies are interr'd within ye chancel of this church, commonly call'd St. Mary's, before its demolition in the late wars, anno 1616. They gave to ye poor of this town the yearly interest and benefice of one hundred pounds, to continue for ever; besides other good acts of charity". Beneath this inscription: "Underneath are interred the remains of MARGARET, the wife of David Yale, esq. daughter and heiress of Edward Maurice, of Cae-nor, gent. she departed this life, the 20th day of December, 1754, aged 66. Also lye the remains of DAVID YALE, esq. who dy'd Jan. 29th, 1762, aged 81. This was erected by her son, John Yale, of Plas yn Yale, clerk".

On elegant mural monuments on the north side of the chancel:

Ad pedem Columnae huic Mann. oppositae,
Exuvias Mortales
Uxoris ALICLAE, Filiae Thomae Carpenter
De Home; Com. Herefordiae, Arm.
Cum unica ex eodem Filia Anna,
Septemb. 4, A.D. 1700, AEtat. 22.
Secundis illi Nuptiis conjunctae.
Filiae Johannis Price, A.M. ex qua
Unum Suscepit Filium Johannem,
Cum Matre placide dormientem
Denat. Septemb. 4, A.D. 1716,
AEtat 32.
In Uxorum & Liberorum Memoriam
In eodem Tumulo
Et Suos aliquando Cineres depositurus,
AEterna Requie fruiturus, si erga Deum Pietas
Erga Pauperes Benignitas, erga Omnes summa
Benevolentia illam Requiem afferre valeant.
Obiit Primo die Junii Anno
Salutis 1749, Et Suae AEtatis 84".

"MDCCCXII. In memory of LEWIS JONES, esq. for 14 years town-clerk of Oswestry: he died June 5th, in the 56th year of his age. This tablet was erected by the corporation of this town, in token of their affectionate rememberance of a man, who was remarkable for his knowledge of the laws of his country; and for his readiness in imparting that knowledge, with a view to prevent litigation among his neighbours".

"To the memory of ELIZABETH, the wife of Mr. Lewis Jones, who died 26th Sept. 1801, in the 38th year of her age.

This small tribute of affectionate regard, as a testimony of her worth, and an expression of his one deep regret, is placed by her surviving husband".

"Sacred to the memory of Captain ROBERT WATKIN LLOYD, of major general Gwynne's regiment of cavalry, only son of Robert Lloyd, esq. of Swanhill, aged 17. He fell a victim to the yellow fever on the 26th of June, 1794, at Port au Prince, in Saint Domingo, having survived the capture of that place. In him were united a mind firm and vigorous; a disposition kind and benevolent; manners engaging and mild; giving promise of a character, which might one day have added lustre to his profession; have adorned the circle of polished society, and have sweetened the enjoyments of domestic life". - "Sacred also to the memory of ROBERT LLOYD, esq. of Swanhill, father of the above-named Watkin Robert Lloyd, who departed this life on the 3rd day of October 1803, aged 58. By that event, his family lost an affectionate husband and father; the county, an upright magistrate; and the publick, an amiable man".

A superb monument at the east end of the chancel:

"ROBERT POWELL LLOYD, son of Robert Lloyd, of Swan-hill, esq. by sarah his 2nd wife, died the 11th of March, Anno 1769 and was interred in the vault beneath, aged 5 years. SARAH, mother of the above R.P. Lloyd, died 19th of Aug. 1790, aged 59 years. Also ROBERT LLOYD, esq. the father, died the 5th of April, 1793, aged 72 years".

A neat tablet at the same end:

"Sacred to the memory of THOMAS TREVOR, clerk, M.A. son of Roger Trevor, of Bodynfol, in the county of Montgomery, esq., vicar of this parish 50, and of Rhuabon, 15 years; chaplain to sir W. Williams Wynne, baronet; and one of his Majesty's justices of the peace for the counties of Salop and Denbigh, who died 29th February, 1784, aged 76. Of manners unaffected, he performed the service of the church with a peculiar grace; and by a propriety of elocution, attracted the attention, and raised the devotion of his hearers. He was an active and upright magistrate, a tender husband, kind relation, and steady friend. He married twice - first, Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Maurice, of Trefedrhyd, in the county of Montgomery, esq. 11th June, 1762: Afterwards, Ann, daughter of Gabriel Wynne, of Dolarddyn, esq. and relict of George Robinson, of Brithdir, esq. both in the county of Montgomery, who survived".

"Sacred to the memory of the Reverend JOSEPH VENABLES, L.L.B. who was born 31st Aug. 1726, and died the 14th of 1810. As a minister of the Gospel, he illustrated his precepts by his example, by his piety, benevolence, and general character as a man. To his relations, his affection and kindness were unbounded; for society, his friendship was ardent and sincere; and when his Creator called him to another and a better world, he closed a long and well-spent life, respected and lamented".

The House of Industry, Is a very extensive building, situated about a mile from the town, near the road leading towards Pool. It was erected a few years ago by the joint subscription of the town and parish of Oswestry, the several parishes of Whittington, Felton, St. Martin's, Chirk, Sellatyn, Knockin, Kinnerley, Ruyton, Llansillin, Llanyblodwell, and the township of Llwyntidman, in the parish of Llanymynech, for the use of their poor.- The board-days are every Monday.

A writer, speaking of this structure, observes, that " it is a ridiculously splendid brick-building, intended not for a purpose which its exterior seems to prompt, but for the abode of the indigent and wretched. It is a strange perversion of common sense, made by ostentation and folly, when elegance and show become the concealment of poverty and distress. Convenience, humility and obscurity, should rather distinguish the dwelling of the unfortunate, whether their circumstances be derived from their own crimes or from the crimes of others". The extensive calico printing works of Henry Warren, esq. are situated near the house of Industry, upon a fine stream of water, called the Morda; from which the hamlet takes its name.

The free grammar school of Oswestry, is pleasantly situated on the west side of the town, The present building was erected in 1780. This seminary of learning was founded and endowed, as early as the reign of Henry the Fourth, by "Davy Holbeche, a lawyer, steward of the town and lordship, who gave x l land to it".

The National Society gave £200, and the town, as much as made up the deficiency to purchase the present national school-room over the town clerk's office, and the fitting it up for the instruction of schoolmasters for Wales, according to the plan adopted by that society; and also for the education of the children of the poor in the town and neighbourhood. There are upwards of one hundred boys in the school at present. Mr. John Morris, is the schoolmaster.

There is also a School for Girls in the town-hall, which as well as the boys' school, is supported by annual subscriptions and donations, and a charity sermon, yearly. Mrs. Williams, schoolmistress.

The Guild-hall is situated near the site of the castle, and forms one side of the spacious square called the Bailey-bead.- It is a plain stone building, with a high clock turret, and comprises a long room, where the quarter sessions and other publick affairs of the town are transacted; a jury room, and space beneath the whole, used as a dwelling-house and shop. The guild-hall is the private property of the earl of Powis. A few years ago, permission was obtained from his lordship to convert the ground-floor into a market-hall; but this has not yet been effected.

The town clerk's Office is a lofty building near the guild-hall, erected with the stone belonging to the town gates after their demolition, flanked with two neat brick-built houses. The records of the corporation are deposited here.- The cells or places of temporary confinement, are contiguous to the office. A room over the office is used as a school, and for performing the Church service in Welsh.

The theatre stands at the bottom of Lower Brook-street. It is neatly fitted up, and a respectable company of comedians perform therein a few weeks in the autumn.

The Bank of Messrs. Croxon, Jones, Croxon, and Co. is situated in Willow-street. Agents, Messrs. Brown, Cobb, and Co. Bankers, London.

The Post office is kept at the Cross Foxes Inn, Church-street, where the mail coach arrives from London every evening at about half-past ten; and returns from Holyhead about three o' clock in the morning. This inn is replete with every convenience, and is supposed to be equal to any in the whole line of communication between London and Holyhead. The house is spacious and elegant, and the assembly room is equally so.

OSWESTRY (Old.) See Old Oswestry.

OVERTON. A township in the parish of Stottesden, and in the Cleobury division of the hundred of Stottesden. 3½ miles north of Cleobury Mortimer.

OVERTON. A township in the parish of Richard's castle, and in the hundred of Munslow. 12 houses.

OWLBURY. See Oldbury.

OXEN; or OXDEAN. A township in the parish of St. Chad, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

OXENBOLD. See Weston Oxenbold.

PARK'S LANE. A township in the parish of Claverley, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry.

PARK'S LANE, (Lower). A township in the parish of Diddlebury, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow.

PARK'S LANE, (Upper). A township in the parish of Diddlebnry, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow.

PARLOGUE. See Perlogue.

PATTINGHAM. A parish partly in the hundred of Stottesden, partly in Seisdon hundred, in the county of Stafford. The Shropshire part contains 11 houses, 69 inhabitants. The entire parish contains 935 inhabitants. 8 miles southeast of Shiffnal. See Rudge.

PAYNE'S LANE. A township in the pariah of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. 3 miles north-west of Shiffnal.

PEETON. A township in the parish of Diddlebury, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslew. Peeton division of the parish contains 28 houses, 193 inhabitants. 6½ miles north-east by north of Ludlow.

PENTREGAER. A township in the parish of Oswestry, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry.

PEPLOW. A township in the parish of Hodnet, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 7½ miles north-west of Newport. The seat of Joseph Clegg, Esq.

PERLOGUE. A township in the parish of Clun, and in the Clun division of the hundred of Clun. 8 miles south-west of Bishopscastle.

PERRY RIVER. See appendix.

PETTON. A parish in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimhill, a vicarage discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and. Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 5 houses, 48 inhabitants. 6 miles southeast of Ellesmere.

PETTON HALL. The seat of W. Sperling,, Esq.

PICKLESCOT. A township in the parish of Smethcot, and in the Condover division of the hundred of Condover. 4 miles north-west by north of Church Stretton.

PICKSTOCK. A township in the parish of Edgmond, and in the Drayton division of the hundred of Bradford, North. 3 miles north-west by north of Newport.

PILSON. A township in the parish of Chetwynd, and in the hundred of Bradford, North.

PIMLEY. A township in the parish of St. Mary, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury.

PITCHFORD. A parish in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 45, houses, 226 inhabitants. 6 miles southeast by south of Shrewsbury.

P. HALL. The seat of the Hon. Cecil Jenkinson.


The plain of Shrewsbury is a track of considerable extent, divided by the Severn into two unequal portions, and, though flat when compared with the surrounding hills, is very varied in its surface. Its greatest extent from north to south may be about thirty miles, comprehending the space between Whitchurch and Church- Stretton: its breadth from Oswestry to Coalbrookdale is about 28 miles. A range of limestone from Rhuabon to Llanymynech, and the Breddin hills, form the western boundary; the northern extremity terminates on the borders of Cheshire and Flintshire; the eastern line consists of the hills on the Staffordshire border, the Wrekin, the hills of Acton-burnel, Frodesley, the Lawley, and Caer-Caradoc: the southern boundary is formed by the Longmont, Stiper-stones and Longmountain.

From Hawkstone southwards to Lea and Grinshill hills, extends a line of calcareous freestone, chiefly of the red kind, except at Grinshill, where there is a considerable quantity of white, resembling the Portland stone, of which great use has been made in the bridges, churches, and other modern edifices of Shrewsbury. To the west of this is another ridge of the same kind of stone, beginning a little north of Ellesmere, and in its progress southwards dividing into two branches, one of which descending between Ellesmere and Whixall-moss, touches upon Wem, includes Middle and Harmer-hills and terminates in Pimhill: the other branch passing to the west of Ellesmere, reaches the river Perry, which it accompanies to its junction with the Severn under the names of Nescliff and Leaton shelf, then crossing the Severn, it terminates in the high grounds at Bickton and Onslow.

It is not known that any shells or other marine exuviae are found in these rocks. The valleys between each ridge contain marl, more or less mixed with sand or clay. At Hawkstone and Pimhill, the summits of some of the rocks are tinged with green carbonate of copper. This tract, about 17 miles from north to south, and varying in breadth from eight to fourteen, has but few running waters, but abounds in large pools or meres, of which the chief are the pools of Ancot, Marton, Fennymoor, and five others of considerable size near Ellesmere.

From hence westward, there is a narrow slip of loose sand, which borders upon another of mainly clay mixed with alluvial, fragments, in which near Chirk, Ruabon, and Oswestry, are found considerable quantities of coals. This clay is bounded by a low ridge of tender shale, reposing on the base of the limestone rocks which overhang it: but between Chirk and Oswestry (where the lime is entirely wanting, or most probably lies at a great depth below the surface,) rising immediately upon the slate mountain of Selattyn, one of the Ferwyn chain. The exterior boundary to the west consists of the limestone, which descending from the vale of Clwyd, rises into the Eglwyseg mountains and Chirk lime-rocks, is interrupted near Oswestry, and appears again in the hill of Llanymynech, in which is found carbonate of copper interposed between the strata of lime. The rock composing the whole of this range is very hard, and contains but few shells.

On the north-east of the plain, the calcareous freestone extending from Hawkstone towards Salop, is bordered by a range of argillaceous schistus; commencing in Haghmond hill, about two miles from Shrewsbury. This hill is composed of primitive argillaceous schistus interspersed with mica, and based upon porphyry; the strata are nearly perpendicular to the horizon, and its escarpement faces the Severn, that flows within half a mile of its bottom. The valley eastward, between this ridge and the Wrekin, consists of alluvial soil and tender shale. The Wrekin itself, with two other smaller hills on the north and south of it, consists of a coarse dark grey whin, red on the surface, owing to the oxidation of its iron. It is craggy at the top, and so much higher than the surrounding hills, as apparently to rise alone from the middle of the plain; its plan is a long oval, pointing nearly north and south; its figure very exactly resembling that of a whale asleep on the surface of the sea; the strata, which are perpendicular to the horizon, lie east and west, or across the short diameter. The most precipitous side of the mountain is the eastern; its height is reckoned about 1200 feet. Eastward of the Wrekin is found clay and shale containing coal. Next to this, from Newport to Coalbrookdale, between Wellington and Shiffnal, extends a vast body of ironstone and coal, which is bounded on the east by a long broad line of sand and calcareous freestone, beginning north of Shiffnal, then crossing the Severn, and accompanying its course on both sides of the river from Bridgnorth to Wolverhampton, which is the furthest distance it has been traced; but in all probability it accompanies the Severn as far as the lime-rocks near Bristol. Parallel to the Severn, and at a little distance from it, between the Wrekin and Coalbrookdale, runs a narrow ridge of aggregate rock, consisting of quartz, ochre, and other rounded pebbles in a calcareous cement; the pebbles vary in size from coarse sand to the bulk of a pigeon's egg. Large cubical blocks of this stone are used for the foundation of the new iron bridge erected at Buildwas abbey. The rocks on both sides of the river, at the entrance of Coalbrookdale from Shrewsbury, are composed of lime; and from the northern extremity of a long range which passes by Wenlock in a south-west direction as far as Ludlow. It is this singular combination of coal, iron ore, and lime, together with the advantage of water carriage, that renders Coalbrookdale the centre of the most extensive iron works in the kingdom; the ore for the most part is so poor as in less favourable situations to be hardly worth the trouble of reducing, yet here, where the fewel and flux are near at hand, it is made the source of astonishing wealth, and supports a population of many thousands.

