Leland's Itinerary of England and Wales: Part V.

PART V

Oxfordshire.

FROM Haseley to Ikeford bridge 2 miles; here dothe Tame streame breke into 2 armes in the medowes and sone aftar cummithe to one streame.

The arme on the lyfte hand as the watar descendith hathe a stone bridge of 2 archis. The othar a wood bridge not far from the othar. Shonington bridges be a mile above these bridges on Tame. And as the course of the watar is, Tame bridge at Tame towne is a 2 miles above Shonington.

Whateley [a] bridge of 8 arches of stone is a 3 miles lower by water on Tame then Ikeford bridges. From Ikeford bridge to Welstreme in Bukynghamshire a 3 miles. This is a praty longe village and in it is a fair auncient howse of the Redes welle motid, having a sqware gate-howse of stone at the entering of it. There are fayre woods all about Welstrem as coverts for the deare of Barnewood [b] foreste.

From Welstreme to Arnecote village a 3 miles and halfe. There is Blake Thorne bridge of wood, and a broke rising


[a] Wheatley.
[b] Bernwood.

34 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Oxfordshire.

not far of that aftar as I gessyd runithe in to Charwel ryver.

From Arnecote to Burcester [a] a mile and halfe. Good wodds about sum partes of Burcester. There be goodly meddowes and pastures about Burcester. There is a commune market at Burcester every weke on day.

There risythe hard by Burcestar a litle broket passyng thrwghe a pece of the towne and aftar thoroughe the priory, it goithe a 4 miles of about Otmore into Charwell river.

The Bassets were lords of this towne, aftar the Straunges, and now the Erle of Derby. Sum say that Bassets had his mansion place where the comon pound is now in the midle of the towne. Some say that Bassets howse was where the late priorie of Burcestre stode. Gilberte Basset and ^Eglean Courtney his wyfe were originall foundars of the priorie of chanons in Burcester. Gilbert Basset as some thinke was buried beyond the see. This Gilbert was but a knight: and he was a great companion in warres to one Giffard a noble knight.

Aglean Courteney was buried in the priorie of Burcester.

There were divers of the Damaries, auncient gentlemen, buried in the priorie of Burcester.

There was also one of the laste of the Lords Lestraunges buried. The priorie churche was dedicate to saint Edburge the virgine.

The paroche churche is also dedicatyd to Seint Edburge.

There is buried in the quier of the paroche churche of Burcester one William Standley esquier, lorde of Bygnelle, [b] a mile from Burcester and parte of Burcester paroche; this Standley maried Alice doughtar and heire to John Frauncys knight. Standley died anno domini 1498.

There is a woddy hille a 3 miles by southe out of Burcester caulyd the Erles hill where some thinke hathe bene a maner place.

From Burchestar to Oxford 10 miles.

From Burchestar to Tame 9 miles.


[a] Bicester.
[b] Bucknell.

PART V 35

Oxfordshire.

From Burchestar to Bukingham x. miles.

From Burchestar to Banbyri x. miles.

From Burchestar to Brakeley vii. miles.

Studlege [a] priory is a 3. miles from Burcester in the way toward Oxforde.

The village and castle of Midleton in Oxfordshire is 2. myles by west from Burchestar. The castle stode hard by the churche. Sum peces of the walls of it yet a litle apeare; but almoast the whole site of it is over growne with bushys.

Sum say that this was Bassets castle, syns Lestrangs, and now the Erle of Derbyes. The lordship is a fiftie li. by yere.

One told me that suche lands as the Erle of Darby now hathe in Oxford were the Bassets, and after the Lestraungs lands; as Burcestre, Midleton, Wicheford and Compton toward Cheping-norton, Kyngssutton in the way almoste betwixt Brakeley and Banbyri: but I take that some of these lordships were the Lord Lovell's, and gyven by atteindure to Standley Erle of Derby.

Northants.

From Burcester to Brakeley vii. mils by very fruitfull grownd havynge f good corne, grace and some wood, many conies, but litle enclosynge ground.

I enteryd into Brakeley by a litle stone bridge in a botom, of one arche, undar the whiche Use riveret rennithe, there being a letle streame.

From this bridge the great streate of the towne goith up apon a pratie hille: at the pitch whereof there turnithe a nothar streat by este to Seint Peter's, the heade churche of the towne.

The towne of Brakeley by estimation of old ruines hath fo. 54 hhad many stretes in it, and that large.

The lengthe from S. James churche at the southe end of the towne to the chapelle of Seint Leonard hathe bene halfe a mile in building.

The compas hathe bene almost 2. miles.


[a] Studley.

36 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northants.

This towne florishid in the Saxons tyme ontyll the Danes rasid it.

It florishid agayne syns the Conquest, and was a staple for wolle, privilegid with a major, the which honor yet remaynethe to this pore towne.

There was a fayre castle in the southe-west end of the towne on the left hand or ripe of the riveret. The site and hille where it stode is yet evidently sene, and berithe the name of the Castle Hill; but there is not sene any peace of a waull stondinge.

There ly 2. praty smaul low medowes hard by west of this Castle Hille, and beare the name of the Fische Weeres: and a great likelyhode there is that they were sometyme fishe pooles.

Divers rowes of howsynge hathe bene about the quarters of the castle now clene doune.

There were 3. goodly crossis of stone in the towne, one by southe at the end of the towne, throwne doune a late by theves that sowght for treaswre.

A nothar at the west end of Seint James churche.

The third very antique, faire and costly in the inward parte of the Highe Streate. Ther be dyvers tabernacles in this with ladies and men armyd. Sum say that the staplears of the towne made this: but I thinke rathar sume noble man lorde of the towne.

There is a churche as a chaple of ease of Seint James in the southe end of the towne, an old pece of worke, and on the southe syde of the chaunsell of it is a faire chapell or isle, and there be in the wyndow sydes, in stone, imagis beringe woll sakks in theyr hands, in token that it was of the stapelers makyng.

There is in the midle of the towne a churche of Seint James and S. John, somtime a college and an almose house or hospitale. This was suppressyd and gyven to S. Magdalenes college with lands.

There ly buryed in tumbes dyvers noble men and women in the presbitery of this churche: first 2. noble men in one tombe havynge in theyr shelds a lyon rampant and flures de luce.

There lyeth on the southe syde in the wall a noble man havynge m a feld of gules 10. besants of gold.

PART V 37

Northants.

And at his feete lyethe a nothar havynge in his sheld a lion rampant.

Ther lyethe also Robart Holand that dyed in anno dni. 1373. Mawd his wyfe lyethe there also.

Ther lyethe a noble man and his wyfe. He berithe in his shild varre gold and gules.

One told me that of late dayes one of the Lordes Lovells was taken for foundar there, and that by his graunt it cam in gyft to Magdalene coledge.

The churche of Seynt Petere, beinge the chefe churche of the towne and mothar churche of the hole denery of Brakeley, is in the est syde of the towne. I saw no tumbe or great antiquiti in it.

In the churche yarde lyethe an image of a priest revestid; the whiche was vicar of Barkeley, and there buried quike by the tyranny of a lord of the towne for a displeasure that he tooke with hym for an horse taken, as some say, for a mortuarie. But the lord, as it is there sayde, went to Rome for absolution, and toke greate repentauns.

The parsonage of S. Petars was inpropriate to the abbey of Leircestar, and ther was a vicar endowid.

There be 2. faire springs, or wells, a litle west north west from S. Peter's churche. The one of them is caullyd S. Rumoaldes Welle, wher they say, that with in a fewe dayes of his birth he prechid. The other is caullyd Welle. There issuithe a very litle streamelet out of eche of them being not the cast of a coyte distant, and straite cum to one streamelet, not so abundaunt of watar as it hathe bene. For the sayenge is that it hath driven in tymes past a cutlers myll thereby.

There is also a faire springe in the highe streate of the towne, and out of it issuith a little pirle.

The Lord Lovell was in Kynge Richard the third's dayes lord of Brakeley, and by his land beinge attaintyd by Henry the 7. this lordshipe, and also halfe thereby was gyven to Standeley Erle of Darby, or to his sune.

The ryver of Ise, or Use, [a] that rennith at the south ende of Brakeley risithe a litle above Stene, wher the Lord Sannes hathe a maner place, sumtyme the Lord Morleys, beinge a mile and an halfe west from Brakeley.


[a] Ouse r.

38 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northants.

From Brakeley to Bukkingham v. mils.

From Brakeley to Northampton 14 myles, 7 to Touecestar and 7 to Northampton. 7 miles to Brakeley and 7 miles to Brayles, 7 miles to Camden, and 7 miles to Hayles.

Camden is a market towne in Glocestershire. From Brakeley to Chiping-norton 14 longe miles, 6 miles to Dadington, [a] and 8 to Chiping-norton. There hathe bene a castle at Dadington, and it is in Oxfordshire.

From Brakeley to Banbyry 7 miles.

From Brakeley to Oxford ...

Brakeley market is now desolatyd, it was wont to be kept on Wednesday.

Brakeley standithe in Northamptonshire, and Northamptonshire goithe that way a mile farthar by southe to Einho, [b] and this is the uttermost village that way in Northamptonshire.

There was a howse of Whit-monkes caulyd ... a 2 myles from Brakley.

I rode from Brakeley to Kyngs Southtown [c] 4 miles of, al by champayn corne and gresse.

The spire of Sowthetowne churche is a fayre peace of worke. St. Rumoalde was borne in this paroche. There was of late a chapell dedicate to hym, standinge about a mile from Sowthetowne in the medes, defacid and taken downe.

There lyeth one Westhaul in a tombe in a chapell on the south syd of the church. He new ruffid the church of Southetowne.

Oxfordshire.

From Southetowne to Banbyri a 3. miles, all by champaine baren of wood. Scant a mile bynethe Southtowne I passyd by a stone bridge of one arch over Charwell ryver.

The moaste parte of the hole towne of Banbyri standithe in a valley, and is inclosyd by northe and est with low grownde, partely medowes, partely marsches; by southe and southe-west the ground somewhat hillithe in respecte of the site of the towne.

The fayrest strete of the towne lyethe by west and easte downe to the river of Charwelle. And at the west parte of this streat is a large area invironed with meatlye good buildinge, havynge a goodly crosse withe many degrees about it.


[a] Deddington.
[b] Aynho.
[c] King's Sutton.

PART V 39

Oxfordshire.

In this area is kept every Thursday a very celebrate market. There renithe a prile of freshe watar throwghe this area.

There is another fayre strete from southe to northe; and at eche end of this strete is a stone-gate. There be also in the towne othar gates besydes thes. Yet is there nothere eny certayne token or lykelyhod, that ever the towne was dichid or waullyd.

There is a castle on the northe syde of this area havynge 2. wardes, and eche warde a dyche. In the utter is a terrible prison for convict men.

In the north parte of the iner warde is a fayre peace of new building of stone.

I cannot se or learne that there was any castle or fortress at Banbyry afore the Conquest. Alexandar bysshope of Lyncolne in Henry the first dayes buildyd this castle.

There is but one paroche churche in Banbyry, dedicate to our Lady. It is a large thinge, especially in bredthe. I saw but one notable tumbe in the chirche, and that is of blake marble; wherein William Coope, coferer to Kynge Henry the vii is buried.

In the chirche yarde be howsis for cantuari pristes.

The personage of Banbyry is a prebend of Lincoln. There is a vicar indowid. There is a chapel of the Trinity in the midle of the towne. Ther is a bridge of 4. fayre arches of stone at the este ende of the towne where Cherwell rennithe. This bridge partithe Oxford-shir from Northampton- shir.

Oxford-shire goeth a 3. miles farther by northe then Banbyri towne. The Bysshope of Lincolne is lord of Banbyry, and the hole hunderithe of Banbyry hath bene of longe tyme gyven out by Kinges in fee-ferme to the Bysshops of Lyncoln. The bysshope hath 180. of this lordship.

The Headde and Course of Charwelle Ryver.

Charwell ryseth out of a welle or a litle poole, in Charlton (Cherwelton) village about a 7. miles above Banbyri by northe northe est, and boilith so fast out fro the hed that strait it maikithe a stremelet.

From Banbyri to Coventre 20. miles; 10. miles to Southan a market-toun, and 10. miles to Coventre.

40 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Oxfordshire.

From Banbyri to Northampton 14. miles.

Rockstein [a] a priory of chanons a 2. miles from Banbyri. Mr. Pope hathe it.

From Banbyri to Danetre 10. miles.

From Banbiry to Oxford 20. miles.

From Banbyry to Warwicke 14. miles.

Mr. Cope hathe an old maner place, caulyd Hardwike, a mile by northe from Banbyri. There was Herdwik of Herdwik.

He hathe another at Hanwelle a 2. miles from Banbyri by northe west, and is in Oxfordshire. This is a very pleasaunt and gallaunt house.

Warwickshire.

I rode from Banbury to Warwik 12. miles by champayne ground, frutefull of corn and gresse, baren of woodde, and 2. miles by some enclosyd and wooddy ground.

About halfe a myle or I enteryd into Warwike I passyd ovar a stone bridge of one arch, and there rennithe a praty broket toward Avon river.

The towne of Warwike hathe bene right strongly dykyd and waulyd, havynge the compas of a good mile within the wauls. The dike is moste manifestely perceyvyd from the castle to the west-gate, and there is the greate creaste of yerth that the wall stode on. Parte of the wauls nere the gates be yet sene.

The easte gate and the west yet remayne. The northe gate is downe. The strengthe of the bridge by the castle stondithe for the southe gate.

The magnificent and stronge castle of Warwike lieing at the west-southe-west end of the towne, hard by the right ripe of Avon, is sett apon an highe rokke of stone, and hathe 3. goodly towers in the este fronte of it. There is a fair towre on the northe syde of it. And in this parte of the castle K. Rich. 3. pullyd downe a pece of the waulle, and began and halfe finishid a mighty tower, or strengthe, for to shoute out gunns. This peace as he left it so it remaynethe onfmishid. The doungeon now in ruine stondithe in the west-north-west parte of the castle. There is also a towre west-northe-weste, and thrugh it a posterne-gate of yron.

All the principall lodgyngs of the castle with the haul and


[a] Wroxton.

PART V 41

Warwickshire.

chapel ly on the southe syd of the castle, and here the King dothe muche cost in makynge foundations in the rokkes to sustayne that syde of the castle, for great peces fell out of the rokkes that susteyne it.

There was synce the Conquest a collegiate churche in the castle of Warwike.

The towne of Warwike stondithe on a mayne rokky hille, risynge from est to west.

The beawty and glory of the towne is in 2. strets, whereof the one is caullyd the Highe Strete, and goith from the est gate to the west, having a right goodly crosse in the midle of it. The other crossith the midle of it, makynge Quadrivium^ and goith from northe to southe.

Within the precinct of the towne is but one paroche chirch, dedicate to St. Marye, standing in the midle of the towne. This churche is faire and large. Rogerus de Bellomonte Erle of Warwike dyd translate the college in the castle to this paroche churche, indowinge it with faire possessions.

Thomas de Bello-Campo E. of Warwike, and graund fathar to Richard E. of Warwike, leive-tenaunt to Kynge Hen. 6. in Fraunce, commaundyd by testament, (as I hard say) that his executors shuld reedifie of new the chauncell or este parte of St. Mary churche; and so they did; and he is buried there and his wife.

Richard Erle of Warwike, Lievetenaunt of Fraunce, devised a right fayre, large, and somptuus chapell on the southe the syd of the quiere. This stately pece of worke was after made by the executors of his testament, and there he is entumbid right princly, and porturyd with an image of coper and gilt, hoped ovir with staves of coper and gilt lyke a chariot.

Noblemen buried in the body of our Lady Church of Warwike.

John Tunstall Kt. familiar to one of the late Earles of Warwike .

William Bareswell Deane of Warwike, one of the executors of the testament of E. Richard that sawe the bilding

42 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Warwickshire.

of our Lady Chappell and the new buildinge of the colledge house begun by E. Richard finished.

Johannes Rouse, Capellanus Cantuaria Gibclif (Guycliffe) qui super porticum australem librariam construxit, et libris ornavit. Obiit 14. Jan. 1491. This Rouse was well lernid in those dayes in Mathesi, and was a great historiographer, borne (as it is supposed) of the house of the Rouses of Ragley by Alcester.

In the southe isle.

Power armiger.

Ther ly 3. of the Hungfordes, heires of Edmunscote aboute halfe a mile above Warwike on Avon. And Beaufort esquier to whome parte of Hungfords lands desendyd.

In the crosse-isle betwixt the body of the church and the quire.

Tho. de Bello-Campo in a goodly tombe of marble. He was father to E. Richard Lieutenant of France.

Guil. Peito dominus de Chestreton et ejus uxor.

Alester Deane of Warwike lyeth in the same place, at the west end of our Lady, wher E. Rich, first lay buried. This Alester translated the body of E. Richard into our Lady Chappell.

Mr. Haly, a well learned man that lately dyed.

Haseley Dene of Warwike, sometime schole-mastar to King Henri the Seaventh.

In the quier.

Tho. de Bello Campo and his wyfe. He was grandfather to Earle Richard.

Catheryne, eldest dowghtar to the sayd Earle Thomas, is buried under a flatt marble stone, at the head of her father's tombe.

PART V 43

Warwickshire.

In our Lady Chapell.

Richard, Earle of Warwike with his epitaphi who dyed 30. Apr. 1439. 17. H. 6.

"Praye devoutly for the soule (whom God assoyle) of one of the most worshipfull knyghtes in his dayes, of manhood, and cunninge, Richard Beauchampe late Erle of Warwike, Lord Despenser, of Abergeveny and many othar great lordshippes, whose body here resteth under this toumbe, in a full faire vault of stone set in the bare rocke; the which visyted with long sicknesse in the castle of Rohan therein deceased full christianlye 30. Apr. 1439, he being at that tyme Lieutenant of Fraunce, and of the Duchy of Normandy, by sufficient authoritye of our soveraigne K. Hen. 6. The which body with great deliberation and worshipfull conduct by sea and by land, was brought to Warwike 4. October, in the sayd yeare, and was layed with solemn exequies in a faire chest made of stone in the west dore of this chappell, accordinge to his last will and testament, therein to rest 'till this chappell by him devised in his life tyme were made. All the which chappell founded on the rocke, and all the members thereof his executors did fully make, and appareled by the authority of his sayd last will and testament: and thereaftar by the sayd authoritye they did translate worshipfully the sayd body into the vault above said. Honoured be God therefore."

44 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Warwickshire.

Thinges excerpted out of the est glasse windowe of our Lady Chappel.

Elizabeth daughter and heire to Thomas L. Berkeley and Lisle, first wyfe to Rich. Beauchamp Earle of Warwicke. The sayd Richard and Elizabeth had 3. daughters; Margarett maried to John E. of Shrewsbury, Eleonor maried to Edmund Beaufort Earl of Somerset, Elizabeth maried to George Nevile L. Latimer. Earle Richard had to his second wife Isabell Lady Spenser of Glamorgan and Morgannok.

Henery Duke of Warwick, sonne and heire of Earle Richard and Isabell, married Cicile da. to Rich. Nevill Earle of Salesbury.

