Leland's Itinerary of England and Wales: Part VI.
TABLE OF WELSH COUNTIES.
N.B.- The ancient list of Commotes in Wales, in a copy of the fourteenth century, and in Leland's copy, occupies pp. 1-9.
Anglesey, pp. 52, 90, 128-134.
Brecknock, pp. 9, 10, 104-113.
Cardigan, pp. 56, 117-125.
Carmarthen, pp. 57-61, 113-115.
Carnarvon, pp. 78-90.
Denbigh, pp. 69-72, 90, 93-99.
Flint, pp. 67-69, 72, 73, 92.
Glamorgan, pp. 15-38, 61, 127.
Merioneth, pp. 76-78.
Monmouth, pp. 12-15, 42-47.
Montgomery, pp. 11,40, 53-55, 125-126.
Pembroke, pp. 61-65, II 5-II 7-
Radnor, pp. 10, 41, 42.
ENGLISH COUNTIES (chiefly bordering on Wales).
Cheshire, pp. 91, 92.
Gloucestershire, pp. 39, 99-102.
Herefordshire, pp. 47, 103-104.
Oxfordshire, p. 39.
Shropshire, pp. 50, 65-67, 73-76.
Worcestershire, p. 40.
LELAND'S ITINERARY IN WALES
(Lists of Welsh Cantrefs and Commotes can be found elsewhere and so are not included in this transcription.)
10 LELAND'S ITINERARY
PRIORIES IN BREKENAUCHSHIRE.
Brechenauc Abbay a cell of monks a late longinge to Battaile.
Lanhodeny a celle of Blake Chanons longinge to Lanhodeny by Glocester undar Attere hille, in Walche cawlyd Menethe Cadair.
CASTLES IN BREKNAUCSHIRE.
Brechenauc Penkelthe, caput Corileti. [Pengelli.] Dinas.
RIVERS IN BREKENAUCSHIRE.
Loke how far Wisch [a] runnithe in this shire.
Lleueney [c] risith in Atterel hills. Thens into Brechenauc mere, cawllid in Walche Llin Seuathan. Thens into Wy about Glesbiri, the whiche is a 3 miles from the Hay.
New Radnor towne hathe be metly well wallyd, and in the walle appere the ruines of iiii. gates. There is an olde churche stondynge now as a chapell by the castle. Not very farre thens is the new paroche churche buildyd by one William Bachefeld and Flory his wyfe.
There goithe by the towne, as I remember, a broket cawlyd Somergil.
The buildynge of the towne in some parte meatly good, in moste part but rude, many howsys beinge thakyd. The castle is in ruine, but that a pece of the gate was a late amendyd. The towne was defacyd in Henry the fowrthe dayes by Owen Glindowr.
Presteine, in Walche caullyd Llanandre, [d] is a very good market of corne, to the whiche very many folks of Melennith resorte to by corne, and bysyde this is no notable buildynge in the lordshipe of Presteine. The toune is waterid with Lug renninge by it.
Knightton, in Walche caullid Trebuclo, [e] is a praty towne
[b] Hodni, corrupted into Hondu.
[d] Llan Andras.
[e] Trev y clawdd.
IN WALES. PART VI 11
aftar the Walsche buildinge. The river of Teme goith on the side of the toune, and (as I remembar) I saw a ryver in the othar syde.
In Hye Eluelde [a] lordshipe within 2. miles west of Radenor is no market toune. The mines of the castle of Colewine standithe in Hye Eluel, and is a 3. mils from Wy banke.
Wy River in cowrse first cummithe to Aberhedon, [b] then toward Payne and Colewine.
In Low Eluel be 2. lordshippis, Abrehedon Castel the Kyng's hard by Wy. Paynes Castle about a 2. miles from Wy banke.
Thus in bothe Elueldes be 3. lordships.
Low Eluelde endithe in Wy banke right agayne Clifford on the othar banke of Wy.
Northton lordship a membar of Radenor. At Northton selfe is a litle pilet or turret.
In Melennith apere greate ruines of 2. castles. The one is cawllid Tynbot, set on a stepe crage a 3. miles from the abbay of Comehire, the whiche is also in Melennith. The othar is caulyd Keuenlles on the ryver of ... nowdowne; it longyd to the Duke of Yorke. Rayader lordshipe longyd to the Duke of Yorke, it hathe nothar market towne, nor castle (as far as I cowld know). This Rayder is countyd as a member of the lordshipe of Radenor.
Rayder, Comothuder and Wartreman liethe foote to foote.
Montgomerike, in Walche Treualduine, [c] standithe a mile from Severn banke, and is servid with small rills cominge frome the hills hard by. The soyle of the ground of the towne is on mayne slaty roke, and especially the parte of the towne hillinge toward the castell, now a-late reedified, whereby hathe bene a parke. Great mines of the waulle yet apere ad vestigia of iiii. gates thus cawlyd, Kedewen Gate, Chyrbyry Gate, Arturs Gate, Kery Gate. In the waulls yet remayne broken towrets, of the wiche the whit towre is now moste notable. One paroche churche in Mountgomerike. There liethe a good plentifull valley by the towne of corne and grace.
[b] Aber Hodni.
12 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Newton, v. mile from Montgomerike, is meately welle buildyd after the Walche fascion.
Llanindelas [a] xiii. miles by west Montgomery. There is a broke goinge into Severne not halfe a mile of. Llanidelas is about a iiii. mils from the hede of Severne.
Mahenthle [b] the second towne of Mongomerikeshire, and there ons a yere session to be kepte, a xvi. Walche miles from Montgomeri.
WENTLLUGH [IN MONMOUTH].
Wentllug [c] is devidid from Ventissa by este with the ryver of Wiske, by south with the Severn Se, by west with the shire. ryver of Remny to the very hedde of it, and toward the north northe est lye the hilles of High Wenteland.
The lenght of Wentllugh [c] is from the Severn Se to the hed of the lordship of Meridith, that is to say from south to northe about a xx. mile.
Where it is most brodest from est to west it is not countid by estimation above 8. miles, and in diverse places lesse.
The soile by south toward Severn is sumwhat low and fulle of dikes to drene it. Ther is lightly great plenty of benes, and in divers places it berith al other maner of corne.
And this low ground is from the causey or high-way that goit from Newport to Pont Remny by south to the Severne Se. The north side of the same high-way is stille higher and higher to the northe.
There is very litle wood yn this low part of Wentllughe, except at Parke Bahan [d] 3. miles out of Newport, thorough Litle Park. the which the high-way lyith to Cairdif.
Castelle Behan [e] is a litle without the south side of this park, and is in ruine. It longid to the Duke of Bukkingham. This park has nother dere nor pale now, it is the Kinges by the lordship of Newport; and at Tredegar, wher Mr. William Morgan, a man of 300. markes of landes by yere
[a] Llan Idloes.
[d] Park Bychan.
[e] Castell Bychan.