Close to the inclined plane from the Ketley canal to the Severn, is a spring of petroleum, or fossil-tar; it was cut into upon driving a level into the hill (which is of red sandstone,) in search of coal; the quantity that first issued was to the amount of three or four barrels per day, but at present there seldom flows out more than half a barrel in the same period. The limestone is for the most part of a light bluish grey, very hard, and inclosing but few remains of organized bodies: on the sides of the large excavation at Lincoln hill, petroleum is seen oozing out, but it appears to be merely percolating through the rock, not chemically uniting with it; for the lime thus impregnated, has nothing of that strong disagreeable scent which characterises the common swine-stone, which is a combination of the same substances, that in this instance are only very loosely mixed. The cliffs of Benthal Edge on the opposite side of the river, contain many fine specimens of crystallized lime, particularly a flesh-coloured tabular spar, sprinkled with ivory pyrites, and in appearance greatly resembling the sulphate of baryt.

Meteorology is a subject that of late years has excited the attention of several natural philosophers, and accurate registers are kept of the variation of temperature, the weight of the atmosphere, and the quantity of rain; on the last of these subjects, the calculations must necessarily be very inaccurate and imperfect, so long as pluviameters even the most correct are the only instruments made use of. The heaviest showers are generally those which are the most circumscribed, and it may often happen that one or two inches of rain may fall at one place, while another not a mile off does not receive a single drop; on this account it seems absolutely necessary, in order to draw general conclusions, to contrive some method of estimating the quantity of rain that falls upon very extensive surfaces; perhaps it is not easy to attain great accuracy in these more comprehensive observations, yet even imperfect results may be of great use when corrected by more exact, though more circumscribed ones. Part of every shower that falls is imbibed by the earth; and this will be proportioned to the antecedent dryness or moisture, depth or shallowness of the soil: a considerable portion however flows off into the brooks, and thence through the rivers into the sea. Now the whole of this portion may in most places be determined with considerable accuracy, and I know no station so well adapted to observations of this kind as Coalbrookdale. At the iron bridge, the river is confined on both sides by upright piers of masonry that serve as the foundation to the iron arch; the breadth of these piers on the water side is about 25 feet. If therefore a graduated scale was attached to the piers, to measure the rise or fall of the stream, and a log-line thrown twice or thrice a day under the arch to note the rate of the current, the quantity of water might thus be ascertained: in time a general ratio of the rate to the depth would be procured, and then the observation of the graduated scale alone would be sufficient. By these means the quantity of superfluous water from about 1260 square miles would be known, including besides the plain of Salop, a great part of the counties of Montgomery and Merioneth.

Having deacribed that part of the plain of Salop north of the Severn, we proceed to notice in the order of their position from east to west, those ridges which lie on the south side of the river. Of these the first is the limestone ridge, which commencing in Lincoln hill at Coalbrookdale, proceeds in a south-westerly direction towards Stretton; near which place being forced to the south by the hills round Hope Bowdler, it descends nearly in a right line to Ludlow. The form of these hills is the same with that of every other limestone range, at a sufficient distance from the primitive mountains.

The outline of a limestone hill commonly rises from the plane of the horizon with an angle of about 25 degrees, till it reaches the height of three or four hundred feet; it then proceeds in a direction nearly level with its base, but more usually ascending than descending, for the space of half a mile, or even a mile; and at length drops down into the plain at a very large angle, approaching frequently to a right angle; and this precipitous descent is called its escarpment. Of the range of hills now under consideration, the escarpment is to the southwest, and the steepest descent of the side is that towards the plain of Salop. Near Coalbrookdale the lime abounds in crystals, is very hard, and incloses few shells: about Wenlock the shells increase in number; there are few distinct crystals, but great part of the rock is a coarse confusedly crystallized marble. As the hills proceed further south, they alter somewhat in shape, the difference between the ascent and escarpement being less perceptible, like the shale hills; the lime is mixed more with clay, the strata become thinner and more like schistus; the only appearances of crystallization are between the strata, which enclose a great number of ammonities and other fossile shells: and the substance of the rock becomes so soft as to be easily broken down by a small hammer.

Westward of this ridge, is a valley whose soil consists of clay and lime: its breadth is about two miles, and its length from Coalbrookdale to Stretton valley is nearly fifteen miles. No coal is at present procured from any part of this tract, but it is evident from its position, its soil, and the remains of some old pits, that it contains beds of this very valuable commodity.

This valley, to the west, is bounded by some low hills of micaceous argillaceous schistus; ranging for the most part, without any intermediate valley, along the base of a ridge of primitive mountains. This ridge, of which the Wrekin is the northern extremity, appears on the south side of the Severn, in the same line with the Wrekin, and consists of the hills of Acton-Burnel, Frodesley, the Lawley, Caer-Caradoc, and Hope-Bowdler hills. Each of these, like the Wrekin, has the long diameter from north to south, and the direction of the perpendicular strata is the same with the short diameter; they are craggy at the top, and ascend from the plain of Salop very abruptly at an angle of about 60 degrees. They abound in whin, porphyry, green earth, fragments of whin etc., in a clay cement, and are based upon granite. Of this ridge, those hills which form the eastern side of Stretton valley, have their bases covered by a shivery shale rising to the height of 2 or 300 feet. The vale in which Church Stretton is situated, separates the whin mountains just described, from a very singular mass of hills called the Longmont. They ascend gradually from the plain to the height of about 400 feet, and then with a very level and unvaried summit, stretch for several miles towards Bishopscastle. Squareness seems the peculiar character of these hills, both in their plan and outline; and from Stretton vale this singularity appears to the greatest advantage.

Three or four lines of hills are seen rising above one another, the form of each of which was in all probability nearly a cube; at present however, from the diminution of their tops and the proportionate enlargement of their bases, they approach nearer to the figure of a truncated pyramid. Almost every individual is separated from the surrounding hills by a deep narrow valley or glen with a stream flowing through it, forming occasionally small cascades, and here and there overhung with woods. The substance of which the Longmont is composed, is a very shivery kind of schistus; it is covered for the most part with heath and short grass, and furnishes an extensive pasture for many sheep. Several brooks take their rise here, some of which flow northward into the plain of Shrewsbury, and others tend southwards, watering the country between Bishopscastle and Ludlow.

Following the mountainous line that forms the southern boundary of the plain of Salop, we next come to a very elevated rocky tract, between the high road from Shrewsbury to Bishopscastle, and the vale of Montgomery. The most elevated peak of this assemblage of lofty hills, is called the Stiperstones: its summit is extremely craggy, and overspread with enormous loose blocks of whin, that at a distance appear like the ruins of some great fortress. In height it is rather superior to the Wrekin, and forms the abrupt termination of a line of primitive mountains that hence extend south-west into Radnorshire. Towards the plain of Salop the base of the whin is bordered with banks of argillaceous schistus, and a black stone containing argil, lime, and iron; of this composition the lime forms so great a part that upon the addition of water, after calcination, the stone breaks down into a coarse powder; this in a country so far from lime ought to be a valuable article, and yet the only use that it has been put to, is mending the road between Minsterly and Wilmington.

Lead is procured in considerable quantity from various parts of the Stiperstones. The Hope and Snailbeach mines, are opened in the bank of schistus that reposes on the whin: the latter mine is worked to the depth of 180 yards. The matrix of the ore is crystallized quartz and carbonate of lime, both the rhomboidal and dogtooth spar; the rhomboidal is frequently covered with pyramidal quartz crystals, and the quartz itself is overspread in many specimens with iron pyrites and very minute needles of dog-tooth spar. The ore is,

I. Sulphuret of lead, both galena or steel ore, which latter contains silver.

II. Carbonate of lead, crystallized.

III. Red lead ore.

IV. Blende, or black jack.

The red lead ore was first discovered in these mines by Raspe, a German mineralogist. The specimens of red lead ore from Siberia, exhibit rhomboidal, obliquely truncated, tetrahedral prisms, and contain according to Macquart's analysis, per cent. lead 36, oxygen 87, iron 25, alumine 2. The Snailbeach red lead greatly resembles the pulverulent cinnabar ores, being entirely free from crystals. Its matrix is a dark stone evidently containing iron; whether however it derives its colour from the iron, or is a native misium, I know not. The lead ore is reduced at Minsterly and other places near the mines, whence it is sent by land carriage to Shrewsbury; here it is shipped, together with the raw calamine, in the Severn barges, and sent down to Bristol.

The country between the vale of Montgomery and the vale of Severn, is entirely occupied by two masses of hills, one the Long-mountain with its dependencies, the other the Breddin-hills; a brief description of these will complete the amount of the southern boundary of the plain of Salop. The Long mountain is about the same height as the Longmont, and those parts of it that border the vale of Montgomery resemble considerably, in squareness of form, the hills on the western side of the vale of Stretton. The principal part of the mountain is composed of a shale more or less tender, covered on the very top with an alluvial stratum of rounded pebbles of various sorts, in a grey clay; the escarpement towards the vales of Severn and Montgomery is very steep, and it sinks gradually into the plain. Almost opposite Pool is a circular entrenchment called Beacon ring, the eastern side of which, and of most other banks on the mountain, is covered with sheep-seats, while on the opposite side not a single one is to be seen; a singular and convincing proof of the violence and frequency of westerly winds. That side of the mountain which fronts the Severn, instead of being broken like the eastern into distinct hills, is almost one continued ridge. It differs also in its composition as well as form; the shale is much less shivery, and approaches nearly to the texture of coarse argillaceous schistus; as it approaches Breddin it becomes mingled with small rhomboidal crystals, or amorphous striated laminae of calcareous spar; serpentine with green, ferruginous and purple spots also occurs, especially near Breddin: the spar often forms so large a proportion of the reek, that it might probably be burnt, and used with advantage as a substitute for limestone.

A narrow winding valley, from the vale of Severn to the plain of Salop, separates the Long-mountain from the three hills of Breddin, Moel-y-golfa, and Cefn-cestyll; a mass of rock about 1,000 feet in height, with three distinct summits: the northern and western sides of this mountain are in most places perpendicular, and in some parts the summit overhangs its base; it is therefore inaccessible except on its southern and eastern sides, and even here the ascent is very laborious. The greater part of the rock consists of perpendicular strata of serpentine of a light green colour, with dark green or almost black spots, here and there mixed with lime in very small grains; it is remarkably tough, will not strike fire with steel, and has lately been used in architecture, the aqueduct over the Virnwy being built of it.

There are a few banks of shale and alluvial strata resting on the western base of this mountain. The view from Rodney's pillar on the top of Breddin, is perhaps the most striking of any of this part of the Welsh border: the near prospect is almost the same as has been already described from Llanymynech hill, consisting of the Severn, Virnwy, and Tannad; but, owing to the superior height of Breddin, the view, instead of being bound by the Ferwyn mountains, extends over these as far as Plinlimmon, Cader Idris, and Arran-ben-Llyn, whose pointed summits diversify the extensive line of horizon. Several rare plants also are found here: Crataegus aria, Veronica hybrida, Papaver cambricum, Sedun rupestre, Pteris crispa, etc.

From the Stiper-stones a range of low hills proceeds, in a north- easterly direction as far as Shrewsbury, known under the names of Lyth-hill, Baiston-hill, and the Sharp-stones: they consist for the most part of argillaceous schistus, mixed with mica; in some places, however, the rock is covered with an indurated stratum of various thickness, consisting of rounded pebbles, in size from a walnut to a grain of corn, cemented by clay; the pebbles are quartz, semi- transparent, varying in colour from pure white to flesh colour, and containing particles of mica.

On the west, however of Lyth-hill, descending to Mole brook, are several beds of a stratified rock, consisting of clay, sulphuret of iron, and lime: on the addition of nitrous acid a very lively effervescence takes place; it melts into a porous shining black slag on being kept a few minutes in a white heat in an open fire; when exposed to an inferior degree of heat and plunged into water, a considerable quantity of hepatic gas is extricated. This rock shelves gradually down to Pulley-common, and is there terminated by beds of soft lime and coals; this latter mineral indeed is found accompanying almost the whole course of Meole brook; there are three strata lying over each other; the first, called funkers, are intimately mixed with a large proportion of iron pyrites, and are only used for burning lime and bricks; the next are of superior quality, but the lowest are by far the best: they are of a deep shining black, soil the fingers but little, and are so inflammable as to take fire when held a few moments in a candle. [The coal from the WELBATCH PITS, is esteemed the best of any on the brook.] Salt springs are found in many of the pits, of which one at Sutton is in great repute as a very efficacious purgative,

The soil of the plain of Shrewsbury south of the Severn, is for the most part either a clay or gravel; by gravel I mean rounded pebbles of various sizes, mixed with sand and clay.

The pebbles may be divided into I. Calcareous. II. Decomposed granite and other primitive stones. III. Undecomposed granits, etc.

I. Calcareous pebbles.

These are 1. A dark grey limestone, consisting of an aggregation of spherules of lime about the size of a pea, in a. calcareous cement.

2. A dark blackish-grey limestone, of a chouchoidal fracture; containing lime, argil, and mica, resembling Kirwan's compact limestone. Var. 2.

3. Purple streaked marble.

4. Reddish brown marble with petrifactions.

5. Shelly indurated marl.

II. Decomposed primitive stones.

1. Quartz and calcareous spar, (secondary granit of Saussure.)

2. Hornblende schistus, with irregular strata of calcareous spar.

III. Primitive stones.

1. Simple grnnite, i.e. composed of quartz, felspar, and mica.

2. Granite, with red felspar.

3. Granite, with red felspar, iron pyrites, and carbonate of iron.

4. Sienite. (Of Kirwan.)

5. Sienite, with decomposed iron pyrites.

6. Porphyry, of various kinds, chiefly the argillaceous. (vid. Kirwan.)

7. Serpentine.

8. Serpentine and felspar.

9. Toad-stone.

10. Quartz.

Various other combinations of Stones might no doubt be found among the alluvial fragments of the plain of Salop; those, however, above enumerated, occur most frequently, forming by far the largest portion of the stony substances that are distributed through the soil.

PLANTS, etc. The CROPS commonly cultivated in this county are wheat, barley, oats, pease, and turnips. Hops are cultivated on a small part of the Herefordshire side of the county; hemp, flax, and cabbages are only got up in small quantities. The culture of potatoes increases annually. The growth of hay and the improvement of pasture are more neglected than any other branch of agriculture. On the borders of the Severn and other flat lands contiguous to lesser streams, which occasionally overflow, and enrich the adjoining land by their deposit, there are natural meadows which are constantly mown without any manure being bestowed upon them. The crops on these are liable to be spoiled by floods during their growth; an evil which might be remedied by an act of parliament enabling the occupiers to raise a rate for embanking, opening the channel, and making beck-drains. The upland meadowss are better attended to.

The grasses most common in Shropshire are the following: anthazanthum adoratum, sweet scented vernal grass; phleum pratensis, timothy grass; alopecurus pratensis, meadow fox-tail. Some species of the agrostis are common but they flower so late as to be of little use for cultivation. Several varieties of the poa and of the festuoa abound.