Anne, daughter of Rich. Beauchampe E. of Warwik and Isabell, was married to Richard Nevill, sonne and heire to Rich. Nevill second Earle of Salesburye.

There lyeth buried (as some saye) in the west end of our Lady Chappell one of the Nevills L. Latimer slayne at Edgcotefeild by Banbury (as some suppose;) but there is neither tombe nor scripture scene. This was Sir Hen. Nevill, sonne and heire to Geor. Nevill Lord Latimer. But he was never Lord; for he dyed before his father. This Henry Nevill was grandfather to the Lord Latimer now living.

The ould mansion-place of the colledge and deanry of St. Maries in Warwik stood there where now the east south east part of the cemitery is. The new colledge lodging, hard without the east end of the cemitery, was builded by the executors of the testament of Rich. Earle of Warwike. Most of the Prebendes houses be at the west end of our Ladyes Church in the streete. There be in that coledge a deane and 5. prebendes.

There is over the east-gate a fayre chappell of St. Peter. There is over the west-gate a goodly chappell of St. James.

On the north syde of St. James is a pretty colledge, havinge a 4. preistes that sing in St. James Chappell, and they belong to a Fraternity of our Ladye, and St. George. Some thinke that this Fraternity beganne about E. Richardes

PART V 45

Warwickshire.

dayes, and that he was a benefactor to it. The burgesses of Warwike be rulers of this.

The suburbe without the est-gate is caullyd Smithe's Streat; I hard ther that the Jewes sometyme dwellyd in it. In this suburbe was a college of dedicate to St John, and an hospital in it.

There is a suburbe in the south est syde of the towne wherein is a paroche churche of St. Nicholas apropriat to St. Maris college in Warwike.

The suburbe lying southe beyond the bridge is callyd the Bridge End.

There is a chapple of St. John in the Bridge Ende suburbe, that longyd to the Prior of St. John's at London. The landes of this came to the commandery of Balleshall by Warwike.

The suburbe without the west-gate is cawlyd the Westend. It is a very large strete. There was a colege of Blake Friers in the northe parte of this suburbe. It was a large hows, and the Botelers L. Sudley, and the Mountforts were founders of it (as I hard saye.) But hitherto I have not read of any notable act in foundation made since the Conquest in Warwike, but by the Earles of Warwik.

There is a suburbe in the northe syd of Warwike, and in this is a chapell of St. Michaell, where sometyme was a coledge, havinge a master et confratres; but now it is taken as a free-chappell. The Kinge giveth it. The buildinge of the house is sore decayed.

There is a right goodly chapell of St. Mary Magdalene upon Avon river, ripa dextra, scant a myle above Warwike. This place of some is caulyd Gibclif, of some Guy-clif; and old fame remaynethe with the people there, that Guydo Erle of Warwike in K. Athelstan's dayes had a great devotion to this place, and made an oratory there.* Some adde unto it, that aftar he had done great victories in outward partes, and had bene so long absent that he was thought to have bene deade, he came and lyved in this place lyke an heremite, onknowne to his wife Felicia ontyll at the article of his deathe he shewyd what he was. Men shew a cave there in a rok hard on Avon ripe, where they say that he

46 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Warwickshire.

usyd to slepe. Men also yet showe fayr springs in a faire shire. medow thereby, where they say that Erle Guido was wont to drinke. This place had fore the tyme of Richard E. of Warwike only a smaul chappelle and a cotage wherein an heremite dwellyd.

Erle Richard beringe a greate devotion to the place made there a goodly new chapell, dedicate to St. Mary Magdalen, and foundyd 2. Cantuars prists there to serve God. He set up there an ymage of E. Guido great lyke a giant, and enclosyd the silver welles in the medow with pure whit slike stone like marble, and ther set up a praty house open lyke a cage coveryd, onely to keepe cummers thithar from the rayne. He also made there a praty howse of stone for the Cantuary Prists by the chappell. The landes that he gave to it lye about the house. It is a place of pleasure, an howse mete for the muses; there is silence, a praty wood, antra in vivo saxo, the river rollynge with a praty noyse over the stones, nemusculum ibidem opacum, fontes liquidi et jemnei, prata florida, antra muscosa, rivi levis et per saxa discursus, necnon solitudo et quies musis amicissima.

There be 3. parkes neere to Warwike by north; the neerest is Wedgnok. [a] There is anothar almost joyning to it caullyd Grove. The third is caulyd Haseley.

There is a priory of nunes caullyd Wroxhall, about a 3. miles by north from Warwike.

The course of Avon and bridges that be notable on it. Thent to Edmundescote [b] bridge.

Then about halfe a mile lower to the goodly stone brydge of 12. arches at Warwike.

Then to Berford [c] Bridge of 8. fayre arches a 2. miles.

And an halfe mile lower it leaveth Fulbroke Parke and Castelet on the right ripe. And a myle and halfe lower it leveth Charlecote Mr. Lucies mannour placet on the left ripe.


[a] Wedgnock.
[b] Emscote.
[c] Barford.

PART V 47

Warwickshire.

And at the bake-syde of Mr. Lucies huse cummethe in by the left rype a broket risynge a 3. miles of from south est.

Thence to Stratford-Bridge a 3. miles. There be 14. great arches in the bridge, and 5. smaller arches.

Thence to Bitforde [a] Bridge of stone, a late emendyd withe parte of the stone of Aulncester [b] Priory, a 5. miles.

There is a praty thorowghe fare at Sawford, [c] a ... miles lower cummithe Arrow and Aulne [d] rivers both in one botom into Avon.

A 4. miles lower then Bitford is a narow stone bridge for footmen at Uffenham over Avon.

A mile lower is Eovesham bridge of 8. goodly large arches.

Three miles lower, at Fleodanbirig [e] alias Flatbyri, cummithe in by the right ripe into Avon Pildowr broke.

And a little above this confluence is of late a praty bridge made over Pildour.

Avon a 2. miles lower rennithe undar Pershore Bridge.

I lernyd at Warwike that the moste parte of the shire of Warwike, that lyeth as Avon river descendithe on the right hand or rype of it, is in Arden, (for soe is auncient name of that parte of the shire;) and the grownd in Arden is muche enclosyd, plentifull of gres, but no great plenty of corne.

The othar part of Warwyk-shire that lyethe on the lefte hond or ripe of Avon river, muche to the southe, is for the moste parte champion, somewhat barren of wood, but very plentifull of corne.

I roade from Warwike to Bereford Bridge of 8. fayre arches a 2. miles of Warwike. Here I sawe halfe a mile lower apon Avon on the right ripe by northe a fayr parke caullyd Fulbroke. In this parke was a praty castle made of stone and brike, and, as one tould mee, an Erle of Bedford had layne there. There is a litle lodge or peace of buildinge in this parke caullyd Bergeiney, made, as I conjectur, by some Lord, or Lady of Bergeyney. This castle of


[a] Bidford.
[b] Alcester.
[c] Salford.
[d] Alne.
[e] Fladbury.

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Warwickshire.

Fulbroke was an eyesore to the Erlis that lay in Warwike Castle, and was cause of displeasure betweene each lord. Sir William Compton, keper of Fulbroke parke and castle, seing it going to ruine helped it forward, takinge part of it as some saye for the buyldinges of his house at Compton [a] by Brayles in Warwikshire, and gave or permityd other to take peces of it downe.

From Berford Bridge to Telesford a mile. Here was a priory of Maturines, otherwise called Ordinis Sanctae Trinitatis. It was an house of very small possessions. (And they saye about them) the Lucies were founders of this priory; and divers of them laye there.

From Telesford [b] to Charlcote a mile. Here hath Mr. Lucy an ancient manar place, on the left rype of Avon.

There cumithe in hard at the very manar place of the Lucies a litle broke on the left ripe into Avon. This broket cummithe from Wellesburne, a myle of. From Charlecote to Stretforde a 3. miles by champain grownd, good corne and greese.

About a myle from Charlecote I rode over a ford where passyd downe a beke toward Avon, but a lesse water then Wellesburne.

The towne of Stratford stondithe apon a playne ground on the right hand or ripe of Avon, as the watar descendithe. It hathe 2. or 3. very lardge stretes, besyde bake lanes. One of the principall stretes ledithe from est to west, anothar from southe to northe. The bysshope of Worcestar is lorde of the towne. The towne is reasonably well buyldyd of tymbar. There is ones a yere a great fayre at Holy-Rode Daye 14. of Sept. The paroch church is a fayre large peace of worke, and stondithe at the southe end of the towne. Some conjecte that where the paroche churche is now was the monasterye cawlyd Streotford, gyven in augmentation of Eovesham in St. Egwin Byshope of Wircester tyme, but the certeinte of this is not knowne.

The church of Stratford now stondinge, as it is supposyd,


[a] Compton-Winyate or Wyniates.
[b] Thelsford.

PART V 49

Warwickshire.

was renewyd in buildinge by John de Streotforde Archbyshope of Cantarbery in the begininge of the raigne of K. E. 3., whoe was borne in Streotford, whereof he tooke his name. He made this of a simple paroche churche a collegiate churche, augmenting it with some landes.

Ther belongyd to the coledge a gardian, 4. priests, 3. clerkes, 4. choristres, and their mansyon place, an ancient pecre of worke of square stone hard by the cemitory. The churche is dedicate to the Trinite. The quire of the church was of late tyme reedified by one Thomas Balsalle Doctor of Divinite and gardian of the coladge there. He dyed anno domini 1490, and liethe in the northe syd of the presbiterye in a fayre tombe.

There is a right goodly chappell in a faire streate toward the southe ende of the towne dedicate to the Trinitie. This chapell was newly reedified in mind of man by one Hughe Clopton, Major of London. About the body of this chaple was curiously paynted the Daunce of Deathe commonly called the Daunce of Powles, becawse the same was sometyme there paynted abowte the cloysters on the north-west syd of Powles churche, pulled downe by the Duke of Somarset, tempore E. 6. This Clopton buildid also by the north syde of this chapell a praty howse of brike and tymbar, wherein he lay in his lattar dayes and dyed.

There is a gramar-schole on the sowthe syde of this chapell, of the foundation of one Jolif a mastar of arte, borne in Streotford, whereabout he had some patrimonye; and that he gave to this schole.

There is also an almase-house of 10. pore folke at the southe syde of the chapell of the Trinitye mayntaynyd by a Fraternitie of the Holy Crosse.

Clopton aforesayde made also the great and sumptuose bridge apon Avon at the este end of the towne. This bridge hath 14. great archis of stone, and a longe cawsey made of stone and now waullyd on eche syde, at the west end of the bridge.

Afore the tyme of Hughe Clopton there was but a poore bridge of tymber, and no causey to come to it; whereby many

50 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Warwickshire.

poore folkys and othar refusyd to cum to Stratford, when Avon was up, or cominge thithar stoode in jeoperdy of lyfe.

Clopton was a gentle man borne by Stratford at Clopton village, where yet one of the name, whos howse he moche advaunsyd, dwellythe halfe a myle of Streotford by northe. This Hewghe Clopton was nevar weddid.

Graville, an auncient gentilman dwellythe at Milcote, scant a mile lower then Streotford toward Avon ripa dextra.

Mastar Trusselle, an auncient gentleman, dwellithe at Billesley a 3. miles from Streotford. Litle wood nere in sight about Streotford.

From Streotford to Warwike 7. miles.

From Streotford to Bitford a thrughe fayre on the ripe of Avon 5. miles.

From Streotford to Eovesham a 10. miles.

From Streotford to Alcester a 5. miles.

From Streotford to Hanley 5. miles.

I rode from Streotford by champaine ground, frutfull of corne and grasse, a 5. miles to a forde and a smaule wood bridge, where I passyd over Aulne-brooke, that cam downe as I markid from the northe. Thens 2. myles by champaine ground to Coughton. I passyd at Coughton by a woodbridge over Arow ryver.

Mr. Throgmorton hathe a fayre maner place moated at Coughton.

The paroche church of Coughton is very faire, excedyngly well glasyd and adornyd, partly mad by Sir George Throgmorton's father, partly by Ser George hym selfe. There is a goodly tombe in the body of the church, made by Sir George his father that dyed in peregrination going to Hierusalem.

From Coughton to Alcester 2. myles by enclosid ground. I markyd the contrye about Coughton and Alcester to be meatly well woddid. Part of the forest of Fekenham in Worcestershire is withe in 3. miles of Coughton.

PART V 51

Worcestershire.

Alchurch, [a] the bysshope of Worcester's fayr manor place, is a 6. miles from Coughton.

Alcester is a praty market towne in Warwike-shire. The Warwickmarket is kept there on the Twesday. The towne hathe shire, bene a great thinge. Some say that there hathe bene 13. paroche churches in it.

Some say that the priory of Alcestar, now a litle without the towne by este northe est, was in the midle of the towne. Many tokens of buyldinges and bones of men be found in placis without the towne, especially in Blake-Filde. The people there speke muche of one S. Cedde [b] Bysshope of Lichefild, and of injuries there done to him.

The priorye was of auncyent tyme a great monastery, syns impropriate to Eovesham. The Beauchamps were lordes of that towne, and they had a howse by Alcestar priory caullyd Beauchamps-Hawle. It came sence by mariage to the Lords Broko, and now by mariage it is in Fulco Gravill's handes. Fulco now buildithe at Beauchamp's Hawle, and takythe stones from Alcestre priorie the which he hath also.

The personage of Aulcester is impropriate to Aulcester priory.

Alcester, as it is now, stondythe on the rype of Arow water. Yet seinge that it berithe the name of Aulne, it is an evedent token that the eld towne stode moste by Aulne. About the este ende of Aulncester towne is the confluence f of Aulne and Arow. Aulne cummithe by Henley [c] a market towne 5. miles above this confluence, and hathe divers wood bridges on it.

Arow (as I hard one say) cumithe frome the Blake Hills that be a 7. or 8. miles and more above Coughton, and so comithe thoroughe divers wood bridges to Aulncestar. And at Aulnecestar by este the towne is a bridge on Arow. The foundation of it is stone and is plankyd over.


[a] Alvechurch.
[b] St. Chad's.
[c] Henley in Arden.

LELAND'S ITINERARY

Warwickshire.

Arow halfe a myle benethe Alcester levithe a maner place shire. of Mr. Conwais called Arow, and two miles and a halfe lower at Sanford goith into Avon by the right ripe of Avon.

Mr. Browne a knight hathe a faire manar place about a mile or more by southe southe west out of Aulcester. The nunry of Coukefeild stode about a myle by sowthe west out of Alcester. Fortescwe, Grome-Porter of the Court, hathe it nowe.

Wurcester-shire is som way within a mile of Aulncester.

There be 3 of the Tancrevilles, the father, the sunne, and his sonne, buried in the chapter house of the priory of Kenelworth that after ...

From Aulnecestar to Hanley 5. miles.

From Anlnecestar to Worcestar 10. miles.

From Aulnecestar to Stratford apon Avon 5. good miles.

From Aulnecestar to Ewesham 7. long miles.

Worcestershire.

I rode from Aulnecestar toward Eovesham a 2. miles by woody and enclosyd ground, and then a mile by grounde lesse enclosyd, but having more corne then wood. Thens 4. mils by cleane champain. Some wood about Eovesham on the right rype of Avon.

The towne of Eovesham is metely large and well buildyd with tymbar. The Market-Stede is faire and large. There be divers praty streats in the towne. The market kept at Eovesham is very celebrate. In the towne is no hospitale nor othar famose foundation but the late abbey.

This abbey was of the foundation of Kenredus King of the Merches, and Egwinus Byshope of Wurcestar.

Ther was no towne at Eoveshame afore the foundation of the abbay.

The place where the towne standithe now was of the old Saxons caulyd Hetheholme. The edifices of the abbey have beene made by many men in continuance.

Clement Lichfeild, the last Abbot of Evesham save one, did very much cost in building of the abbey and other places longing to it. He builded much about the quire in adorning it. He made a right sumptuous and high square tower of stone in the cemitory of Eovesham. This tower had a great bell in it, and a goodly clock, and was as a

PART V 53

Worcestershire.

gate-house to one pece of the abbeye. This abbot builded at his manner at Uffenham, about a mile above Evesham upon Avon ripa dextra. There be withein the precincte of the cemitery of the abbey of Eovesham 2. parish churches, whither the people of the towne resort; but the whole profit, saving a vicarage of one church, was appropriate to the abbey.

There was of old tyme an abbey at Fleodan [a] byrig in Worcestar-shire, standinge a 3. miles lowar then Eovesham upon Avon ripa dextra. This abbay in Egwinus tyme was appropriat to Eovesham. It is now communely caullyd Fladbyri. The personage of it nowe is 80 by the yere.

There was a farme or manner place a 6. miles from Eovesham called Amberley, where the last Abbot of Eovesham now lyeth.

From Eovesham to Hails a 6. miles.

From Eovesham to Winchelescombe a 7. miles.

From Eovesham to Persore a 5. miles.

From Eovesham to Twekesbiri a 9. miles.

From Eovesham to Worcestar 12. miles.

From Eovesham I passyd a 6. or 7. miles all by champaine grownd in the Vale of Eoveshame, being al or moste parte in Worchestar-shire, to Stanway-village, standynge in the rotes of the hills caullyd Coteswolde.

The vale of Eovesham is as it were for suche an angle the horreum of Wurcester-shire, it is so plentifull of corne. It lyethe from the left ripe of Avon to the very roots of Coteswolde- hilles.

Gloucestershire.

There is in Stanwey Com. Glouc. a fayre manor place and lordshipe, at the east ende of the churche, a late longing to the abbay of Tweukesbyri, where he some tyme lay. Mr. Tracy hathe it now in ferme.

There comithe downe from est-southe-est a broket that aftar goithe to Toddington streame.

From Stanway a mile to Dydbroke, and a quarter of a mile beyond is Hayles. There cummithe downe a prile of watar from the sowthe syde of Hayles abbay and goithe toward Todington water. [b]

Frome Hailes to Winchelescombe [c] a mile and halfe by


[a] Fladbury.
[b] Isborne r.
[c] Winchcomb.

54 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

fayre plentifull hills. The towne of Winchelescombe standshire, ithe from a litle valley by est, and so softely risethe in lengthe of one principall streate into the west. The tpwne of certente, as it apperithe in divars places, and especially by southe toward Sudeley-castle, was waullyd; and the legend, or lyfe, of St. Kenelme doothe testifie the same.

There was a forteres or castelle right again the southe syde of St. Peter's. The paroche churche of Winchelescombe, caullyd of latar dayes (as apperithe by writyngs in Winchelescombe abbay) Ivy-castelle, now a place where a fewe poore housys be and gardines. I thinke that the old buildings of it faullynge into ruine, and yvie growynge on the waulls of it, causyd it to be called by the name of Ivecastle.

The last prior of Winchelescombe tould mee that he hath heard that there was a fort or castle about the east or northeast part of the towne of Winchelescombe.

Kenulphus, Kynge of the Merches, had a place in this towne, and first buildyd a famous abbay in it, and dedicated it with a glorious solemnity. This abbay was at 2. sundry tymes defacyd with fier and reedifyed.