IN WALES. PART VI 13
hath a very faire place of stone. It is a mile and a half from Neuporte south west on the hither este side of Ebouith [a] Ryver.
Such part of Wenllugh as lyith up toward Cairleon is well pastured and woddi.
Such part as lyith from Pont Remny along on the est ripe of Remny to Bedwes paroche vi. miles of by land ys much woddy, and in sum places bytwixt, as first in Llanuihengle paroche, and then in Maghen paroche joining to it is metely good corne. Ponte Remny is a 2. miles from the Severn Se. Ther is a village by it caullid Rumney in Englisch, in Walsch Tredelerch.
Thens on Remny ripe a mile upper is a fair valley caullid Diffrin Risca, going a 3. or 4. mile upward on the water, plentiful of wodde as it were a forest ground, myngelid with feldes, but having litle corne.
And from the hedde of this valley it is upward on Remny a 4. miles to Eggluis Tider uab Hohele, by rughe hilles and wilde valeis and plenty of wood. The hedde of Remney River is a 3. or 4. miles above this yn the hilles of High Wentelande.
Thens cumme many springes, and taking one botom the brooke is caullid Kayach, and thens going into Diffrin Risca it is augmentid with Risca a brooke cumming ynto it oute of a paroche caullid Eggluis Ilan, and then doth it al bere the name of Risca. Eggluis Ilan is yn Singhenith [b] in Glamorganshir a 4. mile of from Diffrin Risca. And cumming to Bedwes paroche it is caullid Remny, and by the same name into the Severne Se.
In the midle ground bytwixt Remny and Ebouith Ryver on the north side of the high way to Pont Remny the ground for the most parte is hilly, better for catelle then corne. And there is a very high hille caullid Tuinbarlum.
The ryver of Ebouith [a] risith yn a flat north montayne of High Wencelande, and strait cummith into a valley caullid Diffrin Serowy. [c]
Ebowith goith into Wisk a mile and a half beneth Newport, and half a mile from the haven mouth of Wiske.
There is a bridge of tymbre over Ebowith caullid Pont- Bessaleg a 2. miles above the confluence of Ebowith and
14 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Wisk: and over this bridg lyith the high-way from Newport to Cairtaphe. [a] This bridge is scant 2. miles from Newporte toun.
Newport is but 2. miles from Cairleon. From Neuport to the place wher Ebowith goith yn to Wisch Haven a good mile and a halfe. And then more then half a mile to the haven mouth.
The bridges of Cairleon and Newport be booth of wood.
From the haven mouth of Wisch to the mouth of Remny, wher no haven is or cumming yn meete for shippes, a vi. miles. On this shore is no very notable thing. The bankes of it be clyvid inough to defend the se for raging into the low ground of Wenceland.
Newport is a bigge towne, wherof that parte where the paroche chirch is stondith on a hille. The chirch is S. Guntle, [b] Olave in Englisch.
Ther is a great stone gate by the bridge at the este ende of the toun, a nother yn the midle of the town as in the High strete to passe thorough, and the 3. at the west end of the toune: and hard without it is the paroche chirch. The fairest of the toun is al yn one * streate. The toun is yn ruine. Ther was a house of religion by the key beneth the bridg. The castelle is on the este side of the toun above the bridge.
Gentilmen in Wenllugh.
Morgan the chifeste of landes hath a very fair place at Tredeger, and a nother in the toun of Newporte.
There is a nother of the Morgans a man of meane landes dwelling at Newport.
There is a nother of the Morgans dwelling by Remny at Maghen, [c] having a fair house. He had bene a man of fair landes, if his father had not devidid it partely to other of his sunnes.
John Morgan at Lampeder paroch in Low-Wenllugh.
Roger Kemmeis, a man of a xl. markes of landes by yere, dwellith in Newporte toune.
[b] Gunley in Bk. of Ll. Dav = Gwynlliw, now St. Woolas.
IN WALES. PART VI 15
Henry Kemeis dwellith at Maisglase [a] 3. miles from Newport by weste, a man of meene.
Davy Kemmeys a man of 40. li. lande dwellith a mile above Pont Remny.
Thomas Lewys dwellith at Mairin [b] a 2. miles from Severn side.
Glade is in the Walsch a countery or a land.
And this province or cuntery is often caullid Morganhog.
I take Moregan to have the name of More, that is to say the se, onto the shore wherof it lyith.
The kefinnithes (confinia) of Glamorgan ly thus.
Remny is the marche on the est side of it.
Cremline a litle broke is the march of the west part of it.
The Severne Se boundith it from the mouth of Remny to the mouth of Cremlin.
The rootes of the Blake Mountein marchith it by northe.
From Pont Remny to the forde of Cremlin brooke, a mile from Swansey, is to the nerest way a 23. miles. Thus, a mile to Cairdif. To S. Nicolas village 4 miles. To Cowbridge 4. miles. To Wenny Bridge, wher is a litle village, 4. miles. To Pont Newith on Ogor a mile. To Morgan Abbay 4. miles. To Britan Fery, caullid in Walsche Llanisauel, [c] wher be a 3. or 4. houses and a chapel of ease on the hither side of Nethe Ryver, 3. miles. The trajectus at the flude is more then half a quarter of a mile over. Then to the ford of Cremlin broke 2. miles.
To go thorough the midle of the countery as from est to west a 23. miles. From the ripe of Diffrin Risca to Taue [d] River, and there over Pont Erliesk, a great bridg of tymbre, 3. miles. To Rotheney Vehan [e] water and over a bridge of
[a] Maes glas.
[b] Maerun, now Marshfield.
[c] Llan Sawyl.
[d] Tav, vulgo Taff.
[e] Rhondda Vechan.
wood 3. miles. To Penrise village, wher the pilgrimage was, a mile. To Boullch Glauth a great rokky hille 6. miles. To Glin Corrug [a] paroch chirch 2. miles. To Aber Pergom [b] a wild brooke 7. miles. This brok half a mile lower rennith into the est side of Tawy.c This Tawy is heere a kefinith to Glamorgan. This way be many hilles, woods good plentye about the ryvers sydes: but few villages or corne except in a few smaule valeys.
The mountaines have sum redde dere, kiddes plenty, oxen, and shepe.
This way lyith by estimation a midle it to the Severn Se a 16. miles by south: and from the midle of this way agayn by north a 10. miles.
To go from est to west yn the highest part of Glamorganshir toward the rootes of the Blak Montayne is a xvi. miles of wild ground almost all. From the kefinnith yn Wenceland, that is at Kaedrain, 2. miles. From Castelle Morlleys [d] to a place caullid Hirwen (long whit) Urgan: [e] where is, as in the lordship of Misken in the paroch of Aberdayer [f] a great race and bredth of horsis, 8. miles; al by high hilles, and a mile from Hirwen Urgan is the forest of Lluid Coite welle wooddid in the lordship of Miskin. From Hirwen Urgan onto Rigois lordship [g] 4. miles. To Ystrade Genles, [h] a lordeship in Cairmardineshir, 4. miles. This Genles a litle ryver is the kefinnith betwixt Cairmardin and Glamorganshir, and goith ynto Tawe, [i] as I hard, a 3. or 4. mile a this side Swansey in the est ripe. Istrad lordship is a x. miles from Swansey by north est by the Blak Mountayne.