Of plants, one of the most abundant is the valeriana officinalis, great wild valerian; the lithospermum arvenae, or corn grosswell, a common inhabitant of corn fields. Campanula rotundifolia, round- leafed bellflower, often called hare-hell. Campanula patula, field bell flower. Viola betes, yellow violet, sparingly scattered about Titterntene, and frequently met with near West Felton. Berberis vulgaris or common barbery. Cholcicum autumnale, meadow saffron, found in a few parts of the county. The archis bifelia, butterfly orchis, near Ludlow and Bedston, and in other parts. Asphalass trichomenes, trichomenes spleenwort, an elegant and beautiful plant, common about Ludlow. Asplenium adiantum nigrum black spleenwort; a less common but more beautiful plant than the preceding. Many lichens of a rare and beautiful kind, are found on the rocks and old walls in various parts of the county.

WOODS and PLANTATIONS. Notwithstanding large yearly falls of timber, there are still some fine woods of oak growing in this county. There is a good deal of hedgerow timber also, consisting of oak and ash principally; a few wych and other elms; still fewer beech, lime, and sycamore. Poplars are not uncommon by the sides of breaks and small rivers. There are a few yew trees; hollies have been plentiful, but that ornamental tree, and useful fence appears to have been neglected or destroyed. Birches, both as trees and as fences, are common in the south-west district. There are many modern plantations of various sorts of firs and pines, generally mixed with different deciduous trees. Timber in this county, as is all others, has been infinitely more destroyed than preserved. There still are many thousand acres of coppice-wood, the value of which depends much on situation; but on average it does not exceed seven shillings yearly per acre. As fuel, the demand for coppice wood is diminished, by the increased and increasing consumption of coal. Many sorts of iron are now manufactured with preparations of coal, which formerly could only be worked with fires of wood. It is not improbable that the demand for coppice wood will continue to decrease in proportion as the art of making iron is better understood. Notwithstanding the constant decrease of oak timber, this county is said to retain proportionably more than any other. Though great supplies have been sent to Bristol for ship-building, and the stocks have within the last thirty years, been considerably diminished, there is still sufficient remaining for domestick consumption, and for other markets. Underwoods are very extensive; they consist chiefly of oak, and the greater part are in such soils and situations as make the best return that could be expected. On the side of Shropshire near Bewdley, in Worcestershire, is a large tract of underwood, fallen at eighteen or twenty one years growth, for converting into charcoal to make bar- iron. In one of these coppices, adjoining to a park at Kinlet, there have been trained up young timber-trees, that are very promising, and will make one of the finest woods of oak in the county. On the estates of Lord Clive, and of other proprietors, plantations have been raised for ornament. These consist chiefly of larch and fir and beech, as being of quickest growth: sometimes oaks are intermixed.

WASTE LAND. In comparison with mnny other counties, Shropshire may be called an enclosed one, particularly with respect to field-land. Of the commons that remain, few are of large extent. One of the most considerable is the Morfe, near Bridgnorth, which is five miles in length, and may be two or three in width, but on which enclosures are now made to a considerable extent. There are smaller commons, amounting to some hundred acres, not far from it, all of which are highly capable of improvement from enclosure. There are several large tracts of waste land in the road from Shrewsbury to Drayton; these are of much inferior value, though they might be rendered profitable; on the very worst parts of them, the Scotch fir would thrive. The extensive common between Church Stretton and Bishopscastle, and beyond Clun to the borders of Radnorshire, are so elevated, and so well calculated for sheep pastures, that, perhaps, they cannot be better occupied,

There were formerly large tracts of moor-land, from near Boreatton to St. Martin's, usually covered with water in the winter. These are now, in consequence of enclosures and drainage, at no great expense, rendered of considerable value. They were frequented by numerous wild fowl, which have, since the above improvement, entirely deserted them. Vast quantities were annually taken at the decoy near Whittington, the property of Mr. Lloyd, of Aston; which being no longer of use is now suffered to go out of repair, and will probably never again be resorted to. There are several large mosses in Shropshire, and a great number of smaller ones. The chief district of moor-land is that surrounding the village of Kinnersley.

PLASH. A township in the parish of Cardington, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 6 miles northeast of Church Stretton.

PLAS-YN-Y-COED; (Or the Hall in the wood.) An old mansion converted into a farm-house, situate in the township of Dudleston, on the banks of the Dee. About a century ago, it was the residence of the family of Kyffin and is now the property of W. Morrall, of Plas Yollen, Esq.

PLAS YOLLEN; or PLAS JOLYN. Situate in the township of Dudleston, 4 miles north-west of Ellesmere. The seat of W. Morrill, Esq. it is a handsome old mansion-house, faced with stone dug from the neighbouring quarry at Coed-yr-allt, and is surrounded by noble trees of oak, ash, and sycamore. Among the latter are some of the most extraordinary dimensions and height. The grounds command on one hand a fine view of the Eglwyseg rock, Chirk Castle hills, and ranges of the Berwyn mountains, and on the other the Broxton hills, and vale of Cheshire, with an intermediate country finely wooded.

PLAS WARREN; Or PLACE WARREN. A large old mansion-house, on the road from Overton to Chirk, 5 miles north-west of Ellesmere. It was formerly called Gwern Jenkin, but in the time of Charles II was purchased by Arthur Warren, Esq., and named Plas Warren; now the property of W. Morral, of Plas Yollen, Esq.

PLEALEY. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 5½ miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

PLOWDEN. A township in the parish of Lydbury North, and in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow. 3½ miles south-east by east of Bishopscastle.

' Edmund Plowden', says Fuller, ' was borne at Plowden, in this county; one who excellently deserved of our Municipall Law, in his learned writings thereon: but consult his ensuing epitaph, which will give a more perfect account of him:'

' Couditur in hoc Tumulo corpus Edmundi Plowden Armigeri. Claris Ortus Parentibus, apud Plowden in Comitatu Salop, natus est; a pueritia in literarum studio liberaliter est educatus, in provectiore vero aetate legibus et jurisprudentite operant dedit. Senex jam factus, et annum tetatis suae agens 67, mundo valediceus, in Christo Jesu sancte obdormivit, die sexto mensis Februar. anno Domini, 1584'.

'I have rather inserted this Epitaph inscribed on his Monument on the north side of the east end of the Quire of Temple Church in London, because it hath escaped (but by what casualty I cannot conjecture) Master Plowden, in his "Survey of London". We must add a few words out of the character Mr. Camden gives of him:' vitae integritate inter omnes suae professionis nulli secundus'. And how excellent a medley is made, when honesty and ability meet in a man of his Profession! Nor must we forget how he was treasurer for the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple, anno 1572, when their magnificent Hall was builded; he being a great advancer thereof'.

PLOX GREEN. A township in the parish of Westbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford.

POLMERE. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 5 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

PONTESBURY. A parish in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford, a rectory divided into three portions, and remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Pontesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 404 houses, 2,458 inhabitants. In the parish of Pontesbury there was one female upwards of 100 years of age. 7½ miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

PONTESFORD. A township in the parish of Pontesbury, and in the Pontesbury division of the hundred of Ford. 7 piles south-west of Shrewsbury.

PORKINGTON. A township in the parish of Sellatyn, and in the upper division of the hundred of Oswestry.

Porkington, the seat of W. Ormsby Gore, Esq., is about 1 mile west of Oswestry. This place takes its name from a singular entrenchment in a neighbouring field, called Casten Brogynton, a fort belonging to Owen Brogynton, a natural son of Owen Madoc ap Meredydd, prince of Powis Vadog. It is of a circular form, surrounded by a vast earthen dike, and a deep fosse. It appears, by an old drawing in Mr. Mytton's collection, to have had two entrances, pretty close to each other, projecting a little from the sides and diverging; the end of each guarded by a semi-lunar curtain. These are now destroyed. The whole parish consists of a single township, which also bears the same title with the mansion: The name of the house was soon altered into one very nearly resembling the present. In 1218, Henry III. in an address to Llewelyn, prince of Wales, informs him, that among others, Bleddyn Filius Oeni de Porkinton had performed to his majesty the service he owed. We must now make a very long transition from this period, to that which produced another distinguished personage of this family. Here is preserved the portrait of Sir John Owen, knight, of Cleneney, in Caernarvonshire; a gallant officer and strenuous supporter of the cause of Charles I. He greatly signalized himself at the siege of Bristol, when it was taken by Prince Rupert, and was desperately wounded in the attack. Congenial qualities recommended him to his highness; who, superseding the appointment of archbishop Williams to the government of Conway Castle, in 1645, constituted Sir John commander in his place. This fortress was soon given up to General Mytton, by the contrivance of the prelate, and the power of his friends: and the knight retired to his seat in the distant parts of the county. In 1648, he rose in arms to make a last effort on behalf of his fallen master, probably in concert with the royalists in Kent and Essex. He was soon attacked by William Lloyd sheriff of the shire, whom he defeated, wounded, and made prisoner. He then laid siege to Caernarvon; but hearing that some of the parliament forces under colonels Carter and Twisleton, were on their march to attack him, he hastened to meet them, and took the sheriff with him on a litter. He met with his enemies near Llandegai: a furious action ensued, in which at first Sir John had the advantage; but falling in with the reserve, fortune turned against him: in a personal contest with a Captain Taylor, he was pulled off his horse, and made prisoner; and his troops, disheartened by the loss of their commander, took to flight. The messenger who brought the news of this victory to the parliament, received a reward of £200, out of Sir John's estate. Sir John was conveyed to Windsor Castle, where he found four noblemen under confinement for the same cause.

Nov. 10th, a vote passed for his banishment, and that of the four lords, and major-gen. Langhern; but after the execution of their royal master, sanguinary measures took place. The duke of Hamilton, the earl of Holland, and lords Goring and Capel, were put upon their trials. Sir John shewed a spirit worthy of his country. He told his judges, that "he was a plain gentleman of Wales, who had been always taught to obey the king; that he had served him honestly during the war; and finding many honest men endeavoured to raise forces, whereby they might get him out of prison, he did the like"; and concluded like a man who did not care what they resolved concerning him. In the end he was condemned to lose his head; for which, with a humourous intrepidity, he made the court a low reverence, and gave his humble thanks. A bystander asking him what he meant, he replied aloud, "It was a great honour to a poor gentleman of Wales to lose his head with such noble lords; for by G-, he was afraid they would have hanged him". Sir John by more good fortune, was disappointed of the honour he was flattered with; being as his epitaph says, Fumae plus quam vitae sollicitus. He neither solicited for a pardon, nor was any petition made to parliament in his favour; which was strongly importuned in behalf of his fellow prisoners. Ireton proved his advocate, and told the house, "That there was one person for whom no one speaks a word: and therefore requested, that he might be saved by the sole motive and goodness of the house". In consequence, mercy was extended to him; and after a few months imprisonment, he was set at liberty. He retired again into his own country, where he died in 1666; and was interred in the church of Penmorva, Caernarvonshire, where there is a small monument, with a latin epitaph, to his memory.

Meredith Hanmer was born at Porkington, in the year 1543. He became chaplain of Corpus Christi college, Oxford, and on entering into holy orders, was presented to the vicarage of St. Leonard's, Shoreditch. He afterwards obtained the living of Islington, and lastly went to Dublin, where he was appointed treasurer of the church of Holy Trinity. He died in 1604. His works are 1. A Chronography; in folio. 2. A translation of the Ecclesiastical Historians; in folio. 3. The Chronicle of Ireland; in folio. 4. A Sermon on the Baptism of a Turk.

POSNALL; Or POSENHALL. An extraparochial place in the franchise of Wenlock. 2 houses, 14 inhabitants.

PRADO. The seat of the Hon. Thomas Kenyon. 5 miles south-east of Oswestry. 1 mile south-east of West Felton.

PREEN; Or CHURCH PREEN. A parish in the Cound division of the hundred of Condover, a curacy not in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Wenlock, and archdeaconry of Salop. 13 houses, 73 inhabitants. 5 miles south-west of Wenlock. The seat of John Windsor, Esq.; a very elegant residence. In the reign of Edward I. there was a religious cell in the village, which cell was held of the lords of the castle of Holdgate; and the priors of Wenlock used to present the same when vacant, to the keepers of the said castle, who had no other right to the cell than the mere possession, till such presentations were made. At that time, the ancestors of John Cressett Pelham, Esq., (one of the present members for the county of Salop,) were successively Lords of the Manor and Castle of Holdgate.

PREES. A parish in the Whitchurch division of the hundred of Bradford, North, a peculiar, a vicarage remaining in charge, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 484 houses, 3,190 inhabitants. 4 miles north- east of Wem.

Rowland Lord Hill, whose brilliant military services have acquired such general approbation, was born at Prees; August 11, 1772, and is the second son of the late Sir John Hill, Bart. of Hawkstone, in the county of Salop, who married Mary, one of the daughters and coheiresses of John Chambre, Esq. of Petton, in the same county, by which lady he had sixteen children. His lordship entering the army in the sixteenth year of his age, his first commission was an Ensigncy in the 38th regiment. Having obtained leave of absence, with the view of improving his military knowledge, he was placed at an academy at Strasburg, where he remained one year, and then accompanied his elder brother, and his uncle, the late Sir Richard Hill, in a tour through Germany, France and Holland.

Lord Hill commenced his military duty at Edinburgh, where he had the advantage of the best society, and received particular notice from many of the nobility and principal families. His removal from Scotland took place in consequence of an offer he received of a Lieutenancy, in Captain Broughton's independent company, on his raising the usual quota of men; this he soon accomplished, and then removed as Lieutenant to the 27th. His friends being anxious for his early promotion, obtained permission for him to raise an independent company, which gave him the rank of Captain in the army, in the year 1792. In the interval of his being attached to any particular corps, he accompanied his friend, Francis Drake, Esq., who went out as minister on a diplomatic mission to Genoa, from whence Captain Hill, through the recommendation of his friend, proceeded to Toulon, and was employed as Aide-de-camp to the successive Generals commanding there, namely, Lord Mulgrave, General O'Hara, and Sir David Dundas. Lord Hill had not at this time attained his twenty first year, but had the honour of receiving from each of his commanders decisive proofs of their approbation. He was slightly wounded in his right hand, when General O'Hara was taken prisoner, and narrowly escaped with his life; it being undertermined for some minutes, between himself and another Aide-de-Camp, Captain Snow, which should ascend a tree, for the purpose of making observations respecting the enemy; the latter went up, and received a mortal wound whilst Lord Hill, standing immediately beneath, was preserved unhurt.

He was deputed by Sir David Dundas to be the bearer of the dispatches to England relating to the evacuation of Toulon by the British. His next appointment was to a company in the 23rd, with which regiment he was on duty in Scotland and Ireland. His conduct at Toulon recommended him to the notice and friendship of Lord Lyndoch, who made him the offer of purchasing a Majority in the 90th: this step was gladly acceded to, by himself and friends, and was soon followed by a promotion to a Lieutenant Colonelcy in the same regiment.