Rich. de Kiddermister, the last abbot saving one, did great cost of the church, and enclosed the abbey towardes the towne with a maine stone-wall ex quadrato Saxo.

There laye beryed in the east part of the church of the monastery of Winchecombe, Kenulphus and Kenelmus, the fathar and sonne, bothe Kyngs of the Merchies. There laye in St. Nicholas chappell at the east end of the High Aulter one Henry Boteler, that covered the body of the church of the monastery with lead. This Boteler was of the house of the Botelers of Sudeley. There laye other of the Botelers of Sudley in the church of the monasterye.t There was of auncyent tyme a churche of St. Nicholas in the east parte of the towne, decayed many yers sence.

In King Henry 5. tyme, the parish church of the towne was kept in the body of the church of the monasterye. But in K. H. 6. tyme one William Winchelesecombe, abbot of

PART V 55

Gloucestershire.

Winchelesecombe, beganne with the consent of the tovvne a parish church at the west end of the abbey, where of ould tyme had beene and then was a little chappell of St. Pancrace.

Abbot William made the east end of the church. The parishioners had gathered a 200 and beganne the body of the church; but that summe being not able to performe so costly a worke Rafe Boteler Lord Sudley helped them and finished the worke.

I marked in the south isle of the quire, fyrst the image of Tho. Boteler Lord Sudeley. Then were there images of these his sonnes followinge, John, William, Thomas and Rafe, and an image (as I take it) of Elizabeth wife to Rafe L. Sudeley. There were also in the glasse windowes in the north isle of the quire images of 4. gentlewomen, whereof one was named Alicia, Da. to Tho. Boteler L. Sudeley.

This parish church is dedicated to St. Peter.

There was once an hospitall in the towne, but now the name only of Spittle remaineth.

The broke that cummithe downe by the southe parte of the towne is comonly caulyd Eseburne. [a] It risethe about a 3. miles above the towne by west, and so rennith by est to the very botom of the towne of Winchelescombe. Then it turnithe somewhat northe and to Tudington, not 2. miles of, and at ... goeth in to the river of ...

The castle of Sudeley is about halfe a myle from Winchelescombe.

... Botelar L. Sudeley made this castle a fundamentis, and whan it was made it had the price of all the buyldings in those dayes. I rede but of one Lorde Sudelay of the Butelers, and his name was Thomas, as it apperith in the glase windowes at Winchelescombe in St. Petar's churche. Therefore I take that it was this Thomas that made the castell. Yet dyd Mr. Thracy tell mee, that Rafe Butlar


[a] Isborne r.

56 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

buildyd the castle; but he shewyd no autorite, whi. Indede Thomas had a sonne callyd Rafe set as yongest in ordar in the glase wyndows of St. Peter's churche.

Lord Sudley that builded the castle was a famous man of warr in Henry the 5. and Henry the 6. dayes, and was admirall (as I have hard) on se; whereupon it was supposed, and spoken, that it was partly buildyd by spoyles goten in Fraunce; and some speake of a towre in it called Potmare's Towre, that it should be made of a ransome of his.

One thinge was muche to be notyd in this castle, that parte of the wyndows were glasyd with berall. There had bene a manour place at Sudley before the building of the castle, and the plott is yet scene in Sudley parke where it stoode.

Kynge Edward the fourthe bare no good will to the Lorde Sudeley, as a man suspectyd to be in hart Henry the 6. man; whereapon by complaynts he was attachid, and goinge up to London he lokyd from the hill to Sudeley, and sayde, " Sudley castelle thou art a traytor, not I." After he made an honest declaration, and sould his castle of Sudeley to Kynge Edward.

Henry the 7. gave the castle of Sudeley to his uncle Gasper Duke of Bedford, or permitted hym to have the use of it. Now it goith to mine, more pitie. The Thracies of Todington were set up by lands gyven them by the Butlers.

There comithe a praty lake out of Sudley parke downe by the castell, and cummithe into Easeburn broke, at the southe syd of Winchelescombe.

From Winchelescombe to Tewkesbyri a 7. miles.

From Winchelescombe to Worcestar 14. miles.

From Winchelescombe to Persore a 9. miles.

From Winchelescombe to Cirencestre 15. miles.

From Winchelescombe to Gloucester 12. miles.

From Winchelescombe to Eovesham 7. or 8. miles.

From Winchelescombe to Southam a 3 miles by good come, pasture, and wood but somewhat hilly. Here dwellithe Ser John Hudelstan, and hathe buyldyd a pratye maner place. He bought the land of one Goodman.

To Chiltenham, a longe toune havynge a market, a 4 or

PART V 57

Gloucestershire.

5 miles. It longid to the abbay of Tewkesbyry, now to the kyng. A broke [a] in the southe syd of the towne.

From Chiltenham to Glocestar a 6. miles all by low grounde, corne, pasture and medow. All the quartars thereabout from Winchelescombe to Eovesham and to Twekesbyry, and all the way from Chiltenham to Glocestar, and thens to Twekesbery, and partly downe from Glocestar on Severne ripes to Newenham muche low grownd, subjecte to al sodeyne rysinges of Syverne: so that aftar reignes it is very foule to travayle in. I passyd over 2. or 3. smale bekks goinge betwixt Chiltenham and Glocestar, and they resorte to Severne.

The towne of Gloucestar is auncient, well buildyd of tymbar, and large, and strongly defendyd with waulls, wher it is not fortified with a depe streame of Severne watar. In the waull be 4. gates by este, west, northe and southe, and soe bere the names, but that the est-gate is commonly caullyd Aillesgate.

The auncient castle stondinge southe on the towne by Severne lefte ripe. The key on Severn lyfte ripe, whithar picards and small shippis cum, is almost by the castle. I learnyd there that the old key on Severne stode hard by St. Oswaldes, and for strife betwixt the towne and the howse of St. Oswald it was thens remevyd. When the key was by St. Oswalds, there were divers praty streates that now be cleane decayed, as St. Bride's Strete, and Sylver Gerdle Strete. The trothe is thos streats stod not moste holsomly, and were subject to the raginge flode of Severn, therefore men desired more to inhabite in the higher places of the toun. The beautie of the towne lyeth in too crossing stretes, as the gates of the towne ly; and at the place of the midle metynge, or quaterfors of thes stretes, is aquaduklyd incastellid.

There be suburbes without the est, north, and south gates of Glocestar. The bridge only withe the causey lyethe at the west gate. The bridge that is on the chefe arme of


[a] The Chelt r.

58 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

Severne, that renethe hard by the towne, is of 7. great arches of stone. There is anothar a litle more west of it, that hathe an arche or 2, and servythe at a tyme for a diche or dreane of the meads. A litle way farthar is anothar bridge, hard witheout the weste gate, and this bridge hathe 5. greate archis. From this bridge there goithe a greate causey of stone, forcyd up thrughe the low meds of Severn by the lengthe of a quartar of a myle. In this cawsey be dyvers doble arched bridges, to drene the medows at flods. At the end of this causey is a bridge of 8. arches not yet finished.

Bell a marchaunt of Gloucestar now livinge, consideringe to a common-wealth bridges and cawseys be, and to the towne of Gloucester hathe gyven x. li. lands the yere toward the mayntenans of thes bridges.

There be a 11. parish churches in Gloucester towne. In the ... suburbe is St. Ewines. I cannot tell sewrly whither this be one of the 11.

The Graye Friers colledge stod without the towne not far from the southe gate. One of the Lord Barkeleys was foundar of it. It is now a brew-house.

Kynge Henry the 3. and one Stephene dominus de Harnshull miles were founders of the Blakefriers about the yere of our lord 1239. The Blakefriers stood withe in the towne not far from the castle. This hows is by one Bell made a drapinge howse.

The White Fryers colledge stode in the suburbe without the northe gate. There is in that suburbe somewhat more by north an hospitall for poore folks endowed with landes dedicate to St. Margaret. The township hath the order of this.

Nat far from that is anothar poore hospitall of St. Mary Magdalen, somewhat more by north then St. Margarettes. The prior of Lanthony was taken foundar there, and was wont to maintaine it with certaine charity of bread. There is an hospitall of St. Bartholomew a litle within the west-gate. This hospitall had once a master and 52.

PART V 59

Gloucestershire.

poore men, and now it hath a master and 32. poore men and women. The bishop of Worcester doth give this hospitall.

Some saye it was of the kinges foundation. One Pancefoote, that was livinge in the mind of ould men, is buried in the chappell of this hospitall. Whitmaster a suffragane, now ruler of this house, raised this hospitall that afore was very subject to the rising of Severne, and a-builded a faire lodging for himselfe in the hospitall.

Things gatheryd out of certayne writyns in the wall of the northe ile of the body of the church in Gloucester.

Osrik first under kynge and lord of this contry, and the kynge of Northombarland, with the licence of Ethelrede kynge of the Merch, first foundyd this monastery anno 681. Osrike by the counsell of Bosel, first Byshope of Worcestar, put in nunes, and makith his systar Kineburge abbas there.

Thre noble wimen Kineburge, Edburge, and Eva, qwenes of Merche only abbasses for the tyme of the nunes, whiche was 84. yeres. J The nunes were ravyshid and dryven away by warres betwyxt Kynge Egberte and the kynges of the Merches.

Bernulph Kynge of the Merche bringethe in secular chanons and clerks givinge possessions and liberties to them.

Kynge Canute for yll lyvynge expellithe the seculer clerks, and by the counsell of Wolstan Byshope of Worcester bringethe in monks.

Aldred Byshope of Wurcestar translatyd to Yorke takythe a greate parte of the lands of Glocestar Abbay to reaedifie the minster of Yorke.

A nobleman caullyd Wolphine Lekne (Lerevell) for 7. pristes kyllyd had penaunce to finde perpetually 7. monks in Glocestar.

Thomas Archbyshope of Yorke restoryd the lands agayn

60 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

to Glocestar whiche Aldredus Archbp. of Yorke wrongfully did withould.

William the Conquerour gave the Abbey of Gloucester decayed to Serlo his chaplaine. Serlo monachus Sat. Michaelis in Normannia.

K. William the Conquerour an his sonnes gave possessions and liberties to the Abbey of Gloucester.

Sancta Arilda virgin, martyred at Kington by Thornebury, translated to this monastary, had done many miracles.

Roger Lacy Erle of Hereford, Roger Lord Berkeley, Hugh de Portu, Helias Giffard, Joannes Maungeant Canon of Hereford were monks in Gloucester.

The quire and southe isle of Glocestar churche were made by oblations done at the tumbe of Edward the 2.

Names of noblemen buried in the monastery of Glocestar.

Osricus, foundar of Glocestar-Abbay, first laye in St. Petronel's chappell, thence removed into our Lady Chappell, and thence removed of late dayes, and layd under a faire tombe of stone on the north syde of the high aulter; at the foote of the tombe is this written in a wall:

Osricus Rex primus fundator hujus monasterii, 681.

Robert Courthose, sonne to William Conquerar, lyeth in the middle of the presbiterie. There is on his tombe an image of wood peinted, made longe since his death.

Kynge Edward 2. of Cairnarvon lyeth under a faire tombe in an arch at the head of King Osric tombe.

Serlo, Abbot of Gloucester, lyeth under a faire marble tombe, on the south syde of the presbiterye. There was of late taken up a corse wrapped in a bulles hyde under an arche at the head of the tombe of Edw. of Caernarvan, where Malverne alias Parker, late Abbot of Gloucester made a chappell to be buried in. A monke tould me that it was the corps of a lady Countesse of Pembroke.

Abbott Horton lyeth under a flat stone in the north part of the transept of the church.

PART V 61

Gloucestershire.

Abbot Froncester lyeth in a chappell at the south west part of the quire.

Gamage a knight of Wales, and his wyfe, lye in a chappell in the north east part of the body of the church.

Things written in the waulls of the chapiter-house and cloyster at Gloucestar.

Hic jacet Roger Lacey Comes de Hereford.

Hic jacet Ricus Strongbowe filius Gilberti Comitis de Pembroke.

Hic jacet Gualterus de Laceio.

Hic jacet Phillippus de Foye miles.

Hic jacet Berunardus de Novo Mercatu.

Hic jacet Paganus de Cadurcis.

Hic jacet Adam de Cadurcis.

Hic jacet Robertus Curtus.

These notable things following I learned of an ould man, made lately a monke of Gloucester.

Abbotts of Gloucester; Hanley, Farley, Horton, Sebroke, Froncester, Morwent.

Serlo reaedified Gloucester Abbey. Abbot Hanley and Farley made our Lady Chappell, at the east end of the church. Abbot Horton made the north part of the crosse isle. The south part of the crosse isle and much of the presbiterie vault was made by oblations at the tombe of King E. 2.

Abbot Sebroke made a great part of the exceedinge faire and square tower in the midst of the church. This tower is a pharos to all partes about from the hilles.

Abbot Froncester made the cloister, a right goodly and sumptuous peece of worke.

Abbot Morwent newly erected the very west end of the church, and 2. arches of the body of the church, one on each syde, minding if he had lived to have made throughly the whole body of the church of like worke. He also made the stately and costly porche on the south syde of the body of the church.

62 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

One Osberne celerer of Gloucester made of late a fayre new tower or gate-house at the south west part of the abbey cemiterye.

These fayre villes or manner places belong to the Abbot of Gloucester.

Prinkenesse [a] on a hill, where is a faire parke 3. miles from Gloucester by east.

Vyneyard a goodly house on an hillett at the cawsey end at Gloucester by west.

Hertlebury 4. miles by north-west from Gloucester. Froncester, [b] where sometimes was a colledge of prebendaries, suppressed and given to Gloucester Abbey, is distant 8. miles from Gloucester, and standeth a mile beyond Standeley [c] Priory. The King hath it nowe, it is an 100. m. by the yere.

Bromefeild, where sometimes was a litle colledge, since impropriate to the Abbey of Gloucester, a 2. miles from Ludlowe.

The Priory of St. Oswald stood north north west from Glocestar Abbay upon Severne ripe. Ethelredus Erle of the Marches and Ethelfleda his noble wyfe, dowghtar to Edward the first afore the Conquest, foundyd this howse, instituting prebendaries in it, and thethar translatyd from Bardeney the body of Oswald Kynge of Northumbarland, and there richly entombed it.

It chanced that soone after the Conquest a bishop of Lincolne, great with the king, required other jurisdiction or landes in Lindesey belonging to the seate of Yorke, for (which?) the king entreated the archbishop, being at that tyme also B. of Worcester. Whereupon the B. of Yorke desyringe (? desired) the king to have the colledge of St. Oswald impropriate to the seate of Yorke, and so he had. Whereupon he practized with the prebendaries of a new foundation, and that they should be chanons regular. Some were content, some would not: but the B. brought his purpose to passe by power, and there instituted a house of canons reguler, impropriating benefices unto them and giving them coyletts of land, reserving the goodly landes


[a] Prinknash Park.
[b] Frocester.
[c] Stanley.

PART V 63

Gloucestershire.

to the church of Yorke, that at this tyme be yet possessed of it.

The Priory of Lanthony, of chanons regular, stood on the lefte ripe of Severne, a litle benethe Glocestar. One Milo Erle of Hereforde was foundar of it, and it was first but a cell to Llanhondeney in Brekenokeshere. This priory had goodly landes, whereof a notable part was in Ireland. There longid to this priory many fayre mannour places.

Newarke a praty howse of stone hard by Lantony; Quadesley [a] a 3. miles of Brokworth; Barendene [b] in Coteswold; Alverton [c] by Severn a 3. miles from Chepstowe; all thes belongyd to Lantoney.

The ryver of Severne brekethe into 2. armes in the medowes a litle above Glocestar, whereof the principall arme strikethe hard by Glocester towne syde, the other goithe thowrughe a great bridge at the west ende of the cawsey at Glocestar and a litle benethe Lantony Priorie they meete togethers. This isle or mediannis betwixt these 2. armis is al very goodly medow ground, and that about Lantony, for cheese there made is in great price.

There is no bridge on Severne benethe Glocestar. There is no bridge on Severne above Glocester, tyll the townlet of Upton a 11. or 12. miles from Glocestar, whithar at high tydes Severne se doth flow.

There be few notable buildings on Severne betwixt Glocestar and Aust Clif, where the fery is over Severne into the Forest of Dene.

Newenham, an uplandishe tounlet in the Forest of Dene on the right ripe of Severne, is a 8. miles bynethe Glocestar. There at the full se Severne is halfe a myle of bredthe.

A 2. miles lower Severne is at the full sea a 2. miles and halfe over, and at Aust Clif 2. good miles over.

Barkeley an 18. miles from Glocester somewhat distaunt from the Severne shore.

Thornbyri a 22. miles of Glocestar, and a 4. miles above


[a] Quedgley.
[b] Barington.
[c] Elberton.

64 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

Auste not very far from Severn shore. There comithe a Creke up by the Marshes from Severne to Thornbyri.

From Glocestar to Twekesbyri a 7. miles.

From Glocestar to Wurcestar a 20. miles.

From Glocestar to Cirencester 18. miles.

From Glocestar to Monemuth 26. miles.

From Glocestar to Newent 6. miles.

From Glocestar to Rosse 12. miles.

From Glocestar to Brightestowe 30. miles.

From Glocestar to Hereford 20. miles.

As sone as I passed ovar the arme of Severne at the west end of Glocestar I enteryd into the Forest of Dene, the whiche thens downeward alonge Severne on the mouthe of Wy ryver, (where it goithe into Severne) and on the othar parte agayne from Monemouthe to the mouthe of Wye is devided from Wales by the lefte ripe of Wye river.

The soyle of the Forest of Dene for the moste parte is more frutefull of wood and grasse then of corne, and yet ther is good corne sufficient for the inhabytaunts of it. The ground is frutefull of yron mynes, and dyvers forges be there to make yren.

Flaxley Abbay of white monks stode in Dene Forest 5. or 6. miles from Glocestar.

Mastar Baynonn dwellithe at Westbyri in the Forest of Dene a 6. miles from Glocestar.

The castle of Hereford.

Herefordshire.

The castle of Hereford stondithe on the lifte ripe of Wy ryverj and a litle benethe the bridge, and is strongly diched ubi non defenditur flumine. The waules of it be highe and stronge, and full of great towres, but now the hole castle tendithe toward ruine. It hath bene one of the fairest, largest and strongest castles of England. It hathe 2. wardes, and eche of them were environid with water. There cam an arme of a broke that rennithe thrwgh a great pece of the towne dike by an arche made in the towne waulle into the castle dyke, and so compassynge halfe the castle went into

PART V 65

Herefordshire.

Wy: so that withe the principall arme of it goinge thoroughe the castle dike, and with the mayne streame of Wy river, the hole castle was environyd; but now the arme of the broke cumithe not thorwe the castle, yet might it be sone returnyd thither.

The second warde where the dungeon is was also environyd withe watar. For a pece of the watar that cam thrwghe the dyche was turnyd that way.

The dungeon of the castle is highe and very stronge, havynge the utter waull or warde 10. towres forma semicirculari, and one great towre in the inner warde.

