Leland's Itinerary of England and Wales: Part I.
THE ITINERARY OF JOHN LEILAND.
THAT FAMOUS ANTIQUARY.
Begunne about 1538.
FROM Cambridge to Eltesle [a] village al by champeyne counterey 8. miles. At Eltesle was sumtyme a nunnery wher Pandonia the Scottish virgine was buried, and there is a well of her name yn the south side of the quire. I hard that when this nunnery was destroyid a new was made at Hinchingbroke by Huntendune.
A mile from Eltesle toward S. Neotes is the limes of Cambridgshire.
From Eltesle to S. Neotes [b] 4 miles. The elder parte of the toune wher the paroche chirche ys kepith the old name of Ainsbyri [c] so caullid corruptely for Enulphesbyri.
The rivar there harde by the towne stondinge on the este syde of it devidithe Huntyndunshire from Bedfordeshire, and yet a lytle lower bothe the ripes be in Huntendunshir. The bridge at Seint Neotes is of tymbar.
From S. Neotes to Stoughton [d] village by sum enclosid ground a 3. miles, it is in Huntenduneshir. There hard by the chirch is a pretty house of Olyver Leders, and pratie commodites about it.
From Stoughtoun to Meilchbourn [e] village a 4. miles be much pasture, and sum corne ground. Here is a right fair place of square stone, stonding much apon pillerd vaultes of stone, and there be goodly gardeins, orchards, and ponds, and a Parke thereby. The place self is of an auncient building, but the lord Westoun of S. Johnes College in London the 3 lorde of that House afore the laste Weston made the Haull newly.
[b] S. Neots.
[d] Great Staughton.
[e] Melchbourn, Beds.
2 LELAND'S ITINERARY
There is buried a knyght of the Ordar of Seint Johnn's in the northe syde of the chapell there.
This Milchburne is in Bedfordeshire almoste in the egge of it.
About the quarters of Milchbourn, but not hard by it, ryse to armes of brokes of divers Springs, wherof one cummith owt of Higheham Parke. These 2. cum to one botom and streame, and so go by How village, [a] whereof the broke is caullid How-water.
At How hath beene a fair Manor Place, sumtyme longging to the Strikelands of Huntendune-Shire, after to the Bifeldes, and of late it cam ynto partition of 3. doughtters.
How Water after cummith to Stoughtoun village, and thens aboute a mile lower then S. Neotes in to Use ryver.
Higheham Ferrares [b] market is a 3 myles from Milcheburne. Welington market not far from Avon ryver is a vi myles of. Bedford is a . myles of. Ther is meately plenty of woode about Michelburne, and Michelburne is countyd for one of the faireste howses of that shire.
From Milchebourn to Kimoltoun [c] a market towne yn the egge of Huntenduneshire. The toune it self is but bare.
The castelle is dowble dikid, and the building of it meately strong; it longgid to the Mandeviles, Erles of Essax. Then to Bohuns, Erles of Hereford and Essax, and sins to the Strafordes.
Syr Richard Wingfeld buildid new fair lodgyns and galeries apon the olde foundations of the castelle. The priory of Chanons not far out of Kimolton was as I learnid of the foundation of the Bigrames. It was a house but of vii Chanons: and be likelyhode Bygrame gave them no greate lands, for the Parsonage of Kymaltoun beynge above xl. li. a yere was impropriate to the Priorie, whos whole lands was but a c. Marks by the yere.
There lay yn this Priory few men of name buried: but of the Bigrams and the Coniers.
The name of the Manor Place of the Bigrams bering the name of them yet remainith thereaboute.
There is a plotte now clene desolatid not a mile by west
[a] How End.
[b] Higham Ferrars.
PART I 3
from Kimoltoun,a caullid castel Hylle, wher appere diches and tokens of old buildings.
From Kimoltoun to Leightoun [b] on a hille 3. good miles be plain ground of pasture and corne but litle wood yn sight but whereas the villages be sett. The soyle betwixt exceeding good for corne.
The Lordeshipe of Laighton village longgithe to a prebend in Lincoln. One Carneballe, prebendarye there, dyd builde a peace of a praty house stondinge with in a mote. Smithe, now Incombent, hathe made a Fre Schole there.
From Leighton to Barnewel village [c] a vi miles by exceding faire corne and pasture ground. At this village remaine yet 4. strong towres parte of Berengarius Moynes castel, after longging to Ramesey Abbay, and now to Monteacute. Withyn the mines of the castell is now a meane house for a fermar.
From Barnewelle to Oundale [d] a mile.
The towne stondith on the farther ripe as I cam to it.
The bridge over Avon is of great arches and smaul apon the causey a xvi.
Ther is a little gut or broke cumming as I enterid, on the lefte hond into Avon ryver amonge the arches of the bridge.
The toune hath a very good market and is al buildid of stone. The paroche church is very fayre. One Robert Viate a marchaunt of the towne there, and Johan his wife made goodly sowth porche of the paroche of S. They made also on the south side of that chirch yarde a praty almose house of squarid stone. And a goodly large haule over it for the bretherhodde of the chyrch.
And at the west end of the chirche yarde they made lodgings for too cantuarie prestes, foundid there by them. The scripture in brasse on the almose house doore berith the date of the yere owr Lord 1485. as I remembre.
[b] Leighton Eromswold.
[c] Barnwell, Northants.
4 LELAND'S ITINERARY
At the west north west ende of Oundale chirch yard is the ferme or personage place impropriatid to Peterborow, it is a 50li. by yere. Peterborow was Lord also of the town, and now the king hath alottid it onto the Quene's dowre. There I sawe another chirch or chapelle of S. Thomas, now of our Ladie, as I enterid into Oundale toun. The ryver of Avon so windeth aboute Oundale toune that it almost insulatithe it, savyng a litle by west north west. Going oute of the toune ende of Oundale towarde Fodringeye, [a] I rode ovar a stone bridge, throughe the whiche Avon passith; it is cawllid the Northe Bridge, beinge of a great lengthe, by cawse men may passe when the river overflowith, the medowes lying on every side on a great leavel thereaboute. I gessid that there were about a 30 arches of smaule and great that bare up this cawsey.
From Oundale to Foderingeye a 2. miles by mervelus fair corne ground and pasture, but litle woodde.
The toune self of Foderingeye is but one streat, al of stone building. The glorie of it standith by the paroche chirch of a fair building and collegiatid.
King Edward the 4. for the love that he bare to Foderingey, had thought to have privelegid it with a market, and with putting doun weres and mills, to have causid that smaul lightters might cum thither.
This chirch and place where the college is now was sumtyme a nunnery. The nunnes of this house were translatid to De la Pray by Northampton, in knowledge whereof the House of Foderingey dyd beare a pension to De la Pray, Edmunde of Langeley sun to Edward the 3. got a licens as sum saye to make a college there; but he did it not, preventid by death.
He left two sunnes Edward and Richard ... This Edward began the College and endowid it meately welle.
It chauncid that Richard suspectid of treason was put to death at Hamptoun aboute such tyme as King Henry the
PART I 5
fiveth went ynto Fraunce. This Richard had a sun that Northants. was father to Edward the 4.
Whereapon at such tyme as the bataile of Agincourt shoulde be faughte, Edward desirid of King Henry to have the fore warde of the batel, and had it; where be much hete and thronggid, being a fatte man, he was smoulderid to death, and afterward brought to Foderingey, and there honorably buried yn the bodie of the quire, apon whose tumbe lyith a flat marbil stone with an image flatt yn brasse.
After Edwarde's deathe Henry the 5. consideringe his good service confirmid the college, and gave to it certayne landes of priories of monkes alienes, amonge the whiche was the Priorie of Newen, [a] by Leghe market in the borders of Glocestershire.
Then cam after Edward the 4. and sumwhat enving the glorie of Henry the fiveth made the College of his oune fundation, and buildid sum part of it as it is now, and causid the body of his father Duke of York to be brought from Pontefract thither, and to be layid on the north side of the highe altare, where also is buried King Edwarde the 4. mother in a vaulte over the which is a pratie chapelle.
The faire cloistre of the college was made in King Edwarde the 4. dayes, one Felde beyng Master of the College at that tyme. This Felde sette the versis of the book caullid AEthiopum terras in the glass windowes with figures very featly. Richard Sapcote knight the settar up of his familie in Huntendune-shire was biried at Foderingey anno dom. 1477. There be exceeding goodly medowes by Foderingey. Foderingey stondith on the farther ripe of Avon as I enterpd into the toune.
The bridg to Fotheringey over Avon is of tymber.
The castelle of Foderingey is fair and meately strong with doble diches and hath a kepe very auncient and strong. There be very fair lodggyns in the castel. And as I hard Catarine of Spaine did great costes in late tyme of refresching of it.
6 LELAND'S ITINERARY
This castel longid of late tymes to Edmunde of Langeley Edward the 3. sunne and so lineally to the Dukes of York.
The limes of Huntendunshir upon Avon ryver.
Huntenduneshir cummith on the hither side of Avon toward Ailton, [a] wher Mr. Sapcote dwellith withyn a mile of Foderingey.
Kirkham the knight dwellith aboute a mile from Foderingey, but is place is sum what distant from Avon.
From Foderingey bak by Owndale 4. miles to Lilford village apon Avon where Elmes a gentilman hath a praty Manor place.
One told me that there was a stone bridg at Lilford over Avon.
Thens to Thorpe water mill a myle upon Avon where I saw the ruines of the vtter waulle of Waterviles castelle.
Thens a good mile to Thrapeston [b] village, wher the Lorde Mordant is Lord by copartion with Broune the Seriuent-at-law and Sir Wistan Brounes sunne as I hard.
Thens a quarter of a mile to Thrapeston bridg having an 8. arches of stone. Avon rennith under this bridg.
From Foderingey to this bridge, I left Avon on the right hand, and after stille on to Northampton on the lefte hand alofe.
At the very end of Thrapeston Bridge stand ruines of a very large Heremitage and principally welle buildid but a late discoverid and suppressid: and hard by is the toune of Iselep [c] on Avon as upon the farther ripe. And about a mile farther but not apon Avon ripe is Draiton [d] village and castelle, the pratiest place in those quarters, longging, as Iselepe dooth, in copartion onto the Lord Mordant.
Staford Erle of Wileshir, uncle to Edward late Duke of Bokingham, had Draiton by an heiregeneral of the younger Grene, and kept his housold yn it.
The great Grene gave to his eldest sunne Grenes Northon, [e] with a great portion of lands: and he gave Draiton with other lands to his younger sunne.
This Drayton Castelle was moste buildid by Grene that was so great a man in Richard the seconds dayes, his
[e] Greens Norton.
PART I 7
landes came synce to 2. doughtars, and one of those doughtars partes cam synce on to 3. daughters.
Thence six good miles to Finton a bridg of stone under the which Ketering water rennyth having a praty streame, and a mile lower aboute the botom by Welingborow Market goith into Avon. And aboute a five miles higher is a bridge of stone apon Avon caullid Higheham-bridge. Higheham-Ferrars [b] toune is not far of it, and is a five miles from Welingboro.
Welingborow [c] is a good quik market toune buildid of stone as almost al the tounes be of Northampton-shire, it stondith about a quarter of a mile from Avon river.
From Welingburne to Northampton 8. miles al be champaine corne and pasture ground, but litle wood or none, even as it is betwixt Oundale and Welingborow.
I passid over 2. praty brokes betwixt Welingborow and Northampton descending thorough 2. valleis, and so resorting ynto Avon. Almost in the midle way betwpxt Welingborow and Northampton I lefte Asscheby [d] more then a mile of on the left hand, wher hath bene a castle that now is clene downe, and is made but a septum for bestes.
The toune of Northampton stondith on the north side of Avon ryver, on the brow of a meane hille, and risith stille from the south to the north. Al the old building of the toune was of stone, the new is of tymbre.
There be yn the waulle of Northampton 4. gates, namid by este, west, north and south. The Este gate is the fairest of them alle.
There is a faire suburbe withoute the South gate: and another, but lesse, withoute the Weste gate, yn the wich is a very pratie house ex lapide polite quadrato, it longith to Mr. ...
The castel stondith hard by the West gate, and hath a large kepe. The area of the residew is very large, and bullewarkes of yerth be made afore the castelle gate.
Paroche chirches in Northampton withyn the waulles be 7. wherof the chirch of Al Halowes is principale, stonding yn the harte of the toune, and is large and welle buildid.
[b] Higham Ferrers.
[d] Castle Ashby.
8 LELAND'S ITINERARY
There be in the suburbes 2. paroche chirches, wherof I saw one yn the west suburbe as I rode over the west bridge, fairly archid with stone, under the which Avon it self, not yet augmentid with Wedon water, doth ren.
Chapelles. There is a chapelle of S. Catarine sette in a cemiterie in the toune, longging to the chirche of Al-Halowes, where that paroch dooth byri.
And I saw the ruines of a large chapelle withowte the North gate.
S. Andreas, the late monastery of blake monkes, stoode yn the north parte of the toune, hard by the North gate. Simon Saincteliz the first beyng Erle of Northampton and Huntendune made this house: but he is not buried there; for he died yn Fraunce, and there buried. But Erle Simon the secunde, and Erle Simon the 3., sunne to the secunde, were booth buried in S. Andreas. There was also buried under a flatte stone in the quier an Archebisshop.
There was byried also one Verney, that was made knight at the feeld of Northampton.
S. James standith a little distant from the extreme part of the west suburbe. The waulle that cumpasith the hole site of the house is highe, faire, and large, ex lapide quadrato.
De la Pray
There was a great bataille faught in Henry the vj. tyme at Northampton on the hille withoute the Southe Gate, where is a right goodly crosse, caullid, as I remembre, the Quenes Crosse, and many Walsch men were drounid yn Avon Ryver at this conflict. Many of them that were slayn were buried at de la Pray: and sum at S. John's Hospitale.
S. John's Hospitale was originally foundid by one William Saincte Clere, Archidiacon of Northampton, and brother to one of the Simons Sainctecleres, as sum of Saincte John name them; but as I have redde alway they were caulid Saincteliz, and not S. Clere.
PART I 9
This Hospitale stondith within the waulle of the toune, a litle above the South Gate.
There is yn the north side of the chirch a high tumbe, wher is buried the Lady Margaret.
In the south side lyith buried Elis Pouger with a French epitaph.
S. Thomas Hospitale is with oute the toune, and joinith hard to the West Gate; it was erectid within lesse then a hunderith yeres paste, and induid with sum landes, al by the citisens of Northampton.
The Gray-freres House was the beste buildid and largest house of all the places of the freres, and stoode a litle beyond the chief market place almost by flatte north.
The site and ground that it stoode on longid to the cite, wherapon the citizins were taken for founders therof.
There lay ij. of the Salisbyries buried in this house of Gray Frere. And as I remember it was told me that one of the Salisbyries doughtters was mother to Sir Wylliam Par and his elder brother.
The Blake-Freres in the streate where the horse market is kept ons a weke.
The White-Freres House stoode a litle above the Gray-Freres.
The Augustine-Freres House stoode on the west side of the streate by the Southe Gate, hard agayne S. John's Hospitale. The Langfeldes of Buckinghamshire were taken as original founders of this house, and a late was the olde Langefeld knight of the same line so taken. Divers of the Langfelds were buried in this chirch. I heer of no men els of nobilite there biried.
The hedde of Avon Ryver risethe a litle above a sidenham of Gilesborow village, [a] and cummith by it there first receyving a botom: Gillesborow a vj. miles almost plain north from Northampton: and so touching by a few villages cummith to Northampton.
10 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The hedde of Wedon Water is, as I could lerne of Wedon men, at Faullesle [a] yn Mr. Knightele's poles, and yn Badby poles be springges also, that resorte to this streme: and beside there cummith a litle broke into Wedon stream, a very litle beneth Wedon: and as I stoode it cam yn by the farther ripe. Mr. Knightely, a man of great lands, hath his principal house at Faullesle, but it is no very sumptuus thing. Mr. Newenham Knight dwellith a myle of it. Faullesle pooles be aboute a myle from Charton [b] wher the hedde of Chare Ryver [c] is that rennith to Banbyri. [d] So that ther ys but an hille betwixt the heddes of these waters. Wedon Water goith from Wedon to Flour, [e] a village thereby; after to Hayford village, 2. miles of, where the chefe house of the Mantelles is; and thens to S. Thomas Bridge at Northampton, a 3. miles of, wher it goith ynto Avon. And as Avon Water risith almost by north, so doth Wedon Water ryse by west.
Wedon [f] is a praty thorough fare, sette on a playne ground, and much celebratid by cariars bycause it stondith hard by the famose way, there communely caullid of the people Watheling Strete. [g] And apon this the tounelet is caullid Wedon on the Streate. The tounlet of it self is very meane and hath no market. And the paroche chirch is as meane. A litle from the south side of the chirch yarde ys a faire chapel dedicate to S. Werburge, that sum tyme was a nunne at Wedon, wher was a monasterie yn Bede's tyme, syns destroied by the Danes. But wither there were any monastery at Wedon syns the Conquest, I could not well lerne there. The Vicar tolde me that the lordship of the toune did ons long to Bekharwik, a monasterie yn Normandie: and that after the priores alienes of the French ordre did lese their possessions yn England, King Henry the vj did gyve the lordship of Wedon to Eton College by Wyndesore.
There apperith on the south side of S. Werburges chapelle, wher in hominum memoria was an area and fair building about it, and a chapel withyn it: now there is nothing but greate barnes longging to the fermar.
Towcester is 7. miles from Wedon, and as much from
[g] Watling Street.
PART I 11
Northampton, al by playne corne ground and pasture. John Farmar tolde me that there appere certen mines or diches of a castelle at Towcestre. Enquire farther of thys.
From Northampton to Kingesthorpe [a] a mile, and a litle farther by Multon [b] Parke enclosid with stone, where is meately plentie of wood, it longgid a late to the Lord Vaulx, now to the Kinge. In it is no building, but a mene lodge. Kingesthorp is a goodly benefice, and yet is but a chapel to S. Peter's of Northampton by the Castelle, the which now is a very poore thing.
The Erle of Warwick had 3. lordshipps in Northamptonshir, Hanslap, [c] Multon, and ...
Thens by champayne ground, bering good grasse and corne, a ix. miles to Ketering, a pratie market toune. I rode over a bridge of tymbre or I cam to Ketering [d] by a quarter of a mile, under this bridge rennith a litle streame cumming almost originally from a village distant aliquot milliariis, caullid ... wherof the water takith name.
And a litle beyond I rode over another bridge of tymbre, wher rennith a broke, bering the name of Skerford village, a v. miles of from whens it cummith; and this water rennith under the roote of hilling ground that the toune stondith of.
A litle beyond the town of Ketering, as I went toward Gadington, I passid over a broke, that cummith from Ardingworth, a vj. miles of; so that bothe sides of the toune of Ketering be welle waterid.
The confluence of these 3. brokes is a litle beneth Ketering in the medowes.
From Ketering to Gadington, [e] a pratie uplandisch toune, 2. myles, wher I passid agayne in the midle of the toune over Ardingworth water, that there rennith under a stone bridge.
Thens to Welleden, [f] an uplandisch towne, 4. miles, where the soile is sumwhat furnishid about with wood: and plentie beside of corne and grasse.
On the south side of Welleden a litle without it, hard by the highe way, ys a goodly quarre of stone, wher appere great diggyns.
12 LELAND'S ITINERARY
A litle withoute Welleden I passid over a broket, and thereby I saw a faire chapelle. And thens 2. miles by corne, pasture and wood to Deene. [a]
There was one Yve sumtyme Lorde of Dene aboute the tyme of King John: and he had the landes of a priory sumtyme there, and celle to Westminister and afore suppressid, of the Abbate of Westminster apon a certen rent.
From Dene to Benifeld [b] 2. long myles. There appere by the west ende of the paroche chirch the dich and ruines of an old castelle.
Mr. Brudenel told me that he red ons in an old record of the kinges that Bassingburn, or one of a like name ending yn burne, was lord of it. Now it longgith to Souch of Codnor.
Braybroke Castelle apon Wiland [c] water was made and embatelid by licens that one Braybroke, a noble man in those days did obteine. it is a ... miles from ... Mr. Griphine is now owner of it, he is a man of faire landes.
From Dene to Rokingham d by summe corne and pasture, but more wood grounde, a 3. miles.
The castelle of Rokingham standith on the toppe of an hille, right stately, and hath a mighty diche, and bulle warkes agayne withoute the diche. The utter waulles of it yet stond. The kepe is exceding fair and strong, and in the waulles be certein strong tower. The lodgings that were within the area of the castelle be discoverid and faul to ruine. One thing in the waullis of this castelle is much to be notid, that is that they be embatelid on booth the sides. So that if the area of the castelle were won by cumming in at other of the 2. greate gates of the castelle, yet the kepers of the waulles might defende the castelle. I markid that there is a stronge tower in the area of the castell, and from it over the dungeon dike is a draw bridge to the dungeon toure.
There lyith a greate valley under the castelle of Rokingham, very plentifull of corne and grasse. The Forest of Rokingham after the olde perambulation is aboute a 20. miles yn lenght, and in bredthe 5. or 4. miles in sum places, and in sum lesse. There be dyvers lodges for kepers of the falow dere yn it.
PART I 13
And withyn the precincte of it is good corne and pasture and plentie of woodde.
The launde of Benifeld with in this forest is spatious and faire to course yn. This launde is a 3 miles from Benifeld village, and is no parte of it.
From Rokingham to Pippewelle [a] the late abbay about a 3. miles of by wood and pasture. There be faire buildinges at this place.
The king huntid at a great park of his owne caullid ... it is from Pipewelle a 4. miles.
From Dene to Haringworth a 3. miles be corne, grasse and sum wooddy grounde.
The Lord Souche hath a right goodly manor place, by the paroche chyrch of this village, buildid castelle like. The first courte wherof is clene doune, saving that a greate peace of the gate house and front of the waulle by it yet stondith. The ynner parte of this place is meately welle maintainid, and hath a diche aboute it. The waulles of this ynner courte be in sum place imbatellid.
And withyn this courte is a fair chapelle, in the bodie whereof lyith one of the Souches byried, and a great flat stone over hym.
There is a parke by this manor place: and a fair lodge in it. I hard say that this place hath bene long tyme yn the Souches handes, and that they have countid it for one of their chefest howses.
From Dene to Staunton [b] village, longging to Mr. Brudenel, 10. miles.
In this way I rode by Rokingham, and after over Welande Ryver, that departith there and much yn other places Northamptonshire from Leircestreshire.
The bridge self of Rokingham departith as a limes Northampton, Leicestershire and Ruthelandshire.
The grounde bytwixt Dene and Staunton plentiful of corne, and exceding fair and large medowis on bothe sides of Weland. But from Rokingham to Stanton there was in sight litle wodde, as yn a countery al chaumpain. I rode over a notable broke or 2. bytwixt Weland water and Stanton. The broke that cummith by Stanton risith at
[b] Stonton Wyvile.