He went through a great deal of arduous duty with the 90th at Gibraltar, and other places, and had his full share in the memorable Egyptian campaign. In the action of the 13th of March, 1801, Major- General Craddock's brigade formed the front, with the 90th regiment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Hill, as its advanced-guard. Sir Robert Wilson states the conduct of the 90th, in this affair, to have been most honourable and praise-worthy, and that nothing could exceed the intrepidity and firmness with which they charged the enemy. On this occasion Lord Hill received a wound in the right temple, from a musket ball, the force of which was providentially averted, by a strong brass binding in front of his helmet; the blow was, however, severe, and he was removed from the field of battle in a state of insensibility. When his situation was made known to Lord Keith, he immediately sent for him on board the Foudroyant. The kindness and accommodation the invalid received from his noble friend, no doubt accelerated his recovery, and enabled to join his regiment, and continue on duty the whole of the campaign. The Captain Pacha frequently saw Colonel Hill whilst he was on board the Foudroyant, and with many good wishes and expressions for his welfare, presented him with a valuable gold box, sword, and shawl. Very soon after the return of the troops from Egypt, the 90th was ordered to proceed through Scotland to Ireland, and Lord Hill continued unremittingly to perform his regimental duty, till he was appointed Brigadier-general on the Irish Staff. His principal stations in that country were Cork, Galway, and Fermoy; the inhabitants of which places manifested their approbation of his conduct by publick addresses inserted in the Dublin papers. On leaving Cork he was presented with the freedom of that city. Early in the summer of 1808, he embarked with his brigade at Cove, to join the army of England destined to act in the Peninsula. In the battles of Roleia and Vimiera, Lord Hill was fully employed, and gained the approbation and thanks of his comrades for his own conduct and that of his brigade.

During the whole of Sir John Moore's advance and retreat, Lord Hill continued indefatigable in his exertions; and was established with a corps of reserve, guarding the embarkation of the army at Corunna. His humanity and attention to the suffering troops on their landing at Plymouth, earned him the admiration of the humane and benevolent inhabitants of that place; and he was presented by the mayor and corporation with an address, expressive of their cordial approbation of his conduct: and as a proof that his proceedings were not obliterated from their recollection, the body corporate convened a meeting in 1811, and unanimously voted him the freedom of the borough, in terms of glowing praise. On General Hill's arrival in England, in the beginning of the year 1809, he found himself appointed Colonel of the 3rd Garrison Battalion; and about the same period he became possessed of a handsome property, (Hardwicke Grange) left to him by his uncle the late Sir Richard Hill, Bart.

The General had not been many days in London, before he was directed by His Royal Highness the Commander-in-chief to hold himself in readiness for further service; and as soon as his instructions were completed he proceeded through England (passing five days with his friends in Shropshire) to take the command of the troops ordered from Ireland for the second expedition to the Peninsula.

In the passage of the Douro, May 12, 1809, when Lieutenant-General Sir E. Paget received a wound that unhappily deprived him of his arm, Lord Hill became first in command, and conducted that enterprise with complete success.

At the battle of Talavera, Lord Hill was slightly wounded on the head: his firmness and courage in repelling the successive attack of the French upon his position greatly contributed to the success of the day. When the thanks of both houses of parliament were voted to the British army for this victory, Mr. Percival, in noticing the exertions of Sir. Rowland Hill observed, ' that the manner in which General Hill had repulsed the enemy at the point of the bayonet was fresh in every one's memory'. For his services on this occasion, he had the colonelcy of the 94th regiment given to him; it having been conferred upon him without any solicitation, either on his own part or that of his friends.

The generalship and activity of Lord Hill, in surprising and capturing a French corps, under General Girard, in Spanish Estremadura, is deserving of commemoration. General Girard's corps consisted of a division of the 5th corps of the French army, with a considerable body of cavalry; which having crossed the Guadiana at Merida, and advanced upon Caceres, Lord Wellington ordered General Hill to move with the troops under his command into Estremadura. Lord Hill accordingly marched by Aldea del Cano, to Alcuesca; and, on the 27th of October, 1811, having information that the French were in motion, he proceeded through Aide, being a shorter route than that taken by the enemy, and affording a hope of being able to intercept or bring him to action. On his march, Lord Hill learned that Girard had halted his main body at Arroyo del Molinos, leaving a rear-guard at Albala, which was a satisfactory proof that be was ignorant of the movements of the allied detachment. Lord Hill, therefore, determined to surprise him; and accordingly, made a forced march to Alcuesca that evening, where the troops were so placed as to be out of sight of the enemy, and no fires were allowed to be made. On his arrival at this place, which is not more than a league from Arroyo, Lord Hill was more fully convinced that Girard was ignorant of his movements, and also extremely off his guard; he determined, therefore, upon attempting to surprise him, or at least to bring him to action, before he should march in the morning; and the necessary dispositions were made for that purpose.

The ground over which the troops were to manoeuvre being a plain, thinly scattered with oak and cork trees, Lord Hill's object was to place a body of troops so as to cut off retreat of the enemy either to Truxillo or Merida: he, therefore, moved the army from their bivouac (or resting-place without tent,) near Alcuesca, about two in the morning of the 28th, in one column right in front, direct on Arroyo del Molinos. On arriving within half a mile of the town, when under cover of a low ridge, the column closed, and divided into three columns; the infantry being on the right and left, and the cavalry occupying the centre. As the day dawned, a violent storm of rain and thick mist came on, under cover of which the columns advanced according to the concerted plan; the left column proceeding for the town, under Lieutenant-Colonel Stewart; the 71st, and part of the 60th and 92nd, at a greater distance; and the 50th in close column, somewhat in the rear, with the guns as a reserve. The right column, under Major-General Howard, having the 39th regiment in reserve, broke off to the right, so as to turn the enemy's left; and having gained about the distance of a cannon-shot to that flank, marched in a circular direction upon the further point of the crescent formed by the troops: whilst the cavalry, under Sir William Erskine, moved between the two columns of infantry, ready to act in front, or move round either of them, as occasion might require.

The advance of the British columns was unperceived by the enemy until they approached very near, at which moment they were filing out of the town upon the Merida road; the rear of the column, some of the cavalry, and part of the baggage, being still within.

At this moment the 71st and 92nd regiments charged into the town with cheers, and drove the enemy every where at the point of the bayonet, having only a few of their men cut down by the enemy's cavalry. The enemy's infantry, which had got out of the town, had, by the time these regiments arrived at the extremity of it, formed into two squares, with the cavalry on their left; the whole were posted between the Merida and Medellin roads, fronting Alcuesca. These squares were formed close to the town; but the garden walls were promptly lined by the 71st light infantry, whilst the 92nd filed out and formed a line on the enemies flank, the whole throwing in a hot and well-directed fire. In the mean time one wing of the 50th regiment occupied the town, and secured the prisoners; and the other wing, with the three six-pounders, skirted the outside of it, the artillery as soon as within range, firing with great effect upon the squares.

Whilst the enemy was thus occupied upon the right, General Howard's column continued moving upon their left; and the allied cavalry advancing, and crossing the head of the enemy's column, cut off the cavalry from the infantry, charging it repeatedly, and putting it to the rout. The 13th light dragoons at the same time took possession of the enemy's artillery.

In this part of the business, the Spanish cavalry, under the Count de Penna Villemur, behaved remarkably well; for the British cavalry having been somewhat delayed by the darkness of the night and badness of the road, the Spaniards were the first to form the plan, and gallantly engaged the enemy until the British came up.

The whole body of the French were now in full retreat: but General Howard's column having gained the point to which it was directed, and the left column coming fast upon them, they had no resource but to surrender, or to disperse and ascend the mountain, which forms one extremity of the sierra of Montanches, and is almost inaccessible.

The latter attempt they preferred; and, scrambling up the eastern extremity, were followed by the 28th and 34th regiments, whilst the 39th, and Colonel Ashworth's Portuguese infantry, followed round the foot of the mountain to take them in flank.

As may be imagined, the enemy's troops were by this time in the utmost panick; the cavalry were flying in every direction, the infantry throwing away their arms, and the only effort of both was to escape. The troops under General Howard's command as well as those he had sent around the point of the mountain, pursued them over the rocks, making prisoners at every step, until his own men became so exhausted, and few in number, that it was necessary for him to halt and secure the prisoners.

The force which Girard had with him at the commencement of the business, consisting of 2,500 infantry and 600 cavalry, was totally dispersed, or captured; amongst the latter of whom were General Brune, the Prince d'Aremberg, two lieutenant-colonels, an aide-de- camp, 30 captains and subalterns, and upwards of 1,000 soldiers, with the whole of their baggage, artillery, commissariat, and even the contributions which they had recently levied. The enemy's loss in killed was also very severe, whilst, from the activity and skilful manceuvres of Lord Hill, it was very trifling on the side of the British. Girard escaped himself; with two or three hundred men, but without arms; and even these were much harrassed in their retreat by the Spanish peasantry.

We cannot avoid particularly noticing the excellent conduct of Lieutenant-General Hill, during his detached command in Spain, when he was principally opposed to Soult, perhaps the most able General whom Buonaparte employed in that country. The acuteness in foreseeing, and the steady industry in contravening this Officer's intentions, which General Hill evinced at the period of the retreat of the British army to the lines of Torres Vedras, very materially contributed to the happy results of the action at Buzaco, and uniformly prevented Souk's acknowledged activity from operating to the disadvantage of the troops under General Hill's command.

The bravery, skills and intrepidity of this meritorious commander, were most conspicuously put to the test in his operations against the works and establishments at the passage of the Tagus at Almarez. The strength of this position was such as apparently to bid defiance to any coup-de-main; for the bridge was defended by strong works thrown up by the French on both sides of the river, and further covered on the southern side by the castle and redoubts of Mirabete, about a league off, commanding the pass of that name, through which runs the road to Madrid, being the only one passable for carriages of any description by which the bridge can be approached.

The works on the left bank of the river consisted of a tote du pont, strongly built of masonry, and well entrenched; and on the high ground above it there was a large and well constructed fort, called Napoleon, with an interior entrenchment, and a loop-holed tower in the centre. This fort contained nine pieces of cannon, with a garrison of between four and five hundred men; and there was also, on the opposite side of the river, on a height immediately above the bridge, a very complete fort recently constructed, which flanked and added much to its defence.

On the morning of the 16th of May, 1812, General Hill reached Jaraicejo, and the same evening the troops marched in three columns; the left commanded by Lieutenant-General Chowne, (28th and 34th regiments under Colonel Wilson, and the 6th Portuguese Cacadores) towards the castle of Mirabete; the right column under Major-General Howard (50th, 71st, and 92nd regiment,) and accompanied by Lord Hill himself, to a pass in the mountains, through which a most difficult and circuitous foot-path leads by the village of Romangordo to the bridge; the centre column under Major-General Long, (6th and 18th Portuguese infantry under Colonel Ashworth, and 13th light dragoons, with the artillery) advanced upon the high road to the pass of Mirabete.

The two flank columns were provided with ladders, and it was intended that both of them should proceed to escalade the forts against which they were directed, if circumstances proved favourable; the difficulties, however, which each had to encounter on its march were such that it was impossible for them to reach their respective points before day-break. General Hill, therefore, judged it best, as there was no longer a possibility of surprise, to defer the attack until he should be better acquainted with the nature and position of the works, and accordingly gave orders for the troops to bivouac on the Leina. [This term, so frequently in use, in consequence of the modern system of warfare; simply means, for an army or corps to rest on its march, either for sleep or refreshment, without pitching their tents, or forming any military defence.]

On a full consideration of circumstances, Lord Hill determined to penetrate to the bridge by the mountain path leading through the village of Romangordo, even though by that means be should be deprived of the use of artillery; a decision fully justified by subsequent events.

Accordingly, on the evening of the 18th he moved with Major-General Howard's brigade, and the 6th Portuguese regiment, for this operation, provided with ladders, etc. Though the distance to be marched did not exceed five or six miles, yet the difficulties of the road were such that, with the united exertions of both officers and men, the column could not be formed for the attack before day-light. Confiding, however, and justly, in the gallantry of his troops, Lord Hill ordered the immediate assault of Fort Napoleon.

The 1st battalion of the 50th, and one wing of the 71st regiment, regardless of the enemy's artillery and masquetry, immediately escaladed the work in three places, nearly at the sane time. The enemy seemed at first determined, and his fire was destructive; but the ardour of the assailants was irresistible, and the garrison was driven, at the point of the bayonet, through the several entrenchments of the fort and the tete du pont across the bridge, which having been cut by those on the opposite side of the river, many leaped into the water, and thus perished.

In fact, the impression made upon the enemy's troops was such, that the panick soon communicated itself to those on the opposite side, and Fort Ragusa was abandoned instantly, the garrison flying in the utmost confusion towards Naval Moral.

The conduct of the 50th and 71st regiments, to whom this brilliant assault fell, the cool and steady manner in which they formed and advanced, and the intrepidity with which they mounted the ladders, and carried the place, was worthy of those distinguished corps, and of the officers who led them.

If the attack could have been made before day, a greater number of British troops would have been engaged; for it was intended that the 92nd regiment under Lieut-Colonel Cameron, and the remainder of the 71st, under the Hon. Lieut.-Colonel Cadogan, should have escaladed the tete du pont, and effected the destruction of the bridge, at the same time that the attack was made on Fort Napoleon. The impossibility of advancing, however, unfortunately deprived them of this opportunity of distinguishing themselves, though it rendered the affair more brilliant for those actually engaged. One division of the force in this expedition, though not absolutely in action, had an arduous duty to perform, and contributed much to the success of the enterprise; for the diversion made by Lieutenant-General Chowne, with the troops under his command, against the castle of Mirabete, succeeded completely in making the enemy believe that the British would not attack the forts near the bridge, until they had forced that pass, and thus made way for the coming up of the artillery. It is likely, indeed, that his corps would have turned this diversion into a real and successful attack, had circumstances permitted General Hill to avail himself of their gallantry and resolution.- The assault throughout was directed by our gallant Hero himself.

From the great quantity of ordnance and stores in this position, it is evident that the enemy had considered it in a very important light; its destruction, so completely as it was performed, was therefore a material object. In this service the towers of masonry which were in the two forts were completely levelled; the ramparts of both in a great measure dismantled; and the whole apparatus of the bridge, together with the workshops, magazines, and every piece of timber which could be found, entirely destroyed.

The guns were principally 12-pounders and howitzers, and were eighteen in number; there was also a considerable preportion of powder in barrels and cartridges fixed to shot; but as the magazines were blown up immediately after the capture, and every thing destroyed, it was impossible to ascertain the exact quantity. There were also 120,000 musquet ball cartridges, 300 six-inch shells, 380 rounds of case shot, 400 musquets, 20 large pontoon boats composing the bridge, with timbers complete, sixty carriages for removing the same, a large portion of rope of various dimensions, with anchors, timbers, tools, and every thing complete on a large establishment for keeping the bridge and carriages in a state of repair.

The quantity of provisions too was considerable, including 30,000 rations of biscuit, 66,000 of rice, 20,000 of brandy, 17,000 live cattle, and 18,000 of salt meat, etc.