There was a great bridge of stone archis, and a draw bridge in the midle of it, to entre into the castle. It stode on the northe west syde of it. It is now clene downe.

There is a faire chapell of St. Cuthebert, the este parte whereof is made opere circulari. There were sometyme prebendaries; but one of the Laceis translatyd them thens onto St. Peter's in Hereford towne, and that coledge was thens translatyd into the este suburbe of Hereford, and a priorie of monkes erectyd there, and made a cell to Glocestar.

There is a fayre and plentifull springe of watar within the castell, and that and the pece of the broke comminge out of the diche dyd drive a mille within the castle.

Some thinke that Harold began this castle, aftar that he had conqueryd the rebellion of the Walche in Kynge Edward the Confessor's tyme.

Som thinke that the Lacies Erles of Hereforde were the great makers of it, arid the Bohuns Erles of Heriforde. It hathe still decayed syns the Bohuns tyme.

The towne of Hereforde stondithe somewhat lowe on every syde. There be hills by est and southe on the ryght rype of Wy ryver, well wooddyd, and not far distaunt from Hereforde toune.

The name of Hereford toune of some in Welche is caulyd Heneford of an old forde by the castle, by the whiche many

66 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Herefordshire.

passyd over, or evar the great bridge on Wy at Herford were made.

Some caull Herford in Walche Trefarrith, a fagis quarum copia in agro illo crescebat. The towne selfe is within the compasse of the walls a good mile.

There be in the wauls of Hereford 6. gates: Wy Gate; Frere Gate standithe west, caullyd of the Gray Freres house standinge without it; Inne Gate toward west north west; Wigmarsh Gate flat northe; Wigmarch a marsh ground a little without the gate or suburbe: Bysshop Strete Gate northe est; St. Andrews Gate by est, so caullyd of St. Androwes pariche in the suburbes without this gate.

There is a litle broke that cummithe a 5. miles by west from Hereforde, and so circuitithe the diches of Herford towne walls, ubi non defmditur vaga, and goithe downe levynge the castle on the right hand, and there drivynge 2. mills for come goith into Wy a flite shot bynethe Wy bridge and hard by benethe the castle.

The waull and gates of Herford be right well maintainyd by the burgesses of the towne. The comon voice is that the towne of Herford was scant fortified with wauls at suche tyme as Griphine Prince of Wales destroyed the towne and kyllyd the Bysshope Leofgarus and his clerks by the assystance and consent of Algarus sonne to Leofric Erle of Merches.

One Richard Philippes marchaunt of Herford, buried of late days in cemiterio S. Mariae infra claustrum S. Mariae in septo ecclesiae de Hereford, tegitur saxo quod erat super altare prioratus de Acronbyri.

The castle of Hereford standithe on the southe syde of the towne hard apon Wy bynethe Herford bridge. It was a great thing.

There be 4. paroche churches within the waulls, St. Peter, St. Nicholas, Alhallows, and St. John's.

The cathedrall churche stondithe in the southe parte of the towne as in the highest grownd of it nere to the castle.

Robert Lorengo Bysshope of Heriford began a new churche there, and Byshope Kynelme of Herford dyd muche unto it.

Milfridus Regulus and Quenburge his wyfe first founders of the cathedrall churche of Herford. There is a suburbe

PART V 67

Herefordshire.

without Wy-Gate, and therein is a chapell of our Lady of Alingtre prope furcas, another of S. Aegidii. There is a churche of St. Martin in Wy-Gate suburbe bynethe the bridge.

The brige ovar Wy hathe ... great arches of stone.

There be but few howses without Freres Gate.

The Grey Friers howse was foundyd by Sir William Penbridge. The Bishop of Hereford gave them some landes.

Ther ly beried at the Gray Friers some of the Chaundos and Cornwalls. Owen Mereduke, alias Tyder, buried in the Grey Freyers in navi ecclesiae in sacello sine ulla sepulchri

There is a suburbe without Inne Gate, and in it is a chappell of St. Giles first founded for Lazars, now convertyd to the use of othar pore folke. The burgesses be patrons of it.

There is a suburbe without the north-gate alias Wigmarche Gate. This is the fayrest suburbe of the towne. In this suburbe was the Blake Friers, first foundyd by Deinville a knight and finished by Edward the third.

Ther was buried William Beauchampe Lord of Bergaveny; William Lord Hastyngs Erle of Penbroke, tyll he was removyd to the Grey Friers in London for which the Black Fryers of Hereford had an hundred poundes.

Ser Richard Delaber.

Ser Roger Chaundos and his wyfe.

Ser Nicholas Clare.

Ser John Burley.

Ser John Ellesforde.

Mabilia Rouse.

Ser Thomas Rehan.

Henry Oldcastle.

Alexandar Bagche episcopus Castrencis, confessor to Edward 3, buried in the quire. He dyed at Herford, Edward the 3 with the prince and 3 archbyshops beinge there at the dedication of the Blake friers churche.

There was an hospitall of St. John, sometym a howse of Templaries, now it is an almeshouse with a chaple. At the

68 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Herefordshire.

northe ende of this suburbe is a broke caullyd Smaul Purse, cumming out of a medowe called Erode Medow thereby. It rennithe by the Blake Freres, and drivynge mils goithe under Ine Bridge of one stone arche and so into Wy.

There is a praty suburbe without Bysshops-gate-Strete. There was the priory of St. Guthelake, a cell to Glocestar. This priori was afore in St. Peter's churche in Herford, translatyd thens to witheout the Bysshopgate suburbe by Hugh Lacy.

Betun B. of Hereford gave them situm novi loci.

There was a tombe of one Bernard Quarre, a provost or ruler of St. Peter's in Herford afore the erectynge of S. Guthlak's Priory, slayne at the altar, and aftar in continuaunce translatyd to the chapiter of S. Guthlake.

There is a suburbe without St. Andrew's gate. Ther is a parocshe church of St. Andrew in the midle of the strete. There is an hospitall of St. Giles, wher ons wer friers Graye and the Templaries. Kynge Richard gave this chapell to the towne, and then it was mad an hospitall.

From Hereforde to Leonminstre an 8. miles, and so by the right way 7. miles more to Ludelow.

There is a hill caullyd Comforte Castle, where of sum mines yet appere, about a myle northe of from Leonminstre.

From Herford to the Hay a 12 myles.

From Herford to Brekenoke, 24 miles, Hay being almoste in the mydle way.

From Herford to Wormebridge 6 miles, thens to Ailstone [a] bridge a 2 mils.

Thens to Lincote wode a 3 miles, and 5 miles to Abregeveny.

From Herford to Dowe [b] abey southe southe west a 6 mils.

From Herford to Monemuth 12. miles; to Chepstow 6.


[a] Elston.
[b] Now Dore Abbey, on river Dore.

PART V 69

Herefordshire.

miles; to Becheley [a] on Severne right ripe 2. miles; to Ast Clife over the fery 2. miles; to Brightstow [b] 12. miles.

From Hereford to Lee 14. miles, and thens to Glocestar 8. miles and more.

From Hereford to Worcestar about 20 miles. From Hereford to Bromeyarde, a market towne in Herifordshire, 12. miles, indextra ripa Frome fluvii.

From Hereford to Wygmore a 14. miles; 8. to Leonminster and 5. to Wygmore townelet. The abbay of Wigmore is a myle beyond Wygmor towne.

From Herford to Webbeley [c] 7. miles by west northe west. It is a market towne in Herforde-shire, where is a goodly castell, but somewhat in decay. It was as the chefe lordshipe of the Devereux.

The castle of Linshaull, [d] of some writen Leonshaul, is a 2. miles from Webbeley. It longgid also to the Devereux, and there is a parke.

The very old lords of Linshall wer the Marbires. This castle cam to the Devereux by an heire generall of the Marberies.

There is no bridge on Wy from Herford to Buelth upward. There is a bridge newly repayryd with tymbre. Buelth is a ... miles above the Hay on Wy ripa dextra. There is a wood bridge by Rosse. There is no bridge by nethe Herforde on Wy, unto a lytle above the confluence of Wy and Mone ryver.

There is a lordshippe and mannor place called Ewias castle, where Tregoz dwelled, on the ... ripe of Wye a ... miles beneath Hereford. It hath beene a notable thinge.

There is a bridge of wood to passe from Monemouth to the Forest of Dene. There is no bridge on Wy by nethe Monemouth to the very mouthe of Wy. There was one of tymbar at Chepstow.

The confluence of Lug and Wy is a lytle bynethe Mordiforde bridge of stone on Lug. Mordiford bridge is a 3. miles from Hereford. Lug commithe within a mile of Herford. There be benethe Leonminstre these bridges of stone on


[a] Beachley.
[b] Bristol.
[c] Weobley.
[d] Lyonshall.

LELAND'S ITINERARY

Herefordshire.

Luc: ... a quartar of a myle benethe Leonminstre. second is Ford bridge of 3. arches, a 2. miles lower. third is at Hampton, somtyme a manor of the barons of Burford, now of Conisbyes, a myle lower then Ford bridge. Hampton stondithe ripa sinistra. The fourthe is at Wisteston village a 3. myles lower. The fifth is Lug bridge of stone. The sixth is Lug-Wardine, where (ripa sinistra) Chaundos had a maner place, syns longynge to Bridgis, now sould to Warme-Combe. The seventh is Mordiforde, and is the biggest of all the residewe.

Bridges on Lug above Leon-Minstar.

A bridge of stone over Lug in the ... part of Leonminster towne selfe. A bridge of stone a 2. miles uper caullyd Kyngesland-bridge. A bridge of stone by Limbroke a four miles upper.

There was the priory of nuns of Linebroke, [a] it is a quartar of a myle or more from the lyfte rype of Lugge.

Radnorshire.

There is a 2. miles upperward a stone bridge ovar Lug at Presteine; which towne of Presteine (was) endowed of late yeres with priviledges and a market by the intercession of Rich. Martin Bishop of St. David, and before chauncellour of the Merches, embassadour into Spaine and other strange countries.

Monmouthshire.

The river of Mone [b] risethe in a place caulyd Foresthene about a 2. miles by west from Monemouth.

The castle of Skenfrith standithe 5. miles above Monemouth toune on Mone ryver on the very ripe of it secundum decursum fluvii, and in tymes paste be al lykelyhod the ryver dyd go about the castle dyk. Muche of the uter warde of this castle yet standithe, the site of it is sumwhat low. There is a stone bridge over Mone a lytle above the castle.


[a] Limerock Abbey.
[b] Monnow.

PART V 71

Monmouthshire.

Hubertus de Burgo Erle of Kent was lord of Skenfrith, and the noble Edmund Erle of Kent had it.

The castle of Grossemount [a] standithe a 3. miles above Skenfrith, on the right hand of Mone water, secundum decursum fluvii, halfe a myle from the rype. It stondithe strongly on a rokky hill dry dychid, and a village of the same name by it. Moste parte of the castle wauls stand.

The third castle of the lordshipe of Tirtre or 3. townes is caullyd White-Castle, three miles flat southe from Grossemounte. This castle stondythe on a hill, and is dry motyd. It is made almoste all of great slate stone, and is the greatyst of the three.

The contry is champain about it, and no great woods at hand, but the forrest of Grossenmont by northe. Good corne and pasture about this and the othar two.

The towne selfe of Monemouthe, by the confluence of Mone and Wy, is on the lyfte ripe of Mone, and there is a bridge of stone at the towne over Mone.

One John of Monemouthe a knight was lord of Monemuthe, and foundar of Gracedew Abbay or Trodi 2. miles ripa dextra from Monemouth by west north west.

Herefordshire.

From Herford to Dynemore hille by enclosyd grownde, not very hilly, plentiful! of all good corne and pasture and metely well woodyd a 4 miles.

About a mile a this syde Dinmore hil I cam by a litle village caulyd Wilington, [b] and there I passyd ovar a bridge of three stone arches. The broke that rennith undar this bridge is comonly caulyd Wormeley [c] watar. It risethe a 4. or 5. miles of toward the west, and so cummith to Wormeley vyllage, and thens to Willington, and halfe a quartar of a myle benethe Willington it goithe into Lugge by the right rype of it.

The hill selfe of Dynemore is very stepe, highe, well woodyd, and a specula to se all the contry about.

There standithe a lytle by west of the very toppe of Dinmore hill, on the lefte hand as I rode, a commaundry withe a fayr place that longyd to the Order of the Knights of St. John of Hierusalem in London.


[a] Grosmont.
[b] Wellington.
[c] Wormesley.

72 LELAND'S ITINERARY

From Dynmore hill passynge a mile farthar I saw Hampton-Courte [a] a goodly manar place on the lefte rype of Lugge, and there s a stone bridge over Lug.

This place was erectyd sumptuously by one Sr Lenthall, Kt. that thus rose up by service; he was yeman of the robes with Kyng Henry the 4., and beinge a galante fellaw, othar a dowghtar or very nere kynswoman of Henry the 4. fell in love with hym, and in continuance was weddyd onto hym. Whereapon aftar he fell into estimation, and had gyven hym a 1000. li lands by the yere for the mayntenaunce of hym and his wyfe, and to theyr heires, among the whiche lands he had Ludlaw for one parte.

This Lenthall was victorious at the battaile of Agin-Court, and tooke many prisoners there, by the which prey he beganne the new building and mannour place at Hampton, and brought from an hill a spring of watar, and made a litle pool with it in the toppe of his howse. This Lenthall had a sonne by his wife; but he after a few yeares dyed. Then left he of to build any more at Hampton, and soone after his wife dyed. Then after he maried the daughter of ... L. Grey of Codnor.

From Hampton to Leominstre a 3. miles by some enclosyd grownde and good come, but no great wood at hand. Halfe a mile a this syde Leominster I passyd ovar a bridge of 3. arches of stone, undar the whiche Arow rennithe, and the bridge berithe the name of it.

Arow cometh thrwghe Penbridge towne havynge a good market, and there is a bridge of stone ovar it. Then it comyethe a 2. miles and halfe to Iuington village and lordshipe a late longing to Leonminstre, and ther is a bridge ovar Arowe of stone.

Thens about halfe a myle lower to Arow bridge, and about a quartar of a myle lower into Lug, by the right ripe.

The ground about Arrow bynethe Ivington is low, and there by many fayr medows be there ovarflowne, and the gresse of them scant savyd ons in six yeres.

The towne selfe of Leonminstar, alias Lemster, stand-


[a] Hampton Court in Monmouthshire (now it is in Herefordshire).

PART V 73

Herefordshire.

ithe somewhat low, and all the ground very nere about it far lower,

In the west end of the towne ar three stone bridgis. The first over Penfilly, a streame that cummithe a 5. miles of, out of a more by west sowthe west, and renning a 3. miles takethe with hym a litle broket that risethe not muche above the churche of Kyngesland, and this comythe undar the aforesayd bridge in Leonminster, and so goithe thrwghe the very howse of the priorye, and thens not far of into Lugge by the right ripe.

The second over Ken watar, that aftar a small cowrce bynethe this bridge goithe into Lug. This Ken is an arme of Lug, and brekethe out of it at a were a qwartar of a mile above Lug-bridge in Leonminster; from 1 the greatar parte of Lug is dryven by a damme or were to serve the kyngs mills a litle lower then the damme.

The third is caulyd Lugge-bridge, and, as I remembar, it is the greatyst of the 3, and hathe most arches.

There be 3. notable stone bridgis on Lug betwixt Leonminstre and Prestein otharwyse in Welsh caullyd Lan Andrew.

The first is caullyd Kyngsland-bridge, becawse it is by Kyngsland village, and this is a 2. miles above Leonminstre.

The second is caulyd Linbroke-bridg (as I take it) of some confluence of a little broke caullyd Line, or of some village beringe the name of Limbroke. [a]

The late priory of nunes at Lynbroke stood not farre from this bridge ripa laeva Luge. This bridge is a 3. miles above Kingsland bridge. The third is at Presteine. [b]

Radnorshire.

Preisteine was but a Walsche village about Kynge Edward the 4. tyme: untyll Rich. Martyn, Bysshope of St. Davyds and chauncelar of the Marches, got privileges for it, and made it a market towne, that now is very celebrate for come.

Herefordshire.

The towne of Leonminstar is meatly large and hathe good buyldinge of tymbar. The antiquitie of the towne is moste famous by a monastery of nunnes, that Merwaldus Kynge of the Marches buildid there, and endowyd it with all the


[a] Limerock. See Part VI, p. 48.
[b] Presteign.

74 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Herefordshire.

teritoris thereabout savynge only the lordshipe now caulyd shire. Kingsland. And it is supposyd of clerkis that the old name of this towne tooke beginninge of the nunes, and was caullyd in Walche Llan-llieny, idem locus velfanum moniahum, and not of a lyon that is writon to have apperyd to Kynge Merwalde, apon the whiche vision he began (as it is sayde) to build this nunry. Othar kyngs of the Merches inmediatly folowinge Kynge Merewald were benefactors unto this nunry.

Some saye that the nunnery was after in the Danes warres destroyed, and that after a colledge of prebendaries sett

The certainty is knowne that the abbey of Shaftesbury had rule at Lemster, and possessed much landes there, and sent part of the reliques of St. Edward the Martir to be adored there.

King Hen. I. annexed the landes of Lemster to his abbey of Reading, and there was a cell of monkes instituted at Lemster by the abbots of Reding.

There is but one paroche churche in Leonminstar; but it is large, somewhat darke, and of an auncient buildynge: insomoche that there is a great lykelyhod, that it is the churche that was somewhat afore the Conquest. The churche of the priorie was hard joynyd to the est end of the paroche churche, and was but a smaull thinge. Some saye, that the monkes of the priory sayd that they had the skulles of the heades of Merewald and Ethelmund Kinges of Merches. Mr. Hackluit tould me that the body of Kinge Merewald was found in a wall in the old church of Wenlok.

The towne of Leonminster by reason of theyr principall wolle usyd great drapinge of clothe, and thereby it florishid.

Syns of later dayes it chauncid that the cities of Herford and Worcester complainid of the frequency of people that cam to Leonminstre, in prejudice of bothe their markets in the shyre townes, and also in hinderinge their drapinge. Whereapon the Saturday market was remevid from Leonminstre, and a market on Friday was newly assignyd onto it. Syns that tyme the toun of Leonminstar hathe decayed. The commune fame of the people about Leonminstar is, that Kynge Merwalde, and some of his successors, had a castle or palace on an hill syde by the towne of Leonminstre half a

PART V 75

Herefordshire.

mile of by est. The place is now caullyd Comfort-castle, where now be some tokens of dyches where buildings hathe bene. The people of Leonminstar thereabout cum ons a yere to this place to sport and play.

There was a castle at Kyngsland a 2. miles west northe west from Leonminster, the diches whereof and a parte of the kepe be yet sene by the west parte of Kyngsland churche.

Constaunt fame saythe that Kynge Merwald sometyme lay in this place. Syns of latar tymes it longyd to the erles of March, now to the kynge.

From Leonminster to Eyton a mile of by west northe west.