[a] Glyn Corrwg.
[b] Aber Pergwm.
[d] Castell Morleis.
[e] Hirwen Wrgan.
[f] Aber Dar.
[g] Rhigos, a hamlet in Ystrad Dyvodwg.
[h] Ystrad Gynleis.
IN WALES. PART VI 17
COMMOTES IN GLAMORGANSHIR.
Kibworth [a] lyith, from the mouthe of Remny up to an hille in the same commote caullid Keven On, a 6. miles from the mouth of Remny. This hille goith as a waulle over-thwart betwix the rivers of Thaue [b] and Remny.
A 2. miles from this hille by south, and a 2. miles from Cairdif, be vestigia of a pile or maner place decayed at Egluis Newith in the paroch of Landaf.
In the south side of this hille was born Richard William alias Crumwelle yn the paroche of Llan Isen.
If Cairdif be not a commote in it self, it semith to be in Kibworth.
Kibworth goith by the shore from the mouth of Remny to the mouthe of Taue a 2. miles and more. Splot a maner place longging to Baudrem, lyith from the mouth of Remny on the shore, and is taken as land holden of the Bisshop of Landaf, and resortith to the Bisshopes Court. So it is in the commote of Kibworth, but not of the Court of it.
Kibworth cummith from the mouth of Taue up stil by the est ripe of it a good half mile above Cairdif, and there Landaf commote taketh the est ripe, and so kepith on stil to above Landaph Bridge, and then Kibworth taketh the est ripe of Taue agayn, and so goith up to the hille of Keven On and ther is the kefinith of Kibworth.
In Kibworth a plain soile, saving Keven On, is good rye, barly, and otes, but litle whete. The beste wood in Kibworth is in Keven On as it were a forest grounde, and Cairdif is partely servid thens with wood. Ther be medowes by Remny and Taue rivers in this commote.
Gentilmen in Kibworth.
John Guin Lewys half a mile above Remny Bridg a man of mene landes.
John Willyam a mene man a quarter of a mile above Cairdif on Taue.
Singhenith [c] of sum is devidid into Iskaihach, and Huhekaihach. [d]
Iskaihac begennith on the west side of Remny by Keven On, and goith up a 6. mile by north est by Diffrin Risca
[d] Is and Uch Kaiach.
18 LELAND'S ITINERARY
onto kaihac. And on the est side of Taue from Keven On to ...
In Iskaihac is Cair Filly Castelle sette cmonge marisches, wher be minus waulles of a wonderful thiknes, and toure kept up for prisoners as to the chife holde of Singhenith. It is 3. miles north est from Landaf, and 2. miles from the est ripe of Taue.
Ther is within half a mile of Cairfilly by est a fair place caullid Vanne, wher Mr. Edward Lewys dwellith. Other gentilmen of any fame be not yn al Singhenet, saving David Richarde dwelling at Kelthle Gare [a] in Huhkaihac, and Mathew ap Rise Vehan in Kelthle Gare paroch also.
Castelle Gogh [b] stondith on a high rok of a redde stone or soile a 2. miles from Landaf upper on Taue: a quarter of a mile from the est ripe of Taue.
Castelle Gough al yn mine no bigge thing but high. It longith to the King and standith by Keven On.
Huhkaihac strecchith up on Taue by the est ripe from Kaihach to Morllays Castelle, and 2. miles upward by north north est to Kaedrayne, wher the kefinnith is betwixt High- Wenceland, Breknocshir and Huhkaihachparte of Singhenet.
Morelays Castelle [c] standith in a good valley for corn and grasse, and is on the ... ripe of Morelais Brooke.
This castelle is in mine and longith to the King.
Morlays riveret cummith by north est out of Brekenocshir hilles toward High-Wenceland, and so to Morelays Castelle, and about a myle lower in a paroche caullid Martyr [d] it goith into the est ripe of Taue (Martyr Teduil).
The commote of Landaf beginnith at the west side of the mouth of Taue, and so rennith up by the marschy shore on Severn to the mouthe of Ley [e] River, of sum yn Englisch caullid Ele. The mouthes of these 2. ryvers be about a mile a sundre. The Bishop's land in this commot is caullid Ter escop. [f]
This commote goith up apon the weste shore of Taue a quartre of a mile above Landaf Bridge to a place caullid Clauthe (Diche) Cunstable. [g] And this is a ii. miles from the mouth of Taue, and sumwhat more.
[b] Castell Coch.
[c] Morleis Castle.
[d] Merthyr Tydvil.
[e] Lai, old form Elei.
[f] Tir yr escob.
[g] Clawdd Cwnstabl.
IN WALES. PART VI 19
Agayne the bridge of Landaf this commot goith over Taue, and kepith about a mile of lenght on the est ripe.
And a this side Taue ther is a peace on Severn caullid Splot, as mention is made in Kibworth Hundrede.
This commote goith up on the est side of Ley, first to a stone bridge caullid Pont Lecwith a mile of: then to Pont Lay, a stone caullid yn Englisch Ele Bridg, a mile. Here it goith over Ele aboute a mile on the west ripe of wher Caire [a] paroch is.
It goit from Lay Bridg by the este ripe to Tilthecoit, [b] a praty village about half a mile. Half a mile above this on Lay est ripe is S. Fagan's paroche, and that is in the commote of Est Thawan.
This commot at the north is scant 2. miles over from Clauth Constable to S. Fagan's, and ther as in the midle it sumwhat touchith apon Miskin commote.
In this commote is onely the castelle of Landaf, beyng the Bishop's palace. There is sum meatly good corn ground in sum places of this commote: and very good frute fororchardes at Tilcoyth. [b]
There is very litle wood yn this commote. Wood is brought hither out of Meskyn.
Gentilmen in Landaf Commot.
Myles Mathew. A litle from Landaf Castelle waulles by south, it is like a pile and welle buildid.
There is a nother mene gentilman of the Mathews in Caire paroche over Lay at Sweldon.
MISKIN COMMOTE, OR GLADE [c] MISKIN.
This commote by est as it lyith rennith up a long by the west side of Taue [d] Ryver, ontylle it cum to the place wher Kenon [e] ryveret cummith yn to Taue by the west ripe. This meating of Kenon with Taue is about a 10. mile above Clauth Cunstable. The ground on Taue ripe this way is very wooddy. Kenon Ryver goith into Taue above Parke Newith.
There is an hille caullid Keven Glase [f] beyond Kenon
[b] Twll Coed, now Fairwater, near Llan Dav.