As an addition to this important success, it is pleasing to reflect, that the British loss was far from severe, considering the arduous service in which they were engaged: Captain Chandler of the 50th was the only officer killed in the assault; he was the first to mount the ladder, and fell upon the parapet, after giving a distinguished example to his men; but leaving a large family to deplore his loss. The total amounted to thirty three killed, and 144 wounded. The prisoners taken included a Lieut.-Colonel, a Major, and several other officers; in the whole 252.

In this expedition it must be noticed that the Spaniards were particularly serviceable. The Marquis de Almeida, a member of the Junta of Estremadura, accompanied Lord Hill; and from him, and from the people in the vicinity, he received the most ready and effectual assistance it was in their power to bestow.

In the ever memorable battle of Vittoria (June 21, 1813,) which decided the fate of the Usurper Joseph, and finally led to the overthrow of the Buonapartean dynasty, the centre of the allied army was commanded by the Duke of Wellington, the right wing by Lord Hill, and the left by Lord Lyndoch. The operations of the day commenced by Lord Hill obtaining possession of Puebla, on which the enemy's left rested.

He detached on this service one brigade of the Spanish division under General Murillo; the other brigade being employed in keeping the communications between his main bay, on the high road from Miranda to Vittoria, and the troops detached to the heights. The enemy, however, soon discovered the importance of the position, and reinforced their troops there to such an extent that General Hill was obliged to detach, first the 71st regiment and the light infantry battalion of Major-General Walker's brigade under the command of the Hon. Lieutenant-Colonel Cadogan, and successively other troops to the same point, after which the allies not only gained, but maintained possession of these important heights throughout their operations, notwithstanding all the efforts of the enemy to retake them. The contest here, however, was severe, and the loss sustained considerable: General Murillo was wounded, but remained in the field; and here also, Colonel Cadogan received the fatal wound which deprived the service, his king and country, of an officer of great zeal and tried gallantry, who had already acquired the respect of the whole profession, and of whom, as the Duke of Wellington observed, it might have been expected that if be had lived be would have rendered the most important services to his country. Under cover of the possession of these heights, General Hill successively passed the Zadora, at La Puebla, the defile formed by the heights, and the river, and attacked and gained possession of the village of Sabijana de Alava, in front of the hostile line, and which the enemy made many attempts to regain.

The difficult nature of the country prevented the communication between the different allied columns moving to the attack, from their stations on the river Bayas, at as early an hour as the Duke of Wellington had expected; and it was late before he knew that the column composed of the third and seventh divisions, under the command of the Earl of Dalhousie, had arrived at the station appointed for them.

The fourth and light divisions, however, passed the Zadora immediately after Lord Hill had possession of Sabijana de Alava; the former at the bridge of Nauclaus, and the latter at the bridge of Tres Puentes; and almost as soon as these had crossed, the column under the Earl of Dalhousie arrived at Mendoaxa, and the third division, under Sir Thomas Picton, crcssed at the bridge higher up, and was followed by the seventh division, under the Earl of Dalhousie.

The four divisions, forming the centre of the army, were destined to attack the heights on which the right of the enemy's centre was placed; whilst General Hill should move forward from Sabijina de Alava to attack the left. The enemy however having weakened his line to strengthen his detachment on the hills, abandoned his position in the valley, as soon as he saw the disposition ofthe allies to attack it, and commenced his retreat in good order towards Vittoria whilst the allied troops continued to advance in equally good order, notwithstanding the difficulty of the ground.

The general particulars of this important and decisive battle, have so often appeared before our readers, that we will not detain them with any, except such as we think it would be manifest injustice to omit.- In the conclusion of the contest, the whole of the enemy's ammunition and baggage, and in short, every thing they had, were taken close to Vittoria: so complete, indeed, was this part of the business, that they were able to carry off only one gun and one howitzer out of their formidable park of artillery. This grand army, so totally discomfitted, consisted of the whole of the armies of the south and of the centre, and of four divisions and all the cavalry of the army of Portugal.

With respect to the enemy's loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners, various statements have been made, which, from the nature, of the occurrences must be vague, and in a great measure incorrect. Their loss, however, must have been great; and even the success of the allies was not purchased, but with an immense sacrifice of blood.

The number of pieces of cannon taken in the battle, was proved by subsequent returns to be 180; and the officer who brought home the dispatches, declared that he never saw a finer sight than the disposition of these guns, all ranged in order in a plain before Vittoria, with the amunition, etc. taken in the battle.- The booty also, which was captured, was immense: besides the baggage, horses, and other articles taken in the field; the value of the specie, plate, and jewels, was estitnated at six millions of dollars. Of this sum only 100,000 dollars came to the military chest; the rest was divided by the troops on the spot.

In recounting the actions of this glorious day, we find the Duke of Wellington expressing himself particularly indebted to the gallant subject of our memoir, and to Sir Thomas Graham (now Lord Lyndoch,) for the manner in which they respectively conducted the services entrusted to them since the commencement of the operations which ended in the battle of the 21st, and for their conduct in that battle.

In contemplating results which were the consequence of the Battle of Vittoria, and reflecting how great a share our gallant countryman Lord Hill had in the achievements of that day; that the right wing of the army, led on and commanded by him, first commenced the attack; and that, had not his Lordship's division displayed the utmost gallantry, the battle might have had a very different termination,- we say, when we reflect on what might and what have been the consequences of this violent contest, we are lost in amazement; for it is now no secret, that the news of the battle of Vittoria decided the conduct of the Emperor of Austria, during the attempts of the Allies to make peace with Buonaparte, previously to the battle of Dresden; and his decision led to the final overthrow of Napoleon, and the establishment of the Bourbons on the throne of France.- Tracing events to their causes, we are induced to draw this conclusion, that the military skill, bravery, and intrepidity, displayed by General Lord Hill in the battle of Vittoria, was the PRINCIPAL cause of that military glory and pre-eminence among nations which Great Britain has subsequently acquired. Nevertheless we offer this opinion with due respect to the abilities, courage, and experience of the Duke of Wellington, and all those brave officers who acted, with Gen. Lord Hill; under his command, during the war in the Peninsula.- But we pass on to notice that, in the various engagements in Spain and in France, during this important campaign, we find General Hill actively and successfully employed.

While Lord Hill occupied the valley of Bastan, two divisions of the centre of the enemy's army attacked his position in the Puerto de Mayor, with a very superior force. His Lordship's position, which was about three miles in extent, was strong by nature, but not tenable against the overwhelming force which was brought against it, which was not less than fourteen thousand men, while the troops under Lord Hill did not exceed three thousand: but notwithstanding the superiority of number, the enemy acquired but little advantage over these brave troops, during the seven hours they were engaged. All the British charged with the bayonet, and the conduct of the 82nd was particularly distinguished.

The remarkably strong position in the pass of Donna Maria was carried in the most gallant stile, by Lord Hill and Major. Gen. Murray.- At this period, the troops under Lord Hill were engaged for seven days successively.

Pampluna having surrendered on the 31st of October, 1813, and the right of the Allied Army having been disengaged from covering the blockade of that place, General Hill moved on the 6th and 7th of November, into the Valley of Bastan; Lord Wellington intended to attack the enemy on the 8th but the rain having rendered the roads impassable, the attack was deferred till the 10th.- The enemy not satisfied with the natural strength of their position in the Valley, had the whole of it fortified; and their right in particular had been made so strong that the Commander in Chief did not think it prudent to attack it in front.- The attack was consequently made in columns of divisions. Gen. Hill directed the movement of the right, which attacked the positions of the enemy behind Anhone.- The skill of the General, and the bravery of the troops under his command, soon forced the enemy to retire towards the bridge of Cambo, on the Nive, with the exception of the division of Mordain, which, by the march of a part of the second division, under Lieutenant-General Stewart, was pushed into the mountains of Baggory.

On this memorable occasion, the allied army succeeded in driving the enemy from positions he had been fortifying with great labour and care for three months, and took from him fifty one pieces of cannon, six tumbrils, and 1,400 prisoners.

Lord Wellington speaks highly of the conduct of Marshal Beresford and Lord Hill, who directed the attack on the centre and right on this occasion, as he does of other gallant and distinguished officers: we hope the omission of their names will not be attributed to disrespect, as our object is to confine ourselves chiefly to what relates to our brave and noble countryman.

After the enemy's retreat from this strong position, they occupied another in front of Bayonne, which had been entrenched with great labour since the battle of Vittoria. The right of the work rested on the Adour, the front was covered by a morass, and the left was upon the river Nive.

The Duke of Wellington perceived it was impossible to attack the enemy in this position, as long as they remained in force in it, he therefore ordered the troops out of their cantonments on the 8th of December, and that the right of the army under Gen. Lord Hill, should pass on the 9th at and in the neighbourhood of Cambo, while Marshal Beresford supported his operations, by passing the 6th division under Lieut. General Clinton. Both operations succeeded completely. The enemy were immediately driven from the right bank of the river, and retired towards Bayonne by the great road of St. Jean Pied de Port.

On the night of the 12th, the enemy withdrew into their entrenchments, and passed a large force through Bayonne with which, in the morning, they made a most desperate attack on Lord Hill. The expected arrival of the 6th division, and two brigades of the third, gave the Lieut-General great facility in making his movements: but the troops under his own immediate command had defeated and repulsed the enemy with immense loss, before their arrival.

At the conclusion of this brilliant achievement, the noble Wellington rode up to Lord Hill, and in the true spirit of a great and candid mind, said,- 'HILL, THIS IS ALL YOUR OWN'.

In the publick despatch which he sent to England by General Hill's brother, Colonel Clement Hill, he manifested the same candour. In speaking of this affair, he adds,- 'IT GIVES ME THE GREATEST SATISFACTION TO HAVE ANOTHER OPPORTUNITY OF REPORTING MY SENSE OF THE MERITS AND SERVICES OF LIEUT-GENERAL SIR ROWLAND HILL. '

On the 14th of Feb. 1814, Gen. Hill drove in the enemy's picquets on the Joyeuse river, and attacked their position at Hiliege, from which he obliged General Haraspe to retire with loss towards St. Martin.- On the following day, the troops continued their pursuit of the enemy, who retired to a strong position in the front of the Garris.

On the 16th Lord Hill crossed the Bidoure river. On the 24th he crossed the Gave and Oleron, at Villenave. General Hill and Sir H. Clinton then moved towards Orthes, and the great road leading from Sauveterre to that town; and the enemy retired across the Gave de Pau; the British army following. After a short engagement, the enemy retired in admirable order, taking advantage of the numerous good positions the country afforded.

The losses, however, which at this time the enemy sustained, and the danger with which they were threatened by Lord Hill's movements, soon accelerated their motions, their retreat at length became a flight, and their troops were in the utmost confusion, Sir Stapleton Cotton (now Lord Combermere,) took advantage of the only opportunity which presented itself, to charge with Lord Somerset's cavalry brigade, in the neighbourhood of Sault de Navailles, where the enemy had been driven from the high road by General Hill.- Six pieces of cannon were taken from the enemy, and a great many prisoners, and the whole country was covered with their slain. Beauchamp says 14 or 16,000 were killed, wounded, and taken prisoners.

The result of these successful operations were that Bayonne, St. Jean Pied de Port, and Navarrens, were immediately invested. The army having passed the Adour, took possession of the enemy's magazines.- For these services and assistance, the Commander in Chief again eulogises General Hill, Lord Combermere, etc.

General Hill, in conformity to the orders of Lord Wellington, advanced with the right wing on the road which leads to Aires. He arrived within a league of this place on the 2nd of March; and his advanced guard discovered two French divisions; which occupied a strong chain of hills, having their right flank on the Adour, and thus covering, the road. In spite of their strong position, General Hill ordered an immediate attack; on which the tenth light division, under General Stewart, and a Portuguese brigade, belonging to the division of General Lacoste, put themselves in motion. The action took place in the woods of Clifas, between Grenade and Aires; and the allies immediately climbed the hills towards the right and centre. The Portuguese brigade actually attained the summit; but they met with a vigorous resistance, and the assaulted became the assailants. This brigade was repulsed with considerable loss, and thrown into such confusion, that the most serious consequences to the Allies would have ensued, but for the opportune support of General Stewart. He drove back the division immediately opposed to him by well directed fire; and seeing it return with a view to destroy the Portuguese brigade, caused fresh troops to advance, charged the French in his turn, and threw their columns into the greatest disorder. From this moment every attempt, on the part of Marshall Soult, to regain the ground, was abortive. Lieut.-General Hill dislodged him from all his positions, and the village of Aires, after having caused him great loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners. The English General had to lament the death of Lieut.-Colonel Hood, who fell in the action, as did about nine hundred Portuguese; whose bodies were thrown into the Adour, after the battle ceased.

This new check rendered the situation of Marshall Soult so desperate, that he left the roads of Agen, Bourdeaux, and Montauban, uncovered, hastily effecting his retreat by the two banks of the Adour towards Tarbes, in hopes of being shortly reinforced by detachments from the Army of Catalonia. One of his columns, however, having been separated from the Adour, by the rapid march of General Hill on Aires, retreated in the greatest disorder towards Pau, the fugitives throwing away their arms, the better to secure their escape.

While Lord Hill, with the right of the army, obtained such signal advantages, Lieut.-General Hope, who commanded the left wing, passed the Adour below Bayonne; and in concert with Vice-Admiral Penrose, rendered himself master of both banks of the river, at its mouth. The formidable state of the place made the French feel secure against the attempts of the enemy. Two hundred of the Rochefort marines had repaired to Bayonne, for the purpose of putting the cannon into the most effective state, protecting the navigation, and covering the town. It seemed impossible to force the bar of the Adour; and to construct a bridge appeared equally impracticable. General Hope had therefore, nothing to forward his views, except pontoons and rafts, with which, on the evening of the 23rd of February, he caused six hundred of the English Guards to pass, accompanied by a detachment of cavalry.

They immediately took possession of the right bank; and the garrison, consisting of 2,000 men, lost no time in attacking them; but this sortie was repulsed by Major-General. Stopford, supported by Congreve's rockets. These engines of destruction were hurled into the midst of the French troops, and burnt their very clothing; so that the men were completely alarmed at this novel species of wildfire, and gave way. The vessels too which had been destined to form a bridge, as well as the flotilla, experienced severe difficulties in passing the bar of the Adour, the breakers there being at all times dreadful.- Four sloops were swallowed up, and others dashed, to pieces on the rock; but at length, a vessel found the channel, and cast anchor in the midst of the agitated waves.

After this, the operation, which was of a most dangerous nature, especially in winter, was accomplished with a degree of skill and bravery seldom equalled. Boats crossed the bar in quick succession; and a French frigate, which was moored in the Adour, was assailed by a battery of eighteen guns, which materially damaged it, and caused it to seek a refuge under the artillery of the place. The bridge was now soon constructed, and the whole corps of Lieut.-General Hope passed, to the great astonishment of the stupified inhabitants, who ran from every quarter, to convince themselves, by ocular proof, that an event had actually occurred which they had deemed impossible,

On the 25th, the English troops approached the citadel of Bayonne, while Lieut.-General Don Manuel Freyre advanced, with the Fourth Spanish Army, by the road of St. Jean de Lua. On the 27th, the. bridge being completed, General Hope. more decidedly invested the citadel, which was commanded by General Thouvenot; and attacked the village of St. Etienne, which he carried. It was in vain that the armed sloops, which were charged with the defence of the Adour, manoeuvred to destroy the bridge constructed in so astonishing a manner. Three of them were sunk, and the communications of the Allies secured; after which the besieging army established its posts at the distance of nine hundred yards from the exterior works of the place.

