Leland's Itinerary of England and Wales: Part II.
PART II 107
Quinta die Maii Anno D. 1542.
FROM London to New Brentford 8. miles. There is a bridge apon Brent ryveret of 3. arches, and an hospital buildid with brike on the farther ende of it.
From Brentford to Hundeslawe 2. miles. There was in the west ende of the toune an house of freres of the ordre of the title of the Trinite.
There rennith a lande water thorough the hethe of Hundeslaw [a] as a drene to the hole hethe, that is of a great cumpace, and I passid by a bridge of tymbre over it.
From Hundeslaw to Longeforde [b] a v. miles.
A litle beyond this village is a bridge of tymbre at the which the mille water of Langford breking out above yn the medowes doth mete with one of the 2. greate principale armes that brekith out of Colne brooke.
This arme, as one told me, brekith out of Colne or ever it cum by the ende of Uxbridge, and metith not very far beneth Langford bridge with the principal streme of Colne.
A litle beyond Langford bridge is a bridge of wood, under the which the principal streame of Colne ryver rennith, and thens more then a mile goith into Tamise by Stanes chirch a litle above Stanes bridg apon the Tamise.
Coleham the Erle of Darby's house stondith on the hither side of this streame about a mile above the bridge.
From this bridge to Colebrok bridge of tymbre about a mile.
Al the ground from a mile or more a this side Langford to
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Colebrok bridge is al low pasture ground, and at rages of rayne by rising of the ryver muche overflowen.
Under Colebrooke bridge of tymbre rennith the secund of the 2. principale armes of Cole ryver, and this to my estimation is the lesser of the 2. It breketh owt of the principale streame a 2. miles above Colebroke toun yn a mooreisch
grounde about a mile lower then Uxbridge toun. Uxbridge 3. miles from Colebrook toune.
This arme rennith by it self about a mile and a half beneth Colebrook toun into the Tamise a litle above Ancrewike, wher was a priory of nunnes.
Colebrook [a] toun is a 2. miles from Stanes. [b]
The toune of Colebrok is set on eche side of the ryver of Cole, but the far greatter part of it is on the west side of the ryver: and there is a chapelle of brike made of late dayes.
The paroche chirch is a mile of.
From Colne brooke to a place wher I passid over Burne ryveret a 4. or 5. miles.
This water risith out of morisch spring on the lifte hond as I roode from Stok [c] wher the Erle of Huntendun lyith: and, as I gesse, goith by Burneham and about Eiton College toward the Tamise.
A 2. or 3. miles beyond the passage over Burne I cam to
Maidenhed bridge of tymbre apon the Tamise.
A litle above the bridge ripa citeriori Tamesis I saw a cliffy ground as hanging over the Tamise and sum busschis groinge on it. I conjectid that ther had beene sum site of an auncient building.
There is great warfeage of timbre and fier wood on the west ende of the bridge, and this wood cummith out of Barkshir, and the great woddis of the forest of Windelesore, [d] and the great Frithe.
Heere mark that as much grounde as lyith bytwixt the arme of Colne, that goith thoroug Colebroke toun, and the bridge of Maidenhed is yn Bukkinghamshir; beyond is Barkeshire.
The toun of Maidenhed stondith a praty distance from the Tamise side, and is meately welle buildid.
[c] Stoke Poges.
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The south side of the toune is yn the paroche of Bray.
The north side is in the paroch of Cookham.
From Maidenhedde toun a 2. miles by narow wooddy way to the Frithe. And so thorough the Frithe 3. miles and more.
Then to Twiford a praty tounelet a 2. miles.
At the west ende of this tounlet rennith Loden a praty ryver, and so brekith out in armes that therby I passid over 4. bridgis.
Thens a mile and an half to Sunning [a] an uplandisch toune, but sette on a fair and commodius grounde. The Tamise rennith under it in a plesant vale.
I markid no very great antiquite in the chirch; it is impropriate onto the decanerie of Saresbyri.
In the presbyteri is one Fitton an esquier buried.
In the south isle be 2. or 3. Vouesses buried, kinswomen to Bisshop of Saresbyri.
In the north isle be 2. of the ...
There is an old chapelle at the est end of the chirch of S. Sarik, whither of late tyme resortid in pilgrimage many folkes for the desease of madnes.
The Bisshop of Saresbyri hath had at Sunning afore the Conquest an auncient maner place, and hath be lordes there. And yet remainith a fair olde house there of stone, even by the Tamise ripe, longging to the Bisshop of Saresbyri: and therby is a fair parke.
This place is in Barkeshir 3. miles above Henley.
From Sunning to Reading 2. miles.
There is a park cumming into Reading toun longging to the late monasterie there.
There is no maner of token that ever the toun of Reading was waullid; yet it is a very auncient toun, and at this tyme the best toun of al Barkshire. There was a castelle in the Saxons tyme in this towne: and the name of Castelle-Streat yet remaynithe, lying from est to west to passe to Newbyri: but I could not perceive or clerely lerne wner it stoode. But
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by al lykelihod at the west-ende of the Castelle-Streat: and, as sum think, about the place of execution.
It is very likely that a peace of the abbay was buildid of the ruines of it.
Peraventure it stoode wher thabbay was.
S. Edwarde the Martyr's mother-yn-law for penaunce buildid, as I have redde, a monasterie of nunnes yn Reading.
There is a constant fame that this nunnery was wher S. Maryes, a paroche chirch is now yn Reading.
King Henry the first making an abbay at Reading of blak monkes suppressid this house, as I hard, giving the landes thereof to his abbay. But for more certente know whither the old nunnery stoode not yn the place wher the abbay of Reading stondith ?
And whither S. Maries were not of a newer foundation ?
On the north side of the Castelle-Streat was a late a fair house of Gray Freres.
In the toune be 3. paroche chirchis. S. Giles a this side Kenet ryver: Sainct Maries, and S. Laurence beyond Kenet.
S. Maries is as the principal paroche of the toun for auncientnes: and standith in the hart of it.
S. Laurence stondith by west hard by cumming yn at the principal gate of thabbay.
West north west of S. Laurence chirch was an almose house of poore sisters by al lykelihod of the foundation of sum abbate of Reading: and remaynid ontyl such tyme one Thome Abbate of Reading suppressid it in King Henry the vij. dayes, and gave the landes of it onto the use of the almoner of his abbay. But Henry the vij. cumming to Reading, and asking what old house that was, thabbate told hym, and then the king wyllid hym to convert the house self and the landes in pios usus. Wherapon thabbate desirid that it might be made a grammar-schole, and so it was.
One Wylliam Dene, a riche man and servant in thabbay of Reading, gave 200. markes in mony toward the avauncement of this schole: as it apperith by the epitaphie on his grave in the abbay chirch of Reading.
The ryver of Kenet cummith thorough the midle of Reading toun, but devidid principally into 2. partes, wherof the principal streame cummith thorough a great wood bridge in the south side of the toune.
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The arme that breketh out of Kenet is caullid communely about the quarters of the toune the Halowid brooke, and brekith out of the principal streame of Kenet up above the toune by west south west aboute the Bere, wher thabbat of Reading had a fair manor place of bryke, and so cumming doune by medowes ynto Reading toune passith thorough a peace of thabbay clensing the filth of it, and a litle lower joinith againe with the great streame: and a litle lower Kenet hole streame goith into Tamise ryver. So that Tamise river cummith within half a mile by est north est of Reading. In the vale of the toune of Reading, wher the 2. armes of Kenet renne nere togither, I markid diverse armelettes breking out of the 2. streames and making mediamnes, over the which be dyverse bridges of wood. And these waters be very commodius for diers, welle occupied there; for the toune chiefly stondith by clothyng.
From Reading to Causeiham, [a] shortly caullid Causham, aboute half a mile, wher is a great mayne bridge of tymbre over the Tamise, wher I markid that it restid most apon fundation of tymbre, and yn sum places of stone.
Toward the north end of this bridge stondith a fair old chapelle of stone on the right hond, pilid in the fundation for the rage of the streame of the Tamise.
Ther is no bridge on the Tamise upward betwixt this and Walingford, distant about a 10. miles of. And byneth this Causham bridge to Henley five miles, and a half lower is first Sunning bridge of tymbre, and Grat-Marlaw-bridge.
Bisham Priorie in Barkshir on the Tamise a 3. miles above Maidenhed.
Hurley apon the Tamise, a celle to Westminstre, a mile above Bisham.
Litle-Marlaw, [b] wher the priorie of nunnes was, a 2. miles above Maidenhed, stonding in Bukinghamshir.
Great-Merlaw, [c] wher the bridge of timbre is over the Tamise, a mile above it.
Medmenham, a celle to Woburn in Bedfordshir, a mile above Bissham as the Tamise goith in Bukinghamshir.
[b] Little Marlow.
[c] Great Marlow.
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Beyond Causham bridge is Causham [a] villag in Oxfordshir.
Thens I rode a v. miles or more al by great wooddes.
And thens by chaumpaine hilly ground a 4. miles to Ewelm, an uplandisch village.
Ewelme was the inheritance of the Chaucers.
Thomas Chaucer the last heire male owner of it is buried yn an high marble tumbe in a fair chapelle in the paroch chirch of Ewelm, on the southside of the quier with this epitaphie:
Hic jacet Thomas Chaucer armiger, quondam dominus istius villae, & Patronus istius ecclesiae: qui obiit 18. die mensis Novembr: anno D. 1434. Et Matildis uxor ejus, quae obiit 28. die mensis Aprilis Anno D. 1436.
Sum say, that this Chaucer was a marchant man, and bout a 1000 li. landes by the yere, and that wollesakkes be yn Ewelm in token of marchaundise. And menne say likewise, that he mindid the fundation of the hospitale of Ewelme, and also the hospitale by Duningtoun-castelle. But William Duke of Southfoik did build them booth, eche pore man ther having xiiij.d. by the weeke.
Alice, doughter and heire to Thomas Chaucer and Matilde, tooke to husband William de la Pole Duke of Southfolk: the which for love of her and the commodite of her landes fell much to dwelle yn Oxfordshir and Barkshir wher his wifes landes lay.
This William translatid and encreasid the manor place of Ewelme.
I think that Ewelme tooke name of a great poole afore the maner place and elmes grouing about it.
Ewelme paroche chirch a cumly and new peace of work stonding on an hille was lately made by William Duke of Southfolk and Alice his wife.
William was slayn, and Alice supervivid, and after was byried yn the paroche chirch of Ewelme on the south side of the high altare in a riche tumbe of alabastre, with an image in the habite of a woves crounid lying over it, and having this epitaphie on it:
Orate pro anima Serenissimae Principissae Alicice Ducissae Suffolchiae, hujus ecclesiae patronae, & prima fundatricis hujus
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elemosynariae. qucz obiit 20. die mensis Maij, anno Di. 1475. litera Dominicali A.
The pratie hospitale of xiij poore men is hard joynid to the west ende of Ewelm paroche chirch: and much after the building of the vicars houses at Windesore yn a circle.
In the midle of the area of the hospitale is a very fair welle.
The master or provost of the almose house hath ther a praty lodging, every poore man hath 14d. a weke.
I redde these thinges folowing in a table in Ewelm chirch: Pray for the soules of John Duk of Southfolk, and Elizabeth his wife. This John was sun and heire to William and Alice.
John de la Pole Duk of Southfolk had by Elizabeth John Erle of Lincoln, Edmund after Duk of Southefolk, Richard, William: and ... that was at scholar yn Gunvile-Haul [a] in Cambridge, and lyith buried at Baberham. [b]
The maner place of Ewelme is in the valley of the village: the base court of it is fair, and is buildid of brike and tymbre. The inner part of the house is sette with in a fair mote, and is buildid richely of brike and stone. The haul of it is fair and hath great barres of iren overthuart it instede of crosse beames. The parler by is exceding fair and lightsum: and so be al the lodginges there.
The commune saying is that Duk John made about the beginning of King Henry the vij. tymes most of the goodly buildinges withyn the mote.
There is a right fair parke by the manor place.
From Ewelm to Hasely a v. miles by chaumpaine ground sumwhat plentiful of corne, but most layid to pasturage.
Haseley is thus dividid into Grete-Haseley, Litle Haseley, Lecheford and Ricote. [d]
Great Haseley was of aunciente tyme a lordship longging by many descentes to the Pyperdes, whos maner place was
[a] Gonville Hall.
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there wher now is the ferme place by the chirch longging to Windesor college.
These Piperdes were men of fair possessions, and the name of them as in the principal maner florishid onto Edward the thirde dayes, about the which tyme Piperdes maner place and the patronage of the benifice of Haseley was gyven to the college of Windesore.
The armes of Piperd apere yn the est window of the fair chauncelle of Haseley chirch.
Litle Haseley, wher Master Baretine hath a right fair mansion place, and marvelus fair walkes topiarii operis, and orchardes, and pooles, holdith, as I lernid, of the maner of Piperdes by knight service.
Lacheforde about the beginning of Edward the thirdes tyme was parte of the Piperdes landes. Then it chauncid for a younger sun of Piperdes of Haseley to do so valiauntly in batelle agayn the Scottes that he was made knight: and having no lande, bycause that his elder brother was heire, desirid to have sum smaul portion of land; wherapon his father gave hym Lacheford to hold by knight service of the maner of Piperdes in Great Haseley.
The stook of this yong Piperd knight remaynid in Lacheford onto 80. yeres ago: when the last of these Piperdes lefte a doughter and heire, that was maried to one Lenthaul, a gentilman of Herefordshir, whos sunne now dwellith in Lacheforde.
Ricote longid to one Fulco de Ricote.
After it cam to one Quatermains.
The house of the Quatermains in Oxfordshir hath beene famose and of right fair possessions. Their chief house was at Weston by Ricote, wher Mr. Clerk now dwellith.
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And Shirburne withyn a mile of Wathelington [a] market, wher is a strong pile or castelet, longid to Quatremains: sins Fowler: and by exchaunge now to Chaumbrelein of Oxfordshir.
About King Henry the vj. dayes dyvers brethren dyed of the Quatremains one after another, and by a great onlykelihod al the landes descendid to one Richard, the yonggest of the brethern, that was a marchant of London, and after custumer there.
This Richard had a servant caullid Thomas Fowler, his clerk, a toward felaw that after was chauncelar of the duchy of Lancastre.
Richard Quatremains bare great favor to this Thomas.
Richard was god-father to Thomas sunne, and namid hym Richard Quatermains Fowler.
Richard Quatermains lay at Ricote: and caussid Thomas Fowler to ly at Westun.
Richard Quatermains made Richard, Thomas Fowler sunne, heir of most part of his landes, bycause he had no children.
Richard Quatermains godfather to Richard Fowler made a right goodly large chapelle of ease hard without the manor place of Ricote, and foundid ther 2. chauntre prestes to sing perpetually for his soule, enduing the cantuaries with good landes: and made a fair house for the prestes therby.
This fundation was begon in Henry the 6. dayes: and endid yn Edward the 4. tyme.
This Richard foundid also a cantuarie in Tame [b] paroche chirche a 2. miles from Ricote, wher he in a chapelle is buried undre a marble stone.
This Richard foundid ther also an hospitale by Tame chirche endowing it by landes.
Richard Fowler heir to Quatremains was a very onthrift, and sold al his landes leving his children ful smaul lyvinges.
Syr John Heron, treasorer of the chaumbre to Henry the
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vij. and the viij. boute the reversion of the lordship of Ricote, and Giles his sunne possessid it a while.
Giles Heron wise in wordes, but folisch yn deades, as Syr Richard Fowler was, sold Ricote to John Willyams now knighte.
From Haseley to Miltoun [a] village half a mile.
At this place, as I hard say, was many yeres syns a priorie of monkes: a selle, as one told me, to Abbingdon.
The house of the priorie was by likelihod wher the farmer's house is now hard by the chirch yard. For ther appere fundations of great buildinges.
Sum say that Mounseir de Louches house was wher the farmer's house is.
In the chirch of Miltun is an highe tumbe of fre stone with the image of a knight and a lady, with an epitaphie in Frenche, declaring that Richard de Louches chivalier and Helene his wife ly buried there.
The voice ther goith that Louche had the priorie land gyven hym.
Louches landes cam to heires generales.
Of later tymes Davers had this lordship of one
Syr Regnald Bray boute it of Davers. The late Lord Bray sold it to Dormer Mair of London.