[f] Keven Glas.
20 LELAND'S ITINERARY
half a mile, and it standith betwixte Kenon and Taue, and this is the kefinith betwixt Miskin and Singhenith. The ground betwixt Kenon and Penar hilly and woddy.
There is a nother hille a 5. miles above this toward Breckenocshir caullid Penar, and ther is a limes also by est north est.
This commot lyeth by west from Ponterith Same [a] causey, that is fyve miles from the mouth of Lay, stille up apon the est ripe of Lay, to a place caullid Mehcydd, wher Mehcydd Ryver cumming out of the lordeship of Glin Rodeney [b] and goith into Lay by the est ripe. It is about a 4. mile from Pontrith Sam. Meatly good ground for corn to Pedware, and wood about Lay side. And then Miskyn kepith the hither, that is the est, ripe of Mechidd about a mile, and ther cummith a litle broke ynto Mechydd by the est ripe caullid Pedware. Then it folouith the est ripe of Pedware about a mile and a half to a place caullid Rethgough, [c] wher is a brooke caullid Cledaugh, [d] that a mile lower rennith into Rodeney by the west side or ripe of it. And Rodeney half a mile lower rennith into Taue. And then up by hilles and over Rodeney Water to Keven Guingil [e] a 3. miles, and thens a 7. miles to the hilles of Brekenok.
This commot up in the land lyith by flat north apon Breknocshire from Penar, crosse over as from est to west to Bolgoid. Al this way his hilles and woodes.
This commot lyith by south from Clauth Constable to Pontrith Same as crose over from est to west a 4. miles by good corn and woodde. And al Meskyn the nerer it lyith to the south the frutefuller it is.
Lantrissent Castelle, longging to the King as principal house of Miskin, lyith half a mile from the est ripe of Lay, and half a mile beneth the place wher Mihchidd brooke cummith into Lay. The castelle stondith on the toppe of
[a] Pont Rhyd Sam.
[b] Glyn Rhondda.
[c] Rhyd goch.
[e] Keven Gwyn.
IN WALES. PART VI 21
a hille, and ys in mine. It hath beene a fair castel, and had 2. wardes, and the inner dikid having emong other toures one great and high caullid Giguran. [a] And at this castelle is the prison for Miskin and Glin Rodeney. There were 2. fair parkes by south of Lantrissent now onpalid and without deere. There is now yren made in one of these parkes namid Glinog.
There is a place 2. miles from Llantrissent by south est caullid Crege Castelle on the top of an hille, wher sum tokens of buildinges yet remayne.
Ther hath beene sum auncient place at Galthe Caurde a mile by southe from Lantrissent.
Gentilmen in Miskin.
George Mathew a man of praty lands dwelling at Rader half a mile above Clauth Constable by Taue.
George Mathew hath a park with dere newly made 2. miles above Rader by north west.
John Mathew at S. Nele a mile from Pontrith Same by este.
Robert Mathew at Castelle Menach in Pentiraugh [b] paroch, 2. miles south from Llantrissent, and within a quarter of a mile of Crege Castelle.
Mathew Gibon at Kentrebaine in the paroch of S. Fagan xl. mark.
Lewys ap Lluelen a mene man of land at Rethlauar, [c] in S. Fagan's paroch, xx. li. Land.
Gamage, a bastard of old Gamage of Coite, [d] a man of mene landes in Lanuair [e] a mile from Pont Rithsarn by est. Master Basset of Pencoit a man of xl. li. land hard by the New Park of George Mathew.
The vale of Rotheney [f] hath is limite by north on the rootes of the Blak Montayne. By est it lyith al on Miskin. By west it yoinith in sum place to the est ripe of Lay; and it goith up farther by west on the est ripe of Ogor [g] River from
[a] y Gigvran.
[b] Castell Mynach in Pentyrch.
[c] Rhyd Lavar.
22 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Mennith Kelthle haedd [a] to Boulghe Clauthe [b] v. miles a sundre, and 4. miles above in the hilles is Breknokshir. By south it lyith a mile and a half on the side of the ryver of Mehcedd, and then it touchith half a mile on Pedwarre brooke.
Bothe Rodeney Vaur and Rodeney Vehan spring in the lordship of Glin.
Rodeney within a 2. miles together.
Rodeney Vaur risith by north west in a greate high rok, caul lid Drissiog.
Rodeney Vehan risith a mile above Castelle Nose [c] right by north west also: but nerer toward Miskyn lordship. So that Rodeney Vaur hed and strem lyith more west up into Wales.
Castelle Nose is but a high stony creg in the top of an hille.
The vale of Glin Rodeney by south is meatly good for barle and otes but little whete. There is plenty of wood. It hath but one hole paroch caullid Ystrate, [d] and a peace of Lantrissent paroche, and a pece of Llan Wonni [e] paroche.
ESTE THAWAN COMMOTE.
Est Thawan by south lyith on the Severn shore. From the mouth of Lay, wher Penarth Pointe standith on the west side of it, to the mouthe of Thawan [f] Ryver an eight miles: agayne the whiche mouth is the next passage to Minheved in Somersetshire. This trajectus is over Severn xvi. miles.
Penarth is an hille or foreland into the Severn Se.
A mile and a half above it is Scilley, [g] a praty havenet or socour for shippes. And here rennith Scylley a praty brooke into the se, and ther is a village caullid Scylley, scant half a mile from this haven muth: and the brook rennith thoroug the midle of it. The hedde of this is west north weste from Scylley village yn Weniio [h] paroch in a welle waullid aboute on the north side of Weniio chirche, that is a 2. miles above
[a] Mynydd Gelli haidd.
[b] Bwlch y Clawdd.
[c] Castell Nos.
[d] Ystrad Dyvodwg.
[e] Llan Wynno.
[f] Aber Thaw.
IN WALES. PART VI 23
Scylley village. On this brok standith first Wenuo Castelle a quarter of a mile by west from the hedde of it. Al the buildinges of this Wenuo Castelle stonding on a litle hille is downe saving one toure and broken waules. It longgid to the Maleinfantes, wherof in remembraunce was one that was first husband to Mr. Herebertes mother of Swansey. The King hath it now, and Dr. Carne farmith it of the King.
The castelle of Greneston is 3. quarters of a mile lower on Scilley broke, and it stondith on the side of an hille a stone caste from the est ripe of Scilley. It is al in mine saving one high tower. The Lord Herbert is owner of it.
The castel of Dinas Poys [a] is almost a mile lower, and stondith on a litle hille within a stone caste of the broke on the west side. This castelle is al in ruine, and longith to the King. Scylley village is scant a mile lower. So that the course of the hole water is a 3. miles from the hedde to the se.
There is good come and medow on booth sides of Scylley brooke, and good wood of boothe sides till it cum to Dinas Poys. Lower to the se is none on it.
From Scylley mouthe to Aberbarrey, wher cummith a litle rylle of fresch water to the Severn, is aboute a mile.