One William Hakcluit that was with Kynge Henry the 5. at the batell of Egen Courte set up a house at this village, and purchasyd lands to it. He had one St. George, a nobleman of Fraunce, to his prisoner. Hakcluit now lyvynge is the third in descent of the house of Eiton. The chefe and auncientest of the Hakcluiths hathe bene gentlemen in tymes out of memory, and they toke theyr name of the Forest of Cluid in Radnorland, and they had a castle and habitations not far from Radnor. There were 3. knyghts of the Hakcluiths about the tyme of Kynge Edward the 3. whereof one was namyd Edmund. It chauncid in Kynge Edward the 3. tyme that one of the Hakcluits toke parte withe Llewelin, Prince of Walys, agayn Kynge Edward the 3. Whereupon his lands were attayntyd and devolvid to the Kynge or to Mortimer lord of Radenor, and never were restoryd.

There was at that tyme one of the Hakcluiths that fledd into the mountains of Walis, and livyd as a banishid man, but he aftar was pardonyd, and havynge a knyght that tenderyd hym because he was his godsonne or kynesman, and had noe ysswe, he made hym his heire, and those lands yet remayn to the elder howse of the Hakcluiths.

From Eyton I ryd a mile and halfe toward Ludelawe, and there I saw a mile of on the ryght hand the manor place of Cornwall that descendyth of a yongar howse of the Cornwalls barons of Burford.

I sawe also on the left hond, a mile of, Crofte, the manor of the Croftes, sett on the browe of a hill, somewhat rokky, dychid and waullyd castle like.

Thence I rode a 4. miles by goodly corne grownd,

76 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Herefordshire.

partly enclosyd and havynge praty wood, to Richardes castle.

Richards Castell stondith on the tope of a very rokky hill, well woodyd, and at the west end of the paroche churche there. The kepe, the waulls, and towres of yt yet stood but goynge to ruyn. There is a poore house of tymbar in the castle garth for a farmer. It longeth now to the king, it longed of late to the Lord Vaulx, then to Pope. There is a parke empaled and well woodyd, but no dere in it. From Richards castle to Ludlow a 2. miles.

Shropshire.

The bridge apon Tende [a] at Ludlow devidithe withe the streame downe alonge Herfordshire from Shrobbesshire.

The towne of Ludlow beinge in Shrobbesshire on the left ripe of Teme ryver is set apon an hill; so that a man cumming to it any waye conscend ith. It is well waullyd, and by estimation it is about a mile in compas.

There be in the waulls 5. gates. Brode-Gate, and that leadythe to Brod-Strete, the fayrest parte of the towne. Olde Gate is alsoe toward Temde, as Brod-Gate is, but not so nere. Galfride-Gate, Corve-Gate toward the left ripe of Corve river, Mil-Gate. The castle hemithe in one parte of the towne and stondithe on a stronge rokke well dichid betwixte Corve-Gate and Mille-Gate.

There is but one paroche churche in the towne, but that is very faire, and large, and richely adornyd, and taken for the fayrest in all those quartars. It stondithe even in the midle of the towne, and is in the highest ground of it. Thise churche hathe bene muche avauncyd by a brothar-hode therein foundyd in the name of St. John the Evangeliste. The originall thereof was (as the people say there) in the tyme of K. Edward the Confessor; and it is constantely afirmyd there that the pilgrimes, that browght the ringe from beyond the se as a token from St. John thevangelist to Kynge Edward, were inhabitaunts of Ludlow.

This fratarnitie hathe a gardian chosen yerely amonge the burgesses, and to this college longe now a tenne pristes, partly found by endowment of lands, partly by gatheringe


[a] Teme r.

PART V 77

Shropshire.

the devotion of the people thereabout. These pristes have a fayr howse at the west end of the paroche churche yard; and by it is an hospitall or almeshouse of a 30. pore folks sometyme, and sometyme mo, mayntaynyd partly by the fratarnitie, and partly by mony given for obiits of men buried there in the church.

There was a very rich merchant in Ludlowe not long synce called Hosier, buried in the parish church, who founded a cantarie in a part of the aforesayd colledge, endowing it with 10. or 12. 1. land by the yeare. This stipend is nowe geven to a schoole-maister.

The towne-waule enclosethe the northe syde of the cemitery of the paroche churche.

I noted these graves of men of fame in the church of Ludlowe.

Burialls in the churche.

Beaupie, somtyme coferar to Edward the 4. He gevethe a leg in his armes.

Cokkis, a gentleman servitor to Prince Arture.

Doctor Denton, Mastar of St. John's in Ludlow.

... Sulyard, justiciarie in the Marchis of Wales.

... Hosyar, the marchaunt.

There be 2. castelets for conduit watar in the towne, servyd bothe from one springe or head.

There were 2. fayre coleges of friers in Ludlow.

The Whit-Fryers was a fayre and costly thing, and stode without Corne-Gate by northe, almoste in the ende of that suburbe. One ... Ludelaw a knight, lord of Stokecastle or pile towards Bysshop's-castle, was originall fowndar there.

Vernoun by an heire generall is now owner of Stoke, and of late was taken as foundar of this howse.

The Augustin Friers stode without Galford-Gate.

I saw suburbes without all the gates of Ludlowe, savynge that I was not at Mill-Gate.

78 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Shropshire.

The suburbe over Temde bridge by southe is caullyd Ludeford, and in it is a litle paroche churche.

There is on the northe syde of the bridge in ripa sinistra Temde, [a] a churche of St. John standinge without Brode-Gate, sometyme a coledge with a dene and fellows of one Jordann's foundation. There be 3. fayre arches in this bridge over Temde, and a praty chappie apon it of St. Catherine. It is but about 100. yeres syns this stone bridge was erectyd. Men passyd afore by a forde a lytle benethe the bridge.

Ther is a faire stone-bridge ovar Temde at Lentwardine village, a 5. miles above Ludlow. Brompton [b] pyle or castle a 2. miles from Lantwarden, and 5. miles above Lentwarden is Knighton, a praty towne on Temde.

There is a stone bridge of 2. arches on Temde at Tembyri a market towne in Hereford-shire. Tho. Evan tould mee since that Tembury for a surety is in Worcester-shire, even in the uttermost part of it. It is a 4. miles lower then Ludelawe ripa dextra.

The Baron of Burforde's chefe howse caullyd Burford is a litle above Tembyri ripa sinistra in Shrobbshire. Lidwik [c] brooke comithe into Teme about Tembyri ripa sinistra.

The river of Oney [d] risith toward the quartars of Bysshop's castle at Shelbe [e] a 15. miles from the place where it goithe into Temde [f] a litle bynethe Bromfelde.

There was a priori or cell of monks at Bromefeld longinge to Glocestar abbay. There were somtyme prebendaries. Gifiard gave it to Glocestar-abbey.

This howse stode betwixt Oney and Temde. Temde renithe nerest to the howse selfe, that stondithe on the lefte ripe of it. Oney cummithe by the bake syde of the orchard by the howse, touchinge it with his right ripe, and a litle bynethe the howse the confluence is of Oney and Temde, and this is a 2. miles above Ludelawe.

There is a praty stone-bridge over Oney a litle above


[a] Teme r.
[b] Brampton Bryan.
[c] Ledwiche Brook.
[d] Onny r.
[e] Shelve.
[f] Teme r.

PART V 79

Shropshire.

Bromfild. There is also a bridge of stone over Oney watar at Whister [a] 2. miles above Bromefelde; and above this Mastar Vernoun hath a place not far from Oney.

{The following ... appears to be copied from a lost original of Leland's rough notes on the preceding places.}

" Luddeford suburbe and a paroche churche. Temde of 3 arches and a chapell of S. Catherin; it standithe yet. Made within this C yeres, none ther afore but a ford a flite shot lower. S. John thevangelest brotherhed set up in S. Edward the Confessor's tyme by the meanes of 2 pilgrimes of Ludlow that browght a ringe from S. John to Kynge Edward: A College of a X priestes to the brotherhede. An almose howse by the college longynge to the brotherhede havynge a 30 poore folke or some tyme more of the towne: partly holpe by distribution of obits of men lyenge in the churche. Hosier an exceding riche marchaunt of Ludlow made a chauntery at Ludlow and lyethe ther buried. The chaunterye now is annexid of late to a schole mastar. Beaupie, coferer to Kynge Edward the 4, buried in the body of the churche, and one Cokks gentleman serviture to Prince Arthure. Doctor Denton Mastar of Johns, and Suiurd, [b] buried in the presbyterie. 2 conduts castels to serve the towne bothe from one heade. The castle the west parte, Mortimers and the Duks of Yorke lords of it, Lady Genevile Mortimers wyfe. The Whit friers by northe in Corvesgate suburbe. Ludlowes, lord of Stoke Castle or pile towards Bysshops castle. Founders a late Vernoun by mariage of one of the heirs generall of Ludlow. The Augustines Friers without Galforde gate. Mylle-gate, Corvegate, Galfordegate, Old gate, and Brodegate, and within Brodegate, Erode Streate.

" Tenbyri market ripa dextra 4 miles by nethe Ludlow; Burford a litle above ripa sinistra. Lidwik Broke a bridge of 2 arches at Tembyri. A bridge at Lentwardin media via to Knighton ... watar risynge at Chapell Ascs above Bromefeld in Shropshire. Bromfeld 2 myles from Ludelaw, a bridge of stone a litle above so into Tend. Brompton pile or castle a 2. myles above Lentwardine. Cle hills 3 miles est northe est from Ludlow.

" To Prestein a V miles, to Knighton 20 miles, to Shrobesbyri 20 miles, to Worcester 20 miles. To Treestop 20 myles. To Bridge water a 15 miles.

" A stone bridge ovar Oney at Whitster aboute a 2 miles above Bromefelde. A motyd place by Bromefilde now longynge to the Erle of Oxford. Bromfeld priory stoode bytwyxt Tende and Oney hard apon Teme ripa sinistra. The orchard of the howse lyethe on the right ripe of Oney. A bridge of stone over Oney a litle above the orchards of Bromfeld. A bridge of tymbar at Bromefeld ovar Teme. Frithe wood within a myle of Ludlowe."


[a] ? Wistanstow.
[b] ? Sluiurd; see p. 77.

80 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Shropshire.

There is liklyhod that the castle of Bromfeld longyd to Giffard, and by force rased, stode where now is a farme house motyd belonginge to the Erle of Oxford.

Cainham castle, of some callyd Caiholme, now downe, stode (3.) miles from Ludelaw.

Cle hilles stond 3. miles est north este from Ludlow.

From Ludlaw to Worcester 20. miles.

From Ludlaw to Bridgenorthe 15. miles.

From Ludlaw to Prestein a 5. miles.

From Ludlaw to Knighton 10. miles.

From Ludlaw to Bysshop's-castle 20. miles.

From Ludlaw to Shrewsbury 20. miles.

From Ludlaw to Gloucester by Bromard a 30. miles.

Passynge out of Ludlaw by Corve-gate I cam strayte to Corve-bridge of 5. fayre arches of stone. This Corve ryver goithe from this bridge strayte downe by the castle of Ludlaw, and a litle benethe it goithe into Teamd Temde by the left ripe. Here I marked that Tend (Temd) cummythe by west northe west out of Wales; and Corve cometh through Corvedale in Shropshire by east north east.

From Corve-bridge at Ludlawe I rod a 6. miles partly by meatly good come ground, partly by grownd myxt withe wood ontyll I cam to a poore village caullyd Streford, [a] wher was a litle broke that about halfe a myle lower rennithe into Oney river ripa sinistra.

I lefte the Egge [b] and the Longe Forest, 2. great wodds havynge roes, on the right hande cornynge to Streton. Thens I rode a 3.f miles by well woddyd ground to Streton, a prati uplandishe townelet, where by the churche one Brooke a lawyer hathe a praty howse, and here rennythe a broke, the same (as one tould me) that goeth by Stretford. This townelett is the chefist buildinge that is in Streton Dale; Streton Dale is inclosyd with grete hills, well woodyd in some places. It is in lengthe but a 3. miles, and in it be


[a] Stretford Bridge.
[b] Wenlock Edge.

PART V 81

Shropshire.

3. Stretons, Litle Stretton, Great Streton and old Stretton. [a] This Stretton Dale longgith to th Erle of Arundle.

From Streton to Libot [b] Woode a thoroughe faire 3. miles, by hilly and woody ground.

Thens a mile or more of I left a parke of Mr. Corbet's hard on the left hand. Aftar I passyd a 4. mile by playne ground, beringe some corne, and then a 2. miles by a bettar soyle for corne to Shrobbesbyri. [c] About halfe a myle or I cam to Schrobbsbery I passyd by a forde over Mele broke, and there was a longe narow bridge of tymber over Mele, [d] bering the name of the broke. And a myle above Mele bridge there is anothar tymbar bridge ovar Mele caullyd Dagge-bridge. Ther is a stone bridge of 3. arches over Mele as I enteryd into Shrobbesbyri hard by the abbay, and hard byneth this bridge is the confluence of Mele and Severn.

And here by this bridge brekith out an arme of Severn, that at deade low waters in somer scant fletithe over the strond. There is a bridge of 8. low arches ovar this arme, and aftar that it passith thrwghe this bridge it strayte metythe agayne with the great streame.

There be 2. great mayne bridges of stone on the hole river of Severne at Shrobbesbyri. The greatyste and fayrest and highest apon the streame is the Walche bridge havyng 6. great arches of stone, so cawlyd bycause it is the way out of the towne into Wales. This bridge stondithe on the west syde of the towne, and hathe at the one ende of it a great gate to enter by into the towne, and at the othar end toward Wales a mighty stronge tower to prohibyt enemies to entre onto the bridge.

The second bridge is lower on Severn at the ... parte of the towne, and this hathe 4. great archis besyd the drawbridge.

The towne of Shrobbesbyri standithe on a rokky hill of stone of a sadde redd earth, and Severne so girdethe in all


[a] All are Stretton.
[b] Leebotwood.
[c] Shrewsbury.
[d] ? Meole r.

82 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Shropshire.

the towne that savinge a litle pece by ... it wer an isle. It is comonly caullyd now in Walche Moythik. Writers in Walsche caul it Penguern, id est, caput Alneti.

Schrobbesbyri is the very Englyshe word truly writen, not muche dissonant from Penguern, and Salapia in Latin goith far from the Walche name.

The towne is strongly waulyd and defendyd with watar, the whiche is to be countyd m a maner for the towne diche.

There be in the towne 3 gates.

The castle hathe bene a stronge thinge, it is now muche in ruine. It stondithe in the north parte of the towne. The towne is more then a mile in compasse within the waulle.

There be 4. parish churches within the towne. The principall is St. Ceddes (Chadde). Ther is a deane and 10. prebendaries in a colegiate churche of the patronage of the Byshope of Lichefild.

There is an hospitale by St. Ceddes, the society of the mercers of Shrewsbury mayntayne it.

The second is St. Marie's, a colegiate churche with a dene and 9. pore prebendaries. The kinge is patron of it. One Degorie Walter a marchant of Shrewsbury made an hospitall in hominum memoria at the west end of St. Marye's churche.

The paroche churche of St. Alchmunde was impropriate to Lilleshull priorie.

The paroche church of St. Julian hard by St. Alchmunds impropriate to Batelfeld chaple, a mile out of Shrobbesbyri north.

The Grey Freres in Shrobesbury of the Charlton's foundation, and there laye the Lady Charleton, whome they tooke as their foundresse. And this howse stode apon Severne banke a litle above the bridge of 5. arches. One D. Francis a frere of late dayes reedified almost a great part of this fryers house.

The house of the Blacke Friers was of the Lady Genevill's foundation, and this stode a litle without the waulle apon Severn syd, at the end of Marwaulle Strete. Many gentlemen kyllyd at Batelfild were buried in this churche of Blacke Fryers.

The Augustin Friers were of the foundation of the Staffords. It stode a litle bynethe the Walche bridge.

PART V 83

Shropshire.

Owen Glendowre promisyd Percy to have joynyd with hym at Battaylfilde.

Batelfild chapell is a mile out of Shrobbesbyri by north. Kynge Henry the 4. foundyd this litle colledge, and endowed it. A gentleman called ... who was owner of the ground whereon it was builded had the patronage thereof geven to him and his heires.

There is a fayre stone bridge on Severne a 4. miles above Shrobbesbery caullyd Monford bridge, a late renewyd. Shrawarden castle is in ripa laeva of Severne 2. miles above Mountford bridge, and a mile above this castle is Buttington bridge over Severne. There is also a bridge over Severne about Welsh-Poole.

There is a fayre stone longe bridge on Sevarne to passe ovar toward Roxcestar at Acham village.

Roxcester [a] is a mile and halfe lower on Severn than Acham [b] ripa sinistra.

The destruxtion of Roxcester be all lykelihod was the cawse of the erection of Shrobbesbyri. For Roxcester was a goodly waullyd towne ontyll it was destroied by the Danes.

The ryver of Terne cummithe into Severne, almoste in the mydle waye betwixt Acham and Roxcester.

The Wreken hill, of som caullyd Mount Gilbert. The roots of this hille standinge by the lefte rype of Severn be not past a mile from Roxcester. This Wreken hille is the highest ground of all the contrye thereabout, and standithe as a Pharos, baren of wood. There is in the toppe of this hille a delicate playne ground beringe good fine gresse, and in this playne is a fayre fountayne.

There is of late a new bridge made over Terne by Ser Rowland Hill a marchaunt of London, a little above the confluence of Terne and Severne.

Crowlington bridge of stone and tymbar a 5. miles or more above Terne.

Stoke bridge of tymbar a 3. miles highar, and Stoke [c] a


[a] Wroxeter.
[b] Atcham.
[c] Stoke-upon-Tern.

84 LELAND'S ITINERARY Shropshire.

praty tounlet ripa sinistra, and Hudelet [a] a townelet ... Stoke about a mile dextra ripa Terni.

At Drayton a market towne a 2. miles hier is a small bridge.

There is a stone bridge over Severn at Buldewas, [b] where the abbey of Whit Monkes was ripa dextra. Els there is none betwixt Acham and Brigenorth.

Tho. Cleobury, sometimes Abbot of Doure, tould me that there was one of the antient bishops of Lichfeild, that was in Offa King of Merches tyme, that lived an hermites life at Buldewas, after such tyme as the pall of the Archbishop of Lichfeild was taken from Lichfeild and restored againe to Canterbury.

From Schrobbesbyri to Chestar a 30. miles.

From Schrobbesbyri to Oswestrye a 12. miles.

From Schrobbesbyri to Roxcester a 4. miles, comonly cawlyd 3 miles.

From Schrobbesbyri to Wenloke 8. miles.

From Schrobbesbyri to Whitchurche a 15. miles.

From Schrobbesbyri to Mountgomery a 16. miles.

From Schrobbesbyri to Bridgenorth a 16. miles.

From Shrobbesbury to Counde a pore village a 4. miles by metely good ground, corne and grasse, but noe greate wood in sight. There cummithe downe from southe a praty broke caullyd Rhe, [c] passinge thrughe the smaull villag, and a litle lower goithe into Severne. There is a narow bridge of tymbre at Cound over Rhe brooke. From Cound to Harley village a 2. miles.