Ther is a prebend land in Miltun longging to Lincoln.
The Bisshop of Lincoln is patrone of the chirch.
There joynith onto Great-Miltun, Litle-Miltoun, and there is a chapelle of ease dedicate to S. James.
From Haseley to Chisilhampton [b] (vulgo Chisiltun) by plaine ground fruteful of corne and grasse, but baren of wood as al that angle of Oxfordshir is, 3. miles.
Here is passid over 3. litle bridges of wood, wher under wer plaschsy pittes of water of the overflowing of Tame ryver, and then straite I rode over a great bridge under the which the hole streame of Tame rennith.
Ther were a 5. great pillers of stone, apon the which was layid a timbre bridge.
Thens to Drayton village, longging a late to Dorchestre Abbay.
Thens a mile to Dorchester.
[a] Great Milton.
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In the toun of Dorchestre I markid these notable thinges.
The abbay of chanons, wher afore the Conquest was a bisshopes sete.
Remigius translatid it to Lincoln.
Alexander Bisshop of Lincoln erected there an abbay of blak chanons. Yet the chirch berith the name of the prebend chirch.
There was buried, as it is said, the bodie of S. Birine bisshop there.
And there yet remainith the image of free stone that lay on the tumbe of Bisshop AEschwine, as apperith by the inscription.
There be buried in the quier beside divers abbates a knight on the south side with an image crosse leggid, whos name is there oute of remembrance.
There lyith at the feete of hym one Stoner sumtyme a juge (as it apperith by his habite) in the raigne of K. E. 3.
There lyith a knight on the north side of the quier, a knight whom the late abbate tooke to be one of the Segraves, the image was of alabastre. But after the abbate told me that he hard of late one say that there was one Holcum a knight buried.
In the body of the chauncelle afore the quier doore lay a gentilman caullid Ways.
Ther ly in south isle of the quier 3. of the Draitons, gentilmen, one hard by another, under plaine marble stones.
Mr. Barentine hath part of these Draitons landes.
Ther lyith at the hed of thes Draitons one Gilbert Segrave a gentilman, under a flat marble.
The body of the abbay chirch servid a late for the paroche chirch.
Syns the suppression one a great riche man, dwelling in the toun of Dorchestre, bought the est part of the chirch for 140. poundes, and gave it to augment the paroch chirch.
The toun of Dorchestre was sore defacid by the Danes. Of old tyme it was much larger in building then it is now toward the south and the Tamise side. There was a paroche chirch a litle by south from the abbay chirch. And another paroch chirch more south above it. There was the 3. paroch chirch by south weste.
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In the closis and feeldes that lye southly on the toun that now standith be founde numismata Romanorum of gold, silver, and brasse.
The bisshop's palace, as is saide ther, was at the toune's end by north west, wher yet appere fundations of old buildinges: and there as yet be kept the courtes.
The ryver of Tame cummith first by the est ende of the toune: and then by the south side passing thoroug a very faire bridge of stone a litle witoute the toune.
Cumming from Wallingford to Dorchester the toun standith ulter. ripa Tamae.
The bridg is of a good lenghth: and a great stone causey is made to cum welle onto it. There be 5. principale arches in the bridge, and in the causey joining to the south ende of it.
Tame and Ise [a] metith aboute half a mile beneth Dorchestre bridg in the medowis.
From Dorchester to the fery over the Tamise about a mile.
Here the hither ripe by north is low and medow ground. The south ripe ys high al alonge like the long bak of an hille.
From the fery to Walingford a mile by marvelus fair champain and fruteful ground of corne.
The toun of Walingeforde [b] hath beene a very notable thing and welle waullid. The diche of the toun and the crest wheron the waulles stoode be yet manifestely pcrceyvid, and begin from the castelle going in cumpace a good mile and more, and so cummith to Walingford bridg a large thing of stone over the Tamise.
There remayne yet the names of these streates emong other: Tamise-streat, Fische-streate, Bred-streat, Woodstreat, Goldsmithes-row.
And by the patentes and donations of Edmunde Erle of Cornewaul and Lord of the Honorof Wallmgeford if appereth that ther wer 14. paroch chirchis in Walingford. And ther be men yet alyve that can shew the places and cemiteries
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wher yn the al stoode. At this tyme there be but 3. poore paroch chirches in the town.
Ther was a priory of blake monkes, a celle to S. Alban, suppressid by Thomas Woulsey cardinale, standing hard withyn the west gate of Wallingford.
The toun and the castelle was sore defacid by the Danes warres. Yet they meatly reflorichid in the tyme of Richard King of Romaines and Erle of Cornewaulle, brother to King Henry the 3.
This Richard did much cost on the castelle.
The castelle yoinith to the north gate of the toune, and hath 3. dikis, large and deap, and welle waterid. About ech of the 2. first dikis, as apon the crestes of the ground cast out of them, rennith an embatelid waulle now sore yn ruine, and for the most part defaced.
Al the goodly building with the tourres and dungeon be withyn the 3. dike.
There is also a collegiate chapel emong the buildinges withyn the 3. dike. Edmund Erle of Cornewale, sunne to Richard King of the Romains, was the first founder and endower of this college.
Prince Edwarde, as one told me, the Blak, augmentid this college.
There is a decane, 4. prestes, 6. clerkes and 4. choristers. the late decane afore Dr. London that now is buildid a fair steple of stone at the weste ende of the collegiate chapelle, to making wherof he defacid, as it is said, withoute licens a peace of the kinges lodging, joyning on the est ende of the chapelle.
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The decane hath a fair lodging of tymbre withyn the castelle: and to it is yoinid a place for the ministers of the chapelle.
From Walingford to Makeney [a] in Barkshir a good mile.
Mr. Molynes hath a pratie manor place of brike ther.
One Courte buildid this house of late dayes.
This Court was uncle to Molines, that now dwellith at Makeney.
Molines hath not this lordship only, but a nother in Oxfordshir not far from Dorchester, caullid Moungewelle, [b] and is 50. li. in value by yere, and hath fair woodes.
The house of Molines habitation byfore the death of Court was yn Hamptonshir about an 8. miles from Saresbyri at a place caullid Sandhil, wher is a fair manor place.
From Walingford to Sinodune about a mile and a half.
This place is wonderful dikid about and stondith on a hille in Barkshir, hanging over the Tamise. It is yn by estimation half a mile. And withyn it hath beene sum toune, or, as the commune voice sayith, a castelle in the Britannes tyme, defacid by lykelihod by the Danes.
At this tyme it berith very plentifullye booth barley and whete, and numismata Romanorum be ther found yn ploughyng.
About this Sinodune beginnith the fruteful vale of White-Horse, and so strecchith by south west toward Farington quarters.
This vale is not plentiful of woodde.
From Sinodune to Abbingdon [c] 6. miles.
A little a this side the bridge over the Ise at Abbingdon is a confluence of 2. armes that brekith aboute the est ende of Abbingdon-Abbay out of the hole streame of the Ise, [d] and make 2. litle isles or mediamnes. And at this confluence self in the very mouth is a very fair bridge of 7. arches: and a very litle beneth this bridge booth the armes yoinid and renning in one botom goith ynto Ise.
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The greath bridge at Abbingdon over Ise hath a 14. arches.
The toun of Abbingdon afore the abbay was buildid there was caullid Seukesham.
The abbay was first begon at Bagley Wood in Barkshir a 2. miles more upper on the Ise then Abbingdon now is: but the foundations and the workes there prosperid not; wherapon it was translatid to Seukesham, and ther finishid most by the costes of King Cissa, that there after was buried; but the very place and tumbe of his burial was never knowen syns the Danes defacid Abbingdon.
I hard that ther was an holy heremite, kynne to King Cissa, that lyvid yn the woodes and marisches about Seukesham, and that the abbay for his sake and by his meanes was buildid there.
Ethelwolde, Abbate of Abbingdon, and after Bisshop of Winchestre, yn King Edgares days did clerely renovate and augmentid this abbay, digging and caussing a gut to cum out of Isis by force to serve and purge thoftices of thabbay.
The chirche and buildinges that he made ther were after taken doune and new made by Norman abbates in the first Norman kinges tymes. The est partes wherof yet be seene.
The tower in the midle of the chirch, al the body of the chirch, and the towers at the west ende of it wher made by 4. abbates immediatelie preceding the last 4. abbates of Abbingdon.
The latter 2. of the 4. abbates that buildid the west part of the chirch were thus namid: Aschendune and Sante.
Sante was a doctor of divinite, and was imbassador at Rome bothe for King Edward the fourth and Henrie the vij.
At the west end of the area wheryn the abbay chirch of Abbingdon stondith is a charnel chapelle, to the which was gyven the profite of a chapelle at Bayworth by Bagley-Wood.
On the south side of the area is al the abbate and conventes lodging.
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In old tymes many of the villages about Abbingdon had but chapelles of ease, and Abbingdon Abbay was their mother chirch, and there they buried,
There is at the west ende of thabbay withowt the gate a chirch dedicate to S. Nicolas, and buildid by one abbate Nicolas for the ease of the toun encreasing with people.
Again this on the other side withoute thabbay gate is a chirch dedicate to S. John, and there is an hospital having 6. almose menne. The kinges be countid for founders of this hospitale.
There is a paroch chirch of S. Helene at the south ende of the toun apon Isis as the ryver cummith from the abbay downeward.
At this place was sumtyme a nunnery: and yn S. Ethelwoldes tyme that renewid thabbay of Abbingdon wer straunge thinges and tumbes found yn digging.
There is now an hospital of 6. men and 6. women at S. Helenes maintenid by a fraternite ther, as I hard.
A very litle beneth S. Helenes cummith Och ryver thorough the vale of Whit-Horse into Isis.
There is a mille almost at the mouth of this confluence caullid Ocke-mille, and nother above it.
There is a right goodly crosse of stone with fair degres and imagerie in the market steede of Abbingdon.
There is also a fair house with open pillars coverid with a rofe of leade for market folkes. The toun of Abbingdon stondith by clothing. The market is quik there.
Remembre to speke with Mr. Bachelar in Abbingdon, and the prior of Abbingdon dwelling a mile from Abbingdon, for the book de Gestis abbatum de Abbingdune.
From Abbingdon to a fair waren of conies longging to thabbay about a mile.
Thens a 4. miles to Chisilhampton [a] bridge.
PART II 123
Thens to Haseley 3. miles.
From Haseley to Oxford about a 7 miles.
Robertus de Oilleio that cam into England with Wylliam Conqueror had given to hym the baronyes of Oxford and Sainct Waleries.
This Robert made the castelle of Oxford, and, as I conject, other made the waulles of Oxford or repairid them.
This Robert made the chapelle of S. George in the castelle of Oxforde, and foundid a college of prebendaries there.
This Robert dyid withowt issue, and wher he was buried it is not very certeinly knowen.
This Robert had one John de Einerio that was exceding familiar with hym, and had beene in the warres as sworen brother onto hym, and had promised to be part taker of Robertes fortunes. Wherapon he enrichid hym with possessions, and, as sum think, gave hym S. Waleries.
Robert Oilley had a brother caullid Nigellus, of whom be no verye famose thinges written.
Nigellus had a sunne caullid Robert that provid a very noble man.
This Robert the 2. had a wife caullid Edith Forne, a woman of fame and highly estemid with King Henry the first by whose procuration Robert weddid her.
This Robert began the priorie of blake chanons at Oseney [a] by Oxford emong the isles that Isis ryver ther makith.
Sum write that this was the occasion of making of it. Edith usid to walk out of Oxford Castelle with her gentilwomen to solace and that often tymes, wher yn a certen place in a tre as often as she came a certen pies usid to gether to it, and ther to chattre, and as it wer to speke onto her. Edithe much marveling at this matier, and was sumtyme sore ferid as by a wonder.
Wherapon she sent for one Radulph, a chanon of S. Frediswides, a man of a vertuus life and her confessor, asking hym counsel: to whom he answerid, after that he had seene the fascion of the pies chattering only at her cumming, that she should builde sum chirch or monasterie in that place.
124 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Then she entreatid her husband to build a priorie, and so he did, making Radulp the first prior of it.
The cumming of Edith to Oseney and Radulph waiting on her, and the tre with the chattering pies be paintid in the waulle of tharch over Edith tumbe in Oseney priorie.
There lyith an image of Edithe of stone in thabbite of a wowes, holding an hart in her right hond, on the north side of the high altare.
Robert Oilley the 2., founder of Oseney priorie, was buried in thabbay of Eignesham [a] a 3. miles from Oxford.
Robert Oilley the 2. had faire issue by Edith his wife, emong the which Henry was his heire.
This Henry lyith buried yn Oseney chirch, in the veri midle of the presbyteri, under a flatte marble stone, wherapon is a flourid cross porturid. This Henry had Henry the 2. And from Henry the 2. were other discentes; but in processe the landes of the Oilleys were disparkelid.
Ther is at this tyme one of the Oilleis a man of a 140. li. land dwelling ...
This Oilley hath to wife my Ladie Williams doughter of Ricote.
He is now communely caullid Doilley of this title de Oilleio.
Ela, Countes of Warwik, a woman of a very great riches and nobilite, lyith buried at the hedde of the tumbe of Henry Oilley, undre a very fair flat marble, in the habite of a woues, graven yn a coper plate.
Ela gave many rich jewelles to Oseney, but no landes.
Ela gave sum landes to Royle [b] abbay by Oseney.
Ela gave riche giftes to thabbay of Reading.
On the north side of the presbyteri of Oseney chirch is buried undre an arche John Saincte John a famose man in an high and large tumbe of marble.
S. John's wife lyith under a flat marble by her husbandes tumbe.
Beaufort a knight lyith in the quier at the hed of Countes Ela.
PART II 125
This Bewfort and an abbate of Oseney buildid the body Oxon. of the chirch now standing at Oseney, and ther be porturid their images in the volt of it.
There be very faire doble isles on eche side of the body of the chirch.
There is buried at Oseney yn our Lady chapelle a noble man of the Placetes, in a faire tumbe with an image.
One Thomas Kidlington, borne at Kidlington in Oxfordshir, abbate of Oseney, buildid many yeres sins the chapelle of our Lady on the north side of the presbyterie of Oseney chirch.
There were in the beginning certen priors at Oseney: and then the rulers of the house were made abbates: at the which tyme the landes of Oseney were augmentid and partely given with a certen peculiar jurisdiction spiritual yn Glocestreshir.
One Mr. James Bayllie of Oxford hath a peace of a booke of the actes of the abbates of Oseney.
From Oxford thorough the southgate and bridge of sundrie arches over Isis, and along causey in ulter ripa in Barkshir by a good quarter of a mile or more, and so up to Hinxey [a] hille, about a mile from Oxford.
From this place the hilly grounde was meately wooddy for the space of a mile: and thens 10. miles al by chaumpain, and sum corne, but most pasture, to Farington, standing in a stony ground in the decline of an hille.
Sum caulle this toune Cheping-Farington [b]; but there is other none or very smaul market now at it.
This tounelet hath but one paroch chirche that hath a crosse isle.
In the chirch yard is a very fair chapelle of the Trinite made by on Cheyny, buried ther in a high tumbe of marble: and ther is a cantuarie endowed. Cheney Lord Warden of the 5. Fortes now geveth it.
The personage is a 40. li. by yere longging to a prebende yn Saresbyri, that young Cavelcant a Florentine now hath. I asked for the castelle that the favorers of Matilde
126 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Emperes erectid at this place, and King Stephan after pullid doune: but they could telle me naught of it.
I lernid of certentye that a mile out of Farington, toward the right way to Highewortha toune v. miles from Farington, wher is a good market for Barkshir on the Wensday, appereth a great diche, wher a fortresse, or rather a camp of warre, hath beene, as sum say, dikid by the Danes for a sure campe.
From Farington onto S. John's-bridge of 3. arches of stone and a causey a 3. miles dim. al by low grownd, and subject to the overflowinges of Isis.
As I rode over Isis I lernid that ulter. ripa was in Glocestreshir, and citerior in Barkshir and Oxfordshir not far of.
I lernid that Northlech-broke, that cummith after to Estleche, enterith into Isis a litle byneth S. John's-bridg.
This Northlech water cummith from north to south.
Northlech [b] is a praty uplandisch toune viij. miles from S. John's-bridg by north. Estleche is a 5. miles lower, both set ripa citer. as I cam.