The hedde of this rylle is scant a mile of by north est in a playn ground.
On this bekke stondith the castelle of Barrey aboute a quarter of a mile beyond the west ripe of it. This castelle
[a] Dinas Powys.
24 LELAND'S ITINERARY
stondith on a litle hil, and most of it is in mine. Master S. John of Bedfordshir is lorde of it. Maurice S. John, uncle to Syr John S. John, was owner of it.
Right againe this brooke mouth lyith Barrey Isle. The passage into it at ful se is a flite shot over, as much as the Tamise is above the bridge. At low water ther is a broken causey to go over, or els over the shalow stremelet of Barrey brooke on the sandes.
The isle is about a mile in cumpace, and hath very good corne, grasse and sum wood. The ferme of it worth a x. li. a yere.
There ys no dwelling in the isle, but ther is in the midle of it a fair litle chapel of S. Barrok, wher much pilgrimage was usid.
Half a mile and more beyonde Aber Barrey is the mouth of Come Kydy. [a] This broke risithe flat north a mile and an half from the place wher it goith ynto the Severn Se. There is no notable building on this rylle. The soile of boothe side of the ril in this valley hath good corn, grasse and wood.
From Kiddey mouth, wher no enteraunce is for shippes, to the mouthe of Thawan a 3. miles by very principal good corn ground. At the mouth of Thawan shippe-lettes may cum ynto the haven mouth.
The west marche goith up by Thawan side on the est ripe almost to Cowbridge, and that is a 4. miles of, and this ground is low aboute the ripe side, and ful of medowis and pasture grounde: and in sum places half a mile of from the ripe is summe woodde.
Half a mile from the mouth of Thawan there cummith in by the est ripe of it a brooke caullid Kensan. [b]
The castelle of Fonmone standith on a litle hille in Penmark paroche, a quarter of a mile by est from the mouth of Kensan.
This castelle yet stondith and longith to Sir John St. John.
This Kensan [b] hath 2. heddes, wherof the north est is caullid Nantbrane, [c] the hedde wherof is in the paroch of Lluen Lithan. [d]
[a] Cwm Kidi.
[c] Nant Bran, older Baraen.
[d] St. Lythans.
IN WALES. PART VI 25
This hedde is 3. miles from the confluence and more. There is good pasture and corne about it.
The other hedde risith at Bolston [a] village, Gal: Tresimon, by north est more upward in Wales by west, a 3. miles from the confluence. First it cummith by Carnellued ii. miles douneward to Mr. Ragelandes house on the est side of it. Then thorough Llancaroiian [b] village 3. quarters of a mile. Then a quarter of a mile to the confluens wher the hole streame is caullid Kensan. On both sides of this arme is good corn and gresse.
To cross over from Lancaroiian to the nex part of Thawan is a mile.
The commot of Est Thawan cummith up by est from the mouth of Lay [c] on the west ripe of Lay, first to Cogan Pille almost a mile of, wher is a fair maner place on the ripe side longging to Mr. Herebert of Swansey, and then to Ponte Lecwith of stone scant a mile. Then to Pontlay, alias Elebridg, [d] of stone, wher Landaf commot cummith for a space over Lay on booth sides of the bridge. Then cummith in againe on Lay west ripe Est Thawan commote at S. Fagan's, wher be not past 2. or 3. houses of the village on that side, but they stande beyond the stone bridge on the est side of Lay, and there is the paroche, and the castel of S. Fagan standing in the midle of the village, and within a stone caste of the river.
And here marke that Est Thawan yn this place occupiyth a 3. long mile by est north est on this ripe to a place caullith Pont Rithsarn in Miskin. [e]
The castelle of S. Fagan standith on a litle hille: and a part of it yet standith. It was about a 60. yere ago in the handes of one Davy Mathew: and then it cam by heires general to diverse copartioners. Baynon of the Forest of Dene hath a part of it. The paroch chirch of S. Fagan is now of our Lady: but ther is yet by the village a chapelle of S. Fagan sumtime the paroch chirch.
Then to Llanpeder 6 on the same est ripe of Lay 2. miles. Glamorganshire.
[a] Bonvilston, alias Tre Simwn.
[b] Llan Carvan.
[c] Lai or Ely.
[d] Ely bridge.
26 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Ther is a poore village and a bridge of stone a quarter of a mile of by west, and a castelle on plain ground on the water side almost al in mine. Botler and George Mathew be lordes of the village.
Look who is owner of the castelle.
Pont Rithsarn is about a mile upward from Lampeder on Lay.
Now to cum agayn to the west ripe of Lay over S. Fagan's bridge. S. George a village lyith 3. quarters of a mile upwarde on the ripe, and there is a castelle hard by the ripe on the west north west side of the village. This castelle stondith on plaine ground. It longgid to the Male-Infantes, wherof one was alyve within this 40. yeres. The castelle is now the Kinges: and one Roger Herebert a bastard dwellith in it.
And Este Thawan goith yet a 2. miles upper on this ripe to a paroche caullid Pendiluen, [a] and that is in the commot of Tier Stuart. [b] So that this upperst part of Est Thawan on the west ripe of Lay is right agayn Lampeder on the est ripe of Lay.
The ground of Lay this way ys very good for corne and grasse and metely woddy: and is as it were a flat soile without any high hilles.
This commot touchith by north est on the lordeship of Terstuart, and by north west likewise on Terstuart. So that it passith not thuart over there from north est to north west a 5. miles. The soile is meately good for corn and grasse, but not so good as it is on Lay and Thawan ryvers sides.
Weste Thawan liyth a long on the Severn shore from the mouth of Thawan Ryver to a lordeship caullid Terbrennine, [c] and that is a 6. miles of. The ground by shore is sumwhat low, and hath good corne and gresse, but litle wood; yet is the ground much enclosid.
Colhow is on the shore betwix thes 2. places a 2. miles above Thawan mouthe, and hither cummith sumtyme bootes and shippeletes for socour.
[a] Pen deu-lwyn.
[b] Tir y Steward.
[c] Tir y Brenhin.
IN WALES. PART VI 27
Llan Iltuit [a] is 3. quarters of mile north weste into the land from this place. And thens resortith a rylle to shire. Colhow.
There is a castelle almost stonding on an even grounde half a mile from Laniltute by est north est caullid Llaniiais. [b] It is almost al doun. It longgith now to the King. It was in hominum memoria the Maleinfauntes, ther communely caullid the Malifauntes. There cummith a litle bekke within a stone caste of the castelle, and rennith on the west side of it. It risith by gesse halfe a mile by north west above the castelle of Laniiays: and passing by this castelle it goith into Colhow water by likelihod.