While these successes crowned the efforts of the Allies, the Duke of Angouleme arrived at Lord Wellington's headquarters, at St. Sever.- The loyal inhabitants of Bourdeaux opened their gates to Lord Wellington, and hastened to lay at the feet of the Duke d'Angouleme the homage of the city. On the 12th, the friendly ensigns of England, Spain, and Portugal, united with the Royal Standard of the ancient French Kings, announced that the signal of the Restoration of the Bourbons was given.

While this city and La Vendee became the focus of the royal insurrection, Lord Wellington, pursuing his success, marched to the conquest of Languedoc. His different detachments, and the reserves of cavalry and artillery coming front Spain, did not join him until the 17th of March. In the mean time, the Marshal Duke of Dalmatia, not thinking his position very secure, had retired to Lambege, in the direction of Tarbes, leaving his advanced posts near Conches.

The army of Lord Wellington put itself in motion on the 18th, and Lieut-Genera1 Hill drove in the French posts, which, under cover of the night, fell back on Vic-Bigorre: Lieutenant-General Clinton manoeuvred on the rear of Marshall Soult; and drove it from the vineyards, as well as from Vic-Bigorre. The allied army immediately collected in the latter town, and at Rabastens. During the night the Duke of Dalmatia retreated towards Tarbes, taking a position on the heights, near the windmill at Oleac, with his centre and left on the hills near Angos.

Lord Wellington's army marched from Vic and Rabastens, in two columns of attack.- Lieut.-General Clinton was to turn the right wing of the French army, while Lieut.-General Hill was to attack Tarbes, by the road from Vic-Bigorre. This combined movement was completely successful. At the moment that the light division dislodged the troops of the advanced guard from the heights above Oleix, Lieut.-General Hill passed through the town of Tarbes, and arranged his columns, so as to surround the army of Marshall Soult, which only owed its safety to a hasty retreat by Pinasse, leaving the field of battle covered with the dead and wounded, and falling back in disorder towards Saint Gaudens.

In the mean time, Lord Wellington had surprised all the resources of Marshal Soult at Tarbes, and from that moment the French army was in want of every thing; so that its Commander, thinking himself no where secure, sought refuge with his troops under the walls of Toulouse.

While these great operations were taking place on the left of the combined army beyond the Garonne, Lieut.-General Hill, with the right wing, dislodged all the left of Marshal Soult from the exterior works of the St. Cyprien suburb. Lieut.-General Picton also renewed his attacks, and drove the French troops from the tete-de-pont at the canal, near the Garenne; but his division, in attempting to seize it; had been repulsed with loss. Major-General Brisbane was severely wounded upon the occasion.

The Duke of Wellington entered Thoulouse on the 12th of April. The same day Colonel Cooke arrived from Paris, to inform him of the capture of that city, and of the suspension of hostilities; which intelligence was immediately communicated to Marshals Suchet and Soult, who acknowledged the Provisional Government of France, and concluded a convention with the Duke of Wellington for a cessation of arms.

At this moment, when all was joy and gratulation, a dreadful sortie was made by the Garrison of Bayonne, Who Were unacquainted with the change which had taken place. In this unfortunate affair, Major-General Hay was killed, and Lieut.-Gen. Sir John Hope wounded and taken prisoner: the Hon. Captain Crofton, a brave and meritorious young Officer, also lost his life.

On the return of Lord Hill to his native country, after the peace of Paris, every token of honour, gratitude and affection, was manifested by his grateful countrymen. In Shrewsbury, Birmingham, Chester, Whitchurch, Drayton, Ellesmere - in every place visited or passed through by the gallant General, publick dinners, illuminations, or other tokens of the most grateful respect, announced the general joy.

London and Birmingham presented his lordship with elegant swords.- The inhabitants of Shropshire appeared as one joyful family, congratulating each other on the return of their common benefactor and deliverer. On his lordship's first visit to Shrewsbury, thousands went out to meet him; in many places the trees were adorned with flowers, and even the road was strewed with those blooming odoriferous emblems of the highest esteem.

Such was the desire of all descriptions of persons to shake hands with and congratulate Lord Hill, that it was found utterly impossible for him to appear in the Quarry, or to be a witness of the joy which manifested itself during this benevolent treat. At one time, with considerable difficulty, and with no small degree of personal danger, from the eager pressure of the crowd, his Lordship had proceeded nearly to the bottom of the Quarry walk, when he was under the necessity of making a precipitate retreat; on which occasion the gallant Hero, with great good nature, observed,- ' I have never fled from the fiery of my enemies, but in this instance I am compelled to fly from the kindness of my friends'.

His Lordship was presented with the Freedom of the Borough, in a gold box: and the ancient and respectable Company of Drapers presented him with the Freedom of their Company, in a Silver Tureen and Stand; when an address was delivered by the venerable and much esteemed Father of the Company, MR. PETER VAUGHAN.

But the most splendid and durable token of the gratitude and esteem of to countrymen, is the Column erected near Shrewsbury to his honour, which is said to be the largest Dorick column in the world.

Unfortunately for the peace of Europe, Buonaparte unexpectedly returned from Elba, and again assumed the government of the French people. An alarm was instantly created, and the allied Sovereigns immediately flew to arms; on which occasion Lord Hill again obeyed the voice of his Sovereign, and on the memorable 18th of June, 1815, at the Battle of Waterloo, his Lordship commanded the second Corps, composed of the 2nd, 4th, and 6th divisions, and there gave fresh proofs of his skill, bravery, and intrepidity. It is not perhaps generally known that, in the latter part of that arduous and dreadful contest, Lord Hill with a very small part of his force, consisting of only five thousand men, completely repulsed the French Imperial Guards, which were more than three times their number. In this conflict Lord Hill's favourite charger was shot under him, and whilst he was on foot, and completely exposed to the enemy, he was discovered by an officer of the Duke of Wellington's staff, who immediately procured him the horse of a dismounted French Dragoon. For a full hour the officers of his Lordship's staff were in a state of the greatest consternation, and twice met under the apprehension that their beloved General had fallen. It was on this occasion that Lord Hill's proved friend, and brave companion in every danger, Colonel Currie was numbered with the slain, and the Hon. Captain Bridgman, son of Lord Bradford (Aide-de-Camp to Lord Hill) received a wound which it was thought had deprived him of life. Lord Hill said to his brother, Sir Noel Hill (Assistant Adjutant-General,) ' Poor Bridgman's gone!' Happily, however, the wound proved slight, and the services of this valuable officer were suspended for a very short time only.

The following are the titles and dignities enjoyed by his Lordship:-

Lieutenant-General in the Army, Governor of Hull;
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath;
Knight of the Portuguese Order of the Tower and Sword;
Knight of the Austrian Order of Maria Theresa;
Knight of the Russian Order of St. George;
Knight of the Belgian Order of Wilhelm;
Baron Hill of Almarez, Hawkstone, and Hardwick Grange.

The following account of the family of Lord Hill, will not be thought inappropriate in this place.

JOHN, the eldest brother of Lord Hill, arrived at the rank of a Field Officer in the army. On his marriage and by the wish of his friends, he retired from that service, and raised a regiment of Volunteer Cavalry in the county of Salop, which he commanded.- This excellent man died in 1814, and left a widow with five sons and two daughters. Should Lord Hill die, leaving no son, the peerage and pension descend to the heirs of his deceased elder brother.

SIR ROBERT CHAMBRE HILL, is Knight Companion of the Bath, Knight of the Order of Maria Theresa, and Knight of the Order of St. George: late Colonel of the Royal Horse Guards Blue, which regiment he commanded whilst on service in the Peninsulas and at the battle of Waterloo, in which glorious conflict SIR Robert received a wound from a musket ball, which entered his right shoulder, and completely passing through the arm, grazed his breast: his removal from the field of battle did not take place till near the conclusion of the action.

SIR FRANCIS BRIAR HILL, an English knight, and Knight of the Portuguese Order of the Tower and Sword, was employed as Charge- d'affaires, and Secretary of Legation, at the Courts of Munich, Copenhagen, Stockholm, and the Brazils.- Sir Francis being appointed Receiver-General for the County of Salop, has of course relinquished every diplomatick engagement, for his present responsible situation.

Lieutenant-Colonel CLEMENT HILL, is a Captain in the Royal Horse Guards Blue. Colonel C. Hill accompanied his brother Lord Hill, as an Aide-de-Camp, during the whole of the long and sanguinary war in the Peninsula, was twice the bearer of the official dispatches to England, and received a slight wound at the time the British troops, under the command of Lord Hill, accomplished the passage of the Douro. Colonel Hill accompanied his brother in the spring of 1815, with the prospect of being placed on his Lordship's Staff in Belgium; but when the Blues arrived in that country, the Colonel considered it his duty to take his regimental post; and in the battle of Waterloo, was severely wounded, by having a sword thrust through his thigh, which literally pinioned him to the saddle.

SIR THOMAS NOEL HILL, Knight commander of the Bath, Knight of the Tower and Sword, Knight of St. George, and Knight of Maximilian Joseph; Captain in the First Regiment of Foot Guards. Sir Noel attended his brother, the General, as Aide-de-Camp, in Ireland, and the early part of the war in Spain and Portugal. When the Portuguese army was organized by Lord Beresford, Sir Noel was appointed to the command of the First Portuguese Infantry, with the local rank of Colonel, and received the repeated notice and thanks of Lord Wellington, and other General Officers, for his brave and able conduct at several sieges, as well as on the open field of battle. When the reduction of the Portuguese army took place, he was appointed to a Company in the First Guards, by his Royal Highness the Duke of York, and was on duty with that regiment at Brussels some months.- When Lord Hill arrived in Flanders, Sir Noel obtained leave to join his Lordship's Staff, and was immediately appointed an Assistant Adjutant General to the wing of the army under the command of Lord Hill. Sir Noel happily received no injury from the enemy in the battle of Waterloo, or on any former occasion, though it is probable no officer was ever more repeatedly exposed to danger.

PRESCOT. A township in the parish of Baschurch, and in the Baschurch division of the hundred of Pimbill. 7 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

PRESTHOPE. A township in the franchise of Wenlock.

PRESTON BROCKHURST. A township partly in the parish of Shawbury, and partly in the parish of Moreton Corbet, partly in the hundred of Pimhill, and partly in the Whitchurch division of Bradford, North. 3 miles south-east of Wem.

PRESTON GOBALDS, or GUBBBALDS. A parish in the liberties of Shrewsbury, a chapel, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 79 houses, 369 inhahitants. 4½ miles north of Shrewsbury.

PRESTON; Or PRESTON UPON THE WILDMORES, or WILD-MOORS. A parish in the Newport division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a chapel or rectory discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Newport, and archdeaconry of Salop. 50 houses, 209 inhabitants. 5 miles south-west of Newport.

PRESTON MONTFORD. A township in the parish of Montford, and in the liberties of Shrewsbury. The seat of Sir F.B. Hill. Preston Montford commands many beautiful and picturesque views of the neighbouring and distant country. 4 miles north-west of Shrewsbury.

PRESTON ON THE BOATS; or PRESTON BOATS. A township in the parish of Upton Magna, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South, on the banks of the Severn. 2 miles south-east by east of Shrewsbury.

PRIEST WESTON. A township in the parish of Chirbury, and in the upper division of the hundred of Chirbury. 6 miles north-west of Bishopscastle.

PRIOR'S DITTON. See Ditton Priors.

PRIOR'S LEIGH. A township in the parish of Shiffnal, and in the Shiffnal division of the hundred of Brimstry. Prior's Leigh and Oaken Gate contain 367 houses, 1,851 inhabitants. 3 miles north-west of Shiffnal.

PULLEY. See Edgebold Pulley.

PULVERBATCH (Castle.) See Castle Pulverbatch.

PULVERHATCH (Church.) See Church Pulverbatch.

QUATFORD. A parish in the liberties of Bridgnorth, a curacy, in the exempt jurisdiction of Bridgnorth. 86 houses, 411 inhabitants. 2 miles south-east of Bridgnorth. Quatford is a parish and manor. In the beautiful village of the same name lies the lordship of the Hay, anciently the seat of the Bruyns and Otleys,- now belonging to the Hon. Charles Cecil Cope Jenkinson, brother of the Earl of Liverpool. Quatford is held with Erdington.

QUATT; Or QUATT MALVERN. A parish is the Chelmarsh division of the hundred of Stottesden, a rectory, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Lapley and Treizull, and archdeaconry of Stafford. 61 houses, 342 inhabitants. 4½ miles south-east of Bridgnorth. Quatt Malvern parish extends into the liberties of Bridgnorth.

In Leland's time there were to be seen here, the ruins of the manor-place of Robert de Montgomery, who first founded the church of St. Mary Magdalene. In 1763, on rebuilding the church of QUAT, a village about one mile farther in the same hundred of Stoddesdon, were found a number of figures painted on the walls, representing the Seven Charities and the Day of Judgment; and, on a piece of vellum nailed to an oak board, the figure of our Saviour rising from the sepulchre. Under the figure were the following lines:

"Saynt Gregory and other popes
and byschops grantes sex and
twenty thousand zere of pardons,
thritti dayes to alle that sales
devoutelye knelyng afor yis is ymage fife
paternosters, fyfe aves, and a Cred.

About four miles eastward from Quatford, is a Roman camp, called THE WALLS. The form of it is nearest to a square. There have been four gates or entrances into it: one in the middle of the north front from CHESTERTON, a small village, another in the middle of the west, a third in the south-east, and a fourth in the north-east corner. The odd position of the two last take advantage of declivities in the rock, the whole face of which is every where, except on the north- east, a precipice of fifty or sixty yards perpendicular. On east side a passage leads down to a rivulet below called Stratford.- Beside these a sloping way is cut through the bank, and down the rock in the middle of the south face, to the water, which surrounds part of the west, all the south and east, and part of the north sides of the camp, rendering it strong and innaccessible. The west side has been doubly fortified with a deep trench cut out of the solid rock between two ramparts, To the north it has only one bank, of the height of the innermost on the west, Its outer bank may have been levelled for the farm buildings at Chesterton. More than twenty acres are inclosed and ploughed within the Walls. No coins or antiquities have been found there. It was probably native to Uriconium and Pennocrucium which are within a day's march from it. A camp in Wilts bears the same name.

QUATT JARVIS. A township in the parish of Quatt Malvern.

RAGDON. A township in the parish of Hope Bowdler, and in the upper division of the hundred of Munslow. 1½ mile south of Church Stretton.

RATLINGHOPE. A parish in the Bishopscastle division of the hundred of Purslow, a vicarage remaining in charge, in the diocese of Hereford, the deanery of Pontesbury, and archdeaconry of Salop. 40 houses, 277 inhabitants. 4 miles north-west of Church Stretton. (pr. Rechope)

REDNALL. A township in the parish of West Felton, and in the hundred of Oswestry.