At the very ende of S. John's-bridge in ripa ulteriori on the right hond I saw a chapelle in a medow, and greate enclosures of stone waulles.
Heere was in hominum memoria a priory of blake chanons of the patronage of the Duke of Clarance or York. When this priory was suppressid there were 3. cantuaries erectid in the chirch of Lechelade: and ther remaynid ontylle of late dayes one Undrewoode, decane of Wallingforde, founde meanes that 2. of these cantuaries should be at Wallingford- College, and the third to remaine at Lechelade.
From S. John's-bridge to Lechelade [d] about half a mile, it is a praty olde village, and hath a pratie pyramis of stone, at the west ende of the chirch.
From Lechelade to Fairford about a 4. miles al by low ground, in a maner in a levelle, most apt for grasse, but very barein of woodde.
Fairford is a praty uplandisch toune, and much of it longith with the personage to Tewkesbyri-Abbay.
PART II 127
There is a fair mansion place of the Tames hard by the chirch yarde, buildid thoroughly by John Tame and Edmunde Tame. The bakside wherof goith to the very bridg of Fairford.
Fairford never florishid afore the cumming of the Tames onto it.
John Tame began the fair new chirch of Fairforde, and Edmund Tame finishid it.
Both John and Edmund ly buried in a chapelle of the northside of Fairford quier.
Epitaph: Joannis Tame. Orate pro animabus Joannis Tame armigeri & Aliciae uxoris ejus, qui quidem Joannes obiit 8. die mensis Maij, ao. D. 1500, & ano, regni Regis Henrici 7. 16. Et praedicta Alicia obiit 20. die mensis Decembris, Ano. D. 1471.
Epitaph: Edmundi Tame. Hic jacet Edmundus Tame miles, & Agnes, & Elizabeth uxores ejus, qui quidem Edmundis obiit primo die Octobr. ao. D. 1534. & ao. regis Henr. 8. 26.
Fairford water risith a 5. miles north north west from Fairford, and after rennith about a mile lower thorough Welleford [a] village, and about a mile lower as it were betwixt Welleford and S. John's-bridge goith into Isis.
The streame of Isis lyith from S. John's-bridge thus upward:
From S. John-bridge to Lechelad more then half a mile.
From Lechelade to Eiton Castelle [b] in Whileshir, wher great mines of a building in Wyleshir, as in ulteriori ripa, remayne yet, a 2. miles upper on the Isis.
From Eiton Castelle to Nunne-Eiton a mile, to Grekelade, [c] or rather Crikelade, a 2. miles.
Eiton the Lord Zouches castelle.
Nunne-Eiton longgid to Godstow.
Crekelade is on the farther ripe of Isis, and stondith in Wileshire.
Loke here wher Braden water cumming out of Wyleshir dooth go ynto Isis.
From Faireford to Pultun [d] aboute a 2. miles dim. Going
[b] Castle Eaton.
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out of Fairford I passid over the water, wher is a bridg of 4. stone arches.
Ther cummith a litle bek by Pulton, that after goit at a mille a litle above Dounamney village into Amney watei into the Isis.
Then cummith Amney-broke into Isis. Cowberle watei cummith into ...
I notid a litle beyond Pulton village Pulton priorie, wher was a prior and 2. or 3. blake chanons with hym.
I saw yn the waulles where the presbyterie was 3. or 4. arches, wher ther were tumbes of gentilmen: I think that there was byried sum of the Sainct-Maurs. And of surety on S. Maur founder of it was buried there.
As I passid out of Pulton village I went over the bek of Pulton, rysing not far above.
Pulton-bek about a mile beneth Pulton goith at a mille a litle above Dounamney [a] into Amney streame.
From Pulton toward Amney villag I passid over Amney water, and so to Amney village, leving it on the right hand.
Amney brook risith a litle above Amney toune by north out of a rok: and goith a 3. miles of or more to Douneamney, wher Syr Antony Hungreford hath a fair house of stone ripa ulter.
Amney goith into Isis a mile beneth Dounamney again Nunne Eiton in Wilshir.
From Pulton to Cirencestre a 4. miles.
Cirencestre [b] stondith on Churne ryver.
Churncestre callid in Latine Coriminum.
Ther was afore the Conquest a fair and riche college of prebendaries in this toune; but of what Saxon's foundation no man can telle.
Henry the first made this college an abbay of chanons regulares, gyving them the landes of the prebendaries totally, and sum other thinges. Rumbaldus, chauncelar to King Edward the Confessor, was dene of this house, and buried in the body of the chirch, as it apperith by the epitaphy on his tumbe.
[a] Down Ampney.
PART II 129
The est parte of the chirch of Cirencestre-Abbay shewith to be of a very old building. The west part from the transeptum is but new work to speke of. King Richard the first gave to Cirenceste the cortes and perquisites of 7. hundredes therabout yn Glocestreshir.
The landes of Cirencestre-abbay litle augmentid sins the tyme of the fundation by Henry the first.
There ly 2. noble men of S. Amandes buried withyn the presbyterie of Cirencestre-abbay chirch.
And there is buried the hart of Sentia, wife to Richard King of Romains, and Erle of Cornwalle.
Serlo first abbate of Cirencestre.
This Serlo made his brother prior of Bradene-stoke.
Ther were xxviij. or xxix. abbates of Cirencestre after Serlo.
Mr. Blake the last abbate buildid 2. fulling milles at Cirencestre that cost a 700. markes of mony. They be wonderfully necessary, by cause the toun standith alle by clothing.
There hath bene 3. paroche chirchis in Cirencestre, wherof S. Cecilia chirch is clene doun, it was of late but a chapelle. S. Laurence yet stondith, but as no paroch chirch. Ther be 2. poor almose women endowid with landes. Ther is now but one paroche chirch in al Cirencestre: but that is very fair.
The body of the chirch is al new work, to the which Ruthal, Bisshop of Duresme, borne and brought up in Cirencestre, promisid much, but preventid with deth gave nothing.
One Alice Aveling, aunt to Bisshop Ruthal by the mother side, gave an hundreth markes to the building of the right goodly porche of the paroch chirch.
And Ruthalles mother contributid, and other, to the performent of it.
Alexander Necham, a great clerk and abbate of Cirencestre, buried in the entring of the cloister of Wiccestre, entering out of the chirch into the cloyster. King Henry the first made the hospital of S. John at Cirencestre. Cirencestre toun hath but a bailife to govern there.
Cirencestre is in Coteswolde.
Cirencestre hath the most celebrate market in al that quarters on Monday.
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The way lyith this from Cirencestre to London:
To Fairford vj. miles.
To Farington viij.
To Abbingdon ... miles.
To Dorchestre v. miles.
To Henley ...
To London ...
Tetbyri [a] is vij. miles from Malmesbyri, and is a praty market toun.
Tetbyri liyth a 2. miles on the lift hand of from Fosse as men ryde to Sodbyri.
The hed of Isis in Coteswalde risith about a mile a this side Tetbyri.
The Fosse way goith oute at Cirencestre, and so streatchith by a manifest great creste to Sodbyri market [b] ... miles of, and so to Bristow.
Cowberkele [c] lyith by north west a vj. miles from Cirencestre, and there ys the hedde of Cowberkeley-streame.
Master Bridges hath a fair house at Cowberkele.
This streame cummith a 3. miles lower thorough Rencumbe [d] Park, and ther hath Sir Edmunde Tame a very fair house.
From Cirencestre to Malmesbyri [e] viij. miles.
First I roode about a mile on Fosse, then I turnid on the lifte hand, and cam al by champayne grounde, fruteful of corne and grasse, but very litle wood.
I passid over a stone bridg, wher as Newton water, as I tooke it, rennith in the very botom by the town, and so enterid into the toune by theste gate.
The toune of Malmesbyri stondith on the very toppe of a greate slaty rok, and ys wonderfully defendid by nature, for Newton water cummith a 2. miles from north to the toun: and Avon water cummith by weste of the toun from Lokington [f] village a 4. miles of, and meate aboute a bridg at south est part of the toun, and so goith Avon by south a while, and than turneth flat west toward Bristow.
The conducte that cam to Malmesbyri Abbay was fette from Newton.
[b] Chipping Sodbury.
PART II 131
Newton water and Avon ren so nere togither in the botom of the west suburbe at Malmesbyri, that there within a burbolt-shot the toun is peninsulatid. In the toun be 4. gates by the names of est, west, north, and south, ruinus al.
The walles in many places stond ful up: but now very feble.
Nature hath dikid the toun strongely.
It was sum tyme a castelle of greate fame, wher yn the toun hath syns be buildid: for in the beginning of the Saxons reigne, as far as I can lerne, Malmesbyri was no toun.
This castelle was namid of the Britons Cair-Bladun.
The Saxons first caullid it Ingelburne.
And after of one Maildulphus a Scotte, that taught good letters there and after procurid an abbay ther to be made, it was Maidulphesbyri, i. Maildulphi curia.
The king of the West-Saxons and a bisshop of Winchestre were founders of this abbay.
Aldelmus was then after Maildulph abbate there, and after Bisshop of Shirburn.
This S. Aldelme is patrone of this place.
The toune hath a great privileg of a fair about the fest of Sainct Aldelme; at the which tyme the toune kepith a band of hamesid men to se peace kept: and this is one of the bragges of the toun, and therby they be furnishid with harneys.
Ther were in thabbay chirch yard 3. chirches: thabbay chirch a right magnificent thing, wher were 2. steples, one that had a mighttie high pyramis, and felle daungerusly in hominum memoria, and sins was not reedified: it stode in the midle of the transeptum of the chirch, and was a marke to al the countre about; the other yet standith, a greate square toure, at the west ende of the chirch.
The tounes men a late bought this chirch of the king, and hath made it their paroche chirch.
The body of the olde paroch chirch, standing in the west end of the chirch yarde, is clene taken doun. The est ende is convertid in aulam civicam.
The fair square tour in the west ende is kept for a dwelling house.
Ther was a litle chirch joining to the south side of the transeptum of thabby chirch, wher sum say Joannes Scottus
132 LELAND'S ITINERARY
the great clerk was slayne about the tyme of Alfrede king of West-Saxons of his own disciples, thrusting and stikking hym with their table pointelles.
Wevers hath now lomes in this litle chirch, but it stondith and is a very old pece of work.
Ther was an image set up yn thabbay chirch yn honor of this John Scotte.
This is John Scotte that translatid Dionysius out of Greke into Latine.
Malmesbyri hath a good quik market kept every Saturday.
There is a right fair and costely peace of worke in the market place made al of stone and curiusly voultid for poore market folkes to stande dry when rayne cummith.
Ther be 8. great pillers and 8. open arches: and the work is 8. square: one great piller in the midle berith up the voulte. The men of the toun made this peace of work in hominum memoria.
The hole logginges of thabbay be now longging to one Stumpe, an exceding riche clothiar that boute them of the king.
This Stumpes sunne hath maried Sir Edward Baynton's doughter.
This Stumpe was the chef causer and contributer to have thabbay chirch made a paroch chirch.
At this present tyme every corner of the vaste houses of office that belongid to thabbay be fulle of lumbes to weve clooth yn, and this Stumpe entendith to make a stret or 2. for clothier in the bak vacant ground of the abbay that is withyn the toune waulles.
There be made now every yere in the toune a 3000. clothes.
Sum hold opinion that ther was sum tyme a nunery wher the heremitage now stondith in the dike of the toune at the west ende of the old paroche chirch.
Sum say there that there was another nunnery toward the park a litle without the toun longging to thabbate in the way to Chippenham.
PART II 133
And I have redde that there was a nunnery wher now is a poore hospitale about the south bridge without the toun in the way to Chippenham.
Going out of Malmesbyri by the south gate I turnid on the lifte hond and so passid over Avon by a fair bridg of stone having 3. arches.
And then conscending an hillet even therby left a chapelle or paroch chirch hard on the lift hand, and then leaving the park and the late abbates maner place on the lift hond, I cam to a village about a mile of caullid Fosse, wher was a bridge and a good streame renning undre it.
Thens to Chippenham a vj. miles.
Riding betwixt Malmesbyri and Chippenham al the ground on that side of the ryver was chaumpain, fruteful of corne and grasse, but litle wood.
Thus rydyng I lefte Avon streame aboute a 2. miles on the lifte hand. I markid 2. places betwene Malmesbyri and Chippenham notable. Draicote, [a] wher Sir Henrye Long hath a fair manor place, and a park about a mile from Avon streame. Draicot is a 5. miles from Malmesbyri, and a 2. miles from Chippenham.
On the other side of the Avon river I sawe Bradenestoke priory mines on the toppe of an hille a mile and an half from Avon ryver.
Bradenestoke [b] is about a 4. miles from Malmesbyri.
Al the quarters of the foreste of Braden be welle wooddid even along from Malmesbyri to Chippenham ward.
One told me that ther was no notable bridge on Avon betwixt Malmesbyri and Chippenham. I passid over 2. bekkes betwixt Malmesbyri and Chippenham.
Mr. Pye dwellith at ... a litle from Chippenham, but in Chippenham paroche.
I left Chippenham a mile on the lifte hand, and so went to Alington [c] village about a mile of, and thens 3. miles to Cosham, [d] a good uplandisch toun, wher be ruines of an old maner place: and therby a park wont to be yn dowage to the quenes of Englande. Mr. Baynton yn Quene Annes dayes pullid doun by licens a peace of this house sumwhat to help his buildinges at Bromeham.
134 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Old Mr. Bonehome told me that Coseham apperteinid to the erldom of Cornwalle, and that Cosham was a mansion place longging to it wher sumtyme they lay.
Al the menne of this townelet were bond: so that apon a tyme one of the erles of Cornewalle hering them secretely to lament their state manumitted them for mony, and gave them the lordship of Cosham in copie hold to pay a chief rente.
From Coseham to Haselbyri [a] about a 2. miles.
I left on the lift hand on the toppe of a litle hille an heremitage withyn a litle as I tumid doun to Hasilbyri.
The manor place of Haselbyry stondith in a litle vale, and was a thing of a simple building afore that old Mr. Boneham father did build there. The Bonehomes afore that tyme dwellid by Lacok [b] upon Avon.
There is a feld by Lacok wher men find much Romaine mony, it is caulid silver-feeld.
From Haselbyri to Munkton-Farley a mile dim. wher by the village ther was a priorie stonding on a litle hille, sumtyme having blak monkes, a prior, and a convent of 12.
Monketon-Farley [c] emong other thynges was a late gyven to therle of Hertford,
From Haselbyri to Monkton the countre beginnith to wax woddy: and so forth lyke to Bradeford [d] about a 2. miles from Munketun-Farley: and also to part into hilles and valeys.
Sir Henry Long hath a litle maner about a mile from Munketon-Farley at Wrexley.
The original setting up of the house of the Longes cam, as I lernid of Mr. Bonehom, by this meanes:
One Long Thomas a stoute felaw was sette up by one of the old Lordes Hungrefordes. And after by cause this Thomas was caullid Long Thomas, Long after was usurpid for the name of the family.
This Long Thomas master had sum lande by Hungrefordes procuration.
Then succedid hym Robert and Henry.
[c] Monkton Farleigh.
PART II 135
Then cam one Thomas Long descending of younger brother, and could skille of the law, and had the inheritances of the aforesaid Longes. Syr Henry and Sir Richard Long were sunnes to this Thomas.
The toune self of Bradeford stondith on the cliuing of a slaty rokke, and hath a meetely good market ons a weeke. The toune is made al of stone and standith, as I cam to it, on the hither ripe of Avon.
Ther is a chapelle on the highest place of the toune as I enterid.
The fair larg paroche chirch standith bynethe the bridge on Avon ripe.
The vicarage is at the west ende of the chirch.
The personage is I. poundes by the yere, and was impropriate to Shaftesbyri Abbay.
Haulle dwellith in a pratie stone house at the este ende of the este ende of the toune in dextra ripa Avonae. Haule, alias de la Sale, a man of an 100. li. landes by the yere.
There is a very fair house of the building of one Horton a riche clothier at the north est part by the chirch.
This Horton's wife yet lyvith.
This Horton buildid a goodly large chirch house ex lapide quadrato at the est end of the chirch yard without it.
This Horton made divers fair houses of stone in Throughbridge toun.
One Lucas a clothier now duellith in Horton's house in Bradeford. Horton left no childern.