14 LELAND'S ITINERARY
From Staunton to Leyrcester [a] al by chaumpaine grounde an 8. or 9. miles.
And as I rode from Staunton I saw a 2. miles of Noseley village, where is a collegiate paroche chirch [b] of a 3. prestes, 2. clerkes, and 4. choristes. Nosley longid to the Blaketes; and an heire general of them aboute Edwarde the 3. tyme was married to one Roger Mortevalle that foundid the litle College of Noseley. This Noseley and other landes thereaboute cam onto 2. doughtters of one of the Mortevilles, wherof one was maried onto Hughe Hastinges; the other was a nunne, and alienid much of her parte. After this Noseley by an heire generale cam in manage to Hasilrig, in the which name it dothe yet remayne. The name of Hasilrig cam oute of Scotlande.
Skefington [b] lay upward a mile and more from Noseley, wher rose the name of the Skefingtons.
In passing betwixt Stanton and Leircester I rode over 2. or 3. brokes.
The hole toune of Leircester at this tyme is buildid of tymbre: and so is Lughborow [c] after the same rate.
S. John's Hospital landes for the most part was gyven by Edward the 4. to the College of Newark in Leyrcester.
Other Robert Bossue, Erle of Leircester, or Petronilla, a countes of Leircester, was buried in a tumbe ex marmore
PART I 15
calchedonica yn the waul of the south of the high altare of S. Marie Abbay of Leyrcester.
The waulles of S. Marie Abbay be 3. quarters of a mile aboute.
The Gray-Freres of Leircester stode at the ende of the hospital of Mr. Wigeston. Simon Mountefort, as I lernid, was founder there: and there was byried King Richard 3. and a knight caullid Mutton, sumtyme Mayre of Leyrcester.
I saw in the quire of the Blake-Freres the tumbes of ...
And a flat alabaster stone with the name of Lady Isabel, wife to Sr. John Beauchaump of Holt. And in the north isle I saw the tumbe of another knight without scripture. And in the north crosse isle a tombe having the name of Roger Pointer of Leircester armid.
These thinges brevely I markid at Leyrcester.
The castelle stonding nere the west bridge is at this tyme a thing of smaul estimation: and there is no apparaunce other of high waulles or dikes. So that I think that the lodginges that now be there were made sins the tyme of the Barons War in Henry the 3. tyme; and great likelihod there is that the castelle was much defacid in Henry the 2. tyme, when the waulles of Leircester wer defacid.
There was afore the Conqueste a collegiate chirch of prebendes intra castrum. The landes wherof gyven by Robert Bossu Erle of Leircestre to the abbay of chanons made by him withoute the walles, a new chirch of the residew of the old prebendes was erectid withoute the castelle, and dedicate to S. Marie, as the olde was.
In this chirch of S. Marie extra castrum I saw the tumbe of marble of Thomas Rider, father to Master Richard 1 of Leircester. This Richard I take to be the same that yn those dayes, as it apperith by his workes, was a greate clerke. Beside this grave I saw few thinges there of any auncient memorie within the chirch.
The collegiate chirch of Newarke and the area of it yoinith to another peace of the castelle ground. The college chirch is not very great, but it is exceding fair. There lyith on the north side of the high altare Henry
16 LELANDS ITINERARY
Erle of Lancaster, withowt a crounet, and 2. men childern under the arche next on to his hedde.
On the southe side lyith Henry the first Duke of Lancaster: and yn the next arch to his hedde lyith a lady, by likelihod his wife.
Constance, doughtter to Peter, King of Castelle, and wife to John of Gaunt, liith afore the high altare in a tumbe of marble with an image of brasse like a quene on it.
There is a tumbe of marble in the body of the quire. They told me that a Countes of Darby lay biried in it, and they make her, I wot not how, wife to John of Gaunt or Henry the 4. Indeade Henry the 4. wille John of Gaunt livid was caullid Erle of Darby.
In the Chapelle of S. Mary on the southe side of the quire ly buried to of the Shirleys, knightes, with their wives; and one Brokesby an esquier. Under a piller yn a chapelle of the south crosse isle lyith the Lady Hungreford, and Sacheverel her secund husbande.
In the southe side of the body of the chirch lyith one of the Bluntes, a knight, with his wife.
And on the north side of the chirch ly 3. Wigestons, greate benefactors to the college, one of them was a prebendarie there, and made the fre Grammar Schole.
The cloister on the south weste side of the chirch is large and faire: and the houses in the cumpace of the area of the college for the prebendaries be al very praty.
The waulles and gates of the college be stately.
The riche Cardinal of Winchester gildid al the floures and knottes in the voulte of the chirch.
The large almose house stondith also withyn the quadrante of the area of the college.
A litle above the west bridge the Sore [a] castith oute an arme, and sone after it cummith in again, and makith one streame of Sore. Withyn this isle standith the Blake-Freres very pleasauntly. and hard by the Freres is also a bridge of stone over this arme of Sore. And after the hole water creping aboute half the toune cummith thorough the north bridge of a vij. or viij. arches of stone. And there Sore breketh into two armes againe, wherof the bigger goith
PART I 17
by S. Marie abbay standing on the farther ripe; and the other, caullid the Bisshoppes Water, bycause the Bisshop of Lincoln's tenentes have privilege on it, and after sone methith with the bigger arme, and so insulatith a right large and plesaunt medow; wherapon the abbay, as I suppose, in sum writinges is caullid S. Maria de pratis. Over the midle part of this arme of Bisshops Water is a meane stone bridge: and a litle beyond it is another stone bridge, thorough the which passit a litle land broke, cumming from villages not far of, and so rennith into Bisshops Water. And by Bisshops Water is a chapel longging to the Hospital of S. John. At this chapel lyith Mr. Boucher. Sore cumming again shortely to one botom goith a 4. miles of by the ruines of the castel of Mountsorelle. [a]
S. Margaretes is thereby the fairest paroche chirch of Leircester, wher ons was a cathedrale chirch, and therby the Bisshop of Lincoln had a palace, whereof a litle yet standith.
John Peny first Abbate of Leircester, then Bisshop of Bangor and Cairluel is here buried in an alabaster tumbe. This Peny made the new bricke worke in Leicester Abbay, and muche of the bricke waulles.
From Leircester to Brodegate [b] by ground welle wooddid 3. miles. At Brodegate is a fair parke and a lodge lately buildid there by the Lorde Thomas Gray, Marquise of Dorsete, father to Henry that is now marquise. There is a fair and plentiful spring of water brought by Master Brok as a man wold juge agayne the hille thoroug the lodge, and thereby it dryvith a mylle. This parke was parte of the olde Erles of Leircester's landes, and sins by heires generales it cam to the Lorde Ferrares of Groby, and so to the Grayes.
Groby [c] 3. miles from Leircester.
The parke of Brodegate is a vj. miles cumpace.
From Brodegate to Groby a mile and an half much by woddenlande. There remayne few tokens of the olde castelle more then that, yet is the hille that the kepe of the castell stoode on very notable, but ther is now no stone work apon it. And the late Thomas Marquise filled up the diche of it with earthe, entending to make an herbare
[a] Mount Sorrel.
18 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The oldar parte of the worke, that now is at Groby shire. Was made by the Ferrares. But newer workes and buildinges there were erectid by the Lorde Thomas first Marquise of Dorset: emong the which workes he began and erectid the fundation and waulles of a greate gate house of brike, and a tour, but that was lefte half on finishid of hym, and so it standith yet. This Lorde Thomas erectid also and almoste finishid ij. toures of brike in the fronte of the house, as respondent on eche side to the gate-house.
There is a faire large parke by the place a vj. miles in cumpase. There is also a poore village by the place and a litle broke by it.
And a quarter of a mile from the place in the botom there is as faire and large a pole as lightely is in Leyrcestreshire. There issuith a broket out of this lake that after cummith by Groby, and there dryvith a mylle and after resortith to Sore River,
From Brodegate to Lughborow [a] about a v. miles. First I cam oute of Brodegate Parke into the foreste of Charley, [b] communely caullid the Wast. This forest is a xx. miles or more in cumpace, having plenty of woode: and the most parte of it at this tyme longgith to the Marquise of Dorsete. The residew to the king and Erle of Huntingdune.
In this forest is no good toune nor scant a village. Asscheby de la Zouche [c] a market toune, Whitwik [d] Castel and village, Lughborow Market, Wolvescroft Priorie joynith on the very borders of it.
The mines of Whitewik Castel long now by permutation of landes to the Marquise of Dorsete. Whitewik is a ... miles from Leircester by ...
Riding almost in the entering of this forest I saw 2. or 3. quarres in hilles of slate stone, longging to the Marquise of Dorsete.
And riding a litle farther I left the parke of Bewmaner, [d] closid with stone waulles and a pratie logge yn it, longging a late to Bellemonts. Thens to Lughborow Parke a mile
[e] Beau Manor.
PART I 19
more from Lughborow toune. This parke cam to the Marquise of Dorsete by exchaunge of landes with the kinge.
Thens a litle way of to Burley Parke, [a] now longging also to the Marquise of Dorsete.
Thens scant a mile to Lughborow, [b] where I passid over a litle brooke, the principal heddes wherof risith in Lugborow Parke and ...
The toune of Lugborow is yn largeness and good building next to Leyrcester of al the markette tounes yn the shire, and hath in it a 4. faire strates or mo welle pavid. The paroche chirch is faire. Chapelles or chirchis beside yn the toune be none.
At the south est ende of the chirch is a faire house of tymbre, wher ons King Henry the vij. did lye.
The great streame of Sore River lay as I stoode on the left hond of the toune within lesse then a quarter of a mile of it, and thereabout went Lughborow Water into Sore.
From Leircester to Lutterworth a market toune a x. miles toward Warwikshire.
The toune is scant half so bigge as Lughborow, but in it there is an hospital of the fundation of 2. or 3. the Verdounes, that were lordes of auncient tyme of the towne.
A good parte of the landes of the Verdounes be cum in processe now to the Lorde Marquise of Dorsete, and the college of Asscheley in Warwikeshir, by Nunneiton, [c] were the late Lorde Thomas Marquise of Dorsete was buried, was of the foundation of Tho. Lorde Asteley. And al the landes in a maner that the Lorde Marquise of Dorsete hath in that egge of Leircestershir, or Warwikshire, were longging sumtyme to the Verdounes and Astlets. There risith certeine springes in the hilles a mile from Lutterworth, and so cumming to a botom they make a brooke that passith by Lutterworth and so ...
Forestes yn Leircestershire.
The foreste of Leyrcester yoining hard to the toune: it
20 LELAND'S ITINERARY
is a v. miles lenghthe, but of no greate breede: and is replenishid with dere.
The foreste of Charley [a] a xx. miles yn cumpace.
Parkes yn Leyrcestershire.
The parke by S. Mary Abbay. The Frith Park sumtyme a mighty large thyng, now partely deparkid, and partely bering the name of the New Park, welle palid.
Bellemontes Lease sumtyme a great park by Leircester, but now convertid to pasture. Barne Parke, and Towley Park, and Bewmanor. Al these be the kinges.
The Lorde Marquise of Dorsete hath Groby, Brodegate, Lughborow, and Burley, fair parkes.
The Lorde of Huntingdone hath Baggeworth Park, [b] where appere withyn a diche ruines of a manor place, like castelle building. Kirkeby Parke [c] a 4. miles from Leircester by Leyrcester Forest.
And the Lorde of Huntingdon hath 3. parkes at Asscheby de la Zouch. This Asscheby hath beene in the Hastinges tyme, but sins that the Lorde Hastinges, so great with King Edward the 4. got it partely by a title, partely by mony paid.
The late Thomas Boloyne, Erle of Wileshire, made a title to it by the Lorde of Rocheford, which was heire to this Souche: and by hym the Lorde Rocheford had Fulburne [d] and other landes yn Cambridgeshire.
There is a faire quarre of alabaster stone about a 4. or 5. miles from Leircester, and not very far from Beaumaner.
From Brodegate to Bellegreve [e] village a 4. miles by woddy and pasture grounde. This village is aboute a mile lower on Sore River then Leircester is; and I cam over a great stone bridge or I enterid into it. There dwellith a gentilman by the name of Bellegre a man of a 50. li. of possessions by the yere.
There is also another mene gentilman of the Bellegreves yn Leircestershire.
From Bellegreve to Ingresby [f] a 4. miles, partely by corne, pasture and woddy ground. This lordship longgid ons to one Algernoune, and after it was gyvin to Leyrcester Abbay. Now it is Brian Caves, that boute it of the king. It stondith very welle, and the grounde aboute it is very riche of pasture.
PART I 21
Thens to Wiscumbe [a] a 4. miles by corne, pasture and wood a 4. miles. Mr. Radeclif buildid here a right goodly shire. house apon Smithe's ground, that now dwellith yn it, and hath married a sister of the Caves. I take this to be one of the fairest housis in Leircestershire, and to the fairest orchardes and gardines of those quarters: but it stondith lowe and wete, and hath a pole afore it, but al the vaine thereabout is goodly pasture. Launde [b] Priory is hard there by.
The forest of Le ...
Gentilmen of Leyrcestershir that be there most of reputation.
Villares ofBrokesby. Digby of Tilton. Brokesby of Shoulby. Neville of the Holte. Shirle toward Dunington, a man of very 'fair landes. Schefington of Skefington. Pureley of Dreyton. Vincente of Pekleton. Turvile of Thurleston. Hasilrig of Nouseley.
The mines of the castelle of Hinkeley [c] now longging to the king, sumtyme to the Erle of Leircester, be a 5. miles from Leyrcester, and in the borders of Leircester Forest; and the boundes of Hinkeley be spatius and famose ther.
Dunnington Castelle [d] is in the border of the forest of Chaney toward Darbyshir; and hath thereby a park. As I remember it is an 8. miles from Leircester; it longgid as I hard sumtyme to the Erles Leyrcester; now it is the kinges.
Mielburne Castelle [e] a 2. miles from Dunington is praty, and yn meately good reparation.
Marke that such parte of Leircestershir as is lying by south and est in champaine, and hath litle wood. And such
[d] Castle Donington.
[e] Melbourne Castle.
22 LELAND'S ITINERARY
parte of Leircestershir as lyith by west and north hath much woodde.
From Wiscumbe partely thorough woddy ground of the forest of Leefeild, [a] and so in to Ruthelandeshir by woddy first, and then al champain ground, but exceding riche of corne and pasture, to Uppingham a market toune a 4. miles. Uppingham is but one meane streate, and hath but a very meane chirch, yet it is countid the best town of Ruthelandshire.
Luddington [b] is a mile of: and ther is the auncient manor place of the Bisshop of Lincoln.
From Uppingham to Haringworth 3. litle miles, al by chaumpaine.
About a mile from Haringworth I passid thorough a village [c] that is in Ruthelandshire. Haringworth is yn Northamptonshir, and standith on Weland Water.
The shire of Rutheland lyith in a maner as it were in a roundel, and lyith partely apon Wiland water from Staunford [d] to the very bridge of Rokingham.
From Dene to Cliffe-Parke [e] 3. miles: it is partely waullid with stone and partely palid.
From Dene to Coliweston a 5. or 6. miles, partely by champain, partely by woodde ground.
Almost yn the middle way I cam by Finshed [f] lately a priory of blak chanons, leving it hard by on the right hond; it is a 4. miles from Stanford. Here in the very place wher the priory stoode was yn tymes past a castel caullid Hely, it longgid to the Engaynes: and they dwellid yn it, ontylle such tyme that one of them for lak of childern of his owne began a priory ther, gyving them landes even thereabout: wherby after the castelle was pullid downe to make up the priory, so that now there remaynith almost no token that ever ther was any castel there.
Coly Weston [g] for the most parte is of a new building by the Lady Margaret, mother to Hery the vij. The Lord Cromwel had afore begunne a house ther. Bagges of purses yet remayne there yn the chappelle and other places.
[e] King's Cliffe.
[g] Colly Weston.
PART I 23
From Coly Weston to Grimesthorpe [a] about an 8. miles or 9. most by playn ground, good of corne and pasture, but wood, saving about toward Vauldey Abbay, and Grimesthorp self. A good mile after that I cam out of Stanford I passid over a stone bridge under the which ran a praty river. I toke it for Wasch: [b] and here I markid that cummyng
a litle oute of Staunford I enterid ynto a corner of Ruthelandshire, and so went a 3. miles onto such tyme as I cam to a forde, wher ran a bek rysing at a place not far of caullid Haly Welle, [c] as one there dyd telle me. This bek there devideth Rutheland from Lyncolnshire: and a 2. miles of I saw Castelle Bitham, [d] wher yet remayne great waulles of
buildinge. Litle Bitham [e] a village ys hard thereby, booth in Lincolnshir as yn the egge of it. The Lord Husey was a late lord of Bitham Castelle. A litle of Bitham risit of certen springes a broket, and about the ford that I spake of afore joynith with the broke that devidith the shires, and not far of is Robyn Hudde's Cros, a limes of the shires.
It apperith by the ruines of Vauldey Abbay [f] a good half myle a this side Grymesthorp that it hath bene a great thyng. There ys yn the wood by Vauldey Abbay a gret quarrey of a course marble, wherof much belykelihod was occupied yn the abbey.
There is a fayre parke betwixt Vauldey and Grimesthorpe.
The place of Grimesthorpe was no great thing afore the. new building of the secunde court.
Yet was al the old work of stone, and the gate house was faire and strong, and the waulles of eche side of it embatelid.
There is also a great dich about the house.
From Grimesthorp to Corby about a 3. miles by chaumpayne ground, wher dwellith a gentilman of mene landes caullid Armestrong.
Thens to Boutheby [g] a 3. miles, and therabout is meatly store of wodde scaterid.
There was one Boutheby of very auncient tyme, the heyre generale of whom was marryed to Paynelle, and therby rose much the Painelles.
[d] Castle Bytham.
[e] Little Bytham.
[f] Vaudey Abbey.
[g] Boothby Pagnal.
24 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The chief house of the Paynelles had ons a 900. markes of landes by the yere: and it was welle conservid on tille about the tyme of Henry the 5. Then John Paynelle the farther and John his sunne, booth knighttes and great lechers, began to decline; for John the father began to selle, and John the sunne begot abhominably a doughter of his owne doughter: and John the father apon this sold al the lande, parte owt of hand and parte in reversion; and John the sunne dyid afore the father, and yong John's daughter fled to other partes of England for shame, and at the last maried one Dines, a wever, by whom she had childern: and after a 3. descentes the landes of the Dines cam by an heire generale to one Bosson a knight, and his landes be also now cum to v. sisters heires generales, wherof one is wife to Richard Paynelle, now owner of Boutheby. Bosson was a man borne in Notinghamshir, and had part of his landes lying not far from Newark on Trent, and part lying in Yorkshir. Olde Sir John Paynelle had a secunde sunne caullid Geffrey, the was servant to the Quene of England, and yn good estimation. Wherapon thinkking his brother doughter dede, he made so importune sute, that at the laste he founde meanes by the king, that the Duk of Bedford was content that Geffrey should by of hym al such landes as Sir John Paynelle the father had sold onto hym, the which was the beste peace of the lande.
But aboute the tyme that Geffrey had payid for the lande cam Dyne's wife, doughter to yong Sir John Panelle, and by a color got possession of Baroby [a] a manor of a 80. poundes by the yere, a mile from Grantham; and so made clayme to the residew: so that at the laste composition was made, that she should have of the landes that the Duke of Bedeford had the lordship of Baroby and Dunington: and the residew to remayne to Geffrey Paynelle, the whiche was great grauntfather to Paynell now dwelling at Boutheby.
Thimleby had by purches the lordship of Irenham [b] of the old Sir John Paynelle, wher Thimleby now lyving hath build a fair place.
PART I 25
Though the Paynelles were lordes of the castelle of Newport Painel [a] in Buckinghamshire, yet they had a great mynde to ly at Boutheby: wher they had a praty stone house withyn a mote.
The Paynelles were founders of an abbay in Fraunce caullid Marteres.
One Sir Rafe Painelle was as I hard vice-chamberlaine to king ... and constable of Bolingbrok Castelle.
Olde Sir John Painell the father lyith buried on the north side of the high altare at Bouthby, he died anno D. 1420. Elisabeth his wife liith in the north isle of the same chirch.
One Sir Walter Painelle lyith buried in the paroch chirch of ...
Geffrey Paynelle was father to Panelle, custumer of Boston, and he had a lordship of 40li. of the old landes of the Paynelles.
Panelle was father to Richard Paynelle now dwelling at Bouthby.
One Bawdey a gentilman of mene landes dwellith at Somerby a mile from Boutheby.
Burne Market [b] is a 3. or 4. miles from Grymesthorpe. There appere grete diches, and the dungeon hil of an auncient castel agayne the west ende of the priori, sumwhat distant from it as on the other side of the streate bakwarde: it longgid to the Lorde Wake, and much service of the Wake fe is done to this castelle; and every feodarie knowith his station and place of service.
I remembre that I red ons yn an historie of the castel of Burne: and I have redde that S. Edmund, king of the Este Angles, was crounid at Burne; but I cannot telle wither it were thys Burne.
From Grimesthorpe to Sempringham a v. miles, and a mile thens sumwhat inwarde on the lifte hond is the castelle of Fokingham, [c] sumtyme the Lorde Bardolphe's, syns the Lord Bellemonte's, now longging to the Duke of Northfolk; it hath bene a goodly house, but now it fallith al to mine, and it stondith even about the egge of the fennes.
From Boutheby to Hayder [d] al by champaine ground, fertile of corne and grasse, 4. miles. One Bussey, cumming of a
[a] Newport Pagnel.
26 LELAND'S ITINERARY
younger brother of the house of Busseys of Hougheham, dwellith in an old place at Haider, that he and his parentes hath in a fee ferme of the chirch of Lincoln.
From Hayder to Sleford [a] a vj. miles, al by champaine grounde. Aboute a mile from Hayder I saw the ruines of Cattely Priory, now longging to one Car of Sleford, a proper gentilman, whos father was a riche marchaunt of the staple.
The towne of Sleford is buildid for the most part al of stone, as most part of al the townes of Kesteven be: for the soile is plentiful of stone.
The chirch of Sleford is large. And for houses in the toune I markid but 2. very fair. The one longith to the personage, as a prebend of 16. li yn Lincoln, and standith at the est ende of the chirch, and Carre House stonding at the south side of it.
Gentilmen of Kesteven.
Bussy of Hougheham. Bussy of Haider. Thimleby knight at Irneham.
Disney, alias de Iseney: he dwellith at Diseney; and of his name and line be gentilmen yn Fraunce. Ailesham Priory by Thorney Courtoise was of the Disseneys fundation: and there were dyvers of them buried, and likewise at Diseney.