From Colehow aboute a mile beyond upper by south west on Severn is S. Dinothes, [c] a castel. It stondith on a meane hille a quarter of a mile from the Severn Se. In the which space bytwixt the castelle and the Severn is a parke of falow dere. There is a nother park of redde deere more by northe west from the castelle. The parkes booth and the castelle long to Stradeling a gentilman of very fair landes in that countery. Thins from the Severn shore againe S. Dinothes to the mouth of Alein a 3. miles. On the west side of the ripe of this brooke enterith Ter Brennine.
This Alein risith by north est up into the land at a place caullid Llesbroinuith [d] (Scirpetum), about a 4. miles above the place wher it cummith by it self into Severn.
Here marke that from the mouth of Alein to the mouth of Oxor River [e] is a 3. miles along by south, and this is countid as a lordship by it self, and it was Syr Maurice Lounder's landes in King Henry the 2. days. Now it longith to the King by the dukedom of Lancaster. In this part of the shore is only a manor place caullid Dounereuen [f] about the midle way. It longid a late to Boteler. The laste Boteler sister maried to Richard Vehan of Aberdourde is now heir of it.
Al this south parte of Brennine lordship good for corne and gresse, but litle or no wood.
[a] Now Lantwit major.
[b] Llan Vaes.
[c] St. Donat's.
[e] Ogmor, vel Ogwr.
28 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Terre Brennine [a] liyth up from the mouth of Ogor on the est ripe of Ogor to Penbont (ende of the bridge), a bridge of stone a 3. mile of.
Ogor Castelle standith on the est ripe of Ogor on a playn ground a mile above the mouth of Ogor, and ys meatly welle maintainid. In longgid ons to Lounder, now to the King.
This est ripe of Ogor up from the mouth of it to Penbont [b] hath good corn and gresse ground, but litle wood.
Half a mile above Ogor Castelle cummith Wenny [c] Ryver into Ogor by the est ripe.
Wenny risith about a 5. or 6. miles by north est from this place, and cummith into Ogor by south west on the est ripe of it.
Apon the est ripe of Wenny in Terbrennine a mile above the mouth of it lyith Wenny Priory, and a litle above on the same ripe is Cornetoun, and a litle upward is Milter Ouer in the high-way, and above this Milter Ower the land of both sides of Wenny is caullid Tershire. Milter Ower, Mile Golden, is in the high-way betwixt Coubridge and Cornton. So that al the west ripe of Wenny from the mouth to the hedde is in Ter Coite, [d] and a pece of the weste ripe of it above Corneton is in West Thawan almost by a 3. miles upper.
Ther ly by flat northe from Penbont a 2. paroches. Landevodug [e] and Llanginwire [f] vi. miles of longging to Terbrennine. But Ter Coite lyith bytwixt it and Terbrennine.
West Thawan cummith in agayne at the west side of the mouth of Oggor, and so goith from the mouth of it a 4. miles on the west ripe above Pennebont, and there metith with Teryarlth. [g] The ground betwixt hath grasse, metly corn and litle wood. Saving that a mile from above Ogor mouthe the sandes of the se sore hurtith the ground.
Martyr Maur [h] (Mr. Stradelings place), a fair manor place
[a] Tir y Brenhin.
[d] Tir Coety.
[e] Llan Dyvodwg.
[f] Llan Geinor.
[g] Tir yr Iarll.
[h] Merthyr Mawr.
IN WALES. PART VI 29
of stone, standith on this west ripe a mile above Ogor mouth.
At Penbont almost 2. mile upper ther is a village, wherof that part that stondith on the weste side of the bridg is caullid Castelle Newith, and is in West Thawan; and that part of it that is on the est side of the bridge is caullid Henecastelle, [a] and is yn Ter brennine.
From the mouth of Ogor to Newton Notes [b] on the south shore is a 4. miles. This is a prety village on the est ripe of Tidug: [c] and there is a station or haven for shippes. The ground betwixt hath meatly good corne and gresse, but litle wood. The shore is cliffy.
... dug a litle brok risith out of a welle at Llanti- ... a ii. miles by north from Newton.
From Newton to Kenfike [d] Ryver a vi. miles. Of these vi. miles 3. be hygh cliffes on the shore: the other low shore and sandy grounde. For the rages of Severn Se castith ther up much sand.
I hard one say that this Kenfik water is caullid Colebroke.
Ther is a manor place caullid Sker a 2. miles from the shore wher dwellith one Richard Loughor a gentilman.
There is good corne and gresse but litle wod by 3. or 4. miles from Newton toward Kenfik on the shore. Kenfike is a smaul broke, and cummith by estimation not past a 3. miles of, out of the mores there about.
There is a litle village on the est side of Kenfik, and a castel, booth in ruine and almost shokid and devourid with the sandes that the Severn Se ther castith up.
Kenfik was in the Clares tyme a borow toun. It standith a litle within the mouth of Kenfik water.
Morgan Abbay and village standith a 2. miles of by north este.
From Kenfik to Aber Avon a 2. miles by low shore, parte morisch and sandy with the rages of Severn.
Ther is metly good wood about Aber Avon.
There is a poore village on the west ripe of Avon about 2. miles from the mouth of Avon. This village is caullid Abreavon. [e] The groundes about it be baren and sower.
[a] Hen Gastell.
[b] Newton Nottage.
[e] Aber Avon.
30 LELAND'S ITINERARY
This village lyith in the great high way thoroug Glamorganshir. There is an haven for shippes at the mouth of this Avon.
Avon Ryver cum of 2. armes, wherof that that lyith north, est is caullid Avon Vaur, and that that lyith north west is caullid Avon Vehan. They mete togither at Lanuihengle [a] about a 2. miles above Aberauon village.
From the mouth of Avon to the mouth of Neth [b] Ryver is aboute a ii. miles and a half, al by low shore shokid with Severn sandes and sum morisch groundes.
The litle toun and castelle of Neth stondith a 4. miles from the mouth of Neth, and the toun and castelle stondith on the est ripe of Neth.
And on the west ripe a litle lower then the town of Neth was the Abbay of Nethe.
On nother side of Nethe from the mouth thus far is any very good soile. Good pasture there is in sum places and woodde about Neth. Ther be colles half a mile above the toune of Nethe in a more, and again a litle beneth the toun almost in ripa.
There cummith up shippelettes almost onto the toun of Neth from the Severn. Botes cum to the very bridge of tymbre that is sumwhat lower on the water then the town.
At the very mouth of Nethe on the est side of it is a litle village of 3. or 4. houses caullid Britanne Fery [c] to passe to Swansey and Penbrokeshire.
One Lysan a gentilman of auncient stok, but now of mene landes about a xl. Ii. by the yere, dwellith in the toune of Nethe.
The Lysans say, that theire familie was there in fame afore the Conquest of the Normans.
From the mouth of Neth to the mouth of Crimline Bek is aboute a 2. miles by low sandy shore, no villages betwixt or good grounde.
This Crimline Brooke is the limes betwixt West Thawan and Gower's lande.
[b] Nedd, anglicised Neath.
[c] Britton Ferry.