Al the toune of Bradeford stondith by clooth making. Bradeford bridge hath 9. fair arches of stone.
Bath is a 5. miles lower apon Avon than Bradeford.
These be the names of the notable stone bridges apon Avon betwixt Malmesbyri and Bradeford.
Christine Maleforde [a] bridge about a 5. miles lower.
Caisway [b] bridge aboute a 2. miles lower.
Chippenham a right fair bridge about a mile lower. Chippenham
[a] Christian Malford.
136 LELAND'S ITINERARY
toun is on the farther ripe toward London, and cumming from London men cum to it not passing over the bridge.
Rhe bridge [a] about a mile and an half lower.
About a 4. miles lower is Stavertun bridge, wher is the confluence of Thrugh-bridge water [b] with Avon.
Bradeford bridge a 2. miles lower.
Bath bridge of v. fair arches a v. miles lower.
Bristow [c] bridge a 10. miles lower.
A 2. miles above Bristow was a commune trajectus by bote, wher was a chapelle of S. Anne on the same side of Avon that Bath stondith on, and heere was great pilgrimage to S. Anne.
There is a litle streate over Bradeford bridge, and at the ende of that is an hospitale of the kinges of Englandes fundation.
As I turnid up at this streat end toward Through-bridg ther was a quarre of fair stone on the right hand in a felde.
From Bradeford to Thorough-bridge [d] about a 2. miles by good corne, pasture and wood.
I enterid into the toune by a stone bridge of a 3. arches.
The toune standith on a rokky hillet, and is very welle buildid of stone, and florishith by drapery.
Of later tymes one James Terumber, a very rich clothier, buildid a notable fair house in this toune, and gave it at his deth with other landes to the finding of 2. cantuarie prestes yn Through-bridg chirch.
This Terumber made also a litle almose house by Throughbridge chirch, and yn it be a 6. poore folkes having a 3. pence a peace by the week toward their finding.
Horton, a clothiar of Bradeforde, buildid of late dayes dyvers fair houses in this toun.
Old Bayllie buildid also of late yn this toun, he was a rich clothiar. Bailies sun now drapeth yn the toun, and also a 2. miles out of it at a place iyn the way to Farley-castel. One Alexandre is now a great clothier in the toun.
The chirch of Through-bridge is lightsum and fair.
One Molines is parson ther, a man welle lernid.
[b] R. Bliss.
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The castelle stoode on the south side of the toune, it is now clene doun. There was in it a 7. gret toures. wherof peaces of 2. yet stande.
The river rennith hard by the castelle.
This brooke risith about a mile and an half from Werminster by southest, and so cummithto Through-bridge toune, and thens about a mile to Saverton, an hamlet longing to Through-bridg, and there metith with Avon river: and at this confluence there is a stone bridg over Avon.
Saverton [a] stondith on the same side of the brooke that Trough-bridge dothe.
There is a fair standing place for market men to stond yn, in the hart of the toune, and this is made viij. square, and a piller in the midle, as there is one made in Malmesbyri far fairer then this.
The erles of Sarum were lordes of Through-bridg: then the Duke of Lancaster, now therle of Hertford.
From Thorough-bridg to Castelle-Farley [b] about a 3. miles by good corne, pasture, and nere Farley self plenty of wood.
Or I cam to the castelle I passid over Frome water, passing by there yn a rokky valey and botom, where the water brekith into armelettes and makith islettes, but sone meting agayn with the principale streame, wherby there be in the causey diverse smaul bridges.
This water rennith hard under the botom of the castelle, and there driveth a mylle. The castelle is sette on a rokky hille. There be diverse praty towrres in the utter warde of the castelle. And in this utter warde ys an auncient chapelle, and a new chapelle annexid onto it.
Under the arch of this chapelle lyith, but sumwhat more to the old chapelle warde, one of the Hungerfordes with his wife, having these epitaphies apon 2. schochins of plate of brasse:
Hic jacet Thomas Hungerford, chevallier, dominns de Farley, Welew, & Heitesbyri: qui obiit 3. die Decembris ao. D. 1398, cujus animae propitietur Deus, amen.
Hic jacet Domina Joanna Uxor ejusdem Thomae Hungerford, filia Domini Edmundi Husee Militis: quae obiit prima die mensis Martii ao. D. 1412.
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These thinges that heere folow were written in a table in the chapelle:
Thomas Hungreford knight and Dame Joanna his wife. Syr Gualter Hungreford Lord Hungreford Knight of the Garter and High Treasorer of Englande.
Catarine heire to Peverel, and wife to Gualter.
Syr Robert Lord Hungreford.
Margaret heire to Botreaux, wife to Robert Erle Hungreford.
Eleanor Molynes heire to Molines and wife to Robert.
I hard say that this erl and his wife were buried in the chirch of Sarum,
The line of the late Lord Hungreford.
Gualter Hungreford knight.
Joanna wife to Gualter.
Edward sun to Walter.
Jane his wife.
Syr Gualter Lord Hungerford.
Susan doughter to Daners of Daundesey by Bradstok:
Alice the Lorde Sannes doughter:
Elizabeth the Lorde Husee's doughter: wives to Gualter late lord Hungerford.
Gualter and Edward sunnes to Gualter late Lord Hungreford.
Ther longgid 2. chauntre prestes to this chapelle: and they had a praty mansion at the very est end of it.
The gate house of the inner court of the castelle is fair, and ther be the armes of the Hungrefordes richely made yn stone.
The haule and 3. chambers withyn the secund courte be stately.
There is a commune saying that one of the Hungrefordes buildid this part of the castelle by the praye of the Duke of Orleaunce whom he had taken prisoner.
Farley standith yn Somersetshir.
Frome ryver there partith, and so doune to the mouth, Wileshir from Somersetshir.
The mouth of it where it goith ynto Avon is about a mile and an half lower then Farley, and by estimation Bradeford is a 2. good miles upper on Avon.
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There is a park by Farley castelle.
There is also a litle above the castelle a village.
Frome water risith at ...
Philippes-Northtoun [a] a pratie market toun, is about a mile from Farley castelle, and standith in Somerset.
This toune takith the name of the dedication of the chirch thereyn that is to Philip and Jacob.
There is a faire at this toun on the fest of Philip and Jacob.
From Farley I ridde a mile of by woddy ground to a graung great and welle buildid, that longid to Henton-priorie of Chartusians. This priory stondith not far of from this graunge on the brow of an hille abouth a quarter of a mile from the farther ripe of Frome, and not far from this place Frome goith ynto Avon.
I rodde by the space of a mile or more by woddes and mountaine grounde to a place, where I saw a rude stone waulle hard on the right hond by a great lenghte as it had beene a park waulle. One sins told me that Henton [b] priory first stode there, if it be so it is the lordship of Hethorpe that was gyven to them for their first habitation.
And about a mile farther I cam to a village, [c] and passid over a ston bridge where ranne a litle broke there they caullid Mitford-water.
This brooke risith in the rootes of Mendip-hilles a 7. miles or more by west south west from this bridge, and goith about a mile lower into Avon.
From this bridge to Bath 2. good miles al by mountayne ground and quarre, and litle wood in syte.
About a mile from Bath I left the way that ledith to Bristow for them that use from Saresbyri to Bristow.
Or ever I cam to the bridge of Bath that is over Avon I cam doun by a rokky hille fulle of fair springes of water: and on this rokky hille is sette a longe streate as a suburbe to the cyte of Bath; and in this streat is a chapelle of S. Mary Magdalen. Ther is a great gate with a stone arche at the entre of the bridge.
[a] Norton St. Philip.
[c] Combe Monkton.
140 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The bridge hath v. fair stone arches.
Bytwixt the bridge and the south gate of Bath I markid fair medows on eche hand, but especially on the lift hond, and they ly by south west on the toun.
The cite of Bath is sette booth yn a fruteful and pleasant botom, the which is environid on every side with greate hilles, out of the which cum many springes of pure water that be conveyid by dyverse ways to serve the cite. Insomuch that leade beyng made ther at hand many houses yn the toune have pipes of leade to convey water from place to place.
There be 4. gates yn the town by the names of est, west, north and south.
The toune waulle within the toune is of no great highth to theyes: but without it is a fundameittis of a reasonable highth. and it stondith almost alle, lakking but a peace about Gascoyn's-tower.
In the walles at this tyme be no tourres saving over the toune gates.
One Gascoyne an inhabitante of the toune in hominum memoria made a litle peace of the walle that was in decay, as for a fine for a faught that he had committid in the cite: wherof one part as at a corner risith higher then the residew of the walle, wherby it is communely caullid Gascoyne-tower.
There be divers notable antiquiteesf engravid in stone that yet be sene yn the walles of Bathe betwixt the south gate and the weste gate: and agayn betwixt the west gate and the north gate.
The first was an antique hed of a man made al flat and having great lokkes of here as I have in a coine of C. Antius.
The secunde that I did se bytwene the south and the north gate was an image, as I tooke it, of Hercules: for he held yn eche hand a serpent.
Then I saw the image of a foote man vibrato gladio & praetenso clypeo.
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Then I saw a braunch with leves foldid and wrethin into circles.
Then I saw ij. nakid imagis lying a long, the one imbracing the other.
Then I saw to antique heddes with heere as rofelid yn lokkes.
Then I saw a grey-hound as renning, and at the taile of hym was a stone engravid with great Romane letters, but I could pike no sentence out of it.
Then I saw another inscription, but the wether hath except a few lettres clere defacid.
Then I saw toward the west gate an image of a man embracid with 2. serpentes. I took, it for Laocoon.
Betwixt the weste and the north gate.
I saw 2. inscriptions, of the wich sum wordes were evident to the reader, the residew clene defacid.
Then I saw the image of a nakid man.
Then I saw a stone having cupidines & labruscas intercurrentes.
Then I saw a table having at eche ende an image vivid and florishid above and beneth. In this table was an inscription of a tumbe or burial wher in I saw playnly these wordes: vixit annos xxx. This inscription was meately hole but very diffusely written, as letters for hole wordes, and 2. or 3. letters conveid in one.
Then I saw a. 2 images, wherof one was of a nakid manne grasping a serpent in eche hand, as I tooke it: and this image was not far from the north gate.
Such antiquites as were in the waulles from the north gate to the est, and from the est gate to the south, hath been defacid by the building of the monastery, and making new waulles.
I much doubte wither these antique workes were sette in the tyme of the Romans dominion in Britayne in the waulles of Bath, as they stand now: or wither they were gatherid of old mines ther, and sins set up in the walles reedified in testimonie of thantiquite of the toun.
There be 2. springes of whote wather in the west south west part of the towne. Wherof the bigger is caullid the Crosse Bath, bycause it hath a cross erectid in the midle of it. This bath is much frequentid of people deseasid with
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lepre, pokkes, scabbes, and great aches, and is temperate and pleasant, having a n. or 12. arches of stone in the sides for men to stonde under yn tyme of reyne.
Many be holp by this bathe from scabbes and aches.
The other bathe is a 2. hunderith foote of, and is lesse in cumpace withyn the waulle then the other, having but 7. arches yn the waulle. This is caullid the Hote Bathe; for at cumming into it men think that it wold scald the flesch at the first, but after that the flesch ys warmid it is more tolerable and pleasaunt.
Both these bathes be in the midle of a litle streat, and joine to S. John's hospitale: so that it may be thought that Reginalde Bisshop of Bathe made this hospitale nere these 2. commune bathes to socour poore people resorting to them.
The Kinges Bathe is very faire and large standing almost in the midle of the towne, and at the west end of the cathedrale chirch.
The area that this bath is yn is cumpassid with an high stone waulle.
The brimmes of this bath hath a litle walle incumpasing them, and in this waul be a 32. arches for men and women to stand separately yn. To this bath do gentilmen resort.
Ther goith a sluse out of this bath, and servid in tymes past with water derivid out of it 2. places in Bath priorie usid for bathes: els voide; for in them be no springes.
The colour of the water of the baynes is as it were a depe blew se water, and rikith like a sething potte continually, having sumwhat a sulphureus and sumwhat onpleasant savor.
The water that rennith from the 2. smaul bathes goit by a dike into Avon by west bynethe the bridge.
The water that goith from the Kinges Bath turnith a mylle, and after goith into Avon above Bath-bridge.
In al the 3. bathes a man may evidently se how the water burbelith up from the springes.
Ther be withyn the walles of Bath ... paroche chirchis, of the which the tourrid steple of the paroche chirch at the north gate semith to be auncient.
There is a paroche chirch and a suburbe without the north-gate.
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There is an hospital of S. John hard by the Crosse Bathe, of the fundation of Reginalde Bisshop of Bathe.
The toun hath of a long tyme syns bene continually most mayntainid by making of clothe.
There were in hominum memoria 3. clothiers at one tyme, thus namid, Style, Kent and Chapman, by whom the toun of Bath then florishid. Syns the death of them it hath sumwhat decayed.
It apperith in the booke of the antiquitees of the late monasterie of Bath that King Osric in the year of our Lord 676, Theodore then beyng Arche-bisshop of Cantwarbyri, did erect a monasterie of nunnes at Bath, and Bertane was the first abbatisse therof.
It apperith by a charte that one Ethelmod, a great man, gave, by the leave of King AEdelrede, in Theodore tharchbisshop of Cantwarbyri's tyme, landes to one Bernguid abbatisse of Bath, and to one Foulcburc.
The book of thantiquite of the abbay of Bath makith no great mention of any great notable doyng of Ofifa King of the Merches at Bathe.
The prior of Bath told me, that after the nunnes tyme ther wer secular chanons in S. Peter's chirch at Bath; paraventure Offa King of Merches set them ther, for I have redde that Offa did a notable act at S. Peter's in Bath. Or els the chanons cam yn after that the Danes had racid the nunry there.
Eadgar was a great doer and benefactor to S. Peter's at Bath, in whos tyme monkes were yn Bathe, and sins; except Alfarus Erl of Merch, that was a scurge of monkes, expellid them for a tyme.
John a phisitian, born at Tours yn France, and made Bisshop of Welles, did obteine of Henry the first to sette his se at Bath; and so he had the abbay landes given onto hym, and then he made a monk prior ther, deviding the old possessions of the monastery with hym.
This John pullid doun the old chirch of S. Peter at Bath, and erectid a new, much fairer, and was buried in the midle of the presbyteri thereof, whos image I saw lying there an 9. yere sins, at the which tyme al the chirch that he made lay to wast, and was onrofid, and wedes grew about this John of Tours' sepulchre.
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This John of Tours erectid a palace at Bath in the south west side of the monasteri of S. Peter's at Bath; one gret squar tour of it with other ruines yet appere.
I saw at the same tyme a fair great marble tumbe ther of a bisshop of Bath, out of the wich they sayid that oyle did distille: and likely; for his body was enbaumid plentifully.
There were other divers bisshops buried ther.
Oliver King Bisshop of Bath began of late dayes a right goodly new chirch at the west part of the old chirch of S. Peter, and finishid a great peace of it. The residue of it was syns made by the priors of Bath: and especially by Gibbes the last prior ther, that spent a great summe of mony on that fabrike.
Oliver King let almost al the old chirch of S. Peter's in Bath to go to ruine. The walles yet stande.
King Eadgar was crounid with much joy and honor at S. Peter's in Bath; wherapon he bare a gret zeale to the towne, and gave very great frauncheses and privileges onto it.
In knowlege wherof they pray in al their ceremonies for the soule of King Eadgar.
And at Whitsunday-tyde, at the which tyme men say that Eadgar there was crounid, ther is a king electid at Bath every yere of the tounes men in the joyfulle remembraunce of King Edgar and the privileges gyven to the toun by hym. This king is festid and his adherentes by the richest menne of the toun.
From Bath to Palton [a] al by hilly ground but plentiful of corne and grasse an eight miles.
From Palton to Chuton [b] by like ground about a 2. miles.
There is a goodly new high tourrid steple at Chuton.
From Chuton to Welles by hilly ground but lesse fruteful partely in Mendepe about a 5. miles.
The toune of Welles [c] is sette yn the rootes of Mendepe hille in a stony soile and ful of springes, wherof it hath the name. The chefest spring is caullid Andres welles, and risith in a medow plot not far above the est end of the cathedrale chirch, first renning flat west and entering into Coscumb water sumwhat by south.
[b] Chewton Mendip.