Thens to Wenneloke a market towne, environid with hills, in Shrobbeshire, where was an abbay, a 2. miles by roughe ground, passynge ovar an highe rocky hill caulyd Wenlok Egge.

There comithe by west from the hills by Wenlok a litle broket, and passythe thrughe the midle of the towne. I have hard this watar caullyd Rhe. It goithe into Severne, that is about a 2. miles ripa dextra from Severn.


[a] Hodnet.
[b] Buildwas.
[c] Now Cound r.

PART V 85

Shropshire.

From Wenloke to Morfeld [a] a village a 6. miles by sume corne, pasture and wood ground. I saw a litle priory or cell caullyd Morfilde on the right hand as I enteryd into this village.

From Morefeld to Bridgenorthe two miles. The towne of Bridgenorthe stondithe apon an eminent ground on the right ripe of Severne, ut aqua defluit. It hathe bene strongly waullyd, but the waulls of it be now all in ruine. There be 4. gates in the waulls.

There is a dyke for the waulls, savynge where Severne is nighe, for there nature hathe made a terrible dyke, Severne runninge in a depe valley betwixt 2. stepe hills.

The name of Bridgenorthe is but of late tymes usurpyd. It is caullyd in all auncient records Bridge. Some thinke that this terme shuld cum up of a forest caullyd Morthe * thereby, right agaynst the towne trans Sabrinam. The towne selfe is scant a mile in compace.

The castle stondithe on the southe parte of the towne, and is fortyfied by est withe the profound valley instede of a diche. The walls of it be of a great hight. There were 2. or 3. stronge wards in the castle, that now go totally to ruine. I count the castle to be in compas more then the third parte of the towne.

There is one mighty gate by northe in it, now stoppyd up, and a litle posterne made of force therby thrwghe the waull to enter into the castle. The castle grownd, and especially the base courte, hathe now many dwelling howsys of tymbar newly erectyd in it.

There is but one paroche churche in the towne, and that is faire and dedicate to St. Leonard.

There is one very fayre strete in the towne goinge from northe to southe, and of eche syde of this strete the howses be galeried; so that men may passe dry by them yf it rayne, accordinge to some strets in Chestar citie.

The towne stondithe by clothinge, and that now decayed there, the towne sorely decayethe therwith.


[a] Morville.

86 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Shropshire.

Ther is a colegiate churche of St. Mary Magdalen of a dene and 6. prebendaries within the castle. The churche it selfe is now a rude thing. It was first made by Robertus de Belesmo for a chapell only for the castle, and endowid it with lands; and afore that this chapell was establishid in the castle ther was a like foundation made at Quatforde of a chaple of St. Marie Magdalene by Robertus de Belesmo Erle of Schrobbesbyri at the desyre of his wyfe, that made a vowe thereof in a tempest on the se.

This Quateford is by northe est from Bridgenorthe on Severn, whereas yet appere great tokens of a pile or manner place longing that time to Robertus de Belesmo. There be in the bridge at Bridgenorthe stondynge est in respecte of the towne 8. greate arches, and a chaple of St. Sythe apon it.

There is a praty longe strete of meane buildynge trans pontem, and this is caullyd the Low Towne. In it is a chapell of St. John.

Strayte apon this Low Towne, and este apon Bridgnorth, is a grounde hilly and welle woddyd, called Morfe. It was a forest or chace havynge deere; but now it hathe none.

In this forest or wood (as some constantly affirme) Kynge Ethelstane's brother ledde in a rokke for a tyme an heremite's lyfe. The place is yet sene and is caullyd the Heremitage. The glory of the waulls of Bridgnorthe and the strenght of the castle there have decayed syns suche tyme as one of the Mortymers in a rebellion kept it by force.

Worcestershire.

From Bridgnorthe to Kydermister moste by enclosyd grownde, somewhat hilly and daely, levynge Severne on the right hand, I roode a 12. miles. Some wylde ground by the way, and in some places good corne and gresse, and toward eche rype of Severne, aftar I passyd the midle way, great plenty of wood, whereof muche cummithe downe by Severne to serve the partes aboute Glocestar. Enteringe into the towne of Ketermister, a market towne in the counte of Worcester, I passyd over by a fauburge, and so ovar a bridge of 2. or 3. arches upon Stowre [a] ryvar. The hede of this river is about the pools of the late priorie of Hale Owen a 6. miles of.


[a] Stour r.

PART V 87

Worcestershire.

The fayre and chefe parte of Kiddermistar is on the lefte rype of Stowre stondinge on a hilly pece of ground. There is a praty crosse environyd with 6. pillers about, and arches of stone withe the yth piller in the midle to beare up the fornix; it is in the market place.

The churche is very faire, and one ... Conye a knight and richly buried there in the quire. This towne stondithe moste by clothinge. In sum auncient tymes past this towne longyd to the Bisetts, auncient gentlemen. Aftar it cam to 3. heires generall of the Bissetts, whereof one beinge as it is sayd a lazar buildid an hospitall at Mayden Bradeley in Wiltshire, syns translatyd to a priory of chanons. She gave her parte there in pios usus, and the parsonage of Kydermister was impropriat to Mayden Bradeley. The othar 2. parts came to the Lord Bergeveney, and in that familie it yet remayneth.

Stoure ryver about a 4. miles bynethe Kidermester goith into Severn ripa sinistra at a place cawlyd Rokstane. [a] This place as the watar turnithe is a 3. miles bynethe Beudeley.

From Kyderminster to Bewdley a 2. miles by a faire down, but somwhat baren, as the vayn is therabouts on every syd of Bewdley for a litle compace.

I enteryd into Bewdley, in Schropshire, as some saye, by a goodly fayr bridge ovar Severn of ... greate arches of stone, being even then in new reparation. This bridge is only on Severn bytwixt Bewdeley and Worcester bridge. To this bridge resorte many flat and longe vessels to cary downe and up all maner of marchandise to Bewdlay and above Beudeley. The est parte of the bridge at Beudlay and the left rype of Severne be in Wurstershire; but many saye and hould, that the west end of the bridge and the right ripe of Severne withe the towne of Bewdley be in Shrobbshire, and Wyre forest in Shrobbsher ioynethe to the parke of Tetenhale. [b]

The towne selfe of Bewdeley is set on the syd of an hill, soe coningly that a man cannot wishe to set a towne bettar.


[a] Now Stourport.
[b] Ticknell.

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Worcestershire.

It risethe from Severne banke by est upon the hill by west; shire. so that a man standinge on the hill trans pontem by est may descrive almost every howse in the towne, and at the rysynge of the sunne from este the hole towne gliterithe, being all of new buyldinge, as it wer of gold.

There be but 3. stretes memorable in the towne. One from north to southe, all alonge Severne banke. The second is the market place, a faire large thing and well buyldyd. The third rennithe in lengthe from north to south on the hill syd, as the first dothe in the valley by Severn.

In the towne is but a chappell of ease, and that is of tymber in the harte of the towne.

The paroshe churche stondithe a mile lower at Ripley in dextra ripa Sabrinae, as Bewdeley doeth. Mr. Acton hath a goodly mannour place at Ripley, ut aqua defluit ripa dextra. By the distance of the paroche churche I gathar that Bewdley is but a very new towne, and that of old tyme there was but some pore hamelet, and that apon the buildinge of a bridge there apon Severn, and resorte of people onto it, and comoditye of the pleasaunt site, men began to inhabite there, and becawse that the plot of it semid faire to the lokers it toke a Frenche name Beudeley quasi bellus locus. I asked a merchant there of the antientnesse of the towne, and he answered me that it was but but a new towne, adding that they had libertys granted by K. Edward.

There is a faire maner place by west of the towne standinge in a goodly parke well wooddyd, on the very knappe of an hill that the towne stondithe in. This place is caullyd Tikenhall. [a] Whithar there were any auncient hous there in tymes paste or no I am not asurid; but this that now is there semithe but new, and, as I hard, was in a maner totally erectyd by Kynge Henry the 7. for Prince Arthure. It was repayryd for the Lady Mary. Since I heard that Rich. E. of Marche and D. of Yorke builded there. It was Mortimer's E. of Marches land.


[a] Ticknell.

PART V 89

Worcestershire.

There was privylege of sanctuarie gyven to this towne that now is revokyd and abrogatyd.

From Bewdley to Mitton village about a 4. miles by woody ground, and some corne in enclosures. Here dothe Stoure ryver brekeinto 2. or 3. armelets, and servythe milles, and a litle benethe Miton the hole streame of Stowre goithe into Severne at a place caulyd Rokstane.

Passynge a 2. miles beyond Mitton by enclosyd ground, wooddy and sandy, but somewhat bareyn of corne, I left the castle of Herthilbyri about halfe a mile of on the lefte hand. This castle longithe to the Byshope of Worcester, and is well buildyd by the acts of dyverse byshoppes. Ther be faire pondes; there is a park with deere, and a waren for conyes; but the soile about this castle is baren.

From this place I rode a 5. miles by enclosyd ground, havinge meatly good grasse and com, and plenty of wood, tylle I cam to a stone bridge, under the whiche rennith a brooke cumminge from the Wiche [a] where the salt is made, and so a litle lower to a village caullyd Salope, [b] whereof at the bridge the brooke is caullyd Salope brooke, and thens goithe downe to Ombreley [c] a goodly lordshippe of a 180. l. by the yere, lately longinge to the abbay of Evesham, and thens sone in to Severne ripa sinistra.

From Salope brooke to Worcester a 3. miles by enclosyd grownd and frutefull. So that I reken Worcester to be a 14. miles from Beudeley, thowghe it be communely countyd of sum to be but 12. miles.

The towne of Worcester, caullyd in Welsh Cair Angon, stondithe on the lyfte rype of Severne apon a grownd somewhat condescending from the ryver. It is reasonably well waulyd and the waule is maynteynid. In the walle be 6. gates: the Bridge-gate on Severne, having a goodly square towre over it; a postern-gate by St. Clements chirche hard by the northe syd of the bridge ovar Severne; the fore gate a faire peace of worke standyng by northe; Sudbyry-gate standynge este in the way from Worcestar to London; St. Martin's-gate; Trinitie-gate, this is but a posterne.


[a] Droitwich.
[b] Salwarpe.
[c] Ombersley.

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Worcestershire.

The castle stode hard on the southe parte of the cathedrall churche allmoste on Severne. It is now clene downe, and halfe the base courte or area of it is now within the waulle of the close of the cathedrall churche of Worcestar.

The dungeon hill of the castle is a greate thinge, ovargrowne at this tyme with brushe wood.

This castle fell to ruine sonne aftar the Conquest, and halfe the ground of it was gyven onto the augmentynge of the close of the priorie.

There be dyvers fayre strets in the towne well buyldyd with tymbar; but the fairest and moste celebrate strete of the towne is from the Bysshopp's palace-gate to Fore-gate alonge by northe. There be 2. places in Worcestar where the markets be comonly kept. The one is a litle within St. Martyn's-gate, the othar is a litle within Fore-gate.

The cathedrall churche standethe in the southe syde of the towne. There be 8. paroche churches in the towne, whereof St. Helenes is countyd the moast auncient, and it was a prebend afore Kynge Edgar's dayes to the cathedrall churche of Worcestar, and Bloxham in Worcestar-shire was another as I have hard.

I have hard that all the churches in Wurster, afore the Kynge Edgare set monks in the cathedrall churche, were but chapells to the cathedrall churche.

The Blake Freres howse of the foundation of the Bewchamps of Powike stode in the northe parte of Worcester hard by the waull, just within it, and this grownd is the highest plate of the towne, and hathe a faire prospect from it.

There is a fayre suburbe beyond the bridge on Severn, and the inhabytauntes thereof muche resort to St. Clements churche cis pontem.

The bridge is a royal peace of worke, highe and stronge, and hathe 6. greate arches of stone. There is a longe and fayre suburbe by north without the Fore-gate, and at the north-este parte and very end of it is an auncient and fayre large chaple of St. Oswald. This chappell as I lernyd was first erectyd for monks then infectyd, or that aftar shuld chaunce to be infectyd with leopry (leprosie). Aftar it was chaungyd to an hospitall, and there was a mastar, and fellows and poore folkes, but of latar tymes it was turnyd to

PART V 91

Worcestershire.

a fre chapell, and berithe the name of Oswald, as a thing dedicate of old tym to hym; and here were wont corces to shire, be buried in tyme of pestilence, as in a publike cemiterie for Worcestar.

This chapell of Seynt Oswald yet stondithe, and a fayre mantion howse by it, muche repayryd of late tyme by one Parker, cancellar to the Bysshope of Worcestar; but the lands be alienatyd and taken away.

There was a place of nunes at the very northe syde of the cemiteri of St. Oswald. It was caulyd Whitestan, now suppressyd, the churche clene rasyd downe, and a ferme place made of the resydewe Qf the buildings.

There is a faire suburbe without Sudbyry gate, and in it was an hospitall caullyd St. Wolstanes, sum caullyd it the Commendary, where was a Mastar, priestes, and poore men. Some say that it was originally of the foundation of a quene. One Carter a marchaunt of Worcester, gave of later tymes lands to it, and thereby renewyd the old foundation, and of this almose were dyvers marchant men of Worcester fawlyn in decaye and age relevyd. Morisine hathe suppressyd this house, and now a clothiar dwellythe in it. Ther is in this suburbe a chaple of St. Godwalde. What this St. Godwald was I enquired, but nothinge could I learne. Some sayd he was a bishop.

There is a suburbe without St Martyn's gate, and hereabout in a lowe morishe ground was a hows of Gray Friers of the foundation of the erles of Warwike.

There is a chaple of St. Ursula a litle by southe without the castle garthe of Wurcester.

The welthe of the towne of Worcestar standithe most by draping, and noe towne of England, at this present tyme, maketh so many cloathes yearly, as this towne doth.

I markyd at Worcestar, that the highe crests of Malverne hills be to the syght nere to Wurcestar towne; but it is a 6. miles to great Malvern priorie that is in the roots of the hills, from Worcestar.

Malverne hills ly a greate way in lengthe from southe to

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Worcestershire.

northe, and the north-est of them be highest. One Gilbert de Clare Erle of Glocestar, and Joanne of Acres, Kynge Edward the first dowghtar his wife, caused a fosse to be made in the crestes of Malvern hills in the prejudice of the limits and liberties of the bysshopes of Hereforde and Wurcestar. Temde river cometh into Severne ripa dextra at Powik milles a mile bynethe Worcester.

From Worcester to Hereford a 20. miles.

From Worcester to Ludlow a 20. miles.

From Worcester to Bewdley 12. long miles.

From Worcester to Glocestar 19. miles, 12 to Tewkesbyri and 7 to Glocestar.

From Worcester to Eovesham 10. miles.

From Worcester to Pershore ...

From Worcester to Bremesgrave a 12. miles.

From Worcester to Alcester 12. miles.

From Worcester to Winchelescombe 18. miles.

From Worcester to Bridgenorthe 24. miles, ... 12 to Kiddermister and 12 to Bridgnorth.

From Worcester I rode to the Wiche by inclosyd ground, havynge metely good corne, sufficient wood, and good pasture, about a 6. miles of.

The Wiche [a] standyth somewhat in a valley or low grownde betwixt 2. smaull hills on the lefte ripe of a praty ryver that not far benethe the Wiche is cawllyd Salop [b] broke.

The beauty of the towne in a maner standithe in one strete. Yet be there many lanes in the towne besyde. There is a meane churche in the chefe strete, and in the towne is once a weke a metely celebrate market. The towne of itselfe is somewhat foule and dirty when any reyne faullythe, with moche cariage thrwghe the stretes, being over ill pavyd or not pavyd.

The great avauncement of the towne is by makynge of salt; and yet thoughe the commoditie thereof be syngular great, yet the burgesses be poore for the moste parte; bycawse gentlemen have for the moast parte the great gayne


[a] Droitwich.
[b] Salwarpe r.

PART V 93

Worcestershire.

of it, and the burgesses have all the labowre. I saw on a hillyt hard by the towne of the Wich, a litle or I enterid into shireit, a paroche churche. I saw also anothar churche on a hillet a litle beyond the towne in dextra ripafluvii, beyond the wod bridge, and a litle above the principall salt springe.

There be at this present tyme 3. salt springs in the towne of Wiche, whereof the principall is within a but shot of the right ripe of the river that there cummithe downe; and this springe is double as profitable in yeldynge of salte liquer as bothe the other. Some say that this salt springe dyd fayle in the tyme of Richard de la Wiche Byschope of Chichester, and that aftar by his intercessyon it was restorid to the profit of the old course. Such is the superstition of the people. In token whereof, or for the honour that the Wichemen and saulters bare unto this Richard their cuntre-man, they used of late tymes on his daye to hang about this sault spring or well once a yeere with tapestry, and to have drinking games and revels at it. There be a great number of salt coots or fornaces about this well, wherein the salt watar is decocte and brought to the perfection of pure whit salt.

The othar 2. salt springs be on the lefte ripe of the river, lowar a praty way then the othar great springe and at the very townes end; and at thes springs be also divers fornaces to make salt; but the profit and plenty of these 2. springs be nothinge comparable to the great springe.

I askyd a saltar how many fornacis they had at all the 3. springes, and he numbryd them to an 18. score, that is 360, sainge that every one of them payd yerly 6s. 8d. to the Kynge.

The trewthe is that of old they had liberties gyven them for 300 furnacis, or mo; and therapon they give a fee ferme or vectigal of loo.l. yerely. The vectigal is as it was; but the numbar of fornacis is now encreasyd to a 400.

There was of late search made for another sault springe at the Wiche, by the meanes of one Mr. Newport, a gentleman dwellinge in the Wyche; and the place where it was appeared, and the wood and tymber that had beene sett

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Worcestershire.

about it for houldinge up the earth for falling in it. But this pitte was not occupied synce, whether it were for lacke of plentye of the sault springe, or for lettinge the profitt of the other three.

Men thinke that yf wood and sale of salt would serve they might dygge and fmde mo salt springs about the Wiche. I hard that of late yeres a salte springe was found in anothar quartar of Worcestar-shire; but the Wichemen have suche prevelege that they alone in thos quartars shall make sault.

The Wychmen use the comodite of theyr salt springs in drawynge and decoctynge the watar of them only by 6. monthes in the yere, that is from Midsomer to Christemes; as I gesse, to mayntayne the price of theyr salte, or for savynge of wod, the whiche I thinke to be theyr principall reason. For makynge of salt is a great and notable distruction of wood, and hathe be, and shall be hereaftar, except men use muche coppisis of yong wood.

The lake of wood is now perceyvyd in places nere the Wiche. For whereas in placis nere abowt they usyd to by and take theyr wood, the wontyd placis are now sore decayed in wood. They be forcyd to seke wood as far as Worcester towne, and all the parties about Bremisgrove, Alchirch and Alcester.

I askyd a saltar how niuche wood he supposyd yerely to be spent at the furnacis, and he answeryd that by estimation ther was spent a 6000. loads by yere. And it is yonge pole wood for the moste parte, easy to be devidid in pecis.