Northton Diseney [b] is a 6. miles south west from Lincoln.
Paynelle at Boutheby. Armine at Ergerby.
Leghe dwelling at Ingoldesby is now a man of meane landes, his aunceter were men of fair landes.
Haulle. Granteham a man of mene landes by Hayder. Cony a stapeler risen by marchaundise at Basingthorpe. Vernoun toward Granteham. Porter about Granteham. Baudey a mile from Boutheby. Elis greatly risen bi marchaundise. Holland at Howelle.
Withoute the towne of Sleford standith west south west the propre castell of Sleford, very welle maintaynid: and it
[b] Norton Disney.
PART I 27
is cumpasid with a renning streme dimming by a cut oute of a litle fenne lying almost flatte weste againe it.
The gate house of the castelle 2. porte colices.
There is an highe toure in the midle of the castelle, but not sette apon any hille of reisid yerth.
The vaultes of the castelle by the ground be fair.
The house or manor place, lately almost new buildid of stone and timbre by the Lorde Husey, standith southeward withoute the toun.
The chief spring of Sleford Water risith a litle from Roseby village a about a mile by west from Sleforde.
From Sleforde to Ancaster a 4. miles by chaumpaine.
Aboute a mile from Ancaster I passid over Wilesford [b] brok.
Ancaster stondith on Wateling as in the high way to Lincoln; it is now but a very pore strete, having a smaule chirch. An old man told me that it was sumtyme caullid Oncaster or Onkaster: but he shewid me no reason why.
But in tymes past it hath bene a celebrate toune, but not waullid as far as I could perceive. The building of it lay in lenghth by south and north. In south ende of it be often tymes founde in ploughing great square stones of old buildinges and Romaine coynes of brasse and sylver.
In the west ende of it, were now medowes be, ar founde yn diching great vaultes.
The area wher the castelle stoode is large, and the dikes of it appere, and in sum places the foundation of the waulle.
In the highest ground of the area is now an old chapel dedicate to S. Marie, and there is an heremite.
This area is right again the east ende of the paroche chirch.
The tounelet of Ancaster is devidid into 2. lordeshipes.
The est side of it, at the southe ende whereof the castel is sette, is of the lordship of Wilesforde, sumtime longging to the Lord Crumwelle, and after, as I hard, solde with other thinges to the performaunce of one of the Lord Cromwelles willes; and after Burne Priory yn Kestene [c] had it by the meane as I hard of Margarete, mother to Henry the 7. The Duke of Southfolk hath it now.
28 LELAND'S ITINERARY
He that tolde me this saide that Foderingey was ons the Lord Cromwelle: but I dowte of that.
The west side of the towne, where the paroch chirch stondith, was the Vescys, and the patronage of the chirch, with impropriation, was gyven by one of the Vescys to the priory of Malton in Ridesdale.
The Vescies were lordes of a castelle caullid Cadorpe [a] in Kesten a 3. miles toward north from Ancaster; syns it cam to the Lord Bellemonte: and now the Duke of Northfok hath it.
The Duke of Norfolk hath by gifte a 600. mark land of Bellemontes in Lincolnshir.
The hethe of Ancaster conteynith in lenghth about a 14. miles, and in bredth a ... and cummith withyn a 2. miles of the fennes.
The toune of Ancaster hath on eche side of it a spring, and they cumming to one botom anone after ren ynto Willesford streame, and so, as I remember, the broke goith thens to Ureby.
An old man of Ancaster told me that by Ureby, or Roseby, [b] a plough man toke up a stone, and found another stone under it, wherein was a square hole having Romaine quoin in it. He told me also that a plough man toke up in the feldes of Harleston [c] a 2. miles from Granteham a stone, under the wich was a potte of brasse, and an helmet of gold, sette with stones in it, the which was presentid to Catarine Princes Dowager. There were bedes of silver in the potte: and writings corruptid.
From Ancaster to Temple Bruern al by champaine of Ancaster Heth a 4. miles. There be great and vaste buildinges but rude at this place, and the este ende of the temple is made opere circulari de more.
The hethe about it is very good for shepe, as al Ancaster Hethe is.
From Temple Bruern to Lincoln 10. miles by champaine.
The Fosse diche begynnith a quarter of a mile above Lincoln, and so goith to Torkesey [d] side a 7. miles strait in lenght.
PART I 29
Bisshop Atwater began to dense Foss Dik, and brought to the midle the clensing of it from Torkesey side, in hope to bring vesselles to Lincoln: sed statim moriente ille opus omnino neglectum.
Grantham an 18. miles from Lindecoln.
Lindis [a] from thens as from west south west tendith, saving that it windith into crokes estward ontil it cum to the se.
The curse of Lindis Ryver from Lincoln to Boston a 50. miles be water as the crekes go, and 24. miles from Lincoln to Boston to take way by fery.
Ther be no bridges on Lindis Ryver from Lincoln to Boston, but Thorn Brid a litle beneth High Bridge.
High Bridge hath but one great arch, and over a pece of it is a chapelle of S. George.
There be 4. commune places namid as ferys apon the water of Lindis betwixt Lincoln and Boston: the which feris leade to divers places.
To Short fery 5. miles. To Tatershaul [b] fery viij. miles. To Dogdik [c] fery a mile. To Langreth [d] fery five miles. To Boston 5. miles.
The circuite of Lincoln cite is with yn the waulles by estimation a ...
Gates in the waulles of the citie of Lincoln.
Barre gate at the south ende of the toune. Baile gate by south a litle a this side the minstre. Newport gate flat north. Est gate and West gate toward the castel.
It is very likely that in old tyme the toppe of the hille only was waullid and inhabitid.
The ryver of Lincoln breking into 2. armes a very litle above the toun passith thoroug the lower part of Lincoln toune yn 2. severalle partes of the south ende of the toune very commodiusly, and over eche of them is an archid bridge of stone to passe thoroug the principal streate.
The lesser arme lyith more southly, and the bridg over it is of one arche. The bigger armes fert cymbas piscaiorias.
[a] Witham R.
30 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Gote bride to passe over the lesser arme. Highe bridge to passe over the great arme.
A very goodly house longging to Sutton is hard on the north syde of S. Annes chirch yarde.
A litle above Gote bridge, on the este side of the high streat, is a fair guild haul, longging to S. Annes chirche regione, of the fundation of Bitlyndon and Sutton, marchants.
I hard say that the lower parte of Lincoln town was al marisch, and won be policy, and inhabitid for the commodite of the water.
This part of the toune is caullid Wikerford: and yn it be a ii. paroche chirches, one there I saw in clene ruine, beside the other xi. [sic]
The White Freres were on the west side of the high streate in Wikerford.
There be in the residew of the toun, as in the north parte apon the hille, xiij. paroche chirchis yet usid. I saw a rolle wherin I countid that ther were xxxviij. paroche chirchis yn Lincoln.
There goith a commune fame that there were ons 52. paroche chirches yn Lincoln cite, and the suburbes of it.
Sum hold opinion that est of Lincoln were 2. suburbes, one toward S. Beges, a late a celle to S. Mari Abbay at York: the which place I take be Icanno, wher was an house of monkes yn S. Botolphes tyme, and of this spekith Bede; it is scant half a mile from the minster.
The other by est streachid up toward Canwike villag a half a mile of from Lincolne.
Ther was also a suburbe beyonde the north gate, and streachid toward Burton village, or more westwarde. King Stephane, as it is saide, destroied much of this suburbe.
There lay a suburbe also without the Barre gate, by southe of the toune, and streachid toward a village caullid Brasebridg, [b] a litle without Barre is a very fair crosse and large, and S. Catarines standeth in this suburbe on the south west side of Barre gate.
It is easy to be perceivid that the toune of Lincoln hath be notably buildid at 3. tymes. The first building was yn the very toppe of the hille, the oldest part wherof inhabited
PART I 31
in the Britans tyme, was the northethest part of the hille, directely withoute Newport gate, the diches wherof yet remayne and great tokens of the old towne waulles buildid with stone taken oute of the diche by it: for al the top of Lincoln Hille is quarre ground. This is now a suburbe to Newporte gate: in the which now is no notable thing but the ruines of the house of the Augustine Freres on the south side, and a paroch chirch of the est side: and not far from the chirch garth apperith a great ruine of a toure in the old towne waulle. Sum say that this old Lincoln was destroied by King Stephan, but I thinke rather by the Danes. Much Romaine mony is found yn the northe fieldes beyond this old Lincoln. After the destruction of this old Lincoln men began to fortifie the souther parte of the hille, new diching, waulling and gating it, and so was new Lincoln made out of a pece of old Lincoln by the Saxons.
The third building of later tymes was in Wikerford, for commodite of water: and this parte is enwallid wher it is not defendid with the ryver and marisch ground. The ryver of Lindis fleatith a litle above Lincoln towne, and makith certen pooles wherof one is caullid Swanne Poole.
Ther springith a water above Chorleton village [a] a 2. miles or more by north from Lincoln, and this cummith in by the higher ripe of Lincoln Ryver a litle above the toune. So that by this broke, Fosse Dike water, and the ryver of Lincoln it is no mervaile though the water be sumtyme broode there, and over flow the medois al about.
Gualterus, as I hard, caullid Dorotheus, Dene of Lincoln, a Scottisch man, first founder of the White Freres in Lincoln.
There lay in a chapelle at the White Freres a rich marchant caullid Ranulphus de Kyme, whos image was thens taken and set at the south ende of the new castelle of the conducte of water in Wikerford.
There is another new castelle of conduct hedde trans Lindim flu: and booth these be servid by pipes derivid from one of the houses of freres, that were in the upper part of Lincoln.
Reginaldus Molendinarius, marchaunt of Lincoln, founder
32 LELAND'S ITINERARY
of the Gray Freres. Henry Lacy, Erle of Lincoln, and one Nunny, his almoner, were great benefactors to it.
Henry Lacy and Nunny were great benefactors to the Gray Freres at York.
Nunny was buried at the Gray Freres in York.
From Lincoln to Torkesey [a] parte by march ground, and part by other, but very litle wood, a 7. miles. The olde buildinges of Torkesey wer on the south of the new toune, but there now is litle seene of olde buildinges, more then a chapelle, wher men say was the paroch chirch of old Torkesey, and on Trent side the yerth so balkith up that it shewith that there be likelihod hath beene sum waulle, and by it is a hille of yerth cast up: they caulle it the Wynde Mille Hille, but I thinke the dungeon of sum olde castelle was there.
By olde Torkesey standith southely the mines of Fosse Nunnery, hard by the stone bridge over Fosse Dik; and there Fosse Dike hath his entering ynto Trente.
There be 2. smaul paroche chirches in new Torkesey, and the Priory of S. Leonard standith on theste side of it.
The ripe that Torkesey standith on is sumwhat higher ground than is by the west ripe of Trent.
Trent there devidith and a good deale upward Lincolnshire from Notinghamshire.
John Babington dwellith at Raunton village [b] over Trent a good mile from Torkesey.
From Torkesey to Marton village about a mile by plain sandy ground. At the north ende of this village lyithe the commune way of Watheling Streat to Dancaster, and thereby onto the other side of Trent is trajectus to Litleborough village, [c] wherby it is communely caullid Litleborough fery. a mile above that northward is Stratton on the Streate, [d] a good through fare toward Dancaster that is a 14. or 15. miles of of it.
From Marton to Snafe [e] on Trent, wher the late Lorde Darcy had a mene manor place a 2. miles.
Thence to Gainesford [f] on Trent a 2. miles.
The shore and upground from Trent ripe on Lincolnshire
PART I 33
side to Gainesborough is al sandy: the ripe of Trent againe it is low and medow ground.
Gainesborow is a good market toune, and is a xij. miles from Lincoln.
I saw no thinges much to be markid yn it, but the paroche chirch, wher lyith richely buryed Sir Thomas Borow, Knight of the Garther, and Dna de Botreaux, his wife: obiit Thomas an. D. 1408.
This Thomas was graundfader to the Lord Borow, that now is. He made most of the motid manor place by the west ende of the chirch yarde.
This Lord Borow's father lyith yn the quiar.
There lyith yn the same chirch Ds. Edmundus Cornewaile, that had a great motid manor place, caullid Thonak, in a wood, a mile by est from Gaynesborow. it longith it to the Cornewailes. Obiit anno D. 1322.
Edmund foundid 3. cantuaries yn Gainesborow chirch.
There is an old chapelle of stone yn the south part of Gainesborow toun, wher they of the toune say that many Danes be buried.
There is also a chapelle of wood on Trent side by southe in Gainesborow: it is now desolatid.
There is a parke by Gainesborow longging to the Lord Borow. There is another a ... miles of that Mr. Henege hath in keping.
From Gainesborow over Trent ynto Notinghamshire, and so to Madersey village [a] a v. miles, 2. miles below medowes and 3. be corn and pasture ground.
Or I cam to Madersey by a 2. miles I left ... Parke on the right hond, and a mile farther I saw the course on the lifte hond of ryver, over the which I passid by a bridge of hard (?) at the entering into Madersey village.
Thens I roode a myle yn low wasch and sumwhat fenny ground, and a mile farther or more by higher ground to Scroby in Nottinghamshir.
34 LELAND'S ITINERARY
In the mene tounelet of Scroby [a] I markid 2. thinges, the paroche chirch not bigge, but very welle buildid ex lapide polite quadrato.
The second was a great manor place standing withyn a mote, and longging to tharchbishop of York, buildid yn to courtes, wherof the first is very ample, and al buildid of tymbre, saving the front of the haule, that is of brike, to the wich ascenditur per gradits lapideos. The ynner courte building, as far as I markid, was of tymber building, and was not in cumpace past the 4. parte of the utter courte.
From Scroby to Bawtre a mile or more.
Riding a very litle by yond Scroby manor place, I passid by a forde over the ... ryver: and so betwixt the pales of 2. parkes longging to Scroby I came to Bautre.
Bawtre [b] is very bare and poore, a poore market toune standing yn Yorkshire, as the inhabitantes of it told me: so that by this it shold seme that Scroby water in sum partes devidith the shires.
Yorkshire, West Riding.
From Bautre to Dancaster an vij. miles by a great plaine and sandy ground caullid Blithelo, by the name of Blith ryver. But or I cam to Dancaster I passid over the ford of a brooke a 3. miles of, wher, as I remembre, is Rosington bridge.
I notid these thinges especially yn the towne of Dancaster. [c] The faire and large paroch chirche of S. George, standing in the very area, where ons the castelle of the toune stoode, long sins clene decayid. The dikes partely yet be seene and foundation of parte of the waulles. There is a likelihod that when this chirch was erectid much of the ruines of the castelle was taken for the fundation and the filling of the waullis of it.
There standith an olde stone house at the est ende of the chirch of S. George now usid for the town house: the which, as sum suppose, was a pece of the building of the old castelle or made of the ruines of it.
There is in the declining in area castelli a prati litle house buildid of tymbre as a college for the prestes of the toun.
There was another paroche chirch yn the towne yet standing, but now it servith but for a chapelle of ease.
PART I 35
Ther was a right goodly house of White Freres in the mydle of the towne now defacid: wher lay buried in a goodly tumbe of white marble a Countes of Westmerland, whos name, as one told me, was Margarete Cobham. The image of the tumbe is translatid ynto S. George Chirch, and by it as the crounet is made she shold be a duches.
There was a house of Gray Freres at the north ende of the bridg, communely caullid the Freres Bridge, conteyning a 3. arches of stone. Here I markid that the north parte of Dancaster toune, yn the which is but litle and that mene building, standith as an isle: for Dun ryver at the west side of the towne castith oute an arme, and sone after at the este side of the town cummith into the principal streame of Dun again. There is also a great bridge of 5. arches of stone at the north ende of this isle: at the south ende of the which bridg is a great tournid gate of stone, at the west side whereof is a fair chapelle of our Lady, and therof it is caullid S. Mary Gate. At the est ende of this bridge be 2. or 3. great milles as at the water.
There appere no tokens, as far as I could lerne or se, that ever Dancaster was a waullid toun; yet there be 3. or 4. gates in it: whereof that in the west side is a praty tower of stone, but S. Marie Gate is the fairest.
The hole toune of Dancaster is buildid of wodde, and the houses be slatid: yet is there great plenty of stone there about.
The soile about Dancaster hath very good medow, corne, and sum wood.
From Dancaster by south west to Tikhille [a] a 5. miles, partely by low pasture ground, partly by stony grounde but fruteful of corne.
The market town of Tikhil is very bare: but the chirch is fair and large. One Estfelde, stuard sumtyme of Tikhil and Heatfeld, lyith ther in a tumbe of stone. Obijt an. D. 1386.
The castel is well dichid and waullid with a very hard suart stone hewid. The dungeon is the fairest part of the castelle Al the buildinges withyn the area be down, saving an old
36 LELAND'S ITINERARY
haulle. There is a rylle that cummith by the towne fetching no far course of and resortith toward Rosington bridge.
There was a house of Freres a lityl by west without Tikhil, where lay buried divers of the Fitz-Williams, as the grauntfather and father to my Lorde Privy Seale: the which now be translatid to the paroch chirch of Tikhil. So ys Purefoy alias Clearfoy.
There were also buried diverse of Clarelles in Tikhill Priory.
There ys yet a place by Tikhil caullid Clarelles Haulle.
There is a wood by south of Tikhil caullid Toorne Wood, and is a v. miles in cumpace.
The lordship of Tikhil was yn tyme past of such estimation, that it was namid the Honor of Tikhil.
From Tikil to Cunesborow a 4. miles by stony way and enclosid ground.
Wher I saw no notable thing but the castel stonding on a rokket of stone and dichid. The waulles of it hath be strong and full of toures. Dunus flu. alluit villam.
From Cunisborow [a] to Dancaster a 3. miles by fruteful ground.
From Dancaster to Heathfeld [b] by champayn sandy ground a 5. miles. There is a faire paroch chirch in the village; and a parke therby. The logge or manor place is but meanely buildid of tymber.
The quarters about Heatfeld be forest ground, and though wood be scars there yet there is great plentie of red deere, that haunt the fennes and the great mores thereabout, as to Axholm warde and Thurne village.
The lordship of Heatfeld sumtyme longgid to the Lord Mowbray.
From Heatfeld to Thurne village [c] 2. miles passing over an arme of Dune.
By the chyrch garth of Thurne is a praty pile or castelet wel dikid, now usid for a prison for offenders in the forestes, but sumtyme longging to the Mulbrays as Thurne did.
The ground al about Thurne is other playn, more or fenne.
[b] Hatfield, Yorks.
PART I 37
From Thurne by water to the great lake caullid the Mere, almost a mile over, a mile or more. This mere is fulle of good fisch and foule.
From the Mere by water to Wrangton Cote a 3. miles in a smaule gut or lode. Al this way from the Mere to Wrangton the water berith the name of the Brier. The ground there is very fenni on booth sides.
From Wrangton to ... wher I cam on land in the isle of Axholm about a mile: so that from Wrangton thither the water is caullid Idille; [a] yet is it the very same water that Bryer ys. And of certente Idille is the auntient name.
The isle of Axholm is a x. miles in lenght by south and north: and in bredth a vj. miles by west and est.
From the west point of Bikers Dike up a long to the great Mere, the soyle by the water is fenny, and morische, and ful of carres.
The residew is meately high ground, fertile of pasture and corne.
The principal wood of the isle is at Bellegreve Park by Hepworth, and at Melwood Park not far from Hepworth.
There is also a praty wood at Croole, a lordship a late longging to Selleby Monasterie.
In the isle be 7. paroche chirches. Hepworth [b] is the best uplandisch toun for building in one streate in the isle.
Axey [c] is a bigge paroche, but the houses be more sparkelid then at Hepworth.
There was a castelle at the south side of the chirch garth of Oxtun, [d] wherof no peace now standith. The dike and the hille wher the arx stoode yet be seene: it was sumtime caullid Kinard. The fery over Trent is a quarter of a mile of.
By Hepworth and joyning to Bellegreve Parke remaynith yet a great parte of the maner place of Lord Mulbray of Axholm, chief owner ontyl late dayes of the hole isle.
By Milwood Park side stoode the right fair monasterie of the Carthusianes, wher one of the Mulbrais dukes of Northfolk was buried in a tumbe of alabaster.
38 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Lincolnshire. fo, 42.
Mr. Candisch hath now turnid the monasterie to a goodly manor place.
There was many yeres sins an old manor place at Westbutter Wike [a] apon Trent ripe.
It longid, as I lernid, to a gentilman caullid Bellethorp; to whom cam also by heire general Burneham's landes, a gentilman of the same isle.
Bellethorp's landes after descendid to Shefefeld: yn the which name it hath continuid a 5. or 6. descentes. For in the chirch yard of Oxton, half a mile from Melwood Park, I saw a 5. tumbes of the Sheffeldes. Young Shefeldes father is buried in the chirch of Oxtun.
Sheffeld that was Recorder of London is buried in the Augustine Freres of London, he sett up highly the name of the Sheffeldes by mariage of the doughter and sole heyre of one Delves, to whom beside was descendid the landes of Gibthorp and Babington. This Sheffeld recorder began to build stately at Butterwik, as it apperith by a greate tour of brike.
In the isle be now these 4. gentilmen of name, Sheffild, Candisch, Evers and Mounson. The landes of one Bellewodde be cum by mariage to this Mounson, a younger sun to old Mounson of Lincolnshire. This old Mounsun is in a maner the first avauncer of his family.
The fenny part of Axholm berith much galle, a low frutex swete in burning.
The upper part of the isle hath plentiful quarres of alabaster, communely there caullid plaster: but such stones as I saw of it were of no great thiknes and sold for a xijd. the lode. They ly yn the ground lyke a smothe table: and be beddid one flake under another: and at the bottom of the beddes of them be roughe stones to build withal.
From Dancaster to Causeby lesys [b] a mile and more, wher the rebelles of Yorkshir a lately assemblid.
Thens a 2. miles farther I saw on the lifte hond an old manor place caullid ... wher the king dynid.
And so to Wentbrid [c] a pore thorough fare a 5. miles, wher Wente ryver rennith under a praty bridge of v. arches of stone, and so to Pontefract a 3. miles.
[a] West Butterwick.
[c] Went Bridge.
PART I 39
The ground betwixt Dancaster and Pontfract in sum places meately wooddid and enclosid ground: in al places reasonably fruteful of pasture and corne.
These be thinges that I most notid in Pontefract. Sum old people constantely adfirme that the rigge of Watelyng Streate went thorough the park of Pontfract. As far as I can gether this is the toune caullid Legeolium. After it was caullid Brokenbridg. Ruines of such a bridg yet ys seene scant half a mile est owt of old Pontfract; but I cannot justely say that this bridge stoode ful on Watheling Streate. Pontefracte is a French name brought yn by the Laceys Normans for the English word of Brokenbridge. Wher as now the fairest parte of Pontefract stondith on the toppe of the hille was after the Conquest a chapel with a few sparkelid houses, the chapel was caullid S. Leonardes in the Frithe; and as I can lerne this part of the new town was caullid Kirkeby.