PART II 145
The toune of Welles is large. I esteme it to lak litle of a 2. miles in cumpace, al for the most part buildid of stone.
The streates have streamelettes of springes almost yn every one renning, and occupiyth making of cloth. Mawdelyne was a late a great clothiar yn Wellys, and so is now his sunne.
The chifest of the toun lyith by est and west, and sum parte cast out with a streat by south, in the out part wherof was a chapelle, as sum say, of Thomas Beket.
Ther is but one paroch chirch in Welles, but that is large, and standith in the west part of the toun: and is dedicate to Sainct Cuthberte.
There is an hospitale of 24. poore menne and wymen at the north side of S. Cuthbertes chirch, there is a cantuary preste. The hospitale and the chapelle is buildid al in lenghth under one roofe from west to est. Nicolas Budwith Bisshop of Bath was founder of this, and brought it almost to the perfection, and that that lakkid was completid by one John Storthwayt, one of the executors of the testament of Bubwith.
There was an other hospitale of S. John yn the town, stonding hard on the ripe by south of S. Andreas streme. This hospitale was foundid by ... and Hughe, bisshops.
Clerk Bisshop of Bath had a late this house gyven to hym by the king for the lordship of Dogmeresfeld.
There is a conduct in the market place derivid from the bisshopes conduct by the licens of Thomas Bekington Bisshop sumtyme of Bath, for the which the burgeses ons a yere solemply visite his tumbe, and pray for hys sowle.
There be xij. right exceding fair houses al uniforme of stone high and fair windoid in the north side of the market place, joining hard to the north west part of the bisshop's palace. This cumly peace of work was made by Bisshop Bekington, that myndid, yf he had lyvid lengger, to have buildid other xij. on the south side of the market steede, the which work if he had complishid it had bene a spectable to al market places in the west cuntery.
Wyllyam Knight, now Bisshop of Bath, buildith a crosse in the market place, a right sumptuus peace of worke: in the
146 LELAND'S ITINERARY
extreme circumference wherof be vij. faire pillers, and in another circumference withyn them be vj. pillers and yn the midle of this circumference one piller; al these shaul bere a volte, and over the volte shaul be domus civica.
The area afore the bisshop's palace lyith est of the market stede, and hath a fair high waul toward the market stede, and a right goodly gate house yn it, made of late by Bisshop Bekingtun, as it apperith by his armes. On the south side of this area is the bisshop's palace dichid brodely and waterid about by the water of S. Andres streame let into it. This palace ys strongely waullid and embateld castelle lyke, and hath in the first front a godly gate house yn the midle, and at eche end of the front a round towr, and 2. other round towers be lykelyhod yn the southside of the palace, and then is ther one at every corner. The haul of the palace ys exceding fayre. The residew of the house is large and fair. Many bisshops hath bene the makers of it, as it is now.
The chanons of Welles had there houses, afore the translation of the se to Bath, wher now the bisshop's palace is. John of Tours first Bisshop of Bath put them out, and they syns hath buildid them a xij. very faire houses, partely on the north side of the cimitery of the cathedrale chirch, partely without. Bishop Bekington buildid the gate house at the west ende of the cemiterie.
The decanes place is on the northe side of the cimitery.
Ther is at the est ende of the cimitery a volt and a gate, and a galery over, made by Bekington.
From Welles to Glessenbyri [a] about a 5. miles from north to south west.
Fyrst yn the toune over S. Andres water by S. John's, aboute a quarter of a mile out of Welles I passid over a litle broket, an arme of S. Andres water or Welles water: And ther as I passid over it I saw hard on the lifte hand a stone bridge of one arche. This arme shortly after joynith yn the medowes with the principal part of Welles water.
And about half a mile beyond this bridg I passid over another brook caullid Coscumbe water a bigger streme then Welles water.
I lernid there, that Welles water metith with Coscumbe
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water on the right hond not far from the causey, and so go yn one botom to the mere.
There is a castelle on an hille in this medow about Coscumb water, cujus ruinae adhuc apparent, communely caullid Fenne-Castel.
Cosecumbe broke risith a mile above Shepton, then to Shepton, then to Coscumb [a] a mile. Then to Dultingcote [b] bridge a 3. miles. Then about a mile dim. to the bridges yn the way betuixt Welles and Glessenbyri.
Then a mile or more of I cam to a praty streame of water that at the stone bridge that I passid over cam doun by the lifte hand: and hard above the bridge of one stone arche brake ynto 2. partes, and therby I passid over 2. litle stone bridgges.
Then about half a mile farther I cam to a few houses, and so enterid into a very great playne medow of a 6. or 7. miles about in cumpace by estimation, and so passid about a mile farther by a causey onto Hartelake [c] bridg of one arche of stone.
As much of this playne medow or more as is weste of this causey cis pontem de Hertlak is caullid Cranelmore.
That part that lyith by est of it, is caullid Seggemore. [d]
The water of Sowey cummith thorough this bridge of stone, and risith in the rootes of Mendepe-hille by est at Doulting village owte of a welle bering the name of S. Aldelm.
A mile by est or ever this streame cum to Hartelak bridg ther is an arme cast out by force out of Sowey water, and a marsch walle made by mennys policy betwixt this arme forcid out and the principale streame of Sowey, and this waulle continuith to Hartelak bridge, and mile lower: and then booth go soone after into the mere. If this marsch waulle were not kept, and the canales of eche partes of Sowey river kept from abundance of wedes, al the plaine marsch ground at sodaine raynes wold be overflowen, and the proflte of the meade lost.
From Harkeley bridg I passid by a litle bridge over the arme of Sowey.
As much of this more or medow ground that lyith beyond
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Hartelake bridge by west south west is caullid Glessenbyri-More.
From Hartlake bridg I passid by a low about a quarter of a mile: and then I conscendid by a litle and a litle to hilly ground a hole miles ryding, and so enterid into Glessenbyri.
The chief streate and longgest of the towne of Glessenbyri [a] lyith by est and weste, and at the market crosse in the west ende there is a streate by flat south and almost northe.
There is a market kept in Glessenbyry every weke on the Wensday.
Ther be 2. paroche chirchis yn Glessenbyri, S. John Baptiste on the north side of the principal streat of the toune. This is a vary fair and lightsum chirch: and the est part of it is very elegant and isled.
The body of the chirch hath ... arches on eche side. The quier hath 3. arches on eche side.
The quadrate tour for belles at the west end of the chirch is very high and fair.
Ther lyith on the north side of the quier one Richard Atwell that died circa annum D. 1472. This Atwelle did much cost in this chirch, and gave fair housing that he had buildid in the toune onto it. In Latten called ad fontem
Johanna wife to Atwelle lyith buried in a lyke marble tumbe on the south side of the quier.
Ther lyith one Camel a gentilman in a fair tumbe in the south part of the transept of the chirch.
Briwetun river cummith from Briwetun [b] x. miles of to the west part of the toun of Glessenbyri, and so rennith to the mere a 2. miles lower.
Or ever this river cum to Glessenbyri by a mile it cummith to a bridge of stone of a 4. arches communely caullid Pontperlus, wher men fable that Arture cast in his swerd.
The river brekith at this bridge ynto 2. partes, wherof the principalle goith to Glessenbyri.
The other goith thoroug low morisch grounde, and metith
[b] Brue R., Bruton.
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again with the principal streame or ever that it goith into the mere.
The mere is as at high waters in winter a 4. miles in cumpace, and when it is lest a 2. miles and an half, and most communely 3. miles.
This lak or mere is a good mile yn lenght: and at the ende of it toward west it cummith again in alveum and going about a mile it brekith ynto 2. armes, whereof the one goith to Highe-bridge, the other to Rookes-bridge, and so the armes goith a sundre to the by crekes.
From Wellys by south to Doultingcote bridge of stone, under the whiche Coscumbe water rennith about a mile al by very ille rokky way.
Thens I passid about a mile more by lyke ground, and this far I saw sum store of elme wood.
Thens up onto playne open downes by a stony soile a 3. good miles, and then a myle by low pasture ground onto Everchrich-village, [a] wher Clerk last Bisshop of Bathe had a maner place, in whos tyme it was, as a ruinus thing, clene in a maner taken doun.
Thens to Golafre bridge of stone, under the wich rennith a broke rising a 3. miles of by north est, and about a mile lower goith ynto Briwe-ryver. The very place of the confluentia is a 2. miles byneth Bruton.
Milton [b] village a litle above Golafre bridge, wherof the water at Golafre-bridge of sum is caullid Mylton-water. There is about this bridge and Milton meately plenty of wood.
From Milton to Briwetun about a mile dim.
Briwetun [c] as I cam from north west into it by south lyith al a this side Brywe ryver. There is a streat yn it from north to south, and another far fairer then that from est to west.
The toun is now much occupied with making of clothe. The paroche chirch and thabbay by it stande beyond the ryver, hard over the est bridge in Bruton. This bridge is of 3. archys of stone.
Ther is in the market place of the toun a new crosse of 6. arches, and a piller yn the midle for market folkes to
[b] Milton Clevedon.
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stande yn, begon and brought up to fornix by Ely laste abbate of Brutun. The abbay ther was afore the Conqueste a place of monkes foundid by Algarus, Erle of Cornewal. Moion set chanons there sins the Conquest, and divers of the Moions were buried tnere. One Wylliam Gilbert of late tyme beyng prior of Brutun went to Rome, and there procurid first that the name of the priory of Brutun might be chaungid ynto an abbay. This Gilbert beyng abbate did great cost in the abbay Bruton in building, almoste reedifiying it.
The toun of Briweton to the marquet crosse standith yn Selwod.
And so doth the abbay on the other ripe of the ryver.
The ryver of Briwe risith in Selwod at a place caullid Briweham a 3. miles by ... from Brutun.
About this quarter wher Briwe risith, that is to say withyn a 2. or 3. miles ther about, risith Stour and Wilugh.
The Mere, a market toun, is about an eight milys from Briwetun.
Goyng out of the toun of Briwetun I passid over a stone bridge of 3. arches at the west south west end of the toun, and ther cam a broket from north-est ynto Briwe.
There is, as I hard, a bridge of stone on Briwe a 5. miles lower then Briwetun caullid Lideforde, and a 2. miles lower Ponteperilus.
Castelle Cary [a] 2. miles from Briwetun.
I rode from the bridg up a stony hille to a very fair and fruteful champain, and so passid forth a v. miles by litle woode; at the 4. miles ende of this way I passid over a broke by a stone bridge, and so cam strayt to North-Cadbyri [b] a village, and about a mile farther to South-Cadbyri, [c] and ther a litle beyond be great crestes of hylles.
This water of Cadbyri risith from 2. heddes. First or I cam to Cadbyri by half a mile or ther about I passid over a broket that risith in Mr. Fitzjames park at ... out of a ponde, and goith into or metith with Cadbyri water about half a mile lower then the bridge that was passid over to Cadbyry.
[a] Castle Cary.
[b] North Cadbury.
[c] South Cadbury.
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The other risith a 3. milys above North-Cadbyri by north est. Cadbyri water goith from North-Cadbyri to a bridge a mile west from South-Cadbyri, having then with hym in one botom the other streame, and about a v. miles lower withyn a quarter of a mile to Ilchestre it metith with Ivel ryver.
At the very south ende of the chirch of South-Cadbyri standith Camallate, sumtyme a famose toun or castelle, apon a very torre or hille, wunderfully enstrengtheid of nature, to the which be 2. enteringes up by very stepe way: one by north est, and another by south west.
The very roote of the hille wheron this forteres stode is more then a mile in cumpace.
In the upper parte of the coppe of the hille be 4. diches or trenches, and a balky waulle of yerth betwixt every one of them. In the very toppe of the hille above al the trenchis is magna area or campus of a 20. acres or more by estimation, wher yn dyverse places men may se fundations and rudera of walles. There was much dusky blew stone that people of the villages therby hath caryid away.
This top withyn the upper waulle is xx. acres of ground and more, and hath bene often plowid and borne very good corne.
Much gold, sylver and coper of the Romaine coynes hath be found ther yn plouing: and lykewise in the feldes in the rootes of this hille, with many other antique thinges, and especial by este. Ther was found in hominum memoria a horse shoe of sylver at Camallate.
The people can telle nothing ther but that they have hard say that Arture much resortid to Camalat.
The old Lord Hungreford was owner of this Camallat. Now Hastinges the Erle of Huntendune by his mother.
Diverse villages there about bere the name of Camalat by an addition, as Quene-Camallat, [a] and other.
The hylle and the diches kepe well now viij. shepe.
Al the ground by south west, and west of Camalat lyith in a vale, so that one or 2. wayes it may be sene far of.
From Camallat to Shirburne [b] a 3. miles al by champayne but fruteful ground.
[a] Queen's Camel.
152 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Mr. Gilbert a gentilman hath a poore mansion place by south est of the very rottes of Camallat.
The toun of Shirburne stondith partly on the brow of an hille, partely in a botom. I esteme it to lak litle of a 2. miles in cumpace, it stondith partely by making of Clothe, but most by al maner of craftes: and for a dry toun or other, saving Pole [a] that is a litle think, I take it to be the best toun at this present tyme yn Dorsetshir.
The Bisshops of Sarum sete was a long tyme at Shirburne.
Syns monkes were set ther for chanons. The body of the abbay chirch dedicate to our Lady servid ontille a hunderith yeres syns for the chife paroche chirch of the town.
This was the cause of the abolition of the paroch chirch there. The monkes and the tounes-men felle at variaunce, bycause the tounes-men tooke privilege to use the sacrament of baptime in the chapelle of Al-Halowes. Wherapon one Walter Gallor, a stoute bocher, dwelling yn Shirburn, defacid clene the fonte-stone, and after the variaunce growing to a playne sedition, and the townes-menne by the mene of an Erle of Huntendune, lying yn those quarters, and taking the townes-mennes part, and the Bisshop of Saresbyri the monkes part, a preste of Al-Hawlois shot a shaft with fier into the toppe of that part of S. Marye chirch that devidid the est part that the monkes usid from the townes-men usid: and this partition chauncing at that tyme to be thakkid yn, the rofe was sette a fier, and consequently al the hole chirch, the lede and belles meltid, was defacid.
Then Bradeford abbate of Shirburn persecutid this injurie: and the tounes-menne were forcid to contribute to the reedifiyng of this chirch.
But after thys tyme Al-Halowes chirch and not S. Maryes was usid for the paroche chirch.
Al the est parte of S. Mary chirch was reedified yn Abbate Bradefordes tyme, saving a chapelle of our Lady an old
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peace of work that the fier came not to, by reason that it was of an older building.
There were of auncient tyme buried 2. kinges, sunnes to Ethelwolphe King of West-Saxons, yn a place behynd the high altare of S. Marie chirch; but ther now be no tumbes nor no writing of them seene.
A noble man caullid Philip Fitz Payne was buryed and his wife with hym under an arch on the north side of the presbyterie. This tumbe was of late defacid.
Peter Ramesunne next abbate saving one to Bradeford buildid a fundamentis al the west part of S. Marie chirch.
The porche of the south side of the body of S. Mary chirch ys an antique peace of work, and was not defacid with fier, bycause it stoode with a far lower rofe then the body of the chirch did.
The cloyster of thabbay on the north side of the chirch was buildid by one Abbate Frithe. This abbate was not very long afore Bradefordes tyme.
Myer the last abbate of Shirburn saving one made the fair castel over the conduct in the cloister and the spoutes of it.
The hedde of this water is in a peace of the toune, and is caullid New Welle.
The chapitre house is ancient, and yn the volte of it be payntid the images of bisshops that had their sete at Shirburn.
One S. John a noble man lyith yn the chapitre house.
Ramesunne abbate sette a chapelle caullid our Lady of Bow hard to the southe side of the old Lady Chapelle.
Ther is an old arch of a gate at the est south est ende of S. Mary chirch, as a token that of old tyme the close of chanons or monkes was enwallid about.
Ther was of old tyme a paroche chirch titulo S. Emerentiance, now faullen clene downe. It stode in the north side of the toun wher now is a close.
154 LELAND'S ITINERARY
There was a chapelle of S. Michael yn the toun nowclene doun.
Ther was a chapelle of Thomas Bekket on the grene in Shirburn, it stondith but incelebratid.
There was an heremitage of S. John by the mylle, now down.