REITH or REILTH. A township in the parish of Mainstone, and in the Mainstone division of the hundred of Cleen. 3 miles south west of Bishopscastle.

RENT. The average price of land per acre may be about 15s. titheable.

Land is measured by the statute acre, and it varies from 8s. or less per acre, to 12s. in districts where the roads are bad, and where the landlord has not interested himself in the improvement of his estate, or where the agent has gone on in the beaten track of superintendence: and from 15s. to 20s. per acre or more, the farm together in more favourable situations. Near towns land lets from £2. to £6. an acre; and in the manufacturing parts of the county small parcels of land also let very high. In old leases, reserves were made of a day's ploughing, or of some days work in the harvest; some poultry at Christmas; the keep of fighting cocks, or of dogs; but perhaps no stipulations are now inserted or made. The rack-tenants of a sporting landlord are frequently subject to the inconvenience of keeping dogs; and rack-tenants are in many places expected to draw a load or a certain number of loads of coal annually.

In consequence of the high price of grain in the winter of the year 1795, Mr. REYNOLDS, of Coalbrookdale suggests the following idea; and his sentiments will we are sure, be read with respect by those who knew him:- ' I had a thought which I communicated to the Marquis of STAFFORD, many of whose farms are, I apprehend, out of lease, and more coming out frequently; and he appeared to think it feasible, and that was, that gentlemen should reserve an option to receive their rents in corn, at a price per bushel proportionable to the value of the land. This, I think, would have a good effect on the price and quantity, enable gentlemen to sell to the poor at a moderate rate, without lessening their incomes, and at the worst, enable them to share the extra profits with their tenants, and prevent those disturbances which originate in an artificial, and not a real scarcity. From the best information which I can obtain, a farmer who pays 20s. an acre can well afford to sell wheat at 7s. per bushel, and the proportion would be easily fixed for barley, etc. This is only a hint, and I had not time to enlarge upon it, if I were better qualified. Do not the Universities set their lands by such a mode, though perhaps without availing themselves of it, further than to secure an income proportionable at all times to the value of money, for the purposes for which they were endowed with the possessions.? '

REWINS FARM. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirhury.

RHOSE GOUGH; or RHOS GOGH. A township in the parish of Worthen, and in the lower division of the hundred of Chirbury. 14 miles south-west of Shrewsbury.

RICHARD'S CASTLE. A parish partly in Wolfy hundred, in the county of Hereford, partly in the hundred of Munslow. The entire parish contains 490 inhabitants. The Shropshire part including the townships of Moor, with Batchcott, Overton and Woolverton, 51 houses, 261 inhabitants. 4 miles south-west of Ludlow.

The Rev. Richard Gifford, was for some time curate of Richard's Castle. He was educated at Baliol college, Oxford; where in 1748, having then recently taken the degree of B.A. be distinguished himself by a masterly pamphlet entitled ' Remarks on Mr. Kennicott's dissertation on the Tree of Life in Paradise;' in the preface to which be handsomely apologizes for ' any expressions that may seem too harsh or severe', and hopes they will be thought to arise entirely from a warmth that is natural to the love of truth, and which it is difficult to lay aside when one is engaged in examining points that seem to make against it'. And he thus concludes, ' As the love of truth was the sole motive of my engaging in the cause, I shall with all the readiness imaginable, acknowledge the many errors I may have run into, upon the least intimation of them: for, indeed I should have spared myself the trouble I have taken in the prosecution of this affair, but that I thought truth a sacrifice too great to be made in compliment to the ingenuity of any man'. To the sincerity of this profession the whole tenor of Mr. Gifford's life bore the strongest testimony. He was in principle a sound Whig of the old school, a zealous friend to the house of Hanover, and the leading members of Baliol college, were all at that period, strenuous tories; which accounts for his not proceeding further in his academical degrees. His Alma Mater, he has often said was to him a step-mother. As it is well known that be possessed an uncommonly strong mind, highly cultivated by profound learning, it is to be lamented that he could not persuade himself to appear more frequently before the publick as an author. One small piece of his entitled ' Contemplation', was printed in 1753, which attracted the notice of Dr. Johnsen, who has noticed it in his dictionary; a circumstance which Mr. Gifford has frequently mentioned to the writer of this article with evident satisfaction. The general encouragement of the poem, however, was not sufficient to allure him to farther progress in that fascinating pursuit. Having applied himself sedulously to the study of divinity, the more immediate object of his future destination in life, he entered into holy orders; and was appointed by his friend Dr. Salway, curate of Richard's castle in Herefordshire. He was afterwards morning preacher at St. Anne's Soho; and his contemporaries have borne honorable testimony to the respectful attention that was paid him there. In 1759, he became domestick chaplain to John, Marquess of Tweedale; and in 1759, was presented by Dr. Frederick Cornwallis, then bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, to the vicarage of Duffield in Derbyshire, where (to use the expression of a medical friend, to whom Mr. Gifford was long and very justly attached,) his eloquence edified and delighted crowded audiences, In 1772, on the recommendation of Hugo Meynell, Esq. (to whom he had been tutor) he was presented by Thomas Browne, Esq. to the rectory of North Okendon, in Essex. In 1782, he published ' Outlines of an answer to Dr. Priestley's disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit', written as he mentions in an advertisement, while the Author was perusing Dr. Priestley's Disquisitions, which came into his hands in the course of circulation in the Reading Society, at a time when he had not seen Dr. Price's correspondence with Dr. Priestley, nor knew that any answer to the Disquisitions had been published; a circumstance which he thought it necessary to notice, to explain the following passage from Cicero,which stands in the title page: Mea fuit semper hec in hac re voluntas et sententia, quamvie ut hoc mallem de iis qui essent idonei suscipere quam me; me ut mallem quem nominem'. That in this also he was sincere is evident from the following fact. He had written an answer to two exceptionable chapters in Mr. Gibbon's celebrated work, which several of his literary friends wished him to publish; and he was inclined to do so, but relinquished the design on hearing that it was taken up by several able pens. In Mr. Nicholl's History of Leicestershire, an acknowledgment is made to Mr. Gifford for the contribution of good engraved portraits, of their common relations, Mr. and Mrs. Staveley, and for having taken on himself the task of translating the Domesday book, for that county. He was also an occasional, though not very frequent, correspondent to Mr. Urban's miscellany; in which the letters signed R. Duff will always be considered as intrinsically valuable. His principal residence was at Duffield; but he regularly, whilst he was able, passed a considerable part of the summer at his rectory, of North Okendon; though for several years past (in consequence of a peculiarity of his constitution, which rendered the vicinity of the Essex fens unfriendly to his health,) he never returned from that place without the almost total loss of speech from an inveterate hoarseness; and for the last five or six years has been wholly unable to go there at all. It would be injustice, however, to his memory, were we not to notice his constant readiness to assist the clergy of his neighbourhood, till he was disabled by age and infirmity,- that he has many times in cases of sickness, done it for several months together,- and that for some years he officiated at a neighbouring chapel, the income of which was not enough to pay a curate, in order to enable the trustees to form a sufficient accumulation for the scanty fund to make a future provision for that purpose. He reconciled himself to the necessity of non-residence, by the persuasion that he had done really as much ecclesiastical duty gratis, as the law would have obliged him to do at his Rectory, if his constitution would have admitted of his residing there. He always refused any compensation, saying " he was paid elsewhere for preaching the word of God". Mr. Gifford married, in 1763, Elizabeth Woodhouse, (cousin and devisee of the Rev. Thomas Alleyne, rector of Loughborough;) who died January 15, 1793, after a happy union of 30 years, leaving an only daughter, who by the death of her father, March 1, 1807, aged 82, survived to lament the loss of both her parents.

RIDGACRE. A township in the parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division, of the hundred of Brimstry. 2 miles north-east of Hales Owen.

RIDGES. Upper Ridge and Lower Ridge. A township in the parish of Whittington, and in the Ellesmere division of the hundred of Pimhill. Upper Ridge, 3 miles southwest of Ellesmere, Lower Ridge; 3½ miles south-west of Ellesmere.

RINDLEFORD. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 2 miles north-east of Bridgnorth.

Rindleford is in the parish and manor of Worfield, in which stood, in very early time, one of the manor Mills, used for grinding the corn of the customary tenants of the manor,- which mill was kept in repair at their expense, and apportioned the last time in the reign of Charles I. The family of Rindleford enjoyed a Walk Mill and lands here till the reign of Henry V.

RISTON. A township in the parish of Church Stoke, and in the upper division of the hundred of Chirbury. 6 miles north-west of Bishopscastle.

ROCK. A township in the parish of Stanton Lacy, and in the lower division of the hundred of Munslow.

ROCKWARDINE. See Wrockwardine.

RODEN; or RODENHURST. A township in the parish of Ercall Magna, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South. 6 miles north-east of Shrewsbury.

RODEN. (River) See appendix.

RODINGTON. A parish in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a rectory discharged, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 6 miles north-east by east of Shrewsbury. 88 houses, 445 inhabitants.

ROMSLEY. A township in the parish of Alveley, and in the liberties of Bridgnorth.

ROMSLEY DIVISION. A township in the parish of Hales Owen, and in the Hales Owen division of the hundred of Brimstry. 3 miles south of Hales Owen.

RORRINGTON. A township in the parish of Chirbury, and in the upper division of the hundred of Chirbury. 8 miles north-west by north of Bishopscastle.

ROSE GOUGH. See Rhose Gough.

ROSSALL DOWN. See Down Rossal.

ROSSALL UP. See Up Rossall.

ROUGHTON. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry. 2½ miles north-east by east of Bridgnorth.

Roughton is in the manor of Worfield. In this township are the mansion houses of James Marshall, Esq., and Mrs. Stokes. On the green, prior to the reformation, stood the chapel of St. Anne, but not a vestige of it remains. On the south side of the publick road leading through this place from Bridgnorth to Wolverhampton, was seated one of the Lodges of the Foresters of Morfe, but has been for ages swept away, and the office has probably been as long abolished.

ROUND ACTON. See Acton Round.

ROWLEY. A township in the parish of Worfield, and in the Bridgnorth division of the hundred of Brimstry.

Rowley is in the manor of Worfield. The ancient family of Rowley resided in this township till it passed to their descendant, John Shawcross, who sold it in the year 1686. Roger Rowley, one of its proprietors, was the first person who set up his coach in Shrewsbury. It now belongs to W.Y. Davenport, Esq.

ROWTON. A township in the parish of Alberbury, and in the Ford division of the hundred of Ford. 7 miles west of Shrewsbury. Rowton and Amaston contain 47 houses, 227 inhabitants.

ROWTON CASTLE, is the seat of Richard Lyster, esq. It has lately been rebuilt in the castellated form. The Castle stands on a gentle eminence, and the beauty of its situation, in a fertile and picturesque country, is much heightened by the bold and majestick appearance of the Moelygolfa and Breidden hills, on the summit of which, is a Pillar erected by the gentlemen of Montgomeryshire, in commemoration of the gallant Rodney's victory, in 1782.

Near this spot is supposed to have stood the Roman Rutunium, but not a trace of it is to be seen.

ROWTON. A township in the parish of Ercall Magna, or High Ercall, and in the Wellington division of the hundred of Bradford, South, a chapel, in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield, the deanery of Salop, and archdeaconry of Salop. 9 miles north-east of Shrewsbury.

RICHARD BAXTER, a very eminent Divine amongst the Nonconformists in the last century, was born at Rowton, November 12th, 1615. His father was a freeholder; an honest, and religious man, but his estate was very inconsiderable. His mother was of the same county, the daughter of Mr. Richard Adeney.

At Rowton he spent his infancy, in which he is said to have given strong indications of that piety and purity which appeared in his subsequent life and conversation. In 1625, he was taken from his grandfather's house, where be had hitherto lived, and brought home to his father's at Eaton-Constantine, a village within five miles of Shrewsbury, where he passed the remainder of his childhood. He was far from being happy in respect to his school-masters, who were men no way distinguished either for learning or morals, and missed the advantages of an academical education, through a proposal made to his parents of placing him with Mr. Richard Wickstead, Chaplain to the Council at Ludlow. The only advantage he reaped there was the use of an excellent library, which, by his own great application, proved of infinite service to him. In this situation he remained about a year and half, and then returned to his father's. At the request of Lord Newport be went thence to Wroxeter, where he taught in the free- school for six months, while his old schoolmaster Mr. John Owen lay in a languishing condition. In 1633 Mr. Wickstead prevailed on him to waive the studies in which he was then engaged, and to think of making his fortune at court. He accordingly came up to Whitehall with a recommendation to Sir Henry Herbert, then Master of the Revels, by whom he was very kindly received. But after a month's stay, discovering no charms in this sort of life, and having besides a very strong inclination to undertake the ministerial function, he returned to his father's, and resumed his studies with fresh vigour, till Mr. Richard Foley, of Stourbridge, fixed him as master of the free school at Dudley, with an usher under him. While be taught school there, he read several practical treatises, by which he was brought to a deep sense of religion, his progress being not a little quickened by his great bodily weakness and ill state of health, which inclined him to think he should hardly survive above a year. However, having still an earnest desire to engage in the ministry, he in 1688 addressed himself to Dr. Thornborough, bishop of Worcester, for holy orders, which, after examination, he received, having at that time no scruples of conscience which hindered him from conforming to the Church of England.

Being settled at Dudley, he preached frequently in that town, and in the neighbouring villages, with the approbation of all his hearers. In three quarters of a year he was removed to Bridgnorth, where he officiated as assistant to Mr. William Madstard, then minister of that place, who treated him with great kindness and respect, and did not put him upon many things which he then began to scruple doing.

When the et cetera oath came to be imposed, Mr. Baxter applied himself diligently to study the case of Episcopacy, and it fared with him as with some others; the thing which was intended to fix them to the Hierarchy, drove them into a dislike of it. In the year 1640 he was invited to Kidderminster by the bailif and feoffees, to preach there for an allowance of sixty pounds a year, which he accepted; and applied himself with such diligence to his sacred calling, as had a very great effect in a short time upon a very dissolute people. He continued there about two years before the civil war broke out, and fourteen afterwards, with some interruption. He sided with the Parliament, and recommended the Protestation they directed to be taken, to the people. This exposed him to some inconveniences, which obliged him to retire to Gloucester, but he was soon invited back to Kidderminster whither be returned. His stay there was not long; but beginning to consider within himself where he might remain in safety, he fixed upon Coventry, and accordingly went there. There he lived peaceably and comfortably, preached once every Lord's day to the garrison and once to the town's people, for which he took nothing but his diet, though besides thus exercising his function, he did great service in repressing the Ana-baptists. After the battle of Naseby, when all things seemed to favour the Parliament, he, by advice of the Ministers at Coventry, became Chaplain to Colonel Whalley's regiment, and in this quality he was present at several sieges, but never in any engagement; so that there was not the least ground for that scandalous story invented and circulated by his enemies, viz., that he killed a man in cool blood, and robbed him of a medal. He took all imaginable pains to hinder the progress of the Sectaries, and to keep men firm in just and rational notions of religion and government, never deviating from what he judged in his conscience to be right, for the sake of making court to any, or from baser motives of fear. But he was separated from the army in the beginning of the year 1674, at a very critical juncture, on their quarrel with the Parliament; Mr. Baxter being at that time seized with a bleeding at the nose in so violent a manner, that he lost the quantity of a gallon at once, which obliged him to retire to Sir Thomas Rouse's where be continued for a long time in a very languishing state of health, which hindered him from doing that service to bis country, which otherwise, from a man of his principles and moderation, might have been expected.