The people that be about the fornacis be very ille colorid. The just rate of every fornace is to make 4. foods of salt yerely; and to everi lode goithe ... quarters. If the furnace- men make more in one fornace then foure loods it is, as it is sayd, their owne avayle.

Goinge out of the townes end I sawe a faire new howse of tymbar, longinge to one Mr. Newporte, on the right hond. And on the left hond I saw a bridge of 4. archis of stone ovar the broke that rennithe by the Wiche, and at the hither end of this bridge was a fayre new chaple of tymbar.

I rod frome the Wyche to Bremisgreve a 4. miles by enclosyd

PART V 95

Worcestershire.

ground, havynge some good come, meatly woodyd, and well pasturyd; and in thiswaye I passyd over 2. or 3. tymes ovar the watar that comithe on the Wyche: and, as far as I could gather, either Bromesgrove water goith a lytle benethe Bremisgreve into the Wiche watar, or els it is the very same broke that goithe to the Wyche. so it is. [a]

The towne of Bremisgreve is all in a maner in one very longe strete, stondynge on a playne grownd. Ther is once a weke a metely good market. The towne standythe somewhat by clothinge. The harte of the towne is metly well pavyd.

I came by a parke about a myle or I came to Bremisgrave on the lefte hand. It is caullyd Grafton. It longyd afore Bosworth Feld to the Staffords, noble knightes. Sence by atteindure it cam to the kynge, and was geven by K. H. 7. to Sr. Gilbert Talbot, and in that name it yet remaynethe. In this parke is a fayre mannar place, and one Talbote at this present tyme dwellythe in it.

Looke as I came into Bremisgreve ovar a broke that passyd downe on the right hand; so as I went almoste out of the end of the towne, I passid againe over the same broke, whereas the streme went downe on the lefte hand, and then I rydd halfe a myle farthar, and there I saw agayne that broke and anothar rille ioyninge with it, and so passynge over it I lefte the broke totally on the lefte hond, and so went by hills, valleys and woods a 3. or 4. miles to Alchirch, [b] a praty uplandyshe towne whereof the Bysshope of Worcester is lorde.

Alchurche is a praty thrwgh-fayre, and in the botom of it is a brooke, on the right ripe whereof the towne standythe; the heade whereof cummithe a few miles off by west, and so passinge by Alchurche it resortythe sone aftar into Arrow, and so goith thens in Arow downe to Couhton where Sr. George Throgmerton dwellithe.

The Byshope of Worcester hathe a fayre manar place a litle by northe-est without the towne, stonding on an hille trans fluviolum ripa laeva. This place is made all of tymbar,


[a] I.e. the Salwarpe.
[b] Alvechurch.

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Worcestershire.

and semithe to be no peace of old worke. It was of late tyme in decaye, and then bysshope Latimer repaired it. Ther is a parke, and all the contry about Alchurche is well woodyd. The soyle about it is very fowle aftar wett wethar.

Ridynge about halfe a myle from Alchurche toward Northton I passyd over from Arow river that comithe out of the Blake hills about a 4. miles of by north-weste.

Warwickshire.

Northeton [a] is a praty uplandyshe towne in Warwikeshire, and there be some faire howsys in it of staplears, that use to by wolle. There is a faire churche and a goodly piramis of stone over the bell frame. There rennithe a litle brooke at the est end of the towne.

Good plenty of wood and pasture and meatly good corne betwixt Alchirch, and Northton. And lykewyse betwixt Northton and Bremischam that be distaunt from (each) othar 5. miles.

I cam thoroughe a praty strete or evar I enteryd into Bremischam toune. This strete, as I remember, is caullyd Dyrtey, in it dwelle smithes and cuttelers, and there is a brooke [b] that devydithe this strete from Bremisham. Dyrtey [c] is but an hamlet or membre longynge to ... paroche therby and is clene seperated from Bremischam paroche.

There is at the end of Dyrtey a propre chaple and mansion howse of tymbar, [d] hard on the rype as the brooke cummithe downe, and as I went thrwghe the forde by the bridge, the watar ran downe on the ryght hond, and a fewe miles lowere goithe into Tame rypa dextra.

This broke risethe, as some say, a 4. or 5. miles above Bremicham toward the Blake hills [e] in Worcestershire. This broke above Dyrtey brekethe into 2. armes that a litle benethe the bridge close agayne.

The bewty of Bremischam, a good market towne in the extreme partes that way of Warwike-shire, is in one strete goynge up alonge almoste from the lefte ripe of the broke


[a] Kings's Norton.
[b] Rea r [c] Deritend.
[d] "Old Crown" House, still existing, 1907.
[e] Clent Hills.

PART V 97

Warwickshire.

up a mene hille by the lengthe of a quartar of a mile. I saw but one paroche churche in the towne. There be many smithes in the towne that use to make knives and all maner of cuttynge tooles, and many lorimars that make byts, and a greate many naylors. So that a great parte of the towne is mayntayned by smithes.

The smithes there have yren out of Staffordshire and Warwikeshire and see coale out of Staffordshire.

A mile beyond Bremischam I passyd over Sharford-bridge of 4. arches of stone. Tame river goythe under this bridge, and the castle of Dudley is on this ryver a 6. miles above Sharford-bridge. Ther be faire medows about Sharfordbridge on Tame.

From Sharforde to Southeton alias Sutton, a 4. miles by sandy grownde, betar woodyd then fertile of whete. For the common corne there is some rye, barley, and ots. There be foure lodges in Southton Chace, Colfeld, Bere wood, Linderige [a] Hille-wood. The soyle is sandy and dry, and good for conyes.

The towne of Southeton apon Colefeeld [b] stondinge in Colefeld hethe was belonging to the Spensers before it came to the Beauchampes. This towne was in estimation in the Erle of Warwyks tyme, and had a market privelegyd, as the inhabitantes there saye. The erles of Warwike had a meane manar place there, a parke and chace. Some say Richard Beauchampe Erle of Warwike in Henri the 5 dayes made 5 goodly pooles there withe great and costly heddes of stone; the Mille Poole, Crosse Poole, Wyndle Poole, Kepers Poole, Bracebridge Poole, all 5 in the parke. One of them is yet there seene, but agayne the west end of the paroche church of Southtown. The heade of this pole servithe for a way into the towne; it is a stronge waule of stone, and there is an arche in it thrwghe the whiche a broket coming out of the poole rennithe, and dryvethe a mill, and thens resortith into ...


[a] Lindridge.
[b] Sutton Coldfield.

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Warwickshire.

The othar pooles be now made dry grownd by policye, and where they were is now good medow ground. There was a lodge or meane manar place at Southton on an hille by west from the paroche churche in Erle Richarde's tyme: there was a free chaple of St. Blase of 5. markes a yeare in the manor place. Nevyll Erle of Warwike made as some say a praty hawle of tymber there.

Aftar that the erledome of Warwyke was attayntyd and cam to the King's hand, the towne of Southton stondynge in a baren soyle fell dayly to decay, and the market was clene forsaken.

Wingston by authority of his office sould the tymber of the mannor place, and had part of it himselfe. The hall selfe was after sett up at Broadgate, the Marques of Dorsett's house by Leicester, and there yet standeth.

John Harman, alias Veysey, Bisshope of Excestar borne in this towne, much lamentynge the decay of it got a new prevelege of Kynge Henry the 8. for restorynge the market there, and began to repayre and build new howses ther, and furtharmore obtayned licence to deforest the chace there; whereupon he buildyd dyvars praty howsys of stone in the forest, and plantyd his pore kynsemen in them, allotynge ground conveniently unto the housys, for the whiche the tenaunts bere the Kynge a mean rent; bysydes this the place where the Erle of Warwiks old howse f was, is now convertyd to the use of a fermars howse, and in it dwellythe one of the bysshop's kynsemen. The byshope hathe also institutyd there a gramer-schole and endweyd it with lands.

He hathe also buildyd there a praty pile of brike, where he sometyme lyethe. This pile stondythe in a grove about halfe a mile from Sowthtowne churche by northe. Good frewte trees sett there by the byshope grow with some difficultie. He built also the north and south part or isles of the church and the steeple, and erected a neate monument for himselfe in the wall of the north isle.

PART V 99

Thus is Southtown by Harman set at a good stay and dayly encreaseth.

Staffordshire.

From Southetonne to Lichefeld a 5. miles by ground reasonably well woodyd and pastured, but not very apte to bere good corne, as a ground full of hethe and feme in many placis.

The right way is to Sheinston [a] village 2. miles of, where is a parke of the kings a 3. miles about, well deryd. Thens 3. miles just to Lichefild.

There is in the waye betwixt Sowthtowne and Lichefild a broke caullyd Blakewatar, [b] that comithe a . . miles of by northe, and aftar resortythe into Tame river ripa sinistra ut Tama defluit.

The towne of Lychefild for all the substaunce of it stondithe apon a low and equall ground, only the close and the cathedrale churche, withe a longe streate, that lyethe northe on the bridge of the towne is somewhate apon a highe ground. There is no token that evar the towne was waullyd.

A diche was made in a parte of the towne by Langton, Byshope of Lichefild.

There hathe bene a castle of auncient tyme in the southe ende of the towne, but no parte of it standithe. The plote with the dikes is sene, and is yet caullyd The Castle Felde; but in my coniecture the more lykely place wher it shuld of very auntient tyme have stond is the very close of the palace. That ground is some what castle like.

In the mayne towne that is a fayre large thing be 3. paroche churches: St. Maries, a right bewtyfull pece of worke in the very market stedd; St. Michaels in the southe est ende of the towne; Stow-churche in the est end of the towne, whereas is St. Cedd's well, a thinge of pure watar, where is sene a stone in the botom of it, on the whiche some say that Cedde was wont nakyd to stond on in the watar, and pray. At this stone Cedd had his oratorie in the tyme of Wulphere Kynge of the Merchis.

At this tyme was all the contry about Lychefeld as a forest and wyldernes.

There is a guilde or societie at the churche of St. Marie in the market stede. This was begone in about Kynge


[a] Shenstone.
[b] Bourne brook.

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Staffordshire.

Edward the thirds tyme and syns muche advaunced by one Heywod, Dene of Lichefeld, in remembraunce of men. There be 5. prists longinge to this brotharhod, and they serve in St. Marie's church.

There was a howse of St. John's in Lichefiid at the very south end of the towne, where was a mastar and fellawes as religius men; but I could not lerne who was first foundar of it.

B. Smithe, Bysshope of Coventrie in Kynge Henry the 7. dayes, and aftar Byshope of Lincolne, began a new foundation at this place setynge up a mastar with 2. pristes, and 10. pore men in an hospitall.

He set there also a scoll-mastar and an usshar to teach gramer that hath 10. l. by the yeare, and an under-schoole- Mr. that hath 5. l. by the yeare, and mad a schole.

King H. 7. was a great forderar of this new foundation, and gave to it an old hospitall caullyd Denhale in Wirehale [a] in Chestershire, with the lands and the impropriation of Burton-churche in Wirehale.

There was a howse of Gray Friers in Lichefiid in the southe west parte of the towne.

Alexandar B. of Lichefild gave first certaine free burgages in the towne for to sett this house on and was the first foundar of it.

There comithe a conducte of watar out of an -hill browght in leade to the towne, and hathe 2. castelets in the towne, one in the est waule of this fryers close on the strete syd, anothar about the market place.

And owt of the same hill comithe anothar into the close havynge a castle ther, from the whiche watar is convayed to the prebendary howses, to the vicarage houses, and the choristers.

There was of old tyme a fayre old crosse environid with stepps in the market place of Lichefeld. Denton Dene of Lichefelde invironyd this crose of late tyme with 8. fayre arches of stone, makynge a round voult over them for pore market folks to stond dry in. This Octaplus was made with the expence of a 160. l.

The northe parte of Lichefilde is devidyd from the sowthe


[a] Wirral,

PART V 101

Staffordshire.

parte with 3 ponds or lakes, whereof bothe the 2. first lienge by west, be nothinge so greate as the third that liethe by shire, este. There be divers springs in thes pooles; but the principall springe is a broke that enterithe into them, and fedithe them. It cummith from Pipe aboute a mile and halfe by west from Lichefelde.

The first westerne poole is devidyd from the second poole by a greate mayne longe cawsey waullyd of eche syd with stone; and in this causey be arches of stone for the watar to ysswe into the second poole; and this cawsey servithe to com out of the sowthe parte of the towne into the northe. This cawsey was last made with great expencis by Walter de Langton Byshope of Lichefild.

There is also a fayre stone cawsey, and an isswe for the water, betwixt the second poole and the third poole leadynge out of the towne hard to the southe gate of the close of the cathedrall churche in Lichefild and on the este syd of it is a fayre mylle.

This cawsey or bridge is litle more then a quartar so longe as the first: and who last mad it I wot not; but I thinke Bysshope Langton.

The third poole that lyethe by est is a very fayre thinge, and plentifull of fishe, and goithe in lengthe by my estemation about halfe a mile or ever the hole watar be drawne into a narow botom, that 3. miles lowar goithe into Trent by the right ripe aboute the quartar whereas Mr. Griphin's howse caulyd Wichnor stondith.

This place of Mr. Griffith is builded lowe, and is sore subject to the risinges of Trent. There was of ould tyme a manner place there builded in an higher soile; but that is cleane decayed.

The cathedrall church of Lichefild was first dedicate to the honour of St. Marie and St. Petar, and a bysshoprike there erectyd by Oswy Kynge of the Northumbars, and also of the Merches, aftar that he had slayne Penda Kynge of the Merches a pagan. Aftar the deathe of Oswy Kynge Penda's sonns faullynge to the faythe were settars forthe of the same churche, and favorars of Cedd's. This church of far latar tymes was renovatyd and dedicatyd to St. Marie

102 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Staffordshire.

and St. Cedde. The whole closse of the chathedrall churche was newly dikid and waullyd right strongely by Bysshope Langton, and he made one gate of a majestic, and great strenkith at the west parte of the close, and anothar but a lesse gate at the southe est parte of the close. He made also the bysshop's palace at the este end of the close, besyde many othar noble acts.

The prebendaries houses in the close buildyd by dyvers men be very fair. The chorists have a goodly howse lately buildyd by Bysshope Blithe.

Fayre Well, a small priorie of nunes supressyd by Tho. Wolsey Byshope of Yorke, and gyven to Lichefild in recompence of a pencion that shuld have be geven out of his coledge in Oxford to Lichefild churche, was impropriat to the chorists of Lichefild.

The library at the north west parte of the cathedrall churche of Lichefild was erectyd by Tho. Heywod, Dene of Lichefild.

The glory of the churche is the worke of the west end, that is exceedynge costly and fayre.

There be 3. piramides of stone in the cathedrall churche, 2. at the west end, and one in the mydle of the churche.

That parte of the towne of Lichefild that liethe by northe the great cawsey or bridge is but one faire strete in lengthe: and in it was some tyme bothe sum prebendaries howsys, and also the coledge of the vicars .

From Lichefild to Stafford 12. miles.

From Lichefild to Wulvorhampton ...

From Lichefild to Darby 16. miles.

From Lichefild to Warwik a 20. miles.

From Lichefild to Tameworthe a 5. miles, and thens to Nunne Eiton 9 miles in strayt way.

From Lichefild to Burton apon Trent a 8. miles.

The forest or chace of Cannok wood alias Cank Wood, is as the front of it, yet standithe within a 4. miles of Lichefild, and thens stretchithe within a mile of Stafford. There be in this forest many springs, and heades of brookes. Whereas of auncient tyme all the quartars of the contrye about Lichefild were as forest and wild ground, and naturally somewhat bareyne, now the grownd about it by tyme and culture waxithe metely good, and the woods be in many places so

PART V 103

Staffordshire.

cut downe that no token is that evar any were there. Whereapon in hominum memoria wood is waxid dere in respect of the old price at Lichefeld.

The right way to Coventrie from Lichfeld is to Basset's Crosse [a] 5 miles, where is no building, thens to Coleshule 7. miles. The priory of Canol [b] a cell of one monke was about halfe a mile from Basset's Crosse. The Bassets were foundars of it, sins the Lisles. There is a broke a mile from the crosse toward Lichefeld caullyd Wifford [c] in the highe way. The Lord Lisle, and Ser Henri Willoughby faught at Wiford bridge, and Willoughby was sore woundyd. Puryfoye was before slayne there by Willoughby in the quarrell of K. E. 4. and K. H. 6.f From Lichfeild to Hopper village by sandy ground, in many places hethey, havynge some wood, pasture and come, a 4. miles. At the end of this village goinge out of it I passyd over a stone bridge of 16 arches beringe the name of the village undar the whiche Tame river rennithe. Thens a mile by come grownd on the left hond, and medowes on the right hond to Tamworth towne. The river of Tame makithe 2. mediamnes bytwyxt Tamworthe towne and Hopper bridge. The confluence of the lower is a litle above Hopper bridge. For there the hole streme goithe togethar.

Saltar's bridge on Tame river is a 4. or 5. miles lower.

Some counte the confluence of Tame and Trent rivers to be a 10. miles bynethe Tameworthe towne. Tame goithe in to Trent ripa dextra a 3 miles or more by nethe Mastar Griphins howse, betwixt Burghton [d] and Repton, even a mile above Repton.


[a] Drayton Basset.
[b] Canwell.
[c] Weeford, on the Bourne brook.
[d] Burton-on-Trent.

104 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Staffordshire.

I markyd that Tame cummithe downe to Tameworthe selfe from southe west; but the hedd of Tameworth lieth by west-north west.

The towne of Tameworthe havynge a celebrate market is of auncient memorye, and aftar the Danes had rasyd and defasyd it, Ethelfleda, Lady of the Merches, and systar to Kynge Edward caulyd Senior, repayred it. Tame the towne in respect of the botom where Tame renithe and also Ancre is set on the declive of a smaull hille syde, and the principall streate and buildinge of it lyethe by west and este.

The northe parte and syde of the principall strete of the towne is in Warwike-shire, and on this syde is the paroche churche of Tameworthe. The southe syde and parte of this strete lyenge toward the right ripe of Anker is in Staffordshire, and the castle standithe on this parte at the very pointe of the confluance of Anker and Tame. I saw but 3. notable things in the towne; the paroche churche and the castle, and the bridges. The churche is collegiate, havynge a deane and 6. prebendaries, and every one of thes hathe his substitute there; but I could there learne of no man of whos erection the colledge was. Some thinke that it was a college afore the Conquest; some thinke that it was of the foundation of the Marmions, and that opinion is the more likely of treuthe. Marmions without dowbt were in succession lords of the castle of Tamworthe. The kynge at this present tym is taken as patron of the coledge. There be divers fayre tombes of noblemen and wymen in the este parte of this collegiat churche, where of one is of the Frevills, and his christen name, as some say, was Balduinus and he was lorde of Tameworthe castle. There lyethe also the graund-father and graunde-mother, and the fathar and mother of Ferrares, now owner of Tameworthe castell. Ther is a guilde of St. George in Tameworthe, and to it longyd 5. li. of lands by yere, and of late one John Bailie gave othar 5. li. land to it, and therewithe is now erectyd a gramar-schole.