Ther was an hospital begon by devotion of good people yn Shirburn an . 4. Henrici 6. and the king is taken for founder of it. It stondith yet.
Ther is a chapelle in S. Marye chirch yard, one Dogget a chanon of Saresbyri made it of late dayes.
The Bisshop of Saresbyri is lord of the town of Shirburne.
Shirburn stondith on the northside of the broke that cummith by it.
The castelle of Shirburne is in the est end of the toun apon a rokky hillet, it hath by west north west, and by est south est, morisch grounde.
Rogerus le Poure, Bisshop of Saresbyri in Henry the first tyme, buildid this castelle, and cast a great dike without it, and made a false mure without the dike.
Ther be 4. great toures yn the castelle waulle, wherof one is the gate house; every of them hath 3. lodgginges yn highth. The great lodgging is yn the midle of the castelle court, very strong and ful of voultes. There be few peaces of work yn England of thantiquite of this that standith so hole and so welle couchid.
One Bisshop Langeton made of late tyme a new peace of work and lodging of stone at the west end of the haul, other memorable peace of work was none set up ther syns the first building.
There is a chapelle in a litle close without the castelle by este.
There lyith at the ende of the castelle a mere that
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sumtyme hath beene very much larger then it is now, as chokid up with flagges and wedes. There cummith a broke ynto this mere.
This broke risith of v. springes caullid the vij. sisters in an hille side a 2. miles or more by est from the mere at a place communely caullid Horethorn, [a] and thens sone gathering to one botom maketh a broke that cummith into the mere, and after cumming to a straite botom agayne goith to Shirburn milles. Wher about the lower mylle a broke of much like quantite cummith into it by the south ripe of it.
This broke risith a 3. miles of from the confluence by flat est at a place caullid Puscandelle, [b] and rennith ynto the west even by the botom without the park bytwixt Shirburn water and it.
Shirburn water thens goith a 3. or more milys to Clifton, wher Master Horsey dwellith, and sumwhat lower goith ynto Ivele [c] ryver.
Above this confluence on the same ripe upper on Ivel cummith Westcoker water yn, that risith by weste a 3. miles from the place that he enterith yn ynto Ivel.
From Shirburn bakward to South-Cadbyri 3. good miles.
A litle beyond this Cadbyri I turnid flat west by a litle chapelle, and a mile thens, a good mile of, I passid over a stone bridge sumwhat above augmentid with the broke that risith out of Mr. Fitzjames ponde, and thens a 4. good miles of al by low ground yn sighte to Ilchestre.
[a] Charleton Horethorn.
[b] Purse Caundle.
[c] Yeo R.
156 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Al this way the pastures and feeldes be much enclosid with hegge rowes of elmes.
Or I cam to Ilchester by estimation of a mile Cadbyri water and Ivelcestre water confluebant.
Sum think that at Coscumb is one of the farthest heddes of Ivel ryver a 2. miles by ... above Ivel village.
The streme of ... cummith by Ivel village, and then a 3. miles lower cummith to Ivel toun village [a]: and here, as I hard, the streame brekith into 2. partes and sone yoynith agayn, and so even straite to Limington, [b] and ther I saw divortium aqua made longe syns and cut by hand to serve a mille in Limington, and thens the hole streame goith scant a mile of to Ivelcestre. [c]
I enterid by south west into Ilchester over a great stone bridge of vij. arches, yn the midle wherof were ij. litle houses of stone, one of the right hond, wher the commune gaol is for prisoners yn Somersetshir. The other house on the lift hond, the lesser of booth semid to me to have bene a chapelle. The toune of Ilchester hath beene a very large thyng, and one of the auncientest townes yn al that quarter. At this tyme it is yn wonderful decay, as a thing in a maner rasid with men of warre.
Ther hath beene in hominum memoria 4. paroche chirchis yn the toune, wherof one yet is occupied. The tokens of other 2. yet stond, and the 4. is clene yn ruine.
Ther is a fre chapelle in the toune, the bakside wherof cummith to the ryver side even hard bynethe the bridge, and ther joynith a right praty mansion house to this chapelle. I have hard say that many yeres syns ther was a nunry wher this chapelle ys.
Ther was also a late a house of freres yn this toune.
The greatest token of auncient building that I saw yn al the toune ys a stone gate archid and voltid, and a chapelle or chirch of S. Michael, as I remembre, over it.
The river of Ivel [d] rennith from Ivelcestre to Lamport [e] a 4. miles lower.
Thens to Michelboro, wher is a bridge of tymber over
[d] River Yeo.
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Ivel, and the water ebbith and flowith a ... above this Somerset, bridge.
Thens to Ilminstre [a] - Take better hede. for Ilmestre, as I syns lernid, ys withyn a mile of Whitlakington, [b] where Master Spek dwellith, and is not Ivel water.
And so to Bridgwater
If a man might go for the fennes the next way from Ivelchestre to Bridgwater it were not x. miles betwixt, where now it is xij.
From Ivelcestre to Limington village about a mile. One Juuerney was owner of this toune and lordship, he lyith richely buried yn a fair chapelle on the north side of the paroche chirch of Limington.
Ther lyith at the feete of Juuerney a woman vaylid in a low tumbe with an image of stone.
Ther lyith also in the south arche of the same chapelle a gentilman and his wife, I think also of the Juuerneys.
There is a cantuarie prest in the chapelle.
Juuerney dwellid, as sum think, in the farme at the north est side of the church.
Juuerneys landes cam by heires generale to the Bonevilles of Devonshire.
There was but one of the Bonevilles that was a baron: and that was Syr Wyllyam Boneville, whos sonne maried an heire generale of the Lord Harington, and Cecily his heire general was maried to Thomas the Lord Marquise of Dorsete.
This Lord Boneville had many bastardes, wherof he set up one in the west partes, gyving him a 100. marks of land by the yere, and this familye yet remainith there.
From Limington to Montegue by good pasture and corne ground enclosid and meately welle woddid a 4. miles.
The toune of Montegue [c] hath a poore market, and is buildid of stone as communely al townes theraboute be. I redde in the booke of the antiquites of Glessenbyri that this toun was caullid yn the Saxons time Logaresburch. Sum
158 LELAND'S ITINERARY
thynk that ther was a great castel and forteresse at this toune yn the Saxons tyme. Sum say that the Counte of Moretone buildid a castelle there sone after the Conquest: but that a castelle hath bene there, and that the Counte of Moreton lay yn it, it is without doute. This county chaungid the olde name and caullid it Montegue, bycause it stode on a sharpe point of an hille, and syns that name hath prevaylid. This Counte of Moreton began a priory of blake monkes a 3. or 4. in numbre under the rootes of Montegue hille, enduing it with 3. fair lordeshippes, Montegue and Titenhul joyning to it. The 3. was Criche a 10. miles from Montegue west south west. The Counte of Moreton toke part with Robert Curthose agayn King Henry the first, and after was toke, put in prisone, and his landes attaintid: at the which tyme the 3. lordshipes gyven to Montegue priory were taken away, and then were the monkes compellid to begge for a certein season. At the laste King Henry the first had pyte of them, and offend them their owne landes again and more, so that the wold leave that place and go to Lamporte, wher at that tyme he entendid to have made a notable monasterie. But the monkes entretid hym that they might kepe theyr old house: and apon that he restorid them their 3. lordshipes, translating his mynde of building an abbay from Lamporte to Readyng. Then cam one Reginaldus Cancellarius, so namid by likelihod of his office, a man of great fame about King Henry the first, and he felle to relligion, and was prior of Montegue, and enlargid it with buildinges and possessions. And thus the priory encreasing, and the hole lordship of Montegue beyng yn the monkes possession, the notable castelle partely felle to ruine, and partely was taken doune to make the priory. So that many yeres syns no building of it remaynid, only a chapelle was sette apon the very toppe of the dungeon, and that yet stondith ther.
From Montegue to Stoke under Hamden [a] about a mile. I saw at Stoke in a botom hard by the village very notable mines of a great manor place or castelle, and yn this maner place remaynith a very auncient chapelle, wheryn be diverse tumbes of noble menne and wimen.
In the south west side of the chapelle be 5. images on
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tumbes, on hard joynid to another, 3. of menne harneshid and shildid, and 2. of women. Ther hath bene inscription on eche of them, but now so sore defacid that they cannot be redde.
I saw a shelde or 2. al verry of blew and white. Ther be in this part of the chapelle also 2. tumbes without images.
There is in the northside of the body of the chapelle a tumbe in the waulle without image or writing, and a tumbe with a goodly image of a man of armes in the north side of the quyer of the chapelle, with a sheld, as I remembre, al verrey, and even afore the quier doore but without it lyith a very grete flatte marble stone with an image in brasse flattely graven, and this writing yn French about it:
Icy gist le noble et vaillant Chivaler Maheu de Gurney iadys seneschal de Landes et capitain du Chastel Daques pro nostre seignor le roy en la duche de Guyene, que en sa vie fu a la batail de Beuamazin, et ala a apres a la siege Dalgezire sur le Sarazines, et auxi a les baitailles de Le scluse, de Cressy, de Yngenesse, de Peiteres, de Nazara, Dozrey, et a plusours aultres batailles et asseges en les quex il gaina noblement graund los et honour per le space de iiij. et xvj. ans, et morust le xxvj. jour de Septembre lan nostre seignor Jesu Christ mccccvj. que de salme dieux eit mercy, amen.
Ther was beside this grave another in the westerende of the body of the chapelle having a gret flat stone without inscription.
I markid yn the wyndowes 3. sortes of armes, one al verry blew and white, another with iij. stripes gules down right in a feld of gold. The 3. was crosselettes of golde, many intermist in one yn a feld, as I remembre, gules.
Ther is a provost longging to this collegiate chapelle now yn decay, wher sumtyme was good service, and now but a messe said a 3. tymes yn the weeke.
The provost hath a large house yn the village of Stoke therby.
The notable quarre of stone ys even therby at Hamden, out of the which hath beene taken many a day stones for a the goodly buildinges therabout in al quarters.
From Stoke to Crokehorn, a mene market toun southwest
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from Montegue, a 5. miles, and 4. from Stoke by hilly ground.
Crokehorn [a] is sette under the rootes of an hille. Ther I saw nothing very notable. Yet there ys a praty crosse environid with smaul pillers, and a praty toune house yn the market place.
The chirch stondith on the hyile, and by it is a grammar schole endowid with landes for an annual stipende.
Haselberge [b] is about a mile from Crokehorn, at this place lyvid the holy heremite and prophete Wulfrik yn King Henry the 1. dayes. The Erle of Darby ys now owner of that lordship.
From Crokehorn by hilly ground but plentiful of corne, grasse, and elme wood, wherwith most part of al Somersetshire ys yn hegge rowys enclosid, scant a 2. miles to George Henton [c] village, so caullid bycause the paroch chyrch there is dedicate to S. George.
Heere hath Sir Hugh Poulet a right goodly maner place of fre stone, with 2. goodly high tourres embatelid in the ynner court.
Ther hath beene of auncient tyme a maner place at this Henton. But al that there now is notable is of the building of Syr Amise Poulet, father to Syr Hugh now lyving.
This Syr Hugh hath of late made a parke not far from his house at Henton in the side of an hylle.
From Henton to Kingeston [d] village a 2. miles dim. by hylly and enclosid ground, and thens passing about a mile farther I lefte White-Lakington half a mile of on the right hond, wher Mr. Speke hath his principale house, and a parke: and about a mile of on the lifte honde I left another maner place of his caullid ...
Thens to Cury-Malet [e] a 3. miles, wher is a parke longging to Chambernoun of Devonshire.
I left this parke a litle on the lift hond, and sone alter cam over a great brook, that risith west south west, and rennith est north est into Ivel [f] a 2. miles above Michelborow, by estimation.
Here I cam from the hilly ground to the low and marschy ground of Somerseteshir.
[c] Hinton St. George.
[e] Curry Mallett.
[f] Isle R.
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Thens to North-Cury [a] stille by low ground about a 2. miles or more. The chirch of Welles hath fair landes here.
And hereabout is Stoke Gregory, [b] wher the chirch of Welles hath possessions.
Thens about a mile to the ripe of Thone [c] ryver, by the which I passid by the space of half a mile, and there I went over Thone by a wood bridge.
Athelney lyith half a mile lower on Thon, and ther is a bridge of wood to entre to thabbay, and beneth that almost at the very confluence of Thone and Ivel [h] is another wood bridge over Thone.
Thonetoun alias Tawntoun [d] is a 5. miles by south west from Athelney.
Thonetoun is about a vij. miles from Bridge-Walter.
Ther is a great bridge on Thone at Basford a mile lower then Thonetoun.
From this bridge by Athelney I rode by low marsch ground a 2. miles to Pedertun Park.
Here at Pederton [e] the soyle westward and south west rysith agayn and ys not fenny.
There ys a great numbre of dere longging to this park, ye hath it almost no other enclosure but dikes to let the catelle of the commune to cum yn.
The dere trippe over these dikes and feede al about the fennes, and resort to the park agayn. There is a praty lodge motid yn the parke.
There cummyth a praty broke thorough the park, and half a mile beneth the park it goith ynto Ivel.
This brooke is caullid Peder, and risith west south west yn the hylles aboute a 2. myles of. First it cummith by North-Pedreton, [f] a praty uplandisch toun, wher is a fair chirch, the personage wherof was impropriate to Mynchinbucland.
Then it touchith on South-Pederton, [g] yn the which paroch the parke standith, and so to the ryver of Ivel. [h]
From the lodge in Pederton Parke to Northpedertun a mile.
From Northpedertun to Bridgewater 2. miles. The way
[a] North Curry.
[b] Stoke St. Gregory.
[f] North Petherton.
[g] South Petherton.
[h] Parret R., really.
162 LELAND'S ITINERARY
or I cam ynto Bridgwater was causid with stone more then half a myle.
Entering into Bridgwater I passid by a chapelle of S. Salvior standing on the ripe of the haven.
Then I enterid into a suburbe, and so over a bridg, under the which rennith a brook, that risith a 4. miles of by west at Bromefelde. [a]
The south gate of the towne joinith hard onto this bridge. The towne of Bridgwater [b] is not wallid, nor hath not beene by any lykelyhod that I saw. Yet there be 4. gates yn the towne namid as they be sette by est, west, north, and south. The waulles of the stone houses of the toune be yn steede of the towne waulles. I rode from the south gate yn a praty streate a while, and then I turnid by est and cam to the market place.
The fairest streate and principale showe of the toune ys from the west gate to the easte gate.
The ryver of Ivel [c] there joynith with the salt creeke, and arme of the se rennith crosse thorough this strete from south to north; and to passe over this arme there is a right auncient stronge and high bridge of stone of 3. arches begon of William Bruer, the first lord of that towne, yn King Richard the first and King John's dayes.
One Triveth, a gentilman, as I there lernid, of Devonshir or Cornewalle, finishid this bridge: and the Trivetes, beyng the armes that Triveth gave, appere there in a sheld yn the coping of the chekes of the bridge.
That part of the towne that stondith on the west side of the bridge and haven is thre tymes as bygge as that that stondith on the est side.
The castelle, sumtyme a right fair and strong peace of worke, but now al goyng to mere ruine, standith harde bynethe the bridge of the west side of the haven. Wylliam Bruer the first buildid this castelle.
These thinges I markid yn the weste parte of the towne:
One large paroch chirch.
A goodly howse wher sumtyme a college was of gray freres.
[c] Parret R.
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Wylliam Bruer, sunne to Willyam Bruer the first, buildid this house.
One of the Lordes Botreaux and his wife were especial benefactors to this house. Thereapon his hert and his wifes body were buryed there.
The accustumer of Bridgwater hath translatid this place to a right goodly and pleasaunt dwelling house.
There is an hospitale yn this parte of the towne of the building and fundation of menne yn the towne; but it is endowed with litle or no lande.
The chapelle of S. Salviour at the south side withoute the town was buildid in hominum memoria by a merchaunt of Bridgewater cawllid William Poel or Pole.
In the est parte of the town is onely the house or late college of S. John a thing notable: and this house standith partely withoute the est gate.
This college had prestes that had the apparelle of secular prestes with a crosse on there breste: and to this house was adjoynid an hospitale for poore folkes.
Wyllyam Bruer the first foundid this place, and gave onto it faire possessions.