Edmunde Lacy buildid the college of White Freres in this part of Pontefract.
Syr Robert Knolles, that was the notable warrior yn Fraunce, buildid in this part of Pontefract Trinite College, having an hospital yoinid to. In the college is a master and 6 or 7. prestes: and yn the hospital be 13. poore men and wimen. Syr Robert Knolles was ons myndid to have made this college at his manor of Skouthorp 3. miles from Walsingham: but at the desier of Constance his wife, a woman of mene birth and sumtyme of a dissolute lyving afore manage, he turnid his purpose, and made it yn the very place of Pontfract, wher his wife was borne, endowing the college with a 180li. land by the yere.
The castelle of Pontfract, of sum caullid Snorre Castelle, conteinith 8. tourres, of the which the dungeon cast ynto 6. roundelles, 3. bigge and 3. smaul, is very fair, and hath a fair spring. Ther is in the dike by north the conestables tourre.
King William Conquerour gave the castelle with the towne of Brokenbridg, and very much land lying thereabout, to Hilbert de Laceio, a noble Norman, this Hilbert foundid the college of S. Clemente in the castelle.
Ther was a college and hospital in Brokenbridg afore the Conquest, wher the monkes lay ontil the priorie was erectid. it is yet an hospitale.
40 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Robert sun to Hilbert Lacy impropriate booth this hospital and S. Clementes yn the castelle, apon conditions, to the new priorie.
There is a dene and a 3. prebendes yet in S. Clementes in the castelle.
The hospital of S. Nicholas of late dayes cam to the order of the priory of S. Oswald.
The castel, town, and landes about Brokenbridg longgid afore the Conquest to one Richard Aschenald. Richard had Ailrik, and he had Swane, of whom cam Adam, of Adam cam 2. doughtters, wherof one of them was maried to Galfride Neville, the other to Thomas Burge. But nother of thes 2. had any part of the quarters of Brokenbridg.
Robert sun to Hilbert Lacie foundid instigante Thurstino the priori of Pontfract, sending from monkes ad Fanum Charitatis filial de Churl.
From Pontfract to S. Oswaldes by much enclosid and meately woddy ground a 3. miles or more. Where the paroche chirch of S. Oswaldes is now newly buildid, was in Henry the first tyme a house and chirch of poore heremites, as in a woddy cuntery, on tille one Radulphus Aldlaver, confessor to Henry the first, began the new monasterie of Chanons, and was first prior of it hymself.
The building of this house is exceding great and fair: and hath the goodlyest fontein of conduct water that is yn that quarter of England.
There lyith a praty pole at the west ende of the house.
Secundus Prior a postremo fetchid this conduct a mile and a halfe of: and buildid an exceding faire keching also in the monasterie.
From S. Oswaldes to Sandon village [a] about a 3. miles by enclosid ground, fruteful of wood, pasture and corne, as a very pleasaunt countrey to se to.
Master Waterton, a man of fair landes, hath a praty manor house in Sandon paroch. The chirch of Sandon is appropriate to S. Stephanes College at Westminster.
At the est ende of this village is a praty castelet on an hilling ground with a diche aboute it. it longid to Warine Erle of Surrey: now to the king.
PART I 41
From Sandon to Wakefeld [a] about a mile.
These thinges I especially notid in Wakefeld. The faire bridge of stone of 9. arches, under the which rennith the ryver of Calder. And on the est side of this bridge is a right goodly chapel of our Lady and 2. cantuarie prestes foundid in it, of the fundation of the townes men as sum say: but the Dukes of York were taken as founders for obteyning the mortemayn.
I hard one say that a servant of King Edwardes (the 4.) father, or els of the Erle of Rutheland, brother to King Edwarde the 4. was a great doer of it.
There was a sore batell faught in the south feeldes by this bridge. And yn the flite of the Duke of Yorkes parte, other the duke hymself, or his sun therle of Rutheland, was slayne a litle above the barres beyond the bridge going up into the toune of Wakefeld that standith ful fairely apon a clyving ground. At this place is set up a crosse in rei memoriam. The commune saying is there, that the erle wold have taken ther a poore woman's house for socour, and she for fere shet the dore and strait the erle was killid. The Lord Clifford for killing of men at this batail was caullid the boucher.
The principale chirch that now is yn Wakefeld is but of a new work, but it is exceding fair and large. Sum think that wereas now is a chapelle of ease, at the other ende of the toune was ons the old paroch chirch.
The vicarage at the este ende of the chirch garth is larg and fair. It was the personage house not very many yeres syns: for he that now lyvith is the 4. or 5. vicare that hath been there.
Afore the impropriation of this benefice to S. Stephane College at Westminster, the personage was a great lyving; yn so much that one of the Erles Warines, lordes of Wakefeld, and much of the cuntery thereabout did give the personage to a sunne or nere kinsman of his: and he made the most parte of the house wher the vicarage now is.
A quarter of a mile withowte Wakefeld apperith an hille of erth caste up, wher sum say that one of Erles Warines began to build, and as fast as he buildid violence of winde defacid
42 LELAND'S ITINERARY
the work. This is like a fable. Sum say that it was nothing but a wind mille hille. The place is now caullid Lohille. [a]
The toune of Wakefeld streachith out al in lenght by est and west, and hath a faire area for a market place. The building of the toune is meately faire, most of tymbre but sum of stone. Al the hole profite of the toun stondith by course drapery.
There be few tounes yn the inwarde partes of Yorkshire that hath a fairer site or soile about it.
There be plenty of veines of se cole in the quarters about Wakefeld.
From Wakefeld to Pontefract a vj. miles, parte by enclosure, part by champaine, especially in the midle way caullid as I remembre Wakefeld Moore.
Almost in the midle way I lefte cole pittes a litle of on the right hande. And not far from this pittes is the principale hedde of Wente ryver. There is a hedde or 2. besides. From Pontefract to Castelleford village [b] 2. miles, most by enclosid ground.
One shoid me there a garth by the chirch yard, where many straung thingges of fundations hath be found: and he sayid that ther had beene a castelle, but it was rather sum manor place.
Under Castelleford bridge of vij. arches rennith Aire ryver, and a 3. miles above this west up into the land is Swillington bridg on the same ryver, and 2. miles beneth Castelforde is Fery [c] bridge.
From Castelleford to Whitewood village [d] a mile. There I sawe in an enclosid pasture ground the diches and hilles of an old castelle hard apon the ripe of Calder ryver. It is now caullid the Castel Hille, and belongith to one Archibald Giseland of Lincolnshire.
Wateling Streate lyith straite over Castelford bridge. Thens to Aberforde v. miles, partely by low medow, but most after by good high plaine corne ground.
Ther ly by est of Aberford 2. or 3. long diches as campes of men of warre.
I never saw yn any parte of England so manifest tokens as
[c] Ferry bridge.
PART I 43
heere of the large high crest of the way of Wateling Streate made by hand.
Aberford is a poore thorough fare on Wateling Streat.
Cok bek springith about a mile by west of it and so rennith thorough it, and thens by much turning to Leade, an hamelet, wher Skargil had a fair manor place of tymber.
Skargil a late knight left 2. doughtters to his heires, wherof Tunstalle weddid one, and Gascoyne of Bedefordeshire the other.
Cok bek after crokith by Saxton and Touton [a] villages feldes, and goith in to Warfe ryver a ... beneth Tadcaster.
From Leade to Saxton village a mile. Wher Mr. Hundesgate dwellith. In the chyrch yard were many of the bones of men that were killid at Palmesunday feld buried.
They lay afore in 5. pittes, yet appering half a mile of by north in Saxton feldes.
Towton village is a mile from Saxton, wher is a great chapell begon by by Richard 3. but not finishid. Syr John Multon's father layid the first stone of it.
In this chapelle were buried also many of the men slayn at Palmesunday feeld.
This feeld was as much fought in Saxton paroch as in Towton, yet it berith the name of Towton.
From Towton to Uskelle village [b] aboute a mile: wher is a goodly house longging to a prebend yn York, and a goodly orchard with walkes opere topiario.
Higden late Deane of York buildid much of this house.
The ground about Uskel self is sumwhat low and medowisch, as toward the faulle of waters about Nunappleton. The paroch of Ryder is but a mile from Uskelle.
From Uskelle to Tadcaster a 3. miles by good corne and pasture ground and sum woodde.
Tadcaster standith on the hither ripe of Warfe [c] ryver. and is a good thorough fare.
The bridge at Tadcaster over Warfe hath 8. faire arches of stone.
Sum say there that it was laste made of parte of the ruines of the old castelle of Tadcaster.
44 LELAND'S ITINERARY
A mighty great hille, dikes, and garth of this castelle on Warfe be yet seene a litle above the bridge; it semith by the plot that it was a right stately thing.
Tadcaster standith a mile and more from Wateling Streate that tendith more toward Cairlvel, and crossith over Warfe at a place caullid S. Helenesford, a mile and a half above Tadcaster: and on the other ripe is S. Helenes Chapelle. iij. miles and a half above S. Helenesford is Wetherby village, and there is a bridge of stone over Warfe.
2. miles above Wetherby ys Harwood village, [a] and there is a ston bridg over Warf.
vij. miles above Harwod is Otely, [b] and there is a bridg of stone over Warfe.
From Tadcaster to Helegh [c] Priory about a 2. miles by enclosid ground, one Geffray Haget a noble man was first founder of it.
In this priory were buried sum of the Depedales and Stapletons gentilmen: of whom one Sir Brian Stapleton a valiant knight is much spoken of.
Geffray Haget was owner of Helegh lordship, and beside a great owner yn Ainste. [d]
Ainste ys caullid of the Yorkshir men such partes as ly betwixt the ryvers of Owse, Nidde, Warfe and Aire.
From Helegh Priory scant a mile to Helege village, there I saw great ruines of an auncient manor place of stone that longgid with the fair woddid park therby to the Erle of Northumbreland. It was, as far as I can perceyve, sumtyme the Hagetes lande.
From Helegh village to York a vij., ij. by meatly woddy and enclosid ground, and 4. by playn champaine, fruteful of corn and grasse.
From York to Kexby bridge by champaine meately fertile a v. miles.
This bridge of 3. fair arches of stone standith on the praty ryver of Darwent, [e] that cummith by Malton, and as I gesse this bridge is toward the midle way bytwixt Malton and Wreshil, [f] wher about Darwent goith ynto Ouse.
Bridges apon Darwent above Kexby. Staneford [g] bridge a
PART I 45
Yorkshire, E.R. and N.R.
2. miles of. Butterhambridge a mile. Ousehambridge a 2. miles of. Kirkham a 2. miles or more. Malton ... Yealdingha [a] 7. miles. Aybridge 3. miles. Aiton [b] brid 2. miles, and a 2. miles to the hed.
The commune opinion ys yet that part of Darwent water ran to Scarburge, [c] but by excaving of 2. sides of hilles, stones and yerth felle in great quantite doun and stoppid that course.
Bridges on Darwent byneth Kexby be none, but men use to passe over by feries, saving only Sutton bridg of stone 2. miles lower then Kexby.
From Kexby to Wilberford village [d] a mile and a dim. Wher was a priory of nunnes: and on the left hond not far of was Catton Park, sumtyme the Percys, now the kinges.
Thens to Barneby village [e] a 3. miles.
And thens to Hayton village a 3. miles, wher is a praty broke rising a mile of yn the hilles, and passith to Darwent, as I hard.
But or I cam to Hayton I passid over Pokelington bek, lyving Pokelington [f] about a mile of on the lift hond.
Thens to Thorp village a mile.
Thens to Shepton village [g] a mile.
Thens to Wighton [h] a gret uplandisch village a mile.
Thens to Santon village, [i] wher Mr. Langdale dwellith, a mile.
Thens to Lekenfeld [j] a vj. miles.
And al this way bytwixt York and the parke of Lekenfeld ys meately fruteful of corn and grasse, but it hath litle wood. I lernid that al this part of the Est Ryding ys yn a hundred or wapentake caullid Herthil. [k] And sum say that it cummith one way to Wreshil, [l] and of other partes touchith much on the boundes of the Wold, but the Wold self is no part of Herthil. Pokelington a market toun of a surety ys in Herthil: and sum say ignorantly that Beverley ys also. But Beverley men take them self as an exept place.
Lekingfeld is a large house, and stondith withyn a great mote yn one very spatius courte. 3. partes of the house,
[h] Market Weighton.
46 LELAND'S ITINERARY
saving the meane gate that is made of brike, is al of tymbre. The 4. parte is fair made of stone and sum brike.
I saw in a litle studiyng chaumber ther caullid Paradice the genealogie of the Percys.
The park therby is very fair and large and meately welle woddid.
Ther is a fair tour of brike for a logge yn the park.
From Lekingfeld to Beverle [a] 2 miles.
These thinges I notid yn Beverle. The collegiate chirche of S. John of a fair uniforme making, wherin, beside the tumbes of sainctes, be 3. tumbes most notable on the north side of the quier: yn one of them with a chapul archid over it is buried Percy Erl of Northumberland, and his sun father to the last erle.
In another is buried Eleanor, wife to one of the Lord Percys. And yn another of white alabaster Idonea Lady Percy, wife to one of the Lord Percys.
Under Eleanor's tumbe is buried one of the Percys a preste.
The prebendaries houses stand round aboute S. John's chirche yard. Wherof the Bishop of York hath one motid, but al yn ruine.
The fairest part of the provostes house is the gate and the front.
There be besides yn the chirch of ... and the chirch of S. Nicolas by the holm, wher the gut for the catchis is of S. Mary chirch, at the north ende of the toune, is larg, and fair, and crosse islid.
In the toune were of late 2. housis of freres.
The Blak Freres, as sum say, of one Goldsmithes fundation, and so of the townes: but the Lord Darcy of late tyme strove for the patronage of it with the toun.
The Gray Freres of the fundation of the Huthomes gentilmen of Scorburg [b] by Lekingfeld. The laste Erle of Northumbr. save one strave for the patronage of it.
There were 4. hospitales in the toun. S. Giles, wherof one Wulfe, as it is thought, afore the Conquest, was the foundar.
PART I 47
it was longging to the bisshops of York ontyl such tyme that Bisshop Giffard intitelid it to Wartre, a priorie of chanons in Yorkshir. It came a late to the Erle of Rutheland, and he suppressid it.
Trinite Hospital yet stondith yn the hart of the toun: sum say one Ake foundid it.
Ther was an hospital of S. Nicolas by the Blak Freres, but it is dekayid.
Ther is an hospitale yet standying hard without the north Bargate of the foundation of 2. marchant men, Akeborow and Hogekin Overshal. As I remembre ther is an image of our Lady over this hospitale gate.
Ther is an house also of the Trinite aboute the est side of the toune: and longgid to the order of the Knighttes of S. John's.
The toune of Beverle is large and welle buildid of wood. But the fairest part of it is by north, and ther is the market kept.
Ther was good cloth making at Beverle: but that is nowe much decayid.
The toune is not waullid: but yet be there these many fair gates of brike, North barre, New bigyn bar by west, and Kellegate barre by west also.
From Beverle to Cotingham [a] a 3. mile, wherof 2. was welle woddid, and at the 2. miles ende I left the great park of Beverle on the lift hond: and so a mile by low medow grounde to Cotingham. Al the ground about Cotingham up to Meause Abbay, and al that quarter that goith up on every side up to Kingeston apon Hulle is low ground very fruteful of medow and pasture.
Entering into the south part of the great uplandisch toun of Cotingham, I saw wher Stutevilles Castelle, dobill dikid and motid, stoode, of the which nothing now remaynith. The landes of this signiorie and lordship greatly privilegid cam of later tymes by division ynto 4. partes, wherof now a late the king had one part, the Countes of Saresby another, the Erl of Westmerland the 3. and the Lord Poys the 4. At this tyme the king hath al, saving the Lord Poys part.
At this present tyme be 4. sundry meane fermers houses, a Cottingham.
48 LELAND'S ITINERARY
as one for eche of the 4. lordes, withyn the castelle garth.
The lenght of the toun of Cotingham is by sought and est.
The paroch chirch of it is auncient and meatly larg.
The personage is not very fair for so great a benifice. it lyyth on the north side of the chirch garth.
The paroch of Cotingham is very larg.
Ther rennith a bek by the est end of Cotingham, it risith yn a wood a mile of by north, and rennith by est a mile and a half by neth Cotingham yn to Hulle ryver at a place, as I remember, caullid Newlande.
From Cotingham to Kingeston [a] about a 4. miles by low ground, wherof 2. miles be causey way, dikid on booth sides.
Cotingham ys not even the next way from Beverle to Kingston, for going the next Kingeston is caullid but 6. miles from Beverle.
The towne of Kingeston was in the tyme of Edward the 3. but a meane fischar toune, and longid as a membre to Hasille village [b] a 2. or 3. mile of, upper on Humber.
The first great encreasing of the towne was by passing for fisch into Iseland, from whens they had the hole trade of stoke fisch into England, and partly other fisch. In Richard the secundes dayes the town waxid very rich: and Michael De la Pole, marchaunt of Hulle, and prentyce, as sum say, to one Rotenhering of the same toun, cam into so high favor for wit, actyvite, and riches, that he was made Counte of Southfolk, wherapon he got of King Richard the 2. many grauntes and privileges to the toune. And yn his tyme the toune was wonderfully augmentid yn building, and was enclosid with diches, and the waul begon, and yn continuance endid and made al of brike, as most part of the houses of the toun at that tyme was.
In the walle be 4. principal gates of brike. The north gate having 4. wardes, bytwixt the which and Beverle gate be 12. touers of bryke, and yn one of them a postern. Ther be 5. toures of brike and a postern in one of them, as I remember, bytwixt Beverle gate and Miton gate. Ther be 3. toures of brike betwixt Miton gate and Hasille gate of 3. wardes. And from thens to the mouth of the Havin mouth
PART I 49
be a 5. toures of brik, to the which the Humber se cummith, and in one of these is a posterne to the shore. And because that the waul from Hasilgate to this postern lyith strait as a lyne, ther is much gabylle making and wynding of hempe for smaul cordes.
From the mouth of Hulle ryver upper ynto the Haven ther is no waulle, but every marchant hath his staires even to the north gate.
Suburbes in the out part of the toun be none.
Michael De la Pole buildid a goodly house of brik again the west end of S. Maries Chirch lyke a palace with goodly orchard and gardein at large, enclosid with brike.
Michael De la Pole buildid also 3. houses besides in the town, wherof every one hath a tour of brike, 2. of them be in the hart of the toun. The 3. is apon Hulle ripe in the haven side.
There be 2. chirchis yn the toun, the Trinite, and S. Maries, and nother of them by the name of an hedde paroch chirche.
The Trinite Chirch most made of brike is the larger a gret deale and the fairer.
Ther ly 4. notable chapelles on the south syde of this chirch, crosse islid.
A chapel of the fundation of Hanby and one Richard Hansun marchauntes.
The next is a chapel made as sum say by a chauncelar of Lincoln.
The 3. is a chapelle of stone, made by Bisshop Alcock, borne in Beverle: wheryn Gul. Alcok and Johan, parentes to the bishop be buried, and ther is a cantuarie.
The lowest chapelle is caullid the Mariners Chapelle.
Ther is also a chapel in the body of the chirch made by one Rippelingham. prest, whos father a marchaunt of the toune lyith there: and ther is a cantuarie.
Ther is a chapelle also on the north side of the crosse isle of one Robert Frost, a marchaunt man.
The tourre in the crosse isle of this chirch for the belles is larg and fair.
In the south side of this chirch yarde is the fre schole erectid by Bishop Alcock.
In the west end of the chirch yard is the fair row of
50 LELAND'S ITINERARY
longginges from prestes of the toun made by one John Grigge, mair of the toun, and by it is an hospitale made by the same John Grigge.
And therby ys the Mariners Hospital.
Selbys Hospitale is on the north side of the chirch yard.
Selby is buried yn the south side of the waulle of isle by the quire: and his wife also, with very fair images.
The White Freres College stode by Beverlegate. The Percys were taken for founders of it.
The Augustine freres stode at the est ende of Trinite Chirch.
The toun haul is therby and a tour of brik for a prison.
Most part of the brik that the waulles and houses of Kingston wer buildid was made without the south side of the toun; the place is caullid the Tylery.
At such tyme as al the trade of stokfisch for England cam from Isleland to Kingeston, bycause the burden of stokfisch was light, the shipes were balissid with great coble stone brought out of Isleland, the which yn continuance pavid al the toun of Kingeston thoroughout.
The toune of Kingeston had first by graunt custodem; then bailives, then maire and bailives: and in King Henry the 6. tyme a maire, a shirive, and the toun to be shire ground by it self.
One told me that their first great corporation was grauntid to Kingeston a 180. yere syns.
The charter house of the De la Poles fundation, and an hospitale of their fundation stonding by it, is without the north gate. The hospitale standith. Certein of the De la Poles wher buried yn this Cartusian monastery: and at the late suppressing of it were founde dyverse trowehes of leade with bones in a volte under the high altare ther. Most part of this monastery was buildid with brike, as the residew of the buildinges of Hulle for the most part be.
The next trajedus from Kingston to the shore of Humbre in Lincolnshir is about a 3. mile to a place caullid Golflete. [a]
Yet the communer traject is from Kingeston to Berton [b]
PART I 51
apon Humber, and that is a 7. miles of: and is countid, by reson of the violent casting of the streme, as good a passage as to Golflete.
From Kingeston to Patrington, wher is an havenet or creke for shipes, a x. miles, on Humber shore on Yorkshir.
Thens to Ravensburg, the very point on York side of the mouth of Humber, 10. miles.
Thens to Hornesey [a] smaul creke an 18. miles.
Thens to Bridlington haven a 12. miles.
Thens to Flamborow [b] hed, pointing into the se, a 3. miles, and so a 9. miles to Scarborow: [c] and as the next way liyth, Scarborow is as nere to Bridlington as it is to Flamburg.
Thens an 8. miles to a fischer tounlet of 20. bootes caullid Robyn Huddes Bay, [d] a dok or bosom of a mile yn lenghth; and thens 4. miles to Whiteby, [e] wher is an havenet holp with a peere and a great fischar toune.
Thens to the mouth of Tese [f] a xv. miles.
From Kingeston to Beverle [g] a vj. miles, by the gainest way a v., by low pasture and marsch ground, and a mile by enclosid and sumwhat woddy ground.
From Beverle to Walkington village a 2. mile, one by enclosid, and another by chaumpain good come ground.
From Walkington village to Northcave village v. miles by fair champain corn ground.
There rennith a broke by Northcave and so into Humbre.
From Northcave to Scalby a 3. miles, al by low marsch and medow ground, leving the arme of Humbre on the lift hond yn sighte.