IN WALES. PART VI 31
THE LIMITES OF WESTE THAWAN BY EST.
From the mouth of Thawan Ryver up half a mile by the west ripe standith a pile or manor place caullid Gilestoun and village of the same name: but it is distant from the very ripe a quarter of a mile by west. One Giles, a gentilman of an auncient house yet having a hundreth markes of lande by the yere, is lorde of it.
A very litle more upward is a stone bridg caullid Pontnewith.
There is a quarter of a mile above this bridg a manor place hard on the ripe caullid Norchete. Mr. Stradeling sumtime lyith in it: and it is of his enheritaunce.
And a quarter of a mile above Norchet is a litle from the ripe Castleton, a manor place, on a hille ascending from the ripe. And a late it longgid to one Hugh Adam a man of mene landes, whos doughter is now heir of it.
Half a mile above Castelletoun is Treflemig, alias Flemingeston, and shortely Flemston.a And Fleming is lorde of it. This Fleming is taken as one by descent of the 13. peeres of Glamorganshir.
From Trefleming to Pontgigman a stone bridge half a mile.
From Pontgigman to Pont He a bridg of stone 3. quarters Ponthe, of a mile. audax.
Thens half a mile to Llandouhe, [b] wher is a village and a castelle much in mine on an hille.
Syr Edwarde Carne bought this lordship of the Erle of Wicester that now is.
Againe this village is a bridge of stone caullid Pont Landouhe. Sum say that Douhe cam with Fagan and Divian from Rome into Britain.
From Landouhe to Lanlithan [c] village half a mile, and heere is a stone bridge. Moste of the village is on the west ripe. The other parte and the castel is on the est ripe.
This castel longging to the King is yet partly standing, and is in Terstuard [d] lordship, and kept as the prison for it.
[b] Llan Dough.
[c] Llan Bleddian.
[d] Tir y Steward.
32 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Cowbridge is a quarter of a mile above Lanlithan.
From the mouth of Thawan to Cowbridge a longe by the ripe self, and more by west from the ripe is very good corne and gresse.
As much of Cowbridge as is enclosid with the waull stondith on the est ripe and the bridge of ston there.
The great suburbe of Coubridge is cis pontem.
The waulle of Cowbridge is a 3. quarters of a mile aboute.
There be 3. gates in the waulle, the est, the west and Porte Meline [a] by south.
There is a chirch in the town. But the saying is, that Lanlithan is the hed paroch chirch to Cowbridge.
The town self of Cowbridge standith in a valle.
Penlline Castelle and village is almost a mile by west north west from Cowbridge. This castelle yet stondith and longith to Turbeville.
There were a while ago 2. brethern of the Turbevilles, wherof the elder left a doughter and heyr; the youngger left a sunne. The doughter was married to Loughor. After great strife the 2. Turbevilles childern partid the landes.
A litle above Cowbridg on the este ripe cummith yn Terstuard.
Gentilmeti dwelling in Weste Thawan bytwixt Thawan and Akin.
James Thomas dwelling at Lanviengle a mile flat north from Laniltute.
The heir of the Carnes (Richard) at a place caullid the Assche: and there is a park of falow deere.
Edmunde Vanne dwellith in Laniltut, and he hath a house at Marcrosse almost a mile by west from Laniltute.
Turbeville (James) whos father was a bastard dwellith in Laniltute.
Edward Stradeling yongger brother to the heir dwellith in Laniltute. He maried the doughter and heir of a younger brother of the Ragelandes.
[a] Porth y Velin.
IN WALES. PART VI 33
John Thomas in Laniltute.
Syr Edward Came at Landoughe.
Thomas Ragelande of a yongger brother of the Ragelandes at Llesbroinith.
There ly 3. lordshipes by north in Glamorganshir from the weste ripe of Lay River to the est ripe of Neth Ryver.
Wherof the firste is Terstuarde, to the which Rithin lordship is as a membre lying on the west side of it.
In Terstuard is meately plenty of corn and plenty of wood and good pasture, as in a ground that is set emonge high hilles.
The castelle of Taleuan [a] is in this lordship, stonding on a level grounde. It is clerely in mine, and is distant 2. miles north est from Cowbridge, and a mile and a half from Thawan River, and almost 2. miles from Lay.
This castelle and lordship is the Kinges, and there was a park by north from the castelle. There is no village hard joyning to this castelle.
The secunde lordship lying by north is Tercoite, [b] and this joinith onto the west north west side of Terstuarde. This lordship is not fully so bigge as Terstuard.
The south part of Tercoite is plentiful of corn as in the paroch self of Coite.
And este south este it hath good wodde, as in the parke self of Coite and Coide Muster. [c]
The west part of it hath metely good corne and pasture. The north parte is sumwhat hilly and thereby lesse fruteful.
The castel of Coite standith on a playn grounde a mile by north est from Penbont a good market toun standing on Ogor. Coite Castelle is also half a mile from the west ripe of Wenny, and a mile from the est ripe of Ogor.
This castelle is maintainid, and sum say that it longgid ons to Payne, caullid for his ruffeling there Diable. Now Gamage is lorde of it, and it is his principal house.
The 3. lordship is Teryarlthe, [d] and is montanius and lesse fruteful then the other 2. lordshippes. It hath in diverse places good pastures.
[a] Tal y Van.
[b] Tir Coety.
[c] Coety and Coed y Mwstwr.
[d] Tir Iarll.
36 LELAND'S ITINERARY
BRIDGES ON RODENEY VEHAN. [a]
There be also 2. smaul bridges of wood on Rodeney Vehan, wherof the first is againe Penrise 3. quarters of a mile of, the other is a litle above the confluence right againe the bridg on Rodeney Vaur.
Ther is a bridge of wood on the hole Rodeney caullid Pont Newith 2. miles beneth the confluence: and a quarter from the place wher it goith into Taphe.
NOTABLE BRIDGGES ON LAY RIVER.
Pont Eniselthlan [b] of wood. Ponte Rethe Yevan [c] of wood a mile and a half lower. Ponte Velin Vaur of wood a 1. mile lower. Duvelais [d] Broke cummith into Lay by the est ripe a quarter of a mile above Ponte Velin Vaur. This brooke risith a 4. miles of by est north este. And apon this brooke is Ledan, brode. a wood bridge caullid Pont Rethe Ledan. [e] Pont Seysan [f] (Saxon) of wood 2. miles lower. Pont Gloun [g] of wood about a mile lower. Pont Rethe Gaiavelay, [h] a very litle beneth this bridge is the confluence with Lay River.
BRIDGES ON ALEIN.
Pont Alein of stone, and 2. miles lower is Severn. Pont Risclidog of wood a mile lower than Pont Velin on Lay. Ponte Rethsaran of wood a mile and a dl. lower. Pont Lanpeder of 3. arches of stone a mile lower. Pont S. George of wood a mile and a quarter lower. Pont S. Fagan a stone bridge of 3. arches a mile lower. Pont Lay of 2. arches of stone, Angl. Ele Bridge, a mile and a half lower. Pont Lecwith of 3. arches of stone, a mile and a quarter lower. Thens a mile to Severn.