Wylliam Bruer the firste was buried at Dunkeswelle, an abbay of white monkes of his fundation yn Devonshire.
Willyam Bruer the first wife was buried at Motesfonte, a priorie of her husbandes fundation.
There hath faullen yn ruine and sore decay above 200. houses yn the toun of Bridgwater in tyme of rememberaunce.
From Bridgewater to Canington a 2. miles.
As I cam ynto Canington, [a] a praty uplandisch towne, I passid over a bygge brooke that risith not far of by west yn the hilles, and passinge by Caningtun rennith into the haven of Bridgewater a 2. miles and more by estimation lower then Bridgwater.
The paroche chirch of Canington is very fair and welle adornyd.
There was a priory of nunnes, whos chirch was hard adnexid to the est of the paroch chirch. Rogeres of the court hath this priorie, and also Minchyn Bukland gyven onto hym.
From Caningtun to Stowey 3. good miles.
164 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Stowey a poore village stondith yn a botom, emong hilles. Heere ys a goodly maner place of the Lorde Audeley's standing exceding pleasauntly for goodly pastures, and having by it a parke of redde deere and another of falow, and a faire brooke serving al the offices of the maner place.
The Lord Audeley, that rebellid yn Henry the vij. tyme, began great foundations of stone work to the enlarging of his house, the which yet be seene half onperfect.
The ryver of Stowey risith yn the hilles therby by west, and renning along thorough Stowey village goith after to the se.
The se is about a 4. miles from Stowe.
From Stowey to S. Audres [a] a 5. miles. I left this village a litle on the right, it stondith about a mile from the se.
In this paroche I saw a fair park and manor place of the Lutterelles, caullid Quantok-hedde, [b] bycause it standith at the hedde of Quantok-hilles toward the se.
These hilles renne in crestes from Quantok-hedde toward Tauntoun, as from north to south est.
I passid over 2. notable brokes bytwixt Stowe and S. Audres that ran from the montaynes to the se.
From S. Audres to Wilington [c] a 2. miles.
I passid over a great brooke or I cam to Wilington, rising from south and renning by north to the se.
A quarter of a mile from Willington or more I cam to Orchard, [d] wher Mr. John Wyndeham dwellith.
This maner place was erectid by a younger brother of the Sydenhams. And of this name ther hath beene 4. owners of Orchard that was purchasid by the first of the 4.
The secunde Sidnham maried with the heire general of one Gamon, or rather Gambon, a man of 200. markes of lande in Devonshire and Cornewal.
This Gambon gave in a felde of sylver thre legges sables. Sidenham the 2. buildid moste part or almost al the good building of Orcharde.
The 3. dyed, leving a sunne and 2. doughters.
The sunne or he cam to xxij. yeres of age dyed.
[d] Orchard Wyndham.
PART II 165
The 2. doughters were thus maried: one to John Wyndham, a younger brother of Wyndham of Felbridge yn Northfolk. The other was maried to ...
The eldest house of the Sidenhams is at Brimtoun by Montegue.
And this Sidenham of Brimton, [a] a man of good yeres, lyith now at a litle maner place of his withyn a mile of Orchard caullid Combe.
There lyith also at Netlecumbe, [b] withyn a mile of Orchard or litle more, another Sidenham cumming oute of the house of Brimton. This Sidenham may spende a 50. li. land by the yere.
I markid yn the glasse wyndowes at Master Wyndeham's John Wyndham and Thomas, knighttes, armes. The one of them maried Howard the Duke of Northfolkes doughter: the other the doughter of the Lord Scrope of Boltun.
Orchard is yn the paroche of S. Decun, [c] alias Decumane, a mile or more from the se side, and a 2. miles from the chapelle of our Lady of Clyfe.
From Orchard to Clif [d] chapel a 3. miles or more.
Or I cam to this chapel almost by a mile I passid over a broke that cummith from Clif-abbay. At this place I left Clife-abbay scant a quarter of a mile of by south on the lift hond, and hard by on the right hond by north I saw a fair stone bridge of one arche.
Clif-chapelle, wher offering was to our Lady, is set apon no very high ground, but rokky, it is well buildid: and on the south side of it is a goodly ynne al of stone, a late usid for pilgrimes.
The se is about half a mile from Clife-chapelle.
From Clif-chapelle to Dunster a 2. miles.
I passid over a brooke that cummith thorough Dunestor park.
Marsch wood park bytwixt our Lady of Clyve and Dunestor.
Dunster toun stondith in a botom. The paroch chirch is set in ground sumwhat rising.
[c] St. Decumans.
166 LELAND'S ITINERARY
There is a very celebrate market at Dunstorre ons a wekes.
There is a fair privilegid to be at Dunster every Whitsun- Mone-day.
The toun of Dunestorre [a] makith cloth,
The glory of this toun rose by the Moions that were after Erles of Somersete.
The Moions had jura regalia at Dunster. The Moions buildid the right goodly and stronge castelle of Dunestorre.
The dungeon of the castelle of Dunestorre hath beene fulle of goodly building. But now there is but only a chapelle in good case.
Syr Hugh Luterelle did of late dayes repaire this chapelle.
The fairest part of the castelle welle maintenid is yn the north est of the court of it.
Syr Hugh Luterelle in the tyme of Dame Margarete his wife, sister to the olde Lord Dalbeney, made a fair tourre by north cummyng into the castelle.
Sir Hugh had another wife caullid Guinllean, doughter to York of Devonshir.
Syr Andrew Luterelle, sunne to Sir Hugh, build of new a pece of the castel waul by est.
There be great hilles on every side of the castelle hille except toward north est.
There longgith many privileges and knightes services to be doone to this castelle.
Ther is a praty park joyning to thest part of the castelle.
The late priory of blake monkes stoode yn the rootes of the north west side of the castelle, and was a celle to Bathe.
The hole chirch of the late priory servith now for the paroche chirch. Afore tymes the monkes had the est parte closid up to their use.
In the north part of this was buried undre an arche by the high altare one of the Luterelles, or, as I rather thynke, of the Moions, for he hath a garland about his helmet: and so were lordes of old tymes usid to be buried.
There ly ij. images on the south side of the chauncelle of one of the Moions and his wife: and therby lay an image of one of the Everardes gentilmen first there set up by the
PART II 167
Moions, yn token wherof they had a parte of the castelle to defende by service; the image lyith now bytwixt ij. arches or boteres in the chirch yarde.
The maner place of the Everardes was and yet ys at Aller in Carnetun paroche, a mile from Dunster castelle.
Carntoun [a] is shortely spoken for Carantokes towne, wher yet is a chapel of this sainct that sumtyme was the paroch chirche.
Ther lyith one Elizabeth, wife to one of the Luterelles, afore the high altare under a playne stone.
There cummith a praty brooke by west from the hilles therby, and so rennith
From Dunestore to Minheved a 2. miles.
Minheved [b] hath ons a weeke a praty market.
The fairest part of the toun standith in the botom of an hille. The residew rennith stepe up a long the hille, yn the toppe wherof is a fair paroche chirche.
The toune is exceding ful of Irisch menne.
The peere lyith at the north est point of the hille.
There was a fair park by Minheved, but Sir Andrew Lutterelle of late tyme destroyd it.
From Minheved to Aber Thawan yn Glamorgan the nerest traject there into Wales a 18. miles.
From Minheved up along the Severne shore to Stoke Gurcy [c] a xvij. miles, where is a goode village.
Thens to the Sterte [d] a 3. miles, and there is the mouth of Bridgewater haven.
From Minheved doune on the Severn shore to a place caullid Hores-toun [e] a 3. miles. There beginnith the rode that is communely caullid Porlogh Bay, [f] a meatly good rode for shippes, and so goith to Comban, [g] peraventure shortely spoken for Columbane, a 3. miles of; and thus far I was adcertenid that Somersetshir went or farther.
From Comebane to the Sterte most parte of the shore is hilly ground, and nere the shore is no store of wood: that that is ys al in hegge rowes of enclosures.
[c] Stoke Courcy.
[d] Stert Point.
[f] Porlock Bay.
168 LELAND'S ITINERARY
There is great plenty of benes in this quarter and inward to the landes.
And of these beenes ther is yn a maner a staple at Bridgwater when come is dere in the parties beyond the se.
There is also yn this quarter great plenty of whete and catelle.
From Dunestorre to Exford village a 7. miles.
Of these 7. miles 3. or 4. of the first were al hylly and rokky, ful of brokes in every hilles botom and meatly woddid.
These brookes by my estimation ranne toward the Severne se.
The residew of the way to Exford was partely on a moore and sumwhat baren of corne, and partely hylly, having many brookes gathering to the hither ripe of Ex ryver.
There is a litle tymbre bridge at Exforde over Ex brooke, ther being a smaul water.
Ex risith yn Exmore at a place caullid Excrosse a 3. miles of by north weste, and so goith toward Tyvertun [a] a xij. miles lower, and thens to Excestre [b] a x. miles.
From Exford to Simonsbath bridge a 4. miles, al by forest, baren, and morisch ground, wher ys store and breading of yong catelle, but litle or no corne or habitation.
There rennith at this place caullid Simonsbath a ryver [c] betwixt to great morisch hilles in a depe botom, and ther is a bridge of woodde over this water.
The water in somer most communely rennith flat apon stones easy to be passid over, but when raynes cum and stormes of wyntre it ragith and ys depe.
Alwayes this streame ys a great deale bygger water then Ex is at Exford, yet it resortith into Ex ryver.
The boundes of Somerseteshire go beyond this streame one way by north west a 2. miles or more to a place caullid the Spanne, and the Tourres, for ther be hillokkes of yerth cast up of auncient tyme for markes and limites betwixt Somersetshir and Devonshire; and here about is the limes and boundes of Exmore forest.
From Simonsbath bridge I rode up an high morisch hylle, and so passing by 2. myles in lyke ground, the soyle began to be sumwhat fruteful, and the hilles to be ful of enclosures,
[c] Barle R.
PART II 169
ontylle I cam a 3. miles farther to a poore village caullid Brayforde, [a] wher rennith a broke [b] by likelihod resorting to Simonsbath water and Ex.
From Braiford to Berstaple an 8. miles by hilly ground, having much enclosures for pasture and corne.
The toune of Berdenestaple [c] hath be waullid, and the waulle was in cumpace by estimatpon half a myle. It is now almost clene faullen. The names of the 4. gates by est, west, north and south, yet remain, and manifest tokens of them.
I think that the olde name of the toune was in the Britanne tunge Abertaw, bycause it stode toward the mouth of Taw ryver. Berdenes shortely or curruptely spoking, as I thinke, for Abernesse. Staple is an addition for a market.
The suburbes be now more then the toun.
The houses be of stone, as al houses in good townes there aboute be.
There be manifest ruines of a great castelle at the north west side of the towne a litle beneth the toun bridge, and a peace of the dungeon yet standith. One Johelus de Totenes, films Aluredi, was the first that I can reade of that lay yn this castelle.
There is but one paroche chirch in the town.
There hath beene 4. chapelles yn the toun, of the which one was at the est end of the bridge dedicate to Thomas Beket, now profanid.
The other 3. yet stande; one of Alhalowes, at the north gate. Another of S. Nicolas, at the west gate, as I remembre.
One Holman, vicar of the paroche chirch in Berstaple, made a fair chapelle, and foundid a cantuarie in it in the paroche chirch yard in Berstaple.
The priorie of Blake Monkes at the northe ende of the towne was founded by Johelus de Totenes, that was lorde of the toun and castelle of Berstaple.
A fair at the nativite of our Lady at Berstaple.
One Tracy was after lorde of the castelle and toune of Berstaple, and taken as founder of the priorie.
[b] Bray R.
170 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Sum say that one of the Tracys made the right great and sumptuus bridge of stone having 16 high arches at Berstaple.
There be landes gyven to the maintenaunce of this bridge.
One Philippus de Columbariis was after lord of Berstaple: and this Philip died circa annum dni. 1344 or 47, he and his wife lay booth buried in the priory of Berstaple.
There lay summe of the barons of Stane yn Ireland buryed in Berstaple priory.
Then was one William Mertun a knight lord of Berstaple.
The Duke of Excester was of late dayes lord of Berstaple.
The Countes of Richemont, grand dame to Henry the 8, was lady of Berstaple.
Henry late Duke of Richemont and Somersete was lord of Berstaple.
There is a mair in Berstaple, and the burgeses take King Ethelstan as chief of privileges to the toun.
Plimtoun [a] is devidid from the north suburbe and the priory only by a grete causey of stone, having an archid bridge at eche ende of it.
This bridge was made long sins by a merchaunt of London caullid Stawford, long sins, by this occasion:
He chauncid to be at Berstaple to by cloth, and saw a woman ryding to cum over by the low salte marsch from Plymtun towarde Berstaple, and the tyde cam so sore yn by a gutte, that brekith yn there from the haven shore to the marsch, that she could not passe: and crying for help, no man durst cum to her, and so she was drownid.
Then Stawford toke the prior of Berstaple a certen summe of money to begyn this causey, chekid on eche side, and the bridgges, and after payid for the performing of it.
There cummith a praty broke [b] from the hilles at Berstaple by est and rennith along by the priorye waulle, and so goith thorowgh the bridge at the ende of the causey, and strayte dryvith a mile and so ynto the haven.
Picartes and other smaul vessels cum up by a gut out of the haven to the other bridge on the causey at Plymtun townes ende.
Plymtun is but one fair long streate. and is mainteynid by clothe making.
[b] ? The Yeo R.
PART II 171
The west north west side of the toun for the more part longid to the priory of Berstaple.
The est side of the toune longid to thabbay of Clif for the more part. King Athelstan gave fair landes in and by Plymtun to thabbay of Malmesbyri.
Malmesbyri had also the personage of Plymtun impropriatid.
The Bisshop of Excestre hath an auncient maner place a mile above Berstaple-bridg caullid Tawton on the est part of the haven. Bishop Veysy of late made this house sumwhat lesse then it was but more handsum.
The Erle of Bathe hath a right goodly maner and place at Tawstoke [a] on the west side of the haven a mile above Berstaple bridge.
The king gave of late to the Erle of Hampton a great lordship caullid Fremingtun; it lyith from byneth Berstaple bridge on the west side of the haven to the nesse.
The ryver of Tau risith in Exmore by est south est from Berstaple.
The ryver of Taw is no very mayne streame at the ebbe as it apperith at Berstaple.
From Berstaple to the very haven mouth a v. miles: and the very mouth of it is no large thing, and a litle without is a barre.
There rennith a shore on the west side of the haven; a 3. miles byneth Berstaple to this nesse or point metith the ryver of Turege [b] and Taw togither, making a brode water, and go to the Severn se.
From this nesse up to Bedeford [c] bridge apon Turege a 4. miles, wher is a praty quik streat of smithes and other occupiers for ship crafte cis pontem.
The bridge at Bedeforde apon Turege is a very notable worke, and hath xxiiij. arches of stone, and is fairly waullid on eche side. But the arches be not so high as the arches of Berstaple bridge be.
A poore preste began this bridge: and, as it is saide, he was animatid so to do by a vision.
172 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Then al the cuntery about sette their handes onto the performing of it: and sins landes hath be gyven to the maintenaunce of it.
Ther standith a fair chapelle of our Lady trans pontem at the very ende of it, and there is a fraternite in the toun for perservation of this bridge: and one waitith continually to kepe the bridg clene from al ordure.
The greatest part of the toune is ultra pontem, and ther is a fair paroch chirch.
Ther is no wekely market at a sette day at Bedeforde.
There is a good village ulteriori ripa a 2. miles byneth Bedeford caullid Apledour, [a] and thens about a mile is the haven mouth.
Mr. Cophin dwellith a 3. miles by north west from Bedeford. Hertland [b] is x. miles from Bedeford much by morische ground but very good for broode of catelle.
Hertey [c] point lyith north north est 3. miles nerer to the mouth of Taw then Hertlande.
From Berstaple to Bedeforde bridge a 7. miles or 8.
From Berstaple to Newtoun [d] a poore village by stony and hille and sum enclosid ground a 3. miles.
And thens to Alscote [e] by much like ground a 3. miles.
Master Bedlaw dwellith at Alscote. I left his house hard by on the lift hand. And thens I cam to Toringtun a 2. miles of.
Torington [f] is a great large toune, and stondith on the brow of an hille, and hath a 3. fair streates yn it, and a good market every weke, and ons a yere apon S. Michael's day the best fayr in al those quarters.