This fenne is communely caullid Waullyng Fenne, [h] and hath many carres of waters in it: and is so bigge that a 58 villages ly in and butting of it, wherof the most part be yn Houghden lordship longging to the Bisshop of Duresme: and part yn Harthil Hunderith.
The fenne is a 16. miles in cumpace, and is al of Houghdenshire. From Walkington to Hoveden [i] a xij. miles, al yn Hovedenshir.
[d] Robin Hood's Bay.
[h] Walling Fen.
52 LELAND'S ITINERARY
And thens Hovedenshir goith almost to the mouth of Darwent, and so up on Humber shore as good as 20. miles by water to very boundes of Feriby.
From Scalby to Hoveden 4. miles, scant one by enclosid pasture, and 3. by morische and fenny ground.
The toun of Howden the only market of Howdenshire is of no great reputation. The colligiate chirch is auncient and meatly faire. Ther be 5. prebendes by these names, Hovedene, Thorpe, Saltmarsch, Barneby and Skelton. In the quire lyith one John of Hovedene, whom they caul a sainct, one as they say of the first prebendaries there.
It apperith by inscription of a very fair stone varii Marmoris that the bowelles of Walter Skerlaw, Bisshop of Dirham, were biried in Howden Chirch.
There is also a tumbe, in a chapel of the sout part of the crosse isle of the chirch, of one of the Metehams.
The Bisshop of Dirham palace liyth on the south of the chirch, wherof the first part at the entre is of tymber: the other 3. most of stone and part of brike.
Certen chirchis of Howdenshir do homage to Hoveden Chirch.
Ther is a park by Hovedene longging to the Bisshop of Duresme yn the way to Wresehil.
In Hovedenshir be these gentilmen of most fame.
Meteham of Meteham, half a mile from Humberside.
Mounteton of ...
Portington of Portington.
From Hovedene to Hemingburge [a] yn the way toward York about a 2. miles.
There be yn the smaule collegiate chirch of Hemingburgh longging to Dyrham 3. smaul prebendes.
From Hoveden to Wresehil [b] a 3. miles al by low medow and pasture ground, wherof part is enclosid with hegges.
Yet is the ground that the castelle of Wresehil standith on sumwhat high yn the respect of the very lough ground theraboute.
PART I 53
Most part of the basse courte of the castelle of Wresehil is al of tymbre.
The castelle it self is motid aboute on 3. partes. The 4. parte is dry where the entre is ynto the castelle.
The castelle is al of very fair and greate squarid stone both withyn and withowte. wherof (as sum hold opinion) much was brought owt of Fraunce.
In the castelle be only 5. towers, one at eche corner almost of like biggenes. The gate house is the 5, having fyve longginges yn hight, 3. of the other towers have 4. highes in longginges: the 4. conteinith the botery, pantery, pastery, lardery and kechyn.
The haule and the great chaumbers be fair, and so is the chapelle and the closettes.
To conclude, the house is one of the most propre beyound Trente, and semith as newly made: yet was it made by a youngger brother of the Percys, Erle of Wiccester, that was yn high favor with Richard the secunde, ande bought the maner of Wresehil, mountting at that tyme litle above 30li. by the yere: and for lak of heires of hym, and by favor of the king, it cam to the Erles of Northumbreland.
The basse courte is of a newer building.
And the last Erle of Northumberland saving one made the brew house of stone without the castelle waulle, but hard joyning to the kechyn of it.
One thing I likid excedingly yn one of the towers, that was a study caullid Paradise, wher was a closet in the midle of 8. squares latisid aboute: and at the toppe of every square was a desk ledgid to set bookes on cofers withyn them, and these semid as yoinid hard to the toppe of the closet: and yet by pulling one or al wold cum downe, briste higthe in rabettes, and serve for deskes to lay bokes on.
The garde robe yn the castelle was excedingly fair. And so wer the gardeins withyn the mote, and the orchardes withoute. And yn the orchardes were mountes opere topiario writhen about with degrees like turninges of cokilshilles, to cum to the top without payn. The ryver of Darwent rennith almost hard by the castelle. and about a mile lower goith
54 LELAND'S ITINERARY
ynto Owse. This ryver at greate raynes ragith and overflowith much of the ground there aboute beyng low medowes.
There is a parke hard by the castelle.
From Wresehil to ... Fery about a mile, most by medow ground, and so a xj. miles to York, wherof most part was in sight medow and morisch ground, and but meane corne, but toward York the soyle and corne was better.
The towne of Yorke stondith by west and est of Ouse ryver, renning thorough it: but that parte that liyth by est is twis as great in buildinges as the other.
Thus goith the waul from the ripe of Owse [a] of the est parte of the cite of York.
Fyrst a great towre with a chein of yren to caste over the Ouse: then another tower, and so to Boudom gate: from Boudom bar or gate to Goodrome gate or bar x. toures. Thens 4. toures to Laythorp a posterngate: and so by the space of a 2. flite shottes the blynde and depe water of Fosse cumming oute of the forest of Galtres defendith this part of the cyte without waulle. Then to Waume gate 3. toures, and thens to Fisscher gate stoppid up sins the communes burnid it yn the tyme of King Henry the 7. Sum say that Waume gate was erectid at the stopping up of Fisschar gate: but I dout of that. And yn the waul by this gate is a stone with this inscription: lx. yardes yn lenghth Anno D. 1445. William Todde mair of York did this coste.
Thens to the ripe of Fosse a 3. toures, and yn the 3. a posterne.
And thens over Fosse by a bridge to the castel. Fosse bridge of 5. arches above it: Laithorpbridg on Fosse of 3. arches. Monke bridge on Fosse of 5. arches withoute Goodrome gate.
The area of the castelle is of no very great quantite.
There be a 5. ruinus toures in it.
The area is al in ruine: and the roote of the hille that yt stondith on is environid with an arme derivid out of Fosse water.
These be the notable places withyn the waul of that part of York that standith on the est side of Owse. The cathedrale
PART I 55
chirch with the palace betwixt Boudom gate and Godrom gate. S. Leonardes sumtyme a priory of chanons.
There be viij. arches yn eche of the side isles of the body of the cathedrale chirch of York, and 4. on eche part of the cros isle, and 9. on eche of the isles of the sides of the est part of the chirch.
The Augustine Freres bytwixt the toure on Ouse ripe and Owse bridge having 6. arches.
The White Freres not very far from Laythorpe gate.
Ther was a place of the Bigotes hard withyn Laithorp gate, and by it an hospital of the Bigotes fundation. Syr Francis Bigot let booth the hospital and his house al to ruine.
The hospitale of S. Antony foundid about a 100. yeres syns, by a knight of Yorkshir, caullid John Langtoun. Sum say that he was mair of York.
The Gray Freres not far from the castelle.
The priori of Blak Chanons with the hospital of S. Leonardes.
The hospitale northwarde above Fosse bridge of the foundation of the marchantes of the toun, and dedicate to the Trinite.
The chapelle on Fosse bridge.
Ther was a fundation of an hospitale hard without the very side of Michelgate of the erecting of Syr Richard of York, mair of York, whom the communes of Yorkshir when they enterid into York by brenning of Fisscher gate in the reign of Henry the 7. woold have behedid. But the fundation was never finishid.
S. Marie Abbay without Boudom gate.
S. Andreas a house of chanons Gilbertines by Owse without Fisschargate.
Ther was a house of religion about one of the barres of Yorke, wherby the burgeges of York and the Henawdes that cam to war in aid of Edward the 3. faute, and divers were slain. I hard one say that it was a house of Whit monkes.
A chapelle and the toun haule above Ousebridg on the est ripe with a (aula civica) and an hospitale.
A chapelle or chirch on Ouse bridg.
Ouse bridg hath 6. archis.
From York to Aire-Mouth apon Ouse by water a 24. miles. Thens to Hulle 24. miles.
56 LELAND'S ITINERARY
From York to Borow Bridge [a] by water a 16. miles.
The west Part of the cite of York is this enclosid: first a turret, and so the waul rennith over the side of the dungeon of the castelle on the west side of Ouse right agayn the castelle on the este ripe. The plotte of this castelle is now caullid the old baile and the area and diches of it do manifestely appere. Betwixt the beginning of the firste part of this west waulle and Michel gate be ix. toures: and betwixt it and the ripe again of Owse be a xi. toures, and at this lower tower of the xi. ys a posterne gate: and the toure of it is right again the est toure to draw over the chaine on Owse betwixt them.
In this west part was a priory of blak monkes caullid the Trinite. Mauricius Panill was foundar there of in the 16. yere of William Rufus.
The nunnery of Clement Thorpe stode without the waul of the west part right again S. Andreas.
Ther was also not far from Michel gate a house of Blake freres.
The fraunches and liberties of Yorke streache far aboute them, especial by the enclosinges of certeyn ryvers thereabout. And one way it cummith to the very bridge of Tadcaster apon Warfe.
From York to Stokton [b] yn the moore a 3. miles by low pasture and moorisch ground.
Thens a 5. miles by much lyke ground, and so passid over a broke cumming from Shirifwottes Castelle quarters. The place wher I passid over it is communely caullid the Spitel, corruptly for hospitale.
A litle beyond that as about half a mile is Whitewelle village: [c] and a mile of on the right hond by a wood ys Kirkham.
Thereabout the feeldes for a miles space were inclosid, and sum woodes therabout.
Thens a 2. miles by fyrry to a bek caullid Crambek, cumming from Hinderskelle [d] Castelle stonding yn ground ful of
PART I 57
springes. This bek goith into Darwent not far of. Hinderskel [a] is 3. miles from Malton.
Malton is 26. miles from Hulle, xx. to Beverle, vj. to Hulle. Thens to Malton a 3. miles: and the ground is hilly there and daly, and plentiful of corne and pasture.
The toune of Malton stondith as I cam onto it on the hither side of Darwent, and hath a good market and 2. chapelles in it as members to the paroche chirch of Malton yet stonding, where the late priory yn old Malton was. It is a quarter of a mile above the toun on the same side of Darwent.
The castel of Malton hath been larg, as it apperith by the mine. There is at this tyme no habitation yn it, but a mene house for a farmer.
These men hath the lordship of Malton in partition. The Lord Clifford, Yevers, and one of the Coniers. But Yevers hath beside the hole lordship of old Malton.
Lord William Vescy and diverse of the Yevers wer buried at Malton. The old inheritaunce of the Yevers is Wotton Castelle yn the bisshoprik. Yevers hath also a goodly lordship by Mitford in Northumbreland caullid Berwik on the Hil. [b]
The Lord Vescy left a doughter that was maried to Aiton. and the doughter of Aiton was maryed to the Lord Bromfeld: and his 3. doughters to Clifford, Yevers, and Coniers of Sokburne.
Rie [c] cumming out of Blakmore passith by Rivers [d] Abbay, and takith in of the lift hand of it Ricolle: then Seven, then Costey and Pykering brooke.
Seven risith, as I could estimate, in the side of Blake More, and thens goith by Sinington, [e] wher the Lord Latimer hath a fair manor place a 4. miles from the town of Pykering: and about a mile above ... bridge on Ry goith ynto Rye water.
Costey springith in the egge of the very toun of Pykering at a place caullid Keldehedde, and goith ynto Rie a 2. miles beneth Pykering about Kyrkeby Minster. [f]
Pykering water risith in Blakemore and goith half a mile benethe Pikering into Costey.
[f] Kirkby Misperton.
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Mount Ferrant Castelle stoode 2. miles from Malton in the lordship and paroche of Byrdeshaul. [a] It is now clerely defacid, and bussches grow wher it stoode. This castelle sumtime belongid to the Lord Maulley, of the which stok ther were 8. yn succession, al by the name of Peter. The laste of these Peters left 2. doughters, wherof one was maried to Bigot, and the other to Salwaine. Bigot had yn division Mougreve with 8. tounelettes ther about the se cost longging to it, wherof Seton therby was one, he had also Mountferrate with Birdeshaul and Suadale lordship in Richemontshire, with other.
Saulwayne had for his part of Maulleys landes the barony of Eggeston [b] on Eske not far from Whitby, also Lokington, [c] Barugh, [d] not far from Watton on Hulle ryver (ther was ons a fair manor place of Maulleys at Barugh), Nessewik and the lordship of Dancaster: for the which Dancaster he tooke a lordship caullid ... of Percy, the which after by attaindure of one of the Percys cam thus to the kinges handes. For though Percys were restorid to their inheritaunce, yet they lost Dancaster as a peace got by exchaung or byinges.
The only house and lordship of Ceterington [e] was Bigotes of Yorkshir first inheritaunce there. For it longid afore to Bigot Erl Marescal, and so cam as landes entailid to the heire male to a younger brother of the Bigotes. Diverse of the Bigotes ly buried in the paroch chirch of Ceterington.
Sum say that Mount Ferrant was thus throuen doune. The 2. of the Bigotes of Ceterington after the death of Bigot Marescal did secretely woe and wan the wylle of one of the Albemarles doughters Erle of Holdernes. Wherapon Albemerle with great indignation, Bigot being absent, assaultid Mount Ferrant, wan it and rasid it: yet Bigot after made his peace with Albemarle: and had his doughtter by meane of intercessor, emong whom the prior of Watton was chifest, to whos house Bygot after for love impropriatid the personage of Byrdeshaule. And sum say that this Bigot made of the
PART I 59
manor place of Mougreve a castel in recompence of Mount Ferrant.
Mougreve [a] Castelle stondith on apon a craggy hille: and on ech side of it is an hille far higher then that whereon the castelle stondith on. The north hille on the toppe of it hath certen stones communely caullid Waddes Grave, whom the people there say to have bene a gigant and owner of Mougreve. There is by these stones a bekyn. Out of the mores by Mougreve cum doun by many springes, 2. bekkes, one of eche side of the castelle, and yn the valeys of the 2. great hilles. The one is caullid Sandbek, the other Estbek, and shortely after goith to the se that is not far of.
From Malton to Shirburne villag [b] about an 8. miles by champaine ground, fruteful of grass and corne, but litle or no wood. The Erle of Saresbyri was lord of Shirburn: and King Richard had it by Anne his wife.
From Shirburne by hilles on the right hond and low ground with carres on the lift hond a v. miles to Semar, [c] a great uplandisch toune, having a greate lake on the south west side of it. Whereof the toun takithe name. I saw yn the quire of the meane paroch chirch there a playn marble stone yn the quire, with an epitaphi yn French, wher were buried John Percy and Johan de Aton.
The manor place of the Percys at the west end of the chirch garth is large but of no riche building: the chapel yn it only ys welle buildid.
Thens a mile by meatly playn ground, and so 2. miles more yn a vale enclosid with stepe hilles on ech side to Scardeburg.
Scardeburg toune [d] though it be privilegid, yet it semith to be yn Pikering Lithe, for the castelle of Scardeburgh is countid of the jurisdition of Pikering, and the shore from Scardeburgh to the very point of Philaw [e] bridge by the se about a vj. miles from Scardeburgh toward Bridlington is of Pikering Lith jurisdiction. Scardeburg wher it is not defendid by the warth and the se is waullid a litle with ston, but most with diches and waules of yerth. In the toune to entre by land be but 2. gates: Newburgh gate, meately good, and Aldeburgh gate, very base. The toune stondith hole on
60 LELAND'S ITINERARY
a slaty clife: and shoith very fair to the se side. Ther is but one paroche chirch in the town, of our Lady, joyning almost to the castelle: it is very faire and is isled on the sides, and crosse islid, and hath 3. auncient towres for belles with pyramides of them: wherof 2. toures be at the west end of the chirch, and one yn the midle of the cross isle. There is a great chapelle by side by the Newborow gate.
There were yn the toun 3. howsis of freres, gray, blake and white.
At the est ende of the toune, on the one poynt of the bosom of the se, where the harborow for shippes is, stondith an exceding goodly larg and stronge castelle on a stepe rok, having but one way by the stepe slaty crag to cum to it. And or ever a man can entre aream Castelli ther be 2. toures, and betwixt eche of them a draw bridg, having stepe rok on eche side of them. In the first court is the arx and 3. toures and row, and then yoinith a waul to them, as an arme downe from the first courte to the point of the se cliffe, conteining in it vj. toures, wherof the 2. is square, and fulle of longging, and is caullid the Quenes Towre or lodging.
Without the first area is a great grene, conteyning (to reken down to the very shore) a xvj. acres, and yn it is a chapelle, and, beside, olde waulles of houses of office that stoode there. But of al the castelle the arx is the eldest and the strongest part, the entery of the castelle betwixt the draw bridges is such that with costes the se might cum round about the castelle, the which standith as a litle foreland or poynt betwixt 2. bayes.
At the south est point of Scarburgh toun by the shore is a bulwark, now yn ruine by the se rage, made by Richard the 3. that lay a while at Scardeburg Castelle, and, beside, began to waul a pece of the toun quadrato saxo.
Ther cummith by south este of the bulwark a rill of fresch water, and so goith ynto the se.
I hard there of an old mariner that Henry the First gave grete privilege to the town of Scardeburge.
The peere wherby socour is made for shippes is now sore decayid, and that almost yn the midle of it.
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The toune of Scardeburge is 36. miles from Hulle. 30. to Beverle and vj. to Hulle.
From Scardeburg to Robyn Huddes Bay [a] an 8. miles: and thens to Whitby, wher a new key and port is yn making of stone faullen down yn the rokkes thereby: and al this is cliffy shore: and so is the shore to Tese mouth thens just 16. miles, saving a 6. miles toward the mouth of Tese ryver.
From Scardeburg to Bridlington 9. miles al be cliffes to Flamborow, and so to the mouth of Bridlington haven.
As Flamburgh Point lyith, Bridlington lyith as nere to Scardeburgh as Flamburg doith.
Flamburg [b] is now taken rather for a maner place then a castelle.
From Bridlington to Hornesey [c] a xij. miles by ... shore.
Thens xviij. miles to Ravenspurgh, [d] and x. to Patrington, a toun of no market, yet having an havenet. Thens to Heddon haven a 6. miles, and 4. to Hulle.
Heddon [e] hath beene a fair haven toun: it standith a mile and more withyn the creke, that cummith out of Humbre ynto it.
The se crekes parting aboute the sayde toun did insulate it, and shippis lay aboute the toun: but now men cum to it by 3. bridges, wher it is evident to see that sum places wher the shippes lay be over growen with flagges and reades: and the haven is very sorely decayid.
There were 3. paroche chirchis in tyme of mynde: but now ther is but one of S. Augustine: but that is very fair.
And not far from this chirch garth appere tokens of a pile or castelle that was sumtyme ther for a defence of the town. The town hath yet greate privileges with a mair and bailives: but wher it had yn Edwarde the 3. dayes many good shippes and riche marchaunts, now there be but a few botes and no marchauntes of any estimation. Suaruing and choking of
[a] Robin Hood's Bay.
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the haven, and fier defacing much of the toun hath beene the decay of it.
Sum say that the staple of woulle of the north partes was ons ther. Treuth is that when Hulle began to flourish, Heddon decaied.
The Erle of Albemarle and Holdernes was lord of Heddon: and also of Skipton yn Craven at the same tyme.
This erle had a great maner place at Newton, a mile byneth Hedon, nerer to Humbre then it. for it stondith on the lower side of the creke: and Heddon on the upper.
Ther be 2. cantuarie prestes foundid by the Albemarles at Newton.
The Albemarles had also a castelle or great manor place at Skipsey [a] yn Holdernes, not far from the shore, a vj. or vij. miles from Bridlington.
The countery of Holdernes ys thus encludid. First by the confines on the shore betwixt Bridelington and Skipsey. Then for the Erles Dike, made by one of the Albemarles Erles of Holdernes: and this dyke ys a 3. or 4. miles from Bridlington, and goith withyn a litle of Frodingham-bridge of tymbre, the only bridge on Hulle water: so that the ende of the diche cummith with the water of it a litle above the bridg as Hulle ryver goith. It flouith at high springges to Frodingham bridge.
Then from this bridg that is a 2. miles or more byneth Dryfelde [b] the ryver of Hulle kepith yn the march of Holdernes to the very mouth of Hulle haven: and thens the marche of Holdernes is to Ravenspur the very mouth of Humbre: and thens the occean se to the shore bytwixt Skipsey and Bridlington.
From Scardeburg to Aiton [c] a 3. miles, wher cumming over Darwent I saw a manor place sumtyme longging to a knight caullid Aiton: now to the best of the Yevers. At this manor place is a tower or pile.
Thens to Brunston [d] a 3. or 4. miles: and a 3. miles to Wileton, [e] wher is a manor place with a tower longging to Cholmeley. This Cholmeley had much of one Hastinges (a knight) landes. This Cholmeley hath a howse also at Rollesley: and Cholmeley's father that now is was as an
PART I 63
hedde officer at Pykeringe, and setter up of his name yn that quarters.
Thens to Pykering: and moste of the ground from Scardeburg to Pykering was by hille and dale meate plentifull of corn and grasse but litle wood in sight.
The toune of Pykering [a] is large but not welle compact to gither. The greatest part of it with the paroch chirch and the castel is on the south est part of the broke renning thorough the toune, and standith on a great slaty hille. The other part of the toun is not so bigge as this: the brook rennith bytwixt them that sumtyme ragith, but it suagith shortely agayn: and a mile beneth the toun goith ynto Costey.
In Pykering Chirch I saw 2. or 3. tumbes of the Bruses, whereof one with his wife lay yn a chapel on the south syde of the quier. and he had a garland about his helmet. Ther was another of the Bruses biried in a chapel under an arch of the north side of the body of the quier: and there is a cantuarie bering his name.
The Deane of York hath by impropriation the personage of Pykering. to the which diverse chirchis of Pykering Lith doith homage.
The castelle stondith in an end of the town not far from the paroch chirch on the brow of the hille, under the which the broke rennith. In the first court of it be a 4. toures, of the which one is caullid Rosamunde's Toure.
In the ynner court be also a 4. toures, wherof the kepe is one. The castelle waulles and the toures be meatly welle, the logginges yn the ynner court that be of timbre be in mine, in this inner court is a chappelle and a cantuarie prest.
The castelle hath of a good continuance with the towne and lordship longgid to the Lancaster bloode: but who made the castelle or who was owner of it afore the Lancasters I could not lerne there. The castelle waulles now remaining seme to be of no very old building.
As I remembre I hard say that Richard the thirde lay sumtyme at this castelle, and sumtyme at Scardeburgh Castelle.
In the other part of the toune of Pykering passing over a
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brook by a stone bridg of v. arches I saw 2. thinges to be notid, the mines of a manor place, caullid Bruses-Haul, and a manor place of the Lascelles at Keldhed. The circuite of the paroch of Pykering goith up to the very browes of Blakmore, and is xx. miles in cumpace.
The park by the castelle side is more than vij. miles in cumpace but it is not welle wooddid.