He afterwards returned to Kidderminster, and resumed the work of the ministry. He hindered, as far as it was in his power, the taking of the Covenant; he preached and spoke publickly against the engagement; and therefore it is very unjust to brand him, as some have done, as a trumpeter of rebellion. When the army was marching to oppose King Charles II. at the head of the Scots, Mr. Baxter took pains, both by speaking and writing, to remind the soldiers of their duty, and to dissuade them from fighting against their brethren and fellow subjects. After this, when Cromwell assumed the supreme power, he was not afraid to express his dissatisfaction at his tyranny, though he did not think himself obliged to preach politicks from the pulpit. Once indeed he preached before Cromwell; but neither did he in that sermon flatter him, nor, in a conference which he had with him afterwards, express either affection to his person, or submission to his power; but quite the contrary. He came to London a little before the deposition of Richard Cromwell. At that time Mr. Baxter was looked upon as a friend to monarchy, and with reason; for being chosen to preach before the parliament, on the 30th of April, 1660, which was the day preceding that on which they voted the King's return, he maintained, that loyalty to their Prince, was a thing essential to all true protestants, of whatever persuasion. About the same time, likewise, he was chosen to preach a thanksgiving sermon at St. Paul's, for General Monk's success; and yet some have been so bold as to maintain that he attempted to dissuade his Excellency from concurring in, or rather from bringing about, that happy change. After the Restoration he became one of the King's Chaplains in ordinary, preached before him once, had frequent access to his Royal person, and was always treated by him with peculiar respect. At the Savoy conferences, Mr. Baxter assisted as one of the Commissioners, and then drew up the Reformed Liturgy, which all who are competent judges allow to be an excellent performance. He was offered the bishoprick of Hereford, by the Lord Chancellor, Clarendon, which he refused to accept, for reasons which be rendered in a respectful letter to his Lordship. Yet even then he would willingly have returned to his beloved town of Kidderminster, and have preached there in the low state of a Curate. But even this was refused him, though the Lord Chancellor took pains to have settled him there as he desired. When he found himself thus disappointed, he preached occasionally about the city of London, sometimes for Dr, Bates, at St. Dunstan's in the West, and sometimes in other places, having a license from Bishop Sheldon, upon his subscribing a promise, not to preach any thing against the doctrine or ceremonies of the Church. The last time he preached in publick was on the 15th of May, 1662, a farewell sermon at Black Friars. He afterwards retired to Acton, in Middlesex, where he went every Lord's day to the publick church, and spent the rest of the day with his family, and a few poor neighbours that came in to him.

In 1665, when the plague raged, he went to Richard Hampden's, Esq., in Buckinghamshire, and returned to Acton when it was over. He staid there as long as the act against conventicles continued in force, and when that was expired, he had so many auditors that he wanted room. Hereupon, by a warrant signed hy two justices, he was committed for sit months to New-prison jail, but got an Habeas Corpus, and was released and removed to Totteridge near Barnet. At this place he lived quietly and without disturbance, but not without many marks of Royal favour. The King was resolved to make some concessions to the Dissenters in Scotland, and the Duke of Lauderdale, by his order, acquainted Mr. Baxter, that if he would take this opportunity of going into that kingdom, he should have what preferment he would there; which he declined on account of his own weakness and the circumstances of his family. His opinion, however, was taken on the scheme for settling Church disputes in that country.

In 1671, Mr. Baxter lost the greatest part of his fortune by the shutting up of the King's Exchequer, in which he had a thousand pounds. After the indulgence in 1672, he returned into the city, and was one of the Tuesday lecturers at Pinners' Hall. He had a Friday lecture at Fetter Lane, but on the Lord's days he for some time preached only occasionally; and afterwards more statedly in St. James's market-house, where in 1674 he had a wonderful deliverance, by almost a miracle, from a crack in the floor. He was apprehended as he was preaching his lecture at Mr. Turner's, but soon released, because the warrant was not, as it ought to have been, signed by a city justice. The times seeming to grow more favourable, he built a meeting-house in Oxenden Street, where he preached but once, before a resolution was taken to surprise and send him to the county jail on the Oxford Act, which misfortune he luckily escaped; but the person who preached for him was committed to the Gatehouse, and continued there three months. Having been kept out of his new meetinghouse a whole year; he took another in Swallow Street, but was likewise prevented from using that, a guard being fixed there for many Sundays together, to hinder him from coming into it. On Mr. Wadsworth's death, Mr. Baxter preached to his congregation in Southwark for many months. When Dr. Lloyd succeeded Dr. Lamplugh in St. Martin's parish, Mr. Baxter made him an offer of the chapel he had built in Oxenden Street, for publick worship, which was very kindly accepted.

In 1682, he suffered more severely than he had ever done on account of his non-conformity. One day he was suddenly surprised in his house by many constables and officers, who apprehended him upon a warrant to seize his person, for coming within five miles of a corporation; producing at the same time, five more warrants, to distrain for one hundred and ninety-five pounds for five sermons. Though he was much out of order, being but just risen from his bed, where he bad been in extremity of pain, he was contentedly going with them to a Justice, to be sent to jail, and left his house to their will. But Dr. Thomas Cox meeting him as he was going, forced him again into his bed, and he went to five Justices and took his oath, that he could not go to prison without danger of death. Upon this the Justices delayed till they had consulted the King, who consented that his imprisonment should he for that time forborne, that he might die at home. But they executed their warrants on the books and goods in the house, though he made it appear they were none of his; and they sold even the bed upon which he lay sick. Some friends laid down as much money as they were appraised at, and he repaid them. And all this was without Mr. Baxter's having the least notice of any accusation, or receiving any summons to appear and answer for himself, or even seeing the Justices or accusers; he was afterwards in constant danger of new seizures, and accordingly was obliged to leave his house, and retire into private lodgings.

Things continued much in the same way during the year 1688, and Mr. Baxter remained in great obscurity; however, not without receiving a remarkable testimony of the sincere esteem and great confidence which a person of remarkable piety, though of another persuasion, had towards him: The Rev. Mr. Thomas Mayor, a beneficed clergyman in the Church of England, who had devoted his estate to charitable uses, gave by his last will £600 to be distributed by Mr. Baxter to sixty poor ejected ministers; adding, that he did it not because they were Nonconformists, but because many such were poor and pious. But the King's Attorney, Sir Robert Sawyer, sued for it in Chancery, and the Lord-Keeper North gave it all to the King. It was paid into the Chancery by order, and, as Providence directed it, there kept safe, till, King William the Third ascended the throne, when the Commissioners of the Great Seal restored it to the use for which it was intended by the deceased; and Mr. Baxter disposed of it accordingly. In the following year, 1684, Mr. Baxter fell into a very bad state of health, so as to be scarcely able to stand. He was in this condition, when the Justices of the Peace for the county of Middlesex granted a warrant against him, in order to his being bound to his good behaviour. They got into his house, but could not immediately get at him, Mr. Baxter being in his study, and their warrant not empowering them to break open doors. Six constables, however, were set to hinder him from getting to his bed chamber, and so by keeping him from food or sleep, they carried their point, and took him away to the Sessions house, where he was bound in the penalty of four hundred pounds to keep the peace, and was brought up twice afterwards, though he kept his bed the greatest part of the time. In the beginning of the year 1685, Mr. Baxter was committed to the King's Bench prison, by a warrant from the Lord Chief Justice Jefferies, for his paraphrase on the New Testament, and tried on the 30th of May of the same year in the court of King's Bench, and found guilty, and on the 29th of June following received a very severe sentence. In 1686, the King, by the mediation of Lord Powis, granted him a pardon; and, on the 24th of November, he was discharged out of the King's Bench. Sureties, however, were required for his good behaviour; but it was entered on his bail-piece, by direction of King James, that his remaining in London, contrary to the Oxford Act, should not be taken as a breach of the peace. After this he retired to a house he took in Charter house yard, contenting himself with the exercise of his ministry, as assistant to Mr. Sylvester; and though no man was better qualified than he, for managing the publick affairs of his party, yet he never meddled with them, nor had the least to do with those addresses which were presented by some of that body to King James II. on his indulgence. After his settlement in Charter house yard, he continued about four years and a half in the exercise of publick duties, till he became so exceedingly weak as to be forced to keep his chamber. Even then he ceased not to do good, so far as it was in his power; and as he spent his life in painful labours so to the last moment of it he directed his christian brethren, by the light of a good example. He departed this life December 8, 1691. A few days after, his corpse was interred in Christ church, being attended to the grave by a large company of all ranks and qualities, and amongst them not a few of the established church, who very prudently paid this last tribute of respect to the memory of a great and good man, whose labours deserved much from true christians of all denominations.

He was a man, to speak impartially from the consideration of his writings, who had as strong a head, and as sound a heart, as any of the age in which he lived. He was too conscientious to comply from temporal motives, and his charity was too extensive to think of recommending himself to popular applause by a rigid behaviour. These sentiments produced such a practice as inclined some to believe he had a religion of his own, which was the reason that when Sir John Gayer bequeathed a legacy by will to men of moderate notions, he could think of no better expression than this, 'that they should be of Mr. Baxter's religion'. We need not wonder that a person so little addicted to any party should experience the bitterness of all; and, in truth, no man was ever more severely treated in this respect than Mr. Baxter, against whom more books were written, than against any man in the age in which he lived. His friends, however, were such, that the bare repetition of their names might well pass for a panegyrick; since it is impossible they could have lived in terms of strict intimacy with any other than a wise and upright man. But the best testimony of Mr. Baxter's worth may be drawn from his own writings, of which he left behind him a very large number. Many indeed have censured them, though it is certain that some of his books met with as general a reception as any that ever were printed; and the judicious Dr. Barrow, whose opinion all competent judges will admit, gave this judgment upon them, that his practical writings went never mended, his controversial seldom confuted.

As Mr. Baxter was, in several respects, one of the most eminent persons of his time, a few farther particulars concerning him may not be unacceptable to many of our readers. He appears, as has been already intimated, to have been unhappy in his education, with regard both to learning and piety; his schoolmasters being ignorant and immoral. For want of better instructors, he fell into the hands of the readers of the villages in which he lived. And though he had not afterwards the advantages of an academical education, yet, by his own application, he made an extraordinary progress in the study of divinity, as well as in other branches of knowledge. When he was prevailed upon for a short time to quit his studies, and to repair to court, it seems to have been with much reluctance on his part. But he soon returned again to his books, and entered into holy orders, though he afterwards condemned himself for having been too precipitate, in complying with the terms of subscription. It was not till the imposition of what was called the et cetera oath, that he entered into a thorough examination of the points in controversy between the conformists and nonconformists; but, independently of all controversy, he was always a zealous advocate of solid and practical religion; and, while he preached at Kidderminster, as he was indefatigable in discharging the duties of the pastoral office, so he met with great and extraordinary success. After the Restoration, he expressed his sentiments to King Charles the second, with the same freedom as he had before used with the protector Cromwell. He strongly represented to his Majesty, the great importance of tolerating those pious persons, who entertained doubts concerning the ceremonies or discipline of the church; and he observed that the late usurpers had so well understood their own interest, that they had found ' the way of doing good' to be the most effectual means to promote it; and, therefore, he besought the King, that 'he would never suffer himself to be tempted to undo the good which Cromwell or any other had done, because they were usurpers that did it;' and on the contrary, ' that he would rather outgo them in doing good'.

The integrity of Mr, Baxter was unquestionable: and it should not be forgotten, that though he refused a bishoprick, yet he was desirous of preaching at Kidderminster for nothing; but his request was not granted. He may be considered as a striking example of the powerful effects of temperance and industry; for notwithstanding a constitution extremely weak and tender, and various disorders, he went through a most extraordinary degree of labour, both as a preacher and a writer. His works are extremely voluminous; and they have been held by good judges in very high estimation. Dr. Barrow's opinion of them has already been given; and the late Dr. Philip Doddridge, in a letter written to a friend in 1723, giving some account of his studies, expresses himself thus: ' Baxter is my particular favourite. It is impossihle to tell how much I am charmed with the devotion, good sense, and pathos, which is every where to be found in him. I cannot forbear looking upon him as one of the greatest orators, both with regard to copiousness, acuteness, and energy, that our nation hath produced: and if he hath described, as I believe, the temper of his own heart, he appears to have been so far superior to the generality of those whom we charitably hope to be good men, that one would imagine that God had raised him up to disgrace and condemn his brethren; to show what a Christian is, and how few in the world deserve the character'. Dr. Bates, in his sermon preached upon occasion of our author's death, mentions it as a saying of Bishop Wilkins, that ' if Mr. Baxter had lived in the primitive times, he had been one of the Fathers of the Church'. Bishop Burnet says, that Mr. Baxter was ' a man of great piety, and, if he had not meddled in too many things, would have been esteemed one of the learned men of the age.- He had a very moving and pathetick way of writing, and was the whole of his life a man of great zeal and much simplicity; but was most unhappily subtle and metaphysical in every thing. There was great submission paid to him by the whole party'.

Mr. Granger's character of him is too striking to be omitted. ' Richard Baxter was a man famous for weakness of body and strength of mind; for having the strongest sense of religion himself, and exciting a sense of it in the thoughtless and profligate; for preaching more sermons, engaging in more controversies, and writing more books, than any other nonconformist of his age. He spoke, disputed, and wrote with ease; and discovered the same intrepidity, when he reproved Cromwell, and expostulated with Charles II., as when he preached to a congregation of mechanicks. His zeal for religion was extraordinary, but it seems never to have prompted him to faction, or carried him to enthusiasm. This champion of the Presbyterians was the common butt of men of every other religion, and of those who were of no religion at all. But this had very little effect upon him: his presence and his firmness of mind on no occasion forsook him. He was just the same man before he went into a prison, while he was in it, and when he came out of it; and he maintained a uniformity of character to the last gasp of his life. His enemies have placed him in hell: but every man who has not ten times the bigotry that Mr. Baxter himself had, must conclude that he is in a better place. This is a very imperfect sketch of Mr. Baxter's character: men of his size are not to be drawn in miniature. His portrait, in full proportion, is in his Narrative of his own Life and Times; which though a rhapsody, composed in the manner of a diary, contains a great variety of memorable things, and is itself, as far as it goes, a History of Nonconformity'.

In 1662, Mr. Baxter was married to Margaret Charleton, daughter of Francis Charleton, Esq., of the county of Salop, who was esteemed one of the best Justices of the Peace, in that county. She was a woman of great piety, and entered thoroughly into her husband's views concerning religion. His refusal of a bishoprick was before their marriage; but his conduct on that occasion she