In the toun is but one paroch chirch. Dr. Chaumbre is persone therof.
The most parte lyvith there by making of cloth.
There is a mair, and the toun is privilegid with libertees. The ryver of Torege rennith under the rootes of the hille, on the which the town stondith on, and apon Turege at Torington be 2. bridgges of stone, one caullid the south brid of 3. arches of stone, and another half a mile lower caullid
[d] Newton Tracey.
PART II 173
the west bridge, the which is the greater of the 2; and by this weste bridge the way lyith to Hertland that is xij. miles of.
A litle above the south bridge stoode a fair castelle apon the brow of the hille hangging over Torege ripe, of the which at this present tyme nothing remainith stonding but a neglect chapelle.
I lernid there that one Sir Wyllyam of Torington was lord of this castel and the town: for whom and for his sunne they pray for in the paroche chirch.
The king of late tyme gave the lordship of Torington onto Fitzwilliams Erle of Hamptun.
Litle-Tarington is on an hille beyond Turege water a mile by south south weste, and therby dwellith one Mr. Monk a gentilman.
There is an hamlet longging to Tarington toun not a mile by est from Tarington caullid S. Gilys, [a] wher George Rolles hath buildid a right fair house of bryke.
Fristok [b] priory is aboute a mile from Tarington.
From Tarington over the south bridg to Depeford by hilly and much enclosid ground and sum wood an 8. miles of.
The ryver of Turege risith in a morisch ground a 3. miles by north est from Herteland almost by the principale hedde of Tamar: and first rennith south south est by a few miles.
The first notable bridge on Turege is Kissingtun [c] bridg.
Thens half a mile to Pulford bridg.
Thens a 2. miles to Woddeford bridg.
Thens a 2. miles to Depeford [d] bridge of 3. arches.
Thens to the south bridge of Torington. Or ever Turege cummith ful to Torington he turnith from the south to north west.
Thens to the west bridge of Torington.
Thens to Bedeford [e] bridge about a 4. miles.
And a 2. miles lower is the confluence of Turege and Taw, and so strait into Severn by the haven mouth.
From Depeford to Lanstoun [f] a xij. miles by hilly and much morisch grounde baren of woodde.
Or ever I cam to Lanstoun by a mile I passid over a bridge Cornwall.
[a] St. Giles's.
[d] Deepford ?nr. Bradford.
174 LELAND'S ITINERARY
of stone having 3. arches, and a smaul, caullid New Bridge, thorough the which the ryver of Tamar rennith, that almost from the hed of it to the mouth devidith Devonshir and Cornewaule.
This New Bridge was of the making of the abbates of Tavestok and mainteinyd by them: for Tavestoke abbay had fair possessions thereaboute.
The ryver of Tamar risith a 3. miles by north est from Hertelande, and thens cummith to Tamertun, [a] a village on the est ripe yn Devonshire; and ther is a bridg over Tamar of stone: and from this bridg to Padestow [b] xx. miles.
Yalme [c] bridge of stone 2. miles lower.
New Bridg 2. miles lower.
Polstun bridge 2. miles lower.
Greistoun [d] bridge a 2. miles or more lower.
Tavestoke [e] about a 4. miles from Greston bridg; and Grestoun bridg being about a 3. miles from Launston is the way from Launston to Tavestok.
Hawte [f] bridg.
Another bridg caullid New Bridg.
Caulstok [g] bridg next the se begon by Sir Perse Eggecumbe.
Lideford bridge is not on Tamar.
After that I had enterid a litle into the suburbe of Launstoun I passid over a brooke caullid Aterey [h] that rennith yn the botom of the stepe hil that Launstoun stondith on.
This water, as I there lernid, risith a x. miles of by west north west toward Bodmyne, and passing by Launstoun goith in Tamar by est, as I did gather, a litle above Pulstun bridg.
After that I had passid over Aterey I went up by the hille thorough the long suburbe ontylle I cam to the toun waul and gate: and so passid thorough the toun conscending the hille ontylle I cam to the very toppe of it, wher the market place and the paroche chirch of S. Stephane lately reedified be.
The large and auncient castelle of Launstun stondith on the knappe of the hille by south a litle from the paroche chirch. Much of this castel yet stondith: and the moles
[h] Otterey R.
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that the kepe stondeth on is large and of a terrible higth, and the arx of it, having 3. severale wardes, is the strongest, but not the biggist, that ever I saw in any auncient worke in Englande.
Ther is a litle pirle of water that servith the high parte of Lanstoun.
The priorie of Launstoun stondith in the west south west parte of the suburbe of the toun under the rote of the hille by a fair wood side, and thorowgh this wood rennith a pirle of water cumming out of an hil therby and servith al the offices of the place.
In the chirch I markid 2. notable tumbes, one of prior Horton and another of prior Stephane.
One also told me there that one Mabilia a countes was buried ther in the chapitre house.
One William Warwist, Bisshop of Excestre, erectid this priorie, and was after buried at Plymtoun [a] priory that he also erectid.
Warwist for erection of Launston priorie suppressid a collegiate chirch of S. Stephan having prebendaries, and gave the best part of the landes of it to Launstoun priory, and toke the residew hymself.
There yet standith a chirch of S. Stephan about half a mile from Launstoun on a hille wher the collegiate chirch was. Gawen Carow hath the custody of the priory.
There is a chapelle by west north west a litle without Launstowne dedicate to S. Catarine, it is now prophanid. From Launston to Botreaux castelle, vulgo Boscastel, [b] first a 2. miles by enclosid ground having sum woodde and good corne.
Thens an 8. miles by morisch and hilly ground and great scarsite of wod, insomuch that al the countery therabout brennith firres and hethe.
And thens a 2. miles to Boscastel by enclosid ground metely fruteful of corne but exceding baren of wood, to the which the bleke northen se is not ther of nature favorable.
176 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The toun of Boscastelle lyith apon the brow of a rokky hille by south est, and so goith doun by lenght to the northe toward the se, but not even ful hard to it.
It is a very filthy toun and il kept.
There is a chirch in it, as I remembre, of S. Simpherian.
The Lorde Botreaux was lord of this toun, a man of an old Cornish linage, and had a maner place, a thing as far as I could heare of smaul reputation, as it is now, far onworthe the name of a castel. The people ther caulle it the Courte.
Ther cummith down a litle broke [a] from south est out of the hilles therby, and so renning by the west side of the towne goith into Severn se betwixt 2. hylles, and ther maketh a pore havenet, but of no certaine salvegarde.
One of the Hungrefordes maried with one of the heires generale of Botreaux: and so Boscastel cam to Hungreford.
Then cam Boscastelle by an heir generale of the Hungrefordes onto the Lord Hastinges.
Hastinges Erle of Huntendune and the late Lord Hungreford had a lordship of the Botreaux in partition caullid Parke, [b] and ther is a manor place or castelet. It is a vj. miles from Botreaux by south.
Ther is no very notable toun or building from Botreaux by est north est a long apon the shore upper on Severn to Hertland point but Strettoun, [c] and that is xij. miles from Botreaux, and ther is a praty market. It stondith about a mile from the se.
There is a place nere to Stretton caullid Ebbingford, but now communely Efford, wher John Arundale of Trerise was borne, and hath a fair maner place: in the which Syr John Chaumon now dwellith, that maried the mother yet lyving of John Arundale of Trerise.
Olde Treviliane a man of pratie land but cumming of a youngger brother of the chife house of that name, dwellith toward Stretton at a place caullid ...
Hertland point is a x. miles upper on Severn from Strettoun. From Botreaux to Tredewy [d] village on the shore about a
[a] Valency R.
[b] ? Parkwalls.
[d] ? Trevalga.
PART II 177
myle: and ther cummith downe a broke rising in the gret rokky hilles therby.
From Tredewi to Bossinny on the shore about a mile.
This Bossenny hath beene a bygge thing for a fischar town, and hath great privileges grauntid onto it. A man may se there the ruines of a gret numbre of houses.
Here also cummith down a broke, and this brook and Tredewy water resort to the se at one mouth bytwixt ij. hilles; wherof that that is on the est side lyith out lyke an arme, or cape, and makith the fascion of an havenet, or pere, whither shippelettes sumtime resorte for socour.
A frere of late dayes toke apon hym to make an haven at this place, but he litle prevailid theryn.
There ly 2. blake rokkes as islettes at the west north west point or side of this creeke; the one, saving a gut of water, joyning to the other. And yn these brede guiles be al lykelihod.
From Bossinny to Dindagel [a] castel on the shore a mile.
This castelle hath bene a mervelus strong and notable forteres, and almost situ loci inexpugnable, especially for the dungeon that is on a great and high terrible cragge environid with the se, but having a draw bridge from the residew of the castelle onto it.
There is yet a chapel standing withyn this dungeon of S. Ulette alias Uliane. Shepe now fede within the dungeun. The residew of the buildinges of the castel be sore wether beten and yn ruine, but it hath beene a large thinge.
This castel stondith in the paroche of Trevenny [b] and the paroch therof is of S. Symphorian ther caullid Simiferian.
Passing a mile from the chirch of S. Symphorian by hilly and hethy ground I cam over a brooke that ran from south est north to Severn se, and about half a myle beyound the mouth of this brook lay a great blak rok [c] lyke an islet yn the se not far from the shore.
Porthissek [d] a fisschar village lyith about a 3. miles from the mouth of thafore sayd brook lower by west on Severn shore.
[c] The Gull Rock.
[d] Port Isaac.
178 LELAND'S ITINERARY
There resortith a broke to Porthissek: and there is a pere and sum socour for fisschar botes.
Porthguin [a] a fisschar village lyith a 2. miles lower on the shore, and there is the issue of a broke and a pere.
And a 3. miles lower is the mouth of Padestow haven.
From Dindagelle to S. Esse [b] village a 4. miles.
Meately good ground about S. Esses selfe.
From S. Esse to Trelille village 2. miles.
From Trelille to ... wher Master Carniovies alias Carnsey hath a praty house, fair ground, and praty wood about it.
Thens 3. miles by good corne grounde but no wood to Wadebridge.
Wher as now Wadebridge is ther was a fery a 80. yeres syns, and menne sumtyme passing over by horse stoode often in great jeopardie.
Then one Lovebone, vicar of Wadebridge, movid with pitie began the bridge, and with great paine and studie, good people putting their helpf therto, finishid it with xvij. fair and great uniforme arches of stone.
One told me that the fundation of certein of tharches was first sette on so quik sandy ground that Lovebone almost despairid to performe the bridg ontyl such tyme as he layed pakkes of wolle for fundation.
The ryver of Alawne [c] rennith thorough Wadebridge evidently seen at lower.
The first memorable bridge on Alane is caullid Helham [d] bridge ... miles lower then Camilforde, but Alane is almost a mile from Camilford toun.
Dunmere [e] bridge of 3. arches a 2. miles lower. Here doth Alaune ryver ren within a mile of Bodmyn.
Wadebrid a 3. miles lower by land and 4. by water. This is the lowest bridg on Alane.
Ther cummith a broke [f] from S. Esse 5. myles from
[b] Identified by Mr. Robert Brown as St. Teath (Essays, p. 90). Leland perhaps confused the name with St. Issey, near which is also a Trelill, S.W. of Wadebridge.
[c] Alan or Allen. Now the Camel r.
[f] Now the Allen r.
PART II 179
Wadebridge, and a litle above Wadebridge goith into Alane by the est side of the haven.
This broke risith a 2. miles above S. Esse by est north est.
There cummith a brooke from Mr. Carnsey's house and goith into Alane by the est side of the haven a 3. miles lower then Wadebridge, and here is a creeke at the mouth of this brooke that ebbith and flowith up into the land.
In the way passing from Dunmere bridge toward Bodmyn there rennith a praty broket thoroug a bridge of one stone arche a very litle way beyond Dunmer bridge: and a litle lower goith into Alane bynethe Dunmer bridge by the west ripe of Alane.
This litle broke servith the milles and rennith by the est ende of the town of Bodmyn. [a]
There cummith a brooke into Alaune about a 2. miles byneth Dunmere bridg on the west ripe.
This brooke risith by south est: and at S. Laurence scant a mile owt of Bodmyn I passid over a bridge on this water in the way to Michale.
From Wade Bridge to Padestow [b] a good quik fischar toun but onclenly kepte, a 4. miles.
This toun is auncient bering the name of Lodenek in Cornische, and yn Englisch after the trew and old writinges Adelstow. Latine Athelstani locus.
And the toune there takith King Adelstane for the chief gever of privileges onto it.
The paroch chirch of Padestow is of S ...
There use many Britons with smaul shippes to resorte to Padestow with commoditees of their countery and to by fische.
The toun of Padestow is ful of Irisch men.
Padestow is set on the weste side of the haven.
Padestow toun is a ... miles from the very haven mouth.
From the mouth of Padestow haven to S. Carantokes a ... miles.
180 LELAND'S ITINERARY
From Wadebridge to Dunmere [a] a 3. miles, and thens a mile to Bodmyn.
Bodmyn hath a market on every Saturday lyke a fair for the confluence of people.
The showe and the principale of the toun of Bodmyn is from west to est along in one streate.
There is a chapel of S at the west ende of the toune.
The paroch chirch standith at the est end of the town and is a fair large thyng.
There is a cantuarie chapel at the thest ende of it.
The late priory of Blake Chanons stoode at the est ende of the paroch chirch yard of Bodmyne. S. Petrocus was patrone of this and sumtyme dwellyd ther.
There hath bene monkes, then nunnys, then seculare prestes, then monkes agayn, and last canons regular in S. Petrokes chirch yn Bodmyne.
Willyam Warlewist Bisshop of Excestre erectid the last fundation of this priory: and had to hymself part of thauncient landes of Bodmyn monasterie.
I saw no tumbes in the priory very notable, but Thomas Vivianes late prior ther and suffragane by the tile of the bisshoprike of Megarense.
The shrine and tumbe of S. Petrok yet stondith in thest part of the chirche.
There was a good place of Gray Freres in the south side of Bodmyn town,
One John of London a marchaunt was the beginner of this house. Edmund Erle of Cornewaul augmentid it.
There lay buried in the gray freres Sir Hugh, and Sir Thomas Peverelle knightes, and benefactors to the house.
There is another chapel in Bodmyn beside that in the west end of the toune, and an almose house, but not endowid with landes.
The toune of Bodmyn takith King Edelstane for the chief erector and gyver of privileges onto it.
From Bodmyn to S. Columbes [b] 8. miles.
[b] S. Columb Major.
PART II 181
From Bodmyn to S. Laurence, wher is a pore hospital or lazar house beyond the bridge, about a mile.
Thens a 5. miles by hilly and mory ground, and so ther left an hille caullid Castelle Endinas scant a mile of on the right hond.
Thens to Michal, [a] a poore thorougfare, a 4. miles, by hilly and much morisch and no wood.
Thens to Alaine [b] paroche a 6. miles. The ground about Alein berith good corne and grasse.
Thens a mile to Guernek. [c]
There is very good corne and pasture about Guernek.
Guernek a late was one of the maner places of Bovilles alias Beville. This name cam out of Base Normandy, and long continuid ther ontylle of late tyme it felle onto 2. doughters of Boville, wherof the one was maryed onto Arundale of Trerise now lyving.
The other to Graneville: and so they devide almost 300. markes of lande.
[a] Mitchell or S. Michael.
[b] S. Allen.
Part III, although it continues the journey through Cornwall, does not strictly continue the narrative from the last page of Part II (181), but rather from the last line of p. 179. Pages 180, 181, contain notes which Leland amplifies into the narrative found on the first three pages of Part III.
On the other hand, the narrative of journeys in Part III stops at the end of Hampshire (fo. 83), though it may include the fuller accounts of Glastonbury and Wells on fos. 86-88; the later pages are filled with notes which must have served as foundation for previous portions of the narrative in Part II of this volume, or are supplementary to information formerly given about the places therein named. These relate to the counties Somerset, pp. 137-149 (III, fos. 84-89), Dorset and Somerset, pp. 152-159 (III, fos. 90, 91), Devonshire, pp. 168-173 (III, tos. 92, 93), and Cornwall, pp. 174-179 (III, fos. 94, 95). The notes are printed in a narrower form than the full text in order to distinguish them more readily.Return to top of page