The liberties of Pikering Lith and limites touchith to the very bridg of Philaw [a] by the shores side a 6. miles from Scardeburg toward Bridlington, and thens again by the shore to Scardeburg Castelle, and so upward toward Whiteby.
In another place toward the wald it goith to Normanby bridge.
And in another corner it goith to the very browes of Blakmore. So that I reken it sum way as good as a xx. miles in lenghth, at non pari latitudine.
And though yn sum part it passith over Darwent by Aiton, yet in another place toward Malton, Darwent doth exclud it.
And there I lernid of Mr. Conestable, that the cuntery lying on the north est side of Darwent from Shirburne [b] paroch to Stanford bridg on Darwent is of an hunderith, bering the name Hercrosse, and lyith bytwixt the woold and Ridale.
These houses of religion were in Pikering Lith on Darwent: Wikeham [c] a priory of nunnes, and Yeallingham, [d] a 2. miles lower on Darwent, a priory also of nunnes.
There stode lower on this ryver, but not in Pykering Lith, Malton and Kirkham priories.
From Pykering to Thornton bridge on Rie ryver a 3. miles. So that descending from Pykering toun I passid thorough a plain low medow lying in the same paroch: and I gessid it to be in cumpace a 4. miles.
But or I cam to Rie, [e] I passid over Costey water, that a mile lower then Pikering receyvith Pykering brok, a bigger water then it.
From Rie to Appleton a mile and more: and thens to
PART I 65
Hinderskel [a] a 2. miles and a half, part by low but most by high ground. There is a fair quadrant of stone having 4. toures buildid castelle like, but it is no ample thing. The latter building of it semith to have bene made by the Graystok, whos landes the Lord Dacres now hath.
The park of Hinderskel by my estimation is a 4. miles yn cumpace, and hath much fair yong wod yn it.
From Hinderskel to Shirhuten [b] Castelle a 4. miles, most by high ground.
A mile a this side Shirhuten I left on the right hond ... Mr. Gower's auncient manor place.
The castelle of Shirhuten, as I lernid there, was buildid by Rafe Nevill of Raby the first Erl of Westmerland of the Nevilles: and I hard that in his tyme he buildid or greatly augmentid or repairid 3. castelles by side.
There is a base court with houses of office afore the entering of the castelle.
The castelle self in the front is not dichid, but it stondith in loco utcunque edito.
I markid yn the fore front of the first area of the castelle self 3. great and high toures, of the which the gate house was the midle. In the secunde area ther be a 5. or 6. toures, and the stately staire up to the haul is very magnificent, and so is the haul it self, and al the residew of the house: in so much that I saw no house in the north so like a princely logginges.
I lernid ther that the stone that the castel was buildid with was fetchid from a quarre at Terington c a 2. miles of.
There is a park by the castel.
This castel was wel maintainid, by reason that the late Duke of Northfolk lay ther x. yers, and sins the Duk of Richemond.
From Shirhuten [b] to York vij. miles, al in the forest of Galtres, wherof 4. miles or more was low medowes and morisch ground ful of carres, the residew by better ground but not very high.
Owte of this side of the forest cummith as a drener of it Fosse water to York.
[b] Sherriff Hutton.
66 LELAND'S ITINERARY
I saw very litle wood yn this quarter of the forest.
There is a place in York caullid David Haul, assignid as a place of punischment for offenders in Galtres.
From York to Tollerton a lordship with a village longging to the office of the thesaurer of York Minster 8. miles by higher ground then the other part of Galtres, and reasonably woddid.
Then I saw on the right hond a 4. miles of the castelle of Crek, [a] gyven by King Ecbright to S. Cuthebert.
Ther remainith at this tyme smaul shew of any old castel that hath beene there. There is an haul with other offices and a great stable voltid with stone of a meatly auncyent building. The great squar tower that is thereby, as in the toppe of the hille and supplement of logginges, is very fair, and was erectid totally by Neville Bisshop of Duresme.
There is a park, and the circuite of the lordship is 7. miles: the value being a 40li. by the yere.
From Tollerton I passid a 2. miles farther in the forest of Galtres, and ther it extendith no farther.
About this place loking on the left hand I saw Miton village, [b] that is x. miles by north west from York: wherby the Scottes had victory of the Englisch host in Edward the 2. tyme.
Thens a miles to Herperby village [c] by meatly good corn ground, pasture, and medow, and sum wooddes.
Thens to Thornton bridge, of 3. arches on the depe and swift stream of Swale, a mile.
And thens to Topeclif, [d] an uplandisch toune, a 3. miles, wher I cam over Swale by bridge of tymbre.
The praty manor place of Topclif stondith on a hille about half a mile from the toune, almost on the ripe of Swale,
The last Erl of Northumbreland did cost on this house.
There long 2. partes to this manor, the bigger wherof is a 6. or 7. miles in cumpace, and is welle wooddid.
From Topclif to Brakenbyri, [e] wher Master Lacelles hath
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buildid a very praty house, a 4. miles: and hard therby rennith Wisk ryver, and devidith the lordshipes of Brakenbyri and Kirkby Wisk.
I saw the smaul market toun of Tresk [a] on the right hond about a mile from Brakenbyri.
At Tresk was a great castel of the Lord Mowbrays. And there is a park with praty wood about it.
There is much land about that quarter, holden of the signiorie of Tresk.
The broke caullid Coddebek rising yn the browes of Blake More therby cummith by Tresk, and after goith into Willowebek ryver.
From Kirkeby Wisk to Northalverton [b] a 4. miles by pasture and corne ground.
I markid by much of the way as I roode from Tollerton onto Wisk bridg, most communely caullid Smithon bridge, that I passid yn a meately fertile valley bytwixt Blakemore hilles by est, and Richemontshir hilles by weste, a good distance being bytwixt them.
The towne of Northalverton is yn one fair long streate lying by south and north.
The paroch chirch of it is large, but in it I saw no tumbes of noble men yn it.
Ther was a house of freres in the est side of the toune.
And yn the same coste but a mile or I cam ynto the towne I saw the Hospitale of S foundid by ... Bisshop of Dyrham.
At the west side of Northalverton a litle from the chirch is the Bisshop of Dyrham's palace, strong of building and welle motid.
And a 2. flite shottes west north west from it be diches and the dungeon hillewher the castelle of Alverton sumtyme stoode. No part of the walles thereof now apperith.
There cummith a very litle bek thorough the toun of Northalverton as from est to west, and is communely caullid Sunnebek.
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A litle by north without Alverton toun is a bridg of one arch of stone, thorough the which cummith a bygger broke then Sunnebek, and rising partely out of the est cummith toward the west, and passith thorough the medowes bytwixt the castelle hilles and the bisshopes palace, and therabout receyvith Sunnebek into it, and within half a mile lower goith into Wisk.
Northalvertonshir is holely of the dition of the Bisshop of Duresme, and such gentilmen as have landes there be of the holde of the bisshop.
These gentilmen be of most name in Northalvertonshire: Strangwaise of Harlesey, [a] wher Strangwaise the juge buildid a praty castelle.
Coniers at ...
Vincent in Smithon [b] paroch a litle beyond Smithon bridge.
Thwaites, whose house I saw on the lift hond, a litle a this side Smithon bridge.
Ther is very litle wood yn Northalvertonshire: and but one park at Huten [c] now withoute deere.
The shire of Northalverton strechith one way from within a litle of Ripon nere to Tese bank, and on the est is limitid with Blakemore-hilles, and on the west with Richemontshire.
The place caullid Cowton More, wher, as sum say, was the feld of the standard bytwixt the Englisch menne and the Scottisch, is, as I lernid, a 4. miles by north west from Alverton.
There is good corne in Northalverton, yet a great peace of the ground that I saw at hand bytwixt Northalverton and Smithon bridge is low pasture and mores, wherof part beere sum fyrres.
From Alverton to Smithon [d] bridge a 6. miles, wher Wisk rennith cumming a 6. miles of by este from Smithon.
Thens a 3. miles to the trajectus over Tese to Sokbourne.
Notable bridges on Tese.
Yareham [e] bridg of stone, a 3. miles above Stokton, made, as I hard, by Bisshop Skirlow.
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Yorkshire, N. R.
Croft bridge. Perse [a] bridge.
Sokburne [b] where as the eldest house is of the Coniers, with the demains about it, of a mile cumpace of exceding plesaunt ground, is almost made an isle as Tese ryver windedith about it.
A litle beneth the maner place is a great were for fisch.
In the paroche chirch of Sokbourn is the tumbe of Sir John Coniers, that maried Elisabeth, eldest daughter to Bromflete Lord S. John, and Bromflet, as I saw it ons writen, was made Lord Vescy by King Henry the 6. for he had much of the Lord Vescy land by mariyng the doughter and heir of Aton a knight, that came lineally of a doughter.
Anastasia the 2d. doughter was maried to the Lord Clifforde, and Katarine to Eure.
The house and land of Sokburn hath bene of auncient tyme the very inheritaunce of the Coniers, whos name (as I lernyd of hymself) is in auncient writinges Congres not Coniers.
From Sokburn to Niseham [c] apon Tese a 3. miles: and then a v. miles to Darington by pure good corne.
Darington [d] bridge of stone is, as I remembre, of 3. arches, it is the best market town in the bisshoprick, saving Duresme.
There is an exceding long and fair altare stone de vario marmore, hoc est, nigro albis maculis distincto, at the high altare in the collegiate paroche chirch of Darington.
There is a dene longging to this college and ... prebendaries.
The Bisshop of Duresme hath a praty palace in this toune.
From Darlington to Acheland [e] 8. good miles by resonable good corne and pasture.
A mile a this side Akeland Castelle I cam over a bridg of one great arch on Gaundelesse [f] a praty ryver rising a vj. miles of by west: and renning by the south side of Akeland Castelle goith a litle beneth it to the great streame of Were. [g]
Gaundeles rising by west cummith by Westakeland, [h] by S. Helenes Akeland, [i] by S. Andreas Akeland, [j] and by Bisshop Akelande.
[e] Bishop Auckland.
[h] West Auckland.
[i] St. Helen's Auckland.
[j] St. Andrew's Auckland
70 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The towne self of Akeland is of no estimation, yet is ther a praty market of corne.
It standith on a praty hille bytween 2. ryvers, wherof Were lyith on the north side, and Gauitdelesse on the south, and an arow shot or more benethe they meete and make one streame, and ren to the este. And ech of these rivers hath an hille by it, so that Bisshop Castelle Akeland standith on a litle hille bytwixt 2. great hills.
There was of very auncient a manor place logging to the Bisshop of Duresme at Akeland. Antonius de Beke began first to encastellate it, he made the greaut haulle, there be divers pillors of blak marble spekelid with white, and the exceding fair gret chaumbre with other there.
He made also an exceding goodly chapelle ther of stone welle squarid, and a college with dene and prebendes yn it, and a quadrant on the south west side of the castell for ministers of the college.
Skerlaw, Bisshop of Duresme, made the goodly gate house at entering ynto the castelle of Akeland.
There is a fair park by the castelle having falow dere, wild bulles and kin.
From Bisshop Akeland to Walsingham [a] a 7. miles, thens to Frosterley 2. milys, thens to Stanhop [b] 2. miles, thens to Estgate 2. miles, thens to Westgate 2. miles, thens to Werdale Chapel [d] 2. miles; and al these places, saving Werdale Chapell, be on the north side of Were.
The Bisshop of Duresme hath a praty square pile on the north side of Were ryver caullid the Westgate, and thereby is a parke rudely enclosid with stone of a 12. or 14. miles yn cumpace: it is xvj. miles up in Were Dale from Akeland Castelle.
There be, as I hard, sum litle ferme holdes in this park.
On the side of Were river is Stanop. Stanop [e] is xij. miles from Akeland: and is the hedde paroch of Werdale.
Woulsingham [f] on Were sumtime a smaul market, now none, is a vij. miles above Akeland.
[c] East Gate.
[d] St. John's Weardale.
PART I 71
The ryver of Were risith a 8. miles above Stanope or more. And though the upper part of Weredale be not very fertile of come; yet ys there very fine gresse in the dale self wher the ryver passith.
The very hedde of Were risith of 2. smaul waters, Burnhop [a] and Kelope. [b] Burnhop cummith by south and Kelhop by north, they 2. joining make Were. Ther cummith also Welop [c] bek in by Kelhop.
There resorte many redde dere stragelers to the mountaines of Weredale.
Weredale lying as pece of the west marches of the bisshoprik toward Westmerland is wel wooddid: and so be the quarters of Akeland: for by the name it apperith to have beene ful of okes.
Binchester now a poore villag stondith on the south side of Were, and is but half a mile beneth Castelle Akeland.
It stondith on the brow of an hille, and there I saw, as I roode on the south side, a litle fosse, and inditia of old buildinges.
In the ploughid feeldes hard by thys village hath and be founde Romaine coynes, and other many tokens of antiquite.
Betwixt Akeland and Bincester is an exceding fair bridg of one arch apon Were. There is another a litle above Duresme caullid Thunderland Bridge.
From Binchester to Branspeth [d] 4. miles, al by mountaine ground, as is about Akeland, and not fertile of corne, but welle woddid.
Ar I cam by a mile and more to Branspeth I passid by a ford over Were ryver.
The village and castelle of Branspeth stondith on a rokky among hilles higher then it.
On the southe west part of the castelle cummith doune a litle bek out o the rokkes and hilles not far of.
The castelle of Branspeth is stronly set and buildid, and hath 2. courtes of high building. Ther is a litle mote that hemmith a great peice of the first court. In this court be 3. toures of logging, and 3. smaule ad ornamentum.
72 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The pleasure of the castelle is in the 2. court: and entering into it by a great toure I saw in schochin in the fronte of it a lion rampaunt. Sum say that Rafe Nevile the first Erle of Westmerland buildid much of this house.
The erle that is now hath set a new peace of worke to it. In the paroch chirch of S. Brandon at Branspeth be dyvers tumbes of the Nevilles.
In the quier is an high tumbe of one of them porturid with his wife. This Neville lakkid heires males, wherapon a great concertation rose bytwixt the next heire male and one of the Gascoynes.
There lyith also in a chapelle on the south side of the quier a Countes of Westmerland sister to Bouth Archebisshop of York. There lyith in that chapelle also the Lord Neville, father to the erle that is now. This Lorde Nevile died his father the erle yet lyving: wherapon the erle toke much thought and dyed at Horneby [a] Castelle in Richemontshir, and ther is buried in the paroche chirch.
The Erle of Westmerland that is now had an elder brother, and he lyith in a litle tumbe of marble by the high altare on the south side. And at the feete of hym be buried 4. childern of the erles that now lyvith.
I hard at Branspeth that Rafe the first Erle of Westemerland was buried at his college of Stanethrop [b] by Raby. And that another of them was buried at the freres of North-Alverton. [c]
From Branspeth to Duresme about a 3. miles.
Or ever I cam nere Duresme [d] by half a mile and more I passid over a bridge of one great arche, and another smaul, stonding on a praty river, caullid Dernesse alias Devernesse, and a litle above that cam Broune river ynto it.
Broune risith above Repaire Park, and so cumming by it goith after into Dernesse.
Dernesse risith ... and goith into Were at ...
The towne self of Duresme stondith on a rokky hille: and stondith as men cum from the south cuntre on the north ripe of Were: the which water so with his course naturale in a botom windith about, that from Elvet a greate stone bridge
PART I 73
of 14. arches it crepith about the toune to Framagate bridge Durham. of 3. arches also on Were, that betwixt thes 2. bridges or a litle lower at S. Nicolas the toune except the lenght of an arow shot is brought in insulam: and sum hold opinion, that of auncient tyme Were ran from the place wher now Elvet bridge is straite down by S. Nicolas now stonding on a hille: and that the other course, part for pollicy and part by digging of stones for building of the town and minstre, was made a valley, and so the water-course was conveyid that way, but I approve not ful this conjecture.
The close itself of the minstre on the highest part of the hille is welle waullid, and hath diverse fair gates. The chirch self and the cloister be very strong and fair: and at the very est end of the chirch is a crosse isle by side the midle crosse isle the minstre chirch.
The castelle stondith stately on the north est side of the minstre, and Were rennith under it. The kepe stondith a loft and is state buildid of viij. square fascion, and 4. highes of logginges. Bisshop Fox did much reparation of this dungeon: and he made beside in the castelle a new kychen with the offices and many praty chaumbers.
Tunstal hath also done cost on the dungeon and other places of the castel, and hath buildid a goodly new galery and a stately stair to it, and made an exceding strong gate of yren to the castelle.
In that part of Duresme toun that is almost exclosid with Were be 3. paroch chirches and a chapell. S. Oswaldes is countid to be auncient. There be a 3. paroche chirches mo in the suburbe.
The greatest suburbe is by Elvet bridg, and hath certen smaul streates.
The suburbe over Framagate bridg hath 3. partes, the south streat on the lift hand, the crosse streate on the midle toward Akeland, and the 3. on the right hand, bering the name of Framagate, and leding to Chester [a] and to New-Castelle.
The building of Duresme toun is meately strong, but it is nother high nor of costely werke. There appere sum peaces
74 LELAND'S ITINERARY
of waulles of the toune joyning to a gate of the palace waul, but the toun it self with yn the peninsula is but a smaul thing in respect of cumpace of al the stately close: so that it alonly may be caullid the waullid toune of Duresme.
In the sanctuary or holy chirch yard or sanctuarie of Duresme be very many auncient tumbes, it stondith on the south side of the minster: and at the hedde of one of them is a crosse of a 7. fote longe, that hath had an inscription of diverse rowes yn it, but the scripture cannot be red. Sum say that this crosse was brought out of the holy chirch yarde of Lindisfarn isle.
Weremouth [a] is about an 8. miles from Duresme, and about a vj. from Tinemouth, or rather Newcastel.
There is no bridge memorable on Were beneth Duresme but Chester bridge. Were cummith within a quarter of a mile of the toun self of Chester.
From Duresme over Framagate bridge to Chester in the Streate, [b] partely by a litle corne ground, but most by mountainiouse pasture and sum mores and firres.
Or I cam in Chester I saw scant half a mile of it Lomeley [c] Castel apon an hil, having praty wood about it, and about Chester self is likewise sum wodde. The toune of Chester is chiefly one streate of very meane building yn lenght: ther is beside a smaul streat or 2. about the chirch; that is collegiatid, and hath a dene and prebendaries, but it is of a very meane building; and yn the body of the chirch is a tumbe with the image of a bisshop yn token that S. Cuthberth ons was buried or remained in his feretre there.
At the very ende of the toune I passid over Conebrooke, and ther is a fair stone bridge of 3. arches over it.
Thens to Geteshed [d] vij. miles by montaniouse ground with pasture, heth, more, and fyrres. And a litle a this side Getehed is a great cole pit.
From Duresme over Elvet bridge to Sunderland bridges a
PART I 75
2. miles and a half, there Were is devidid ynto 2. armes, and after shortely meating makith an isle. The first bridg as I cam over was but of one arche, the other was of 3. Thens a mile and more of I cam over Burne broke that goith ynto Were therabout, and a litle above on the hil is Burneham Claxton's house. Burnham is a man of a hunderith mark land by the yere. Then I rode thorough a great wod stonding on a hille, and so cam by hilly, morisch and hethy ground to S. Andres Akeland [a] 8. miles from Duresme: and left hard on my right hond one of the parkes of Akeland waullid with stone.
At S. Andres Akeland the Dene of Akeland hath a great house: especially for barnes and other houses of husbondry.
From S. Andres Akeland to Raby Castel 5. miles, part by arable but more by pastures and morisch hilly ground baren of wood. Raby is the largest castel of logginges in al the north cuntery, and is of a strong building, but not set other on hil or very strong ground.
As I enterid by a causey into it ther was a litle stagne on the right hond: and in the first area were but 2. toures, one at ech ende as entres, and no other buildid; yn the 2. area as in entering was a great gate of iren with a tour, and 2. or 3. mo on the right hond.
Then were al the chief toures of the 3. court as in the hart of the castel. The haul and al the houses of offices be large and stately: and in the haul I saw an incredible great beame of an hart. The great chaumber was exceding large, but now it is fals rofid and devidid into 2. or 3. partes. I saw ther a litle chaumber wherin was in windowes of colerid glasse al the petigre of the Nevilles: but it is now taken doun and glasid with clere glasse.
There is a touer in the castel having the mark of 2. capitale B from Berthram Bulmer.
There is another tower bering the name of Jane, bastard sister to Henry the 4. and wife to Rafe Nevile the first Erl of Westmerland.
Ther long 3. parkes to Raby wherof 2. be plehishid with dere. The midle park hath a lodge in it.
And thereby is a chace bering the name of Langeley, [b] and hath falow dere: it is a 3. miles in lenght.
[a] St. Andrew's Auckland.
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The king hath a forest of redde deere yn the more land at Midleton [a] an viij. miles west from Daraby. Dr. Noteres is parson of Midleton.
Stanthorp [b] a smaul market toun is about half a mile from Raby. Here is a collegiate chirch, having now a body and 2. isles. I hard that afore Rafe of Raby tyme ther was that alonly that now is the south isle.
In this south isle, as I hard, was buried the grauntfather and grandedam of Rafe Raby, and they made a cantuarie there. In the waul of this isle appere the tumbes and images of 3. ladys, wherof one hath a crounet, and a tumbe of a man child, and a flat tumbe, varii marmoris. Ther is a flat tumbe also with a playn image of brasse and a scripture, wher is buried Richard sun and heire to Edward Lord of Bergevenny.
This Edward was the fift sun of Daraby. Johanna Bewfort was his mother. This Edward had another sun caullid George, and was lord after: and he had Georg also lord, and he left Henry now Lorde of Bergevenny.
John by Rafes first wife was Lord Neville. Richard by Johan his 2. wife was Erle of Saresbyri. Robert was Bisshop of Duresme. George was Lord Latimer. Edward was Lord Bergevenny, and, as I remembre, Rafe had William that was Lord Falconbridge. Rafe Neville the first Erl of Westmorland of that name is buried yn a right stately tumbe of alabaster yn the quire of Stanthorp College, and Margarete his first wife on the lift hond of hym: and on the right hond lyith the image of Johan his 2. wife, but she is buried at Lincoln by her mother Catarine Swineford Duches of Lancaster.
This Johan erectid the very house self of the college of Stanthorp, [b] it is set on the north side of the collegiate chirch, and is strongly buildid al of stone.
Ther rennith by the north side of the college a bek caullid Langley Bek. it risith a 5. miles of by west in the paroch of Midleton, [a] and cumming thorough Langeley takith the name of it, and a mile or more beneth goith into Tese lower then Salaby [c] Mr. Brakenbyris place.
From Stanthorp to Barnardes Castel [d] by meately good come and pasture 5. miles. This is a meatly praty toun,
[d] Barnard Castle.