The castle of Tameworthe stondithe on a metly highe grownde at the southe parte of the towne, even harde apon

PART V 105

Staffordshire.

the ripe of Anker and at the mouthe of it. The base courte and greate warde of the castle is clene decayed, and the waulls faulln downe, therein be now but howses of office of no notable buildinge. The dungeon hille yet standithe, and a great round towre of stone on it, wherein Mr. Ferrares dwellithe, and now repayreth. The Marmions, Frevills and Ferrares hathe bene lords of it syns the Conquest. Of the 2. bridges that be at Tamworthe the fayrar is Bowbridge, thowghe it stand on Ancre a lesse river than Tame, and it is as it were toward the est north este end of the towne in the way to Polesworthe and Nuneitonn. The ryver of Anker cummithe by est from the extreme partes of Leircestar-shire. The othar bridge is caulyd St. Mary bridge, havynge 12. great arches, and ledithe to Coventrye. It standith on Tame hard bynethe the confluence, and a litle benethe the castle, and as it should seeme by a great stone upon the bridge, bearinge the armes of Basset, to be built by the Lord Basset of Drayton.

There be 3. fayres yerly, the towne hath 2. and the colledge one, as I remembar. The towne of Tamworth is all buyldyd of tymbar.

Warwickshire.

From Tameworthe to Faseley village about 3. miles, and cominge hethar I lefte a parke on the lyfte hand. The soyle is sandy, bettar for wood and pasture then corne. Then I passed ovar Faseley bridge of 16. arches of stone over Tame. About a mile beyonde Faseley I passyd by Midleton parke, whereas Syr John Willoughby, sune and heire to Ser Henri Willoughby (an old knight of the Sepulchre) hathe a faire manar place of his owne inheritaunce. The chefist howse of this Willowghby, and the eldist of all the Willowghbyes is at Willowgtowne t by Nottingham. Sr. John Willoughby maried one of the sistars and heires of the last Lorde Lisle, and had no issue. Dudley maried the othar. Sr. Edw. Willoughbie, brother and heir to Sr. John, hath a sonne that shall enjoye both Edward and John's land, and hath married the L. Marq. Dorsett's sister.

106 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Warwickshire.

A 2. miles fardar I passyd ovar a bridge of 6. arches of shire. stone whereas ... [a] ryvar passythe by comming from est, and goynge into Brimisham watar by west, Brimicham watar [b] goithe into Tame river a mile above Crudworthe [c] bridge. A mile or more of I came unto Colishulle bridge of ... arches of stone where rennithe a broke callyd Colle [d] downe by the ... hand, and aftar goithe into ...

Colleshull [e] towne a praty thrwgh-faire in Werwikeshire, lyeinge by northe and southe upon an hill, hathe but one longe strete, and a paroche churche, at the southe end of it. It is countyd almoste the midle way betwixt Tamworthe and Coventrye.

Thence to Mariden [f] village a 4. miles by enclosyd grownd, havynge some corne, wood and pasture. And at the end of this village ran downe a broket on the lefte hand, and thereby was a parke. Thens I passyd a 3. miles by lyke ground, and there I rode over a broke: [g] and a myle farthar I passyd ovar the same broke agayne, at the west ende of Coventre towne, where the broke ran downe on the lefte hand, and aftar comithe throwghe a bridge of a 2. arches withein the towne selfe of Coventrye, and there the streame rennithe on the left hand, and so goynge in the medowes by thabbay of Coventrie turnithe agayne to the lyfte hand to a bridge a myle lower in the way to London.

The towne of Coventre by west is set on a lowe grownd; but by est it somewhat condescendith. The towne was begon to be waullyd about the tyme of Edward the 2. There be ... gates in the waulle thus namyd, viz. Bishop's-gate, Gosford-gate, Gray-Fryers-gate, Litle-parke-street-gate, ponne-street-gate, Cooke-street-gate.

There be many fayre towers in the waulle. The grite and colour of the stone that the waulls be buyldid of is of a darkeshe depe redde, as it were ferragineus colour; and so is all the grittf of the contrye thereabout. Moste parte of


[a] ? Blythe r.
[b] ? A turn of the Cole r.
[c] ? Curdworth.
[d] Cole r.
[e] Coleshill.
[f] Meriden.
[g] Sherbourne r.

PART V 107

Warwickshire.

the stone in the waulls wer taken out of the diks by the waull. The diche goithe about moste parte of the towne walle. It is but late ago sence the waulls of Coventry wer finished.

The privelege and digniti of a maior was gyven but an 180. yeres ago to Coventre. There be many fayre stretes in Coventrye, well buyldyd with tymbar; but the strete that goithe from west up to este southe est is the moste principall of all the towne.

There were 3. stately churches in the harte and midle of the towne, all in one cemitery. The abbey-churche, where somtyme Kynge Canute the Dane made an howse of nunes. Leofrike, Erle of the Merches, turnyd it in Kynge Edward the Confessor's dayes to an howse of monks, and adornid it withe gold and sylvar incredibly. It is now suppressyd.

St. Michall a paroche churche, an excedynge goodly and ample peace of worke. St. Trinity is the third, a right fayre pece of wirke also. There be no mo paroche churches in the towne.

There is a charnell chapell in the same semitery. There is a churche or colledge of St. John Baptist in the towne, and ther was a mastar and brithern professyd and an hospitall. The churche is yet stondinge, and a prist syngithe there; but Hales with the clubbe foote hathe gotten entrest in this colledge, and none (but the devell) can get hym out.

There is also a collegiat churche at Bablake hard withein the west-gate, alias Bablake-gate, dedicate to St. John and other; it takythe the name by lyke of a conducte by it. It is of the foundation of the burgeses of the towne, and ther is a great priveleged guilde or fraternitie. In this colledge is now a mastar and 8. ministars, there hathe bene of late 12. ministars.

One Bonde, a very riche marchaunt of Coventre, annixid to Bablake of late days an hospitall well buildid for 10. pore men and women to kepe them. There is also a prechar of Bond's foundation, havynge 10. li. the yere.

There were 2 veri fayre howsys of friers in Coventre.

108 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Warwickshire.

The Grey Fryers founded by ...

The White Friers founded by Sr. John Poultney 4. tymes maior of London, an. do. 1342. 17. E. 3.

The Cartusyans by without the towne, where a qwene was especiall foundares. There be dyvars fayre suburbs without the waulls of Coventrye. The kynge hathe a palace in Coventrie now somewhat in ruine. Ther was a parliament kept at Coventry. There is a mint for coyning in Coventrye.

The Bysshope of Coventry and Lichefild hathe an old palace in Coventrie.

The towne rose by makynge of clothe and capps, that now decayenge the glory of the city decayethe.

From Coventrie to Lichefild 12. miles.

From Coventrie to Leichester 14. miles.

From Coventrie to Daventre 14. miles.

From Coventrie to Southeham 10. miles.

From Coventrie to Killingworthe 4. miles, and other 4. miles thens to Werwike.

The broke [a] that cummithe from Coventryes towns end by weste rennithe a mile lower then Coventrye in the highe way to London undar a stone bridge of a 3. arches; and there as I rode the streme goinge downe on the right hond, that broke goithe a litle lower into Sow river, ripa dextra bynethe Wynnell bridge.

Wynnoall [b] bridge on Sowe of 5. arches of stone is about halfe a mile from the aforesayde bridge of 3. arches, and lyethe in the highe waye frome Coventrie to London.

And a mille and halfe farthar in the way to London I passed over Finford bridge on Avon ryver of 8. arches of stone. This bridge is a 6. myles or more above Werwike as Avon commithe downe.

Thelflorde bridge of stone on Avon aboute a 3. miles


[a] Sherbourne r.
[b] Willenhall or Winhall.

PART V 109

Warwickshire.

lower, and is the passage from Kyllingworthe [a] over Avon. Yet standithe Killingworthe selfe well toward a mile from the right rype of Avon.

Kynge Henry the 8. dyd of late yeres great coste in repayringe the castle of Kyllyngworthe. Emonge these reparations the praty banketynge house of tymbre, that stood thereby in the mere, and bare the name of pleasaunce, was taken downe, and parte of it sete up in the base courte at Killingworthe castle.

I rode from Finford bridge to Marton bridge of a 3. arches of stone, and well cawsied with stone at bothe endes. This bridge is a 3. miles beyond Finforde bridge. Leaume [b] ryver cumminge straite from est, passith under this bridge, and goithe into Avon ryver by west about a mile above Werewike. And Warwike is cowntyd to be about a 6. miles bynethe this bridge.

There is a village as I rode trans pontem hard on the southe syde of it called Marton. From Marton to Southeham [c] a 4. miles. There was almoste no wood in the way on no syd from Wynnoll bridge to Southeham; yet was there good pasture and corne al in champayne.

Southeham is a meane market towne of one streate, standinge somewhat clyminge on the syde of a smaulle balkynge grownde. It longide wythe dyvers othar smaull lordshipps thereaboute to the priorie of Coventre, syns of late to the Kynge by suppressyon, and now to Knightley by exchaunge.

Oxfordshire.

There is a litle broket by southe of Southeham renninge downe on the right hond, as I rode ovar a litle bridge on it in the way to Banbyry. From Southeham to Banbyry 10. good miles all by champayne, no wood, but excedynge good pasture and corne.

Frome Banbyry to ... a smaule thrwghe-fayre a 3. or 4. miles al by champaine ground. Thens by lyke ground a 7. miles to Burgchestar alias Bisceter; [d] but or I cam by a 2. miles space to Bisceter I cam by a 2. fayre woods on the hilles sydes, and passyd in a glade or botom betwixt them.


[a] Kenilworth.
[b] Learn r.
[c] Southam.
[d] Bicester.

110 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Oxfordshire.

Thens to Iselepe an 8. mile leving Ottemor on the right hand, that yf the wateres had not beene up had bene the next way. In this Ottemor was the first foundation of Tame abbey.

Islepe a praty thrwgh-fayre on the lefte ripe of Charwelle river. Hard by it is a fayre bridge ovar Charwell, well archyd withe stone; and a mile and halfe above it is Gosford- bridge ovar Charwell, and a 2. miles above Gosford is Emmeley-bridge. And 2. miles above Emmeley is Heywood- bridge on Charwelle.

From Iselepe to Oxford a 3. miles to go by the medowes on Charwelle; but to go on the lyfte hand towarde the woody hill is a 4. miles.

From Oxforde to Haseley a 4. miles. From Haseley to Tame [a] market 4. miles. About Alexander Byschope of Lyncoln's tyme the towne of Tame beinge the kyngs was gyven for annuall rente in fee farme to the sete of Lincoln as to the bysshope thereof and his successors,

This Alexander Bischope of Lyncolne buildyd at a parke therby of his an abbay of white monks, now cawlyd Tame, not bycause it stode on Tame ryver, but not very fare from Tame towne.

I passyd a litle northe northe weste from Tame churche over Crendon bridge of 4. stone arches apon Tame, and thens by some hilly and aftar great pasture ground, and grounds fruitfull of benes a 10. miles to Querendune in the vale of Ailesbyry, where Mastar Anthony Legh dwellith.

Buckinghamshire.

Querendon sometimes the Spensers land, and thereby runneth a brooke under a stone bridge, resorting to Tame river. The bridge is betwixt 2. houses of his.

Thens 2. miles by greate champaine, frutfull for pastures and benes to Birdsteine [b] in the vale of Eilesbury, wher Mastar Legh hathe a goodly house with goodly orchards and a parke. This Birdstaine is almost in the middle of the vale of Alesburye.


[a] Thame.
[b] ? Burston (Upper and Lower).

PART V 111

Buckinghamshire.

From Birdsteine [a] to Aillesbiri a faire markett toune, al by champayne, a 3. miles. Of this towne all the champaine thereabout is called the vale of Alesburye.

This vale goithe one waye to the forest beyond Tame market. It goithe otharwyes to Bukynghame, to Stony Stratford, to Newporte Panell, and alonge from Ailesbery by the rootes of Chilterne Hills almoste to Dunstaple.

Or evar I passyd into Aillesbyri I rode over a litle bridge of stone caullid Woman's Bridge, undar the whiche passithe a brooke downe on the right hand as I rode; and from this bridge to the towne is a cawsey of stone. This is, as farre as I can gather, Tame water. [b]

The towne selfe of Aillisbyry [c] standithe on an hill in respecte of all the ground thereabout, a 3. miles flate northe from Chilterne Hills. The towne is metly well buyldyd with tymbar, and in it is a celebrate market. It standithe in the high-waye from Banbyry to London, and in the highe way from Bukingham to London. There is domus civica in the midle of the markett place, a late reedified by John Baldwine cheife Justice of the Common-Pleas; but the kynge gave the tymbar unto it. The comon gaoile or prison for Bukyngham-shire is in this towne.

There is but one paroche churche in the towne standinge west northe west in it; but that is one of the most auncientist in all thos quartars, as it aperithe by the lyfe of St. Osithe. Querendune a mile and halfe northe from Aillesbyri, also Burton and Aillesborow in Chiltern 3. miles of by southe with dyvers othar hamlets were in Aillesbyri paroche.

It is said that a B. of Lincolne, desyred by a Pope to give the personage of Alesbury to a straunger, a kinsman of his, found the meanes to make it a prebende, and to impropriate it to Lincolne church. At the which time also the personage of Tame was impropriate and made a prebend in Lincolne, so that the cures of both the churches with a right bare livinge be reject unto the vicars. St. Osithe, dowghtar to Fredewalde, was borne in Querendune in Ailesbyri paroche, and brought up with an aunte of hirs at Aillesborow in Chiltern Hills a 3. miles from Ailesbyry by sowthe, whereof


[a] ? Burston.
[b] Thame r.
[c] Aylesbury.

112 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Buckinghamshire.

the Erles of Saresbery were late lords, and now the kynge by shire. attincture.

St. Osithe's body was translated for a whill for feare of the Danes from Chic, alias St. Osithes, to Aillesbyrie. There was, as some say, a nunery, or othar house of religion, whereas the personage is now, and record yet remaineth that this house should be of the Maturines, alias fratres Ordinis Ste. Trinitatis, of like sect to the friers of Tikhill and Hundeslawe, [a] 10. miles from London.

There was an howse of the Gray-Friers in the towne toward the sowthe, foundyd about the tyme of Richard 2. The Lord of Ormond was in tyme of mind countyd chefe lorde of Ailesbyrie, syns Boleyne by partition of lande.

There rennithe a praty brooke undar a wooden bridge almoste at the very end of Aillesbyri towne, by southe. This watar cummithe downe from este and rennithe by weste into Tame, by the lefte ripe of it about a mile bynethe Aillesbyri, some what lower then Stone-bridge on Tame. I take the hedde of this broke to be toward Wyndover thrwgh-fayre 3. miles of the southe.

Tame rivar selfe, as I there lerned, rysethe in the ester parts of all the Chiltern Hills toward Dunestaple, and the hede of it by estimation is 7. miles from Stone-bridge on Tame betwixt Querendune and Aillesbyri.

From Aillesbyri to Dunestaple about a 8. miles.

From Aillesbyri to Tame market 8. miles.

From Aillesbyri to Buckingham a 10. miles.

From Aillesbyri to Banbyri 19 or 20. miles.

Wyndover [b] a praty thrwghe fayre, havynge 2. stretes well buildyd with tymber, a 3 miles of. There is a causey made almoste thrwghly to passe betwixt Aillesbery and it, els the way in wet tyme as in a lowe stiffe claye grownde were very tedius and ille to passe by.

The tounelet selfe of Wyndover stondythe partely apon one of the north-est cliffs of Chilterne Hills. The residew and north-est parte of the towne standythe in the rootes of


[a] Hounslow.
[b] Wendover.

PART V 113

Buckinghamshire.

the hills. Looke as the conterye of the vale of Aillesbyre for the moste parte is clene baren of woodde, and is champaine; so is all Chilterne well woodyd, and full of enclosures.

From Windover to Great Missenden in Chiltern a 3. miles. It is a praty thrwghe fayre, but no market towne. There is a praty chapell of brike in the southe parte of it, and a lytle by southe without the towne was Missendene, a priorie of black channons. It standithe in the very botom of an hill, and hathe goodly ground about and dyvers praty hills well woodyd toward the est and southe. It was founded by ... Doyley.

A mile and a halfe furthar toward London is a strete caullyd Litle Missendene.

Hagmondesham, alias Hamersham, [a] a right praty market towne on Friday, of on strete well buildyd with tymbar, standynge in Bukinghamshire and Chiltern, 2. miles and halfe from Litle Messenden. The Duke of Bukyngham was chefe lorde of it, syns the kynge, now the Lord Russell fo. 105. by gyft, that dwellithe at Cheynes [b] 3. miles of by east.

The paroche churche standithe by northe est toward the midle of the towne, and in a chaple of the north syde of it liethe buryed one Edmund Brudenelle, fathar to Sr. Robert Brudenell, late cheife Justice of the Common-Pleas, and Drew Brudenell, elder brother to the sayd Sr. Robert, and Helen his wife, da. to Broughton, who dwelt at a maner of his of 40. l. by the yere. There comithe a brooke [c] almoste from Missenden, and passith hard by Hagmondesham levinge it almoste by full southe on the right ripe, and aftar rennithe downe by the valeys of Chiltern Hills toward Colne streme.

From Hagmondesham to Uxbridge a 9. miles by goodly Middlesex, enclosydgrownd, of a gravelly soyle, havynge woods, medowes, pasture, and corne. The hole towne liethe from the west, risynge a litle to southe este. In it is but one longe streate: but that for tymbar is well buildyd. There is a celebrate


[a] Amersham.
[b] Chenies.
[c] Misbourne r.

114 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Middlesex.

market ons a weke, and a great fayre ons ayere at the feaste of St. Michaell. There is a chapele of ease in the towne. The paroche churche is almoste a mile out of the towne, in the very highe way to London, called Great Hellindon [a] which is a token that Uxbridge selfe is no very olde towne.

There be 2. woodde bridgys at the west ende of Uxbridge toune, and undar the westernist goithe the mayne arme of Colne rivar. The lesse arme of Colne goithe under the othar bridge, and eche of them servythe there a great mille.

The divorce of Colne streme is scant a mile above Uxbridge but these 2. armes mete not agayne, for the byggar goithe thrwghe the goodly medows strayt to Colbroke towne 3. miles lower, and so to the Thames. The othar goithe to 2. milles at ... and they be a mile and a halfe est frome Colebroke in the waye unto London, and thens that arme goith into the Tamise.

From Uxbridge to Southehole [b] a village about a 6. miles. I came ovar a bridge [c] of 6. archis a mile and more a this syd Southole. The watar that goithe thrwghe it there rennithe thrwghe Howndeslaw hethe, or els to Brentford.

Thens i.e. from Southall to Acton a praty thrwghe fayre 4. miles. Thens to Maribone-broke [d] and parke a 4. miles. This broke rennithe by the parke-waulle at St. James. To London 2 miles.


[a] Hillingdon.
[b] Southall.
[c] Over the Yeading r.
[d] Marylebone.

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