PART I 77
having a good market and meatly welle buildid. The toun self is but a part of Gaineford paroch, wher the hed chirch is 6. miles lower on Tese and in the bisshoprike. The castelle of Barnard stondith stately apon Tese. The first area hath no very notable thing yn it, but the fair chapelle, wher be 2. cantuaries. In the midle of the body of this chapel is a fair marble tumbe with an image and an inscription about it yn French. Ther is another in the south waul of the body of the chapelle of fre stone, with an image of the same. Sum say that they were of the Bailliolles. The inner area is very large, and partely motid and welle furnishid with toures of great logging. Ther belong 2. parkes to this castelle; the one is caullid Marwood, and thereby is a chace that berith also the name of Marwood, and that goith on Tese ripe up into Tesedale.
There is but a hil betwixt the chaces of Langeley and Marwod.
This is by a nere estimation the course of Tese:
Yade More hath the hedde of Tese, then it takith a course emong rokkes, and reseyving divers other smaul hopes or bekkes, and cummith much by wild ground for a 8. or x. miles to AEgleston [a], bridge wel archid: then to Barnard Castel bridge very fair of 3. arches: then to Perse b bridge sumtime of 5. arches, but a late made new of 3. arches.
There is a prati chapel of our Lady hard by Perse [b] bridg of the fundation of John Bailliol King of Scottes.
Thens to Crofte bridge 5. miles; and so to Yarham [c] bridge a ... miles; and thens to Stokton, wher is a fery, 3. miles; and so a 4. miles to Tesemouth.
From Barnardes Castelle over the right fair bridge on Tese of 3. arches I enterid straite into Richemontshire, that stil streaccith up with that ripe to the very hed of Tese.
From this bridge I ridde a mile on the stony and rokky bank of Tese to the bek caullid Thuresgylle, a mile from Barnardes Castelle, and there it hath a bridge of one arche and straite enterith into Tese.
The priory of Egleston [d] joinith hard to this bekk and also hanggith over the high bank of Tese.
[d] Eggleston Abbey.
78 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Ther is meatly good wood on eche side of Tese about Barnardes Castel.
I saw in the body of the chirch of Egleston to very fair tumbes of gray marble. In the greatter was buried, as I lernid, one Syr Rafe Bowes, and yn the lesser one of the Rokesbys.
Hard under the clif by Egleston is found on eche side of Tese very fair marble, wont to be taken up booth by marbelers of Barnardes Castelle and of Egleston, and partly to have be wrought by them, and partely sold onwrought to other.
Out of a booke of Mr. Garter's.
One of the Bigottes Erle Mareschal was founder of Chartmail [a] Priory.
One of the Nevilles Lord of Midleham was founder of Coverham Priory.
One Theobald was founder of Camsey [b] in Southfolk: and by him Lord Willoughby.
Ingelramus Lord Coucy was Erle of Bedeford anno D. 1337.
From Egleston to Gritey bridge [c] of 2. or 3. arches a 2. mile by pasture, corn and woode.
Gretey is a village standing on Watheling-streate, and hath the name of Gretey ryver that rennith thorough it, and by Mr. Rokesby's [d] place goith ynto Tese.
There is a park hard thereby waullid with stone caullid Bigenelle [e] Park, it longgith to the Lord Scrope.
There apperith manifestly in diverse places by Gretey ...
From Gretey to Ravenswath [f] a v. miles, and ther passing over the praty river of Ravenswath I cam to the village and castelle of Ravenswath.
This ryver risith a 7. or 8. miles of the castel in the hilles by west north west: and passing a 3. miles lower goith into Swale, wher the ryver of Swale is nerest to Ravenswath Castel it is a 3. miles of.
[c] Greta Bridge.
PART I 79
The castelle excepting 2. or 3. square towers and a fair stable with a conduct commyng to the haul syde hathe no thinge memorable in it. There is a parke by 3. miles in compase.
From Ravenswath to Richemont [a] 3. long miles, by a mile wherof I ridde thorough a greate woodde on a hille, and ther were dyverse wilde brookes renning thorough stones and resorting to Swale. The grounde betwixt Ravenswath and Richemont ful of hilles, sum good corn, and much more.
I cam thoroug a great long strete in Richemont or I cam to the top of the hille, where the best of the toune caullid the Bailly and the Castelle. Sum think that the place wher the Baily was ons extima area castelli, and sins buildid with houses; waullid it was, but the waul is now decayid. The names and partes of 4. or 5. gates yet remaine.
There is a chapel in Richemont toune with straung figures in the waulles of it. The people there dreme that it was ons a temple of ijdoles.
Gillings, [b] wher some thinke the lordes manor was afore the Conquest is a 2. miles from the toune of Richemount.
From Richemont to Midleham first a mile by ille rokky ground, but first over Richemont bridge of 4. arches, and then vij. miles al by mory grounde and litle wood nere in sight.
A litle or ever I cam to Midleham [c] I passid over Ure by a ford.
Midleham is a praty market toun and standith on a rokky hille, on the top wherof is the castel meately welle dikid.
Al the utter part of the castelle was of the very new setting of the Lord Neville caullid Darabi. The ynner part of Midleham Castel was of an auncient building of the Fitzrandolp.
From Midleham to Wenslaw [d] about a mile, and ther is a great bridge of stone over it made many yere sins by a good person of Wencelaw, caullid Alwine.
To Bolton a 3. miles. The toun is very rude: but the castelle, as no great howse, is al compactid in 4. or 5. towers. Ther is a praty parke hard by it.
Thens to a place in a great rok a 2. myles of wher my
80 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Lord Scrop sekethe for leade ... to Midleham ... poor part ...
From Midleham to Gervalx [a] Abbay a 2. miles, most by enclosid pastures.
A little beneth Midleham I went over Cover ryver: and therby, on the lift hond, it went into Ure.
Thens to Masseham, [b] a praty quik market town and a faire chirch, a 4. miles, by wood, pasture and sum good corne.
At the ende of Masseham townlet I passid over a fair ryver caullid Bourne. It goith into Ure therby a litle byneth the bridg.
The lordship of one of the Aldeborows lyith agayn the ripa as I cam super Burn, wher it goith into Ure. Thens to Gruelle Thorp [c] a 3. or 4. miles bi hilly, and lingy, and sum morisch ground. And thens by much like ground a 3. miles to Ripon. After that I passid from Thorp half a mile I left hard on the lifte hond Kirkeby Malesart, [d] wher Moulbray had ons a great castelle. This paroch of Kirkby Malesart is large. The lordship now longith to the Erl of Darby.
The cuntrye thereabowght is welle wooddyd, from Midleham to Ripon and about Ripon.
The olde towne of Ripon stoode much by north and est, as I could gather by veuing of it.
The best of the toune now standith by west and southe.
The old abbay of Ripon stoode wher now is a chapelle of our Lady in a botom one close distant by ... from the new minstre.
One Marmaduke ... abbate of Fountaines, a man familiar with Salvage Archebisshop of York, obteinid this chapelle of hym and prebendaries of Ripon: and having it gyven onto hym and to his abbay pullid down the est end of it, a pece of exceding auncient wark, and buildid a fair pece of new werk with squarid stones for it, leving the west ende of very old werk stonding.
[d] Kirkby Malzeard.
PART I 81
He began also and finishid a very fair high waul of squarid ston at the est end of the garth, that this chapel stondith yn: and had thought to have enclosid the hole garth with a like waulle, and to have made there a celle of white monks. There lyethe one of the Englebys in the est end of this chapel, and there lyith another of them yn the chapelle garthe, and in the chapel singith a cantuarie prest.
One thing I much notid, that was 3. crossis standing in row at the est ende of the chapelle garth. They were thinges antiquissimi operis, and monumentes of sum notable men buried there: so that of al the old monasterie of Ripon and the toun I saw no likely tokens left after the depopulation of the Danes in that place, but only the waulles of owr Lady chapelle and the crosses.
The new minstre is set up of the hille, a fair and bigge pece of work: the body of the chirch of very late dayes made of a great widnesse by the treasour of the chirch and help of gentilmen of the cuntery.
Ther be 3. great old towres with pyramides on them, 2. at the west end, and one in the midle of the crosse isle.
The commune opinion is that Odo, Archebisshop of Cantewarbyri, cumming ynto the north partes with King had pitie of the desolation of Ripon chirch, and began or caussid a new work to be edified wher the minstre now is.
Howbeit the hole chirch that now standith indubitately was made sins the Conquest.
The minstre now servith for the paroch chirch.
The prebendaries houses be buildid in places nere to the minstre, and emong them the archebisshop hath a fair palace. And the vicars houses be by it in a fair quadrant of square stone buildid by Henry Bouet Archebisshop of York.
The paroch is of a very great cumpace, and goith one way to Pateley Bridg a vij. miles of.
In the paroch be sum chapelles of ease.
There hath bene about the north part of the olde towne a paroch church by the name of Alhalowes.
The very place wher the market stede and the hart of the towne is, was sumtyme caullid Holly-Hille of holy trees
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ther growing, whereby it apperith that this parte of the toun is of a newer buyldynge.
There apperith by est north est at the toune end of Ripon a great hille of yerth cast up in a playn close, bering now the name of Ilshow Hille, wher be al likelihod hath beene sum great forteres in the Britons tyme.
And at the very north ende of the toun in a side of a close behind the bisshops palace is another hille lyke a kepe of a castel, bering the name of Alhalowis Hilles. So that one of the hilles standith directely set agayn the conspect of the other.
Al the hole towne standith as I cam to it on the hither ripe of Skelle, a praty ryver cumming out of the west and renning by south on the toune first under a stone bridge, and then under a bridge of wood, and about a quarter of a mile lower into Ure, almost in the midle way betwixt North Bridg and Hewwik [a] Bridge of stone on Ure.
These 2. bridges on Ure be a 3. quartars of a myle distant one from the othar.
Ther be in the town of Ripon 3. hospitales, S. Marie Madalenes and S. Johns of the Archebisshops of York fundation. Magdalenes is on the hither ripe of Skelle as I cam to the town, but hard on it.
S. Johns is on the farther ripe of Skelle, and sumwhat nere onto it.
The hospital of S. Anne of the foundation of a gentilman of the cuntery thereby, whos landes be now disparkelid by heires general to divers men, is hard on the hither ripe of Skelle.
And about this part of the toun Skelle for mille dammes is devidid into 2. partes, and sone after cummith agayn to one botom.
There hath bene hard on the farther ripe of Skelle a great numbre of tainters for wollen clothes wont to be made on the town of Ripon: but now idelnes is sore encresid in the toun, and clothe making almost decayed.
The fair about the fest of S. Wolfride at Ripon is much celebratid for byenge of horses.
PART I 83
The toune itselfe of Ripon standith on ...
From Ripon to West Tanfeld about a 4. miles, part by wood part by pasture and corne.
And as I cam out of Ripon I passid by a great park of thArchbisshopes of York a vj. miles in cumpace.
And or ever I cam to West Tanfeld I passid by fery for lak of bridge.
The tounelet of West Tanfelde [a] standith on a cliving ground hard by Ure, a ryver of a colowr for the most part of soden water, by reason of the colowr and the morisch nature of the soile of Wencedale, [b] from whens it cummith.
In the chirch of West Tanfelde be dyverse tumbes in a chapelle on the north side of the chirch of the Marmions.
Wherof one is in an arch of the waulle, and that semith most auncient.
Then lyith there alone a lady with thapparaill of a voues.
And another lady with a crounet on hir hedde.
Then is there an high tumbe of alabaster in the midle of the chapel, wher, as I hard say, lyith one Lorde John Marmion.
And yn the south side of the chapelle is another tumbe of the Marmions buried alone.
There is a master and 2. cantuarie prestes at Weste Tanfelde of the fundation of one of the Marmions: and there is another cantuarie besides these.
The castelle of Tanfeld, or rather, as it is now, a meane manor place, stondith harde on the ripe of Ure, wher I saw no notable building but a fair tourid gate house and a haule of squarid stone.
One Claregenet, baily or surveier at Tanfeld, hath an auncient booke of the Erles of Richemont and the Marmions.
There be 2. fair parkes at Tanfeld and meately plenty of wood.
Est Tanfeld [c] lyith about a mile lower on Ure ryver. I hard say of one at West Tanfeld that ther were 3. doughtter heires to ... and that Marmion had one of them.
[a] West Tanfield.
[c] East Tanfield.
But loke wither that Marmion's landes descendid not to 3. doughters as heires generale, and that the Lord Fitzhugh nother were not ...
Passing over the ryver of Skelle, and soone after over Ure at a forde byneth Huewik bridge, I saw on the one hand the lordship of Huten Conyers [a] now longging to Malory, wher hath bene a parke but litle wood in it. This lordship longgith to the territorie and libertees of Northalverton, [b] and yet is it enclosid about with landes of Richemontshire.
There is a fair chapel of freestone on the farther ripe of Ure at the very end of Hewwik bridge, made bi an heremite that was a mason: it is not fulle finishid.
The marches of Richemontshire.
Richemontshire cummith one way to the very north bridge on Ure by Ripon. And it cummith another way to Borow bridge.
I saw on the other hand a lordship caullid, as I remembre, Gindene [c], wher is a fair manor place of stone of late tymes longging to the Warde, whos 3. heires general wer thus maried, one to Musgrave of Cumbreland and Westmerland, another to Neville of Thornton Bridge.
From Ginden lordeship to Borow-bridge by corne and pasture grounde a 3. miles.
There I passid over a great bridge of stone on Ure.
The toune is but a bare thing, it stondith on Wateling-Streate; almost at the very ende of this towne cummith a litle broke a 4. or 5. miles of by west caullid Tudlad, and rennith into Ure a very litle beneth Borough-bridge.
A litle withowt this towne on the west parte of Wateling-Streate standith 4. great maine stones wrought above in conum by mannes hand.
They be set in 3. several feldes at this tyme.
The first is a 20 foote by estimation in higeth, and an 18. foote in cumpace. The stone towarde the ground is sumwhat square, and so up to the midle, and then wrought with
[a] Hutton Conyers.
[c] ? Givendale,
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certen rude boltells in conum. But the very top is broken of a 3. or 4. foote by estimation. Other 2. of like shap stand in another feld a good but shot of: and the one of them is bigger then the other: and they stand within a 6. or 8. fote one of the other.
The fourth standith in a several feld a good stone cast from the other ij., and is bigger and higher then any of the other 3. I esteme it to the waite of a 5. waine lodes or more.
Inscription could I none find yn these stones: and if ther were it might be woren owt: for they be sore woren and scalid with wether.
I take to be trophea a Romanis posita in the side of Watheling-Streat, as yn a place moste occupied yn yorneying, and so most yn sighte.
They stonde all as loking ab occidente in orientem.
Aldeburge [a] is about a quarter of a mile from Boroughbridge. This was in the Romaines tyme a great cite on Watheling-stret, caullid Isuria Brigantum: and was waullid, wherof I saw vestigia quaedam, sed tenuia. It stoode by south west on Ure ryver.
The cumpace of it hath beene by estimation a mile.
It is now a smaul village: and in it a paroch chirch, wher ly buried 2. or 3. knightes of the Aldeburges (Syr Guliam Aldeburg, Syr Richard Aldeburgh), dwelling sumtyme in that paroch, whos heires yet remaine ther, but now men of meane landes.
There be now large feeldes, fruteful of corn, in the very places wher the howsing of the town was; and in these feeldes yereley be founde in ploughing many coynes of sylver and brasse of the Romaine stampe.
There hath bene found also sepultures, aquae ductus, and tessellata pavimenta: also spurres sytt with stones and many othar straunge things.
Ther is an hil in the side of the feld, wher the old toun was, caullid Stothart, as it had bene a kepe of a castle.
Gnaresburg [b] is a 3. or 4. miles from Aldeburgh, partely by pasture and corne and sum wood.
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I lefte a park on the lift hond a mile or I cam to Knarresburgh.
Ther be 2. parkes beside this that longith to Gnarresburgh, al be metely welle woddid. The toune self of Knarresburgh takith name of the rokky ground that it stondith on.
The toune is no great thing and meanely buildid, but the market ther is quik.
The castel stondith magnificently and strongely on a rok, and hath a very depe diche, hewing out of the rok, wher it is not defendid with the ryver of Nidde, that ther rennith in a deade stony botom.
I numberid a 11. or 12. towres in the waull of the castelle, and one very faire beside in the second area. There longe 2. bridgjes of stone to this towne, the upper is ...
A little above Marche, but on the farther ripe of Nidde, as I cam, is a welle of a wonderful nature, caullid Droping welle. For out of the great rokkes by it distillith water continually into it. This water is so could, and of such a nature, that what thing so ever faullith oute of the rokkes ynto this pitte, or ys caste in, or growith about the rokke and is touchid of this water, growith ynto stone: or els sum sand, or other fine ground that is about the rokkes, cummithe doune with the continualle droping of the springes in the rokkes, and clevith on such thinges as it takith, and so clevith aboute it and givith it by continuance the shape of a stone.
There was ons, as I hard say, a conduct of stone made to convey water from this welle over Nid to the priory of Knaresburgh; but this was decayed afore the dissolution of the house.
A litle beneth Marche-bridge on the hither side of Ure, as I cam, I saw an old chapelle yn a rok hewen owte of the mayne stone.
The priory selfe of Knarresburgh is a 3. quarters of a mile benethe Marche bridge ripa citeriori or I cam over Nidde. One Robert Flowr, sunne to one Tok Flour, that had beene 2. tymes mair of York, was the first beginner of this priory. He had beene afore a litle while a monk yn
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Newminster-Abbay in Morpeth, forsaking the landes and goodes of his father, to whom he was heir as eldest sunne, and desiring a solitarie life as an heremite resortid to the rokkes by the ryver of Nidde: and thither, apon opinion of sanctite of hym, resortid other: and then he institutid his companie in the sect of freres of the Order de Redemptione Captivorum, alias St. Trinitatis. Estoteville gave landes to this house, at such tyme as he lay at Knarresburgh: but wither Estoteville were Lord of Gnarresburgh, or had the custodie of it for the king, I cannot yet telle the certente.
Knarresburg now longgith to the Duchie of Lancaster.
King John was ons, as I harde say, of an il wille to this Robert Flour: but yet after he was beneficial to hym and to his. Sum of the Floures landes at York was gyven to this priory, and the name of the Flowres remaynid onto late dayes yn York.
The river sides of Nidde be welle woddid above Knarresburgh for a 2. or 3. miles: and above that to the hedde al the ground is baren for the most part of wood and corne, as forest ground ful of lynge, mores and mosses with stony hilles.
The forest from a mile beneth Gnarresburgh upward to very Bolton yn Craven is about a 20. miles yn lenght: and yn bredeth it is in sum places an viij. miles.
The principal wood of the forest is decayed.
Knarresburge is a 12. miles from Yorke.
Nidde goith into Ure corruptely there caullyd Ouse at Nunnemonk a 14. myles as the watar rennithe from Gnarresburgh towne.
From Gnarresborow over Nid ryver almost al by wood a mile to Plumton, [a] wher is a park and a fair house of stone with 2. tourres longging to the same. Plumton is now owner of it, a man of fair land: and lately augmentid by wedding the doughter and heir generale of the Babthorpes.
From thens passing a 2. miles by a stony soile, but sumwhat by fruteful of corne and grasse, I saw Spofford [b] half a mile of on the lift hond: wher the Erle of Northumbreland
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had a goodly lordship and manor place with a parke. The manor place was sore defacid in the tyme of the Civile Warre betwixt Henry the 6. and Edward the 4. by the Erle of Warwik, and Marquise Monteacute his brother, to whom, as I remember, the Percys landes were gyven.
Thens to Wetherby a smaul market toun on a hille, wher I saw crucem antiqui operis, a 3. or 4. miles by corne, pasture, and sum woode.
Thens over a stone bridge on Warfe to Aberford on Watheling-Streate a 6. miles, and or ever I cam to this thorough fare I saw by the space of 2. or 3. miles the very playn crest of Watheling-Streat.
Thens by the strait crest of Watheling-Streat a 3. miles or more, and then leving it on the righte hond I went to Brotherton (wher Thomas, sunne to King Edward the first, was borne, the quene by chaunce laboring as she went on hunting,) a 3. miles: and then by a causey of stone with divers bridges over it to dreane the low medow waters on the lift hand into Aire ryver about a mile to Fery-bridge, [a] wher the first Lord Fitzgualter of the Radecliffes was killid, flying from Cokbek-felde.
Then over Fery-bridge of vij. arches, under the which rennith Aire. The thorough fare there is no great thing but metely wel buildid.
Fery-bridge about half a mile from Pontfracte.
From Fery-bridge to Wentbridge ... miles, and so to Dancaster ... miles.
I sawe by certaine miles or I cam to Dancaster [b] the very mayne crest of Wathelynge strete.
From Dancaster to Rosington bridge of tymbre a 3. miles, al by champain ground.
Ther rennith a praty broke thorough this bridge, the heddes wherof risith of divers springes by west.
Rosington [c] chirch and village is a quarter of a mile of apon an hillet.
From Rosington to Blith [d] most by woody ground, part by corne, pasture, and medow, a 5. miles.
There renne to brookes as I cam into the very toun of
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Blith, the first that I cam over was the greatter, and cummithe thither from the weste: the other rennith hard by the utter houses of the towne; and this, as they told me, was namid Blith. And, as I remembre, it is the very self water that cummith from Werkensop, [a] or els Werkensop-water rennith into it.
Both thes waters mete togither a litle beneth Blithe towne in the medowes, and goith by Scroby [b] milles a 2. miles lower. The market towne of Blithe is pratily buildyd. In the priory at theste ende of the churche ar to be sene graves of noble-men.
I askid of a castelle that I hard say was sumtyme at Blith: but other answer I lernid not but that a litle or I cam ynto the toune ther apperith yn a wood sides token of an auncient building.
About a mile beyond Blith I passid by a park caullid Hodsak, [c] wher Master Clifton hath a fair house.
And a 2. miles farther much by hethy and then woddy ground I cam over a smaul broke with a litle stone bridge over it: and so strait into Werkensop, a praty market of 2. streates and metely welle buildid.
There is a fair park hard by it: and the beginninges of a fair manor place of squarid stone yn the same.
The olde castelle on a hille by the towne is clene downe and scant knowen wher it was.
This toune, castelle and large park longgid first to the Lovetotes, then, as sum say, to one of the Nevilles.
Then were the Furnivalx of certente owners there: and after the Talbotes.
The priorie of the blak chanons there was a thing of great buildinges, and a place of sepulture to the afore sayde noble men.
From Wirkensope I rode a longe by the pale that environith the great wood, caullid Roome-wood, by the space of 2. miles and more, and there I passid over a litle bridge, under the which rennith Wilebek-water. Wile hath 2. hedde springes, wherof the one risith not very far above Wilebek-abbay.
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The bigger risith farther of by west, and about Wilebek cum to one botom. The abbay of Wilebek [a] is aboute half a mile on the righte hond above the aforesaide bridge. One Waulley hath bought this wod of the king, it longgid, as I hard, to Werkensop Priory.
From this bridge to Cukeney-village [b] about a mile: and ther cam doun a broke from west, resorting, as one saide, to Wilebek streme, or Wilebek to it.
Thens a 2. miles by corne, wood, and pasture to Warsop [c] village, and there ran a belt; and this, as the other doith, resortith to Rufford-streame.
Thens to Maunsefeld, [d] a praty market toun of one paroche, by like ground a 3. miles: and there rennith in the midle of it a rille, and in the bottom, as I rode out of the towne a praty broke risynge west a 4. miles of and so it goith to Clypeston [e] a 3. miles lower and so to Rufford water.
[c] Market Warsop.
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PART I 93
Cumming out of the town of Maunsefeld [a] withyn a litle way I passid over the brooke that rennith yn the vale hard
94 LELAND'S ITINERARY
by it. This broke risith a 3. miles by west above the toun of Mauncefeld: and a 3. miles lower goith by Clypeston, as I harde.
Soone after I enterid, withyn the space of a mile or lesse, ynto the very thik of the woddy forest of Shirwood, [a] wher ys great game of deere. And so I rode a v. myles in the very woddy grounde of the forest, and so to a litle pore streat a through fare at the ende of this wood.
A litle or I cam to the ende of this woodde I left about a quarter of a mile on the right hond the ruines of Newstede, [b] a priory of chanons.
By this Newstede rennith Line [c] ryver, that cummith after to Lineton-Abbay, and thens to Notingham, and a litle beneth Notingham ynto Trent.
From the thorough fare sayde I roode over a low ground lyke a more by the space of halfe a mile, and then cumming to highe ground, and somewhat in sight by hilling I passid a mile, and then I roode by a mighty great park by the space almost of a 3. miles.
This park is caullid Beskewood, [d] and longith to the castelle and lordship of Notingham.
Thens I passid by ij. or 3. hilles by the mountenaunce of a 2. miles, and so to Notingham.
Notingham [e] is booth a large toun and welle buildid for tymber and plaster, and standith stately on a clyminge hille.
The market place and streate both for the building on the side of it, for the very great widenes of the streat, and the clene paving of it, is the most fairest withowt exception of al Inglande.
Ther be 3 paroches chirches St. Mary, St. Peter, St. Nicholas; but the chirch of S. Mary is excellent, new and uniforme yn work, and so many fair wyndowes yn it that no artificer can imagine to set mo ther. Southeward as to the water side be great clifes and rokkes of stones, that be large and very good to build with, and many houses sette on the toppes of them: and at the botom of them be great
[c] Leen, [d] Bestwood.
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caves wher many stones hath bene diggid out for buildinges yn the toune, and these caves be partly usyd for dwellynge howses, and partely for cellars and store houses.
Ther hath beene 3. houses of freres, as I remembre, whereof 2. stoode toward the west of the towne and not far from the castelle.
The towne hath be meately welle wallid with stone, and hath had dyvers gates; much of the waul is now down, and the gates saving 2. or 3.
There is no suburbe over the stone bridge of a arches over Line on the south side of the toune.
And loke as the towne and the ground that it stondith on and that that is about it by north is highe, so all the grownd on the south side without the towne is a playn low medow grownd where at rienne§ but litle lins and Trent river.
I have written yn a smaul peace of papire certayne other notable thinges of Notigham.
The castelle of Notingham stondith on a rokky hille as on the west side of the towne: and Line riveret goith by the rootes of it.
There is a great likelihod that the castelle was buildid of stones taken owt of the rokke and the great diches of it.
The base court is large and metly stronge.
And a stately bridge is there with pillers bering bestes and giantes over the diche into the secund warde: the fronter of the which warde in the entering is exceding stronge with toures and portecoleces.
Much part of the west side of this inner ward as the haul and other thinges be yn ruines.
The est side is stronge and well tourrid.
And so is the south side.
But the moste bewtifullest part and gallant building for lodgyng is on the northe side, wher Edward the 4. began a right sumptuus pece of stone work, of the which he clerely finichid one excellent goodly toure of 3. hightes yn building, and brought up the other part likewise from the foundation
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with stone and mervelus fair climpacid windoes to layyng of the first soyle for chambers, and ther lefte.
Then King Richard his brother as I hard ther forcid up apon that worke another peace of one lofte of tymber, making rounde wyndowes also of tymbre to the proportion of the aforesaid wyndoes of stone a good fundation for the newe tymbre windowes. So that surely this north part is an exceding fayre pece of worke.
The dungeon or kepe of the castel stondith by south and est, and is exceding strong & natura loci & opere. Ther is an old fair chapelle and a welle of a gret depthe. And there is also a choclea with a turret over it, wher the kepers of the castelle say Edwarde the thirdes band cam up thoroug the rok and toke the Erle Mortymer prisoner. Ther is yet a fair staire to go downe by the rok to the ripe of Line.
There be diverse buildinges bytwixt this dungeon and the ynner court of the castelle, and ther goith also doune a stair ynto the grounde, wher Davy Kinge of Scottes, as the castellanes say, was kept as a prisoner.
I markid in al 3. chapelles yn the castelle and 3. welles.
The litle ryver of Line and the great strem of Trente cum nere together in the medowe on the south side of the town: and when any land waters cum doune, much of the vale and medowis ther be over flowen.
The great streame of Trente and the great bridge over it with ... arches of stoone is not past a ij. flite shottes from the bridge of Line hard on the south side of Notingham.
Line ryver goith in the medowes a litle beneth Notingham ynto Trent.
Darby [a] is a xij. miles from Notingham, and at Sawlafery [b] almost in the midle way is a stone bridge with a causey and many arches partely over the very gutte of Trent, and partely for cumming to bridg by the medoes for rysinges of the Trent.
Bytuixt the bridge over Trent agayne Notingham onto Newark bridg that is xij. miles of is none, nor any from Newark to the mouth of Trent but passage all by ferris.
From Notingham to Leircester [c] xvj. miles.
From Notingham to Bever [d] a xij. long miles.
[b] Sawley Ferry.
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First I passid by low medowe and sum morisch grounde by the space of a 3. miles, and then by other 3. miles by an highe soile but not hilly, and about this 3. miles end I cam to a praty broke or ryveret caullid Myte, [a] that risith above that place a vj. miles or more by weste, and thens goith an eight miles lower into Trent not far above Newark-towne.
And cumming nere toward Mite brooke, I lefte about a mile on the lifte honde Aslacton [b] village in Notinghamshire, wher Thomas Cranmere, Archebisshop of Cantorbyri, was born, and where the heire of the Cranmers a man scant of xl. mark-lande by the yeres now dwellith.
Then passing a 2. miles by metely hygh and good soyle I cam to a villag caullid ... Thens 4. good miles to Bever, partely by marsch, medowe, and pasture, and corn grounde.
From Notyngham to Bever all by champaine grownd in syte.
The castelle of Bellevoire [c] standythe yn the utter part that way of Leircestershir, on the very knape of an highe hille, stepe up eche way, partely by nature, partely by working of mennes handes, as it may evidently be perceyvid. Wither ther were any castelle ther afore the Conquest or no, I am not sure, but surely I think rather no then ye.
Toterneius was the first enhabiter there after the Conquest.
Then it cam to Albeneius.
And from Albeney to Ros.
Of this descent and of the foundation of the priory in the village at the castelle foote I have writen a quire seperately.
The Lord Ros toke King Henry the vj. parte agayn King Edwarde, wherapon the Lord Roses landes stode as confiscate, King Edward prevayling, and Believer Castelle was put in keping to the Lord Hastinges, the which cumming thither apon a tyme to peruse the ground, and to lye in the castel, was sodenly repellid by Mr. Harington, a man of
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poure therabout, and frende to the Lord Rose. Wherapon the Lord Hastinges cam thither another tyme with a strong poure, and apon a raging wylle spoilid the castelle, defacing the rofes, and takyng the leades of them, wherwith they were al coverid. The Lord Hastinges caryed much of this leade to Ascheby de la Zouche, wher he much buildid. Then felle alle the castelle to ruine, and the tymbre of the rofes onkeverid rottid away, and the soile betwene the waulles at the last grue ful of elders, and no habitation was there tyl that of late dayes the Erle of Rutland hath made it fairer then ever it was. It is a straunge sighte to se be how many steppes of stone the way goith up from the village to the castel. In the castel be 2. faire gates. And the dungeon is a fair rounde tour now tumid to pleasure, as a place to walk yn, and to se al the countery aboute, and raylid about the round waull, and a garden plot in the midle.
There is a welle of a grete depth in the castelle, and the spring therof is very good.
The Lorde Hastinges likewise spoiled Stoke-Dawbeney, [a] a goodly maner place of the Lorde Roses, ... miles from Stanford, as I remembre, yn Rutheland, and caryid part of it also to Asscheby de la Zouche.
The vale of Bever, baren of wood, is large and very plentiful of good corne and grasse, and lyith in 3. shires, Leycester, Lincoln, and much in Notinghamshire.
The Erle of Rutheland hath in exchaunge for other landes of the kinges Croxton-Abbay 2. miles of, and a commaundery that longgid to S. Johns toward Newark, caullid the Egle, wher is a very praty manor place. But I gesse that it stondith low and foule.
From Beavoire Castelle to Croxton [b] 2. miles, and from Croxton I roode a 6. miles farther into a litle through fare caullid ... by good pasture and corn grounde, but all champaine and litle woode. Then I rode a 6. miles farther by like grounde, and there I enterid to the cawsey of Watheling-Streate, [c] that there goith betwixt
[a] Stoke Albany.
[b] Croxton Keyrial.
[c] Ermine Street.
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Ankester and Staunforde: [a] and thens a 3. mile to Castelle-forde-bridge [b] stil apon the great creste of Watheling-Streate, by champaine ground, corn, and gras, but litle or no woode.
Under Castelleford bridge of 3. arches of stone rennith a praty brooke. I can take it to be no other broke but Wasch, that cummith oute of Ruthelandshire, and not far beneth Staunford goith into Weland-ryver.
From Castelford-bridge to Stanford [a] stil on the crest of Watheling-strete a mile.
After that I passid out of Stanford I could not welle finde the creste of Watheling-Streate: but it went thens to Wedon in the streat, Touceter, [c] and, as I take it, to Stratford, Dunstable and S. Albanes.
From Stanford to Coly-Weston [d] 2. miles and a half by champayn ground.
From Coly-Weston to Dene moste by chaumpaine ground, corne and grasse, 6. miles.
From Dene to Foderingey [e] most by wood thorough a parte of Rokeingham-forest a 6. miles.
From Foderingey to Undale [f] a market toun, 2. miles.
Thens thorough Thorp-watermil [g] to a village caullid ... wher the king dynid in a meane house, a 4. or 5. miles al by chaumpain, good corn, and gresse.
Thens a ix. miles to Layton [h] in Huntingdonshire by like grounde.
Thens to Higham-Ferrares by like grounde an 8. miles.
And thens by like grounde a 6. miles to ... wher Mr. S. John dwellith, in a right pratie manor place, motid, wher I saw in the paroche chirch an old tumbe with an image in the quire waulle. Sum think that it was one of the Breusis. for Brewsis wer ons owners of that manor.
From thens to Bedford by much like ground an 8. miles, but nere to Bedford ther was sum good wood.
S. Paules in Bedeford is the principal chirch of the town, and was afore the Conqueste a college of prebendaries, and after ontyl the foundation of Newenham-Priory, scant a mile
[d] Colly Weston.
[g] Thorp Waterville.
[h] Leighton Bromeswold,
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beneth Bedford, on Use [a] ryver. The prebendaries had their howses aboute the circuite of the chirch of S. Paule: of the which the names of 2. prebendes remayne, and houses longging to them, though theyr staulles be in Lincoln. Roisia, wife to Paganus de Bello Campo, translatid the college of the chanons irregulars onto Newenham, [b] a college of chanons regular.
Simon de Bello Campo, sonne to Paganus and Rohisia, confirmid and performid the acte of his mother. He lyith afore the high altare of S. Paules Chirch in Bedeford with this epitaphie graven in bras and set on a flat marble stone:
De Bello Campo jacet hic sub marmore Simon Fundator de Newenham.
Paganus de Bello had the barony of Bedeford geven onto hym after the Conquest of King Wylliam.
Roisia, wife to Pagane, made the priorie of Chiksand, [c] and there was she buried in the chapitre house.
Cawdewelle-Priory a litel without Bedeforde, and a litle louer then it apon Use ripa dextra, was of the foundation of one of the Beauchampes also.
And the barony of Bedforde, with the castelle of Bedford, as the place of the inhabitation of the Bewchaumpes, remaynid in the name ontylle that Falcasius de Brent had the castelle and much rule there in John dayes and partely in Henry the 3. tyme.
And as I remember I redde in one place that this preferremen cam to Falcasius by a mariage.
But after that Falcasius and his brethern rebbellid again King Henry the 3. he toke the castel of Bedforde, and threw it doun, gyving the soile therof to one of the Beauchampes, to whom it appertaynid by inheritaunce.
At the laste the Beauchampes landes for lak of heires males came to 3. doughter of one of the Beauchaumpes where of the eldest was maryed to the Lord Mulbray.
The Lorde Latimer bouth the landes of the secund sister. She lyvid, as sum say, aelebs.
The thirde was maried to one Straunge. And Straunges
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part, for lak of heyre male, cam after onto 2. doughters, wherof Pigote maried the one, and Pateshulle the other.
And a pece of Pateshul's parte is syns cum to S. John, the best of that name in Bedfordeshire.
Boothe the hospitales in Bedeforde town were of the fundation of the townes men of Bedford.
The townes men of late dayes for bringging their fee ferme of Bedforde from xl li. by the yere to xx li. gave the title and patronage of one of the hospitales to Sir Reignald Bray: and now a late by that meanes it is brought into meere possession of the Lord Bray.
From Bedeford to Castelle-Mille a 2. miles, partely by pasture and corne, and partely by ...
A litle by weste from this mylle, upper on the ryver, be tokens wher a large castelle hath beene, Risingho-Castel; but there apperith no maner of part of building, but it is easi to se wher the area of the castelle was, and the great round hille wher the keepe or dungeon stoode is clene hole, and at this tyme there grouith many rugh busshes on it; and there is a mighty stronge and usid borow for greys or foxes.
And about a mile from thens, as the miliar sayed, is in a champain large feld toward north a diche and an hille, wher be likelihod was sum pile or forteress; yet, as the prior of Newenham told me, it was in the way betwixt Bedford and S. Neotes.
As far as I can lerne this castel by Castelle-Mille was the Lorde Beauchaumpes, Baron of Bedeford; but when it fell totally into ruine I have not yet lernid.
I now make conjecture rather that it was Espekes, founder of Wardon-Abbay in Bedfordeshire, and Rosses his heires. It was a peace of the landes of Wardon Abbey.
Mr. Gostewik is lorde now bothe of the castelle-mylle, and the castelle-garth, he bought it of the king. It was longging to the late suppressid abbay of Wardon in Bedefordeshire.
The ryver of Huse [a] againe the castelle brekith into 2.
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partes, and closing agayne a litle beneth the mylle makith an isleland. The lesser streame servith the mil. I passid first by a bridge of wood over this arme; and by and by over the mayne streame of Use-ryver by a timber bridg. And heere I lernid of the miliar that there was but another bridge of tymbre on Use at ... betwixt the mylle and S. Neotes.
After that I had passid over bothe these bridges I enterid onto sumwhat low ground, where were very fair medowes and pastures, and so Willington-village distant about half a mile from Castelle-Mylle.
The village self of Willington is commodiusly set in a fair gravely ground and fair wood in sum places about it. It longgid to the Beauchaumpes barons of Bedeforde and sins it came in partition to the Lorde Moulbray of Axholme.
Mr. Gostewik beyng borne in Willingtoun boute this lordeship of the Duke of Northfolk now lyving, and hath made a sumptuus new building of brike and tymbre a fundamentis in it, with a conduct of water derivid in leade pipes.
There was, not very far from the place wher now Mr. Gostewike hath buildid, an old manor place, wher in tymes paste sum of the Moulbrays lay for a starte. Now it is clene doune: but the place is notabely seene wher it was.
Mr. Gostewike hath purchacid there beside Willington a v. or vj. lordeshippes mo.
From Willington to Antehille-Castelle a xij. miles, almost al by chaumpayn grounde, part by corne, and parte by pasture, and sum baren hethy and sandy ground.
About the castelle self and the toune of Antehille is faire wood.
The castelle and town of Antehille [a] with diverse fair lordshippes thereabout longgid to the L. Fannope, a man of great renowne in the raigns of Henry the v. and Henry the syxte. This Lorde Fannope buildid this castelle as it is now stonding stately on an hilie, with a 4. or 5. faire towers of stone in the inner warde, beside the basse-courte, of such spoiles as it is saide that he wanne in Fraunce.
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It apperith by the este wyndow in the chapelle withyn the castelle of Anthille that he maried yn a noble blood: as I remembre she was the Duches of Excestre: it may chaunce that the manage of her was a great cause of the surnptuus building there.
This Lorde Fannope lyith at the blake freres in London, as I have lernid, and his wife on the right hand of hym and a childe.
How the Lorde Gray of Ruthin cam to this castelle and landes aboute it, I have hard these thinges folowing told for a verite.
In the tyme of the civile war betwixt King Henry the vi. and King Edwarde the iv. there was a battaile faught hard without the south suburbes of Northampton. The Lorde Fannope tooke totally King Henry's parte.
The Lorde Gray of Ruthine did the same in countenance. But a litle afore the feeld he practisid with King Edward, other saying that he had a title to the Lorde Fannopes landes at Antehil and there aboute, or depraving hym with false accusations so wrought with King Edwarde, that he with al his strong band of Walschemen felle to King Edwardes part, apon promise that if Edward wan the feelde he shaul have Antehil and such landes as Fannope had there.
Edwarde wan the feelde, and Gray opteinid Antehille cum pertinentiis: and stil encreasing in favor with King Edwarde was at the laste made by hym Erle of Kente.
But wither the Lord Fannope were slayn at this feelde or no I am not sure.
The market town of Antehill is praty and welle favoridly buildyd, and is a quarter of a mile distant from the castelle: part of it standith on a hille, but the most and the best parte in a valley.
There rennith a broket, as I remember, by the est part of the towne.
From Antehill to Dunestaple [a] a x. miles, or more. First I passid partely by wooddy ground and enclosures, but after moste parte by champaine grounde, and aboute a 2. miles from Dunestaple by est I toke thorough a fair uplandisch
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toune caullid ... and thens to Mergate al by chaumpaine, but for the moste parte fertile of come, a vj. miles.
Mergate [a] was a nunnery of late tyme, it standith on an hil in a faire woode hard by Watheling-Streate on the est side of it. Humfrey Boucher, base sunne to the late Lorde Berners, did much coste in translating of the priorie into a maner place: but he left it nothing endid.
Ther is a litle south of the priorie a long thorough fare on Watheling-Streate meately welle buildid for low housing.
About the midle of this town I passid half a mile by hilly ground as in the beginning of Chilterne, and ther I saw in a praty wood side S. Leonardes on the lifte hand, scant half a mile of toward north weste. Wher of late tyme was a priorie of nunnes. Master Page the knight hath it now in exchaunge for landes of his in Sutherey [b] about the quarters of Hampton-Courte.
Master Page hath translatid the house, and now much lyith there.
So forthe by Chiltern-hilles and woddes a 4. miles and a half to (? Gaddesden) wher the Lorde of Darby hath a praty maner place of tymbre.
And or I cam to this village I rode over a litle brooke [c] that cummith not very far of out of Chilterne-hilles and resortyth to Langeley where the friars were dwelling.
Thens by Chiltern-hilles and baren, wooddy, and ferne ground for the moste parte, the soile waxing chalky and flinty, as al Chiltern ys, a 3. miles to Barkhamstede.
Wher is an old large castelle in a roote of an hille stonding sum what low, and environid with a mote, to the which, as I coulde perceyve, part of the water of the ryver there hard by doth resorte.
I markid dyverse towers in the midle warde of the castelle, and the dungeon hille. But to my sighte it is much in ruine. The house of Bonehomes, caullid Asscheruge, [d] of the fundation of Edmunde, Erle of Cornewale, and owner of Berckhamstede-Castel, is about a mile of, and there the king
[a] Markyate Street.
[c] Gade R.
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lodgid. After that I had veuyd the castel, I passid over the ryver wher as is a bridge of wood. This ryver cummith by northe-west from Penley, a place yn Chiltern a 3. miles of, and so renning by the est ende of Barkhamstede towne goith doun a xij. miles southwarde to the more water about the quarters of Richemannesworthe.
Berkhamstede is one of the best markette townes in Hertfordeshire, and hath a longe streate metely welle buildid from the north to the south: and another, but sumwhat lesser, from the west to the est, where the ryver rennith.
The chirch is in the midle of the town.
In the botom of the ryver of eche side be very faire medowes.
Thens I passid by hilly, woddy, and much baren ground to Cheynes a v. miles of.
And or I cam very nere Cheneys [a] I passid over a little brooke, [b] and even in the valley by Cheineys over another, and they resorte aboute Richemansworth [c] to the moore [d] water.
The olde house of the Cheyneis is so translatid by my Lorde Russel, that hath that house on the right of his wife, that litle or nothing of it yn a maner remaynith ontranslatid: and a great deale of the house is even newly set up made of brike and timber: and fair logginges be new erectid in the gardein.
The house is within diverse places richely paintid with antique workes of white and blak.
And there be about the house 2. parkes, as I remembre.
The maner place stondeth at the west ende of the paroche chirche.
In the paroche on the northe side of it, as in a chapelle, be 2. tumbes of the Chaynes lordes of the manor ther, and the smaul village bering their name.
From Cheyneis I passid much good pasture and corne ground ... a pratie uplandisch town in a botom v. miles of.
And thens a v. miles stil for the most parte on a mory
[b] Chess R.
[d] Colne R.
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ground like Hundeslaue [a] hethe, to the which level by likelihood it streachith; and thens by sum enclosid and woddy grounde a 3. miles to Windelesore. [b]
From Windelesore by a 3. mile most be wood and enclosid pastures, leving Cheortesey [c] a mile of on lifte hand. Where is a goodly bridg of timbre over the Tamise newly repaired.
And thens a 2. miles and more in faire open and levelle medow ground, wher I saw over the Tamise, Ankerwike, of late tyme a priorie of nunnes, and aboute an half mile lower
I passid over the Tamise by Stanes-bridge. [d]
And thens most by champaine and corne ground ... pasture to Hampton Courte 6. miles. And about halfe a myle a this syd it is Hampton village on the Thamise syde.
[c] Datchet seems to be the place here referred to; Chertsey (Surrey) is many miles from Windsor, towards Leland's right hand, and south of Staines.
[d] Thames, Staines.