BRIDGES NOTABLE ON THAWAN.
Ponte Vain, [i] alias Cowbridge, of stone. Ponte Llanithan [k] of stone a quarter of a mile lower. Pont Landoughe of stone 3. quarters of a mile lower. Ponte Meline He of stone
[a] Rhonda Vechan.
[b] Pont Ynys y llan.
[c] Rhyd Ivan.
[e] Rhyd Lydan.
[f] P. Seison.
[g] Pont y Clown.
[h] P. Rhyd Gyveile.
[i] Pont Vaen.
[k] Lan Bleddian.
IN WALES. PART VI 37
half a mile lower. Pont Kigman of stone a mile lower. Pont Newith of stone a mile lower and a half. And half a mile lower is Severn.
ERIDGES ON KENSAN [a] BROKE.
Ponte Kensan of 2. arches of stone. Ponte Britoun of one arch of stone half a mile lower.
Kensan risith flat este and goith into Thawan per ripam orient, by south south west a litle from Aber Thawan.
BRIDGES ON WENNY. Wenny Bridge of stone.
Wenny rennith by the est ripe into Ogor half a mile above Ogor Castelle.
BRIDGES ON OGOR.
Ponte Lansanfraide of timbre.
Pennebont [b] of 4. arches of stone a ... miles lower.
Pont Newith of stone a mile and halfe lower, and a mile and a half to Severn.
Garow, and Lleueny [c] brokes.
On these be no very notable bridges. Garow risith by north in a place caullid Blaine Garow, and renning about a 6. miles cummith into Ogor by the west ripe 2. miles above Lansanfraide Bridge.
Leueny risith by north weste in Glin Corrug paroche, and goith into Ogor by the weste ripe a quarter of a mile above Lansanfraid Bridge.
BRIDGES ON AVON.
Ponte Retheuenne, [d] the forde of the Waine, of timbre apon Avon Vaur about a mile above the confluence of bothe the Avons.
Pont Inisavon of wood about a mile beneth the confluence.
[c] Garw and Llyvni.
[d] Pont Rhyd Ewenny.
38 LELAND'S ITINERARY
BRIDGES ON NETH.
Ponte Castelle Nethe of tymbre.
There is a bridge of timbre an 8. miles above Nethe town at Rigos.
Justine lord of Glamorganshir had great troble of Theodore Prince of Wales.
Justine desired help of one Inon [a] a Walsch man borderer onto hym, promising to hym his doughtter with greate landes.
Inon got help of Haymo Erle of Glocestre, and had 12. or 13. knightes of his, and bette the Prince of Wales. Justine kept no promise with Inon.
Wherefore Inon and the xii. knightes drave Justine away and occupied his landes.
Inon had al the Walscherie for his parte, as up into the mountaines by north in Glamorganshire, as Glin Rotheney, Miskin, Sighenith, Glin Neth, and other partes toward the Blake Montaines. The landes of the xii. knightes were in the best part of Glamorganshir, as toward the se, and this landes went to heires ondevidid. Inon's part in the Walscherie was devidid by heires into peces, and so sone sparkelid.
Lounders, Stradling, and Fleming be countid, as 3. of the xii. knightes.
Lounders part came to the dukedum of Lancaster.
Fleminges part cam to the Maleinfantes. And of late tyme Gaspar Duke of Bedeford, being lord of Glamorganshire, the landes of the Maleinfantes, for lak of due issue, cam by exchete onto hym as lorde of the countery. Now they be the Kinges.
Hayles Abbaye. Anno D. 1251 consummata est ecclesia
IN WALES. PART VI 39
cum dormitorio, daustro & refectorio: expensis in operationibus octo marcarum millibus.
Pinoke Welle a mile from Hayles in radicibus de Coteswalde to Nanton village, to Burton, [a] and sumwhat beneth Burton cummith into hit a water rising at Kensdale in Coteswald, and thens to Hinchwike, wherabowt yt rennith undre the grounde; thens to Swelle village by Stow; from Swelle to Slawghter, and so into Burton Water. Pinoke Wei is countid of sum for one of the farthest of Tamise heddes.
Ther cummith a water from the partes of Rolriche, [b] and so down not far from Cheping Northton to Bruern, as I suppose.
Cumming from Chiping Norton to Stow in the Wold abowt the midde way is Adelsthorp and Horse Bridge by wher is a limes betwixt
MARKET TOWNES IN THE WOLDE OF GLOCESTRESHIRE.
Stow in the Wolde v. miles from Chipping Northton, and vii. or viii. from Heyles.
Camden a vii. northwest from Stow.
Northlache a vii. miles from Stow towne southwest from
Stow almost in the waye from Stow to Cicestre.
Fairford, wher Mr. Tame dwellith, a vii. miles from Northlage.
Cheltnam a market toun in the vale v. miles from Hayles Abbaye.
Glocestre standpth on a brooke that goith into Severne.
Oswaldus primum instituit canonicos seculares apud Persore.
Postea fuit ibidem chorus monachorum.
Rursus canonici inducti.
Postea monachiper Edgarum,
Elferus abstulit praedia monachis.
Odda comes ejus filius restituit.
Monasterium conflagravit & a monachis desertum est.
Monachi Westmonasterienses praedia usurpabant.
Wada comes attulit relliquias S. Edburgae, & per Oswaldum episcopum Fulbrightus abbas inductus.
40 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Olney, alias Alney, about Deorhirst in Glocester-shire. Deorhurst yet remainith in Glocestre-shire as a celle to Twekesbiri.
Scargate about Severn side repaired by Ethelfleda.
Al the way that I rode betwixt Heyles and Pershore was meately here and ther wooddid. But from Persore to Wicestre, and thens almost to Tembyri, [a] was better wodid, and yet in vales and sides of hilles good plenty of come. And as for good medows and pastures in Wicestre lakketh noone.
A ii. myles a this side Montgomeri in the way thens to Bisshoppes Castel is a river cumming owt of the vicine hilles, and is caullid Taidbrooke. It risit owt of an hille side within a mile of Bisshops Toune, and goith into Kenlet in the vale by Montgomery.
Martine Poole, meately large and plentiful of fische, is in a faire valle, and is iii. miles from Montgomery, and ii. myles from Chirberi Priori lately suppressid.
In the midde way betwyxt Bishops Town and Montgomery is a prety rille ther devidinge Caursland, a notable parte of Shropshire from Chirbirhe hunderithe. This Caursland, sometyme longinge to the Duke of Buckyngham, croketh mervelously about the uppar parts of Shropeshire.
Offa's Dike apperith manifestly by the space of a ii. miles almost in the midde way betwixt Bisshops Castelle and Montgomery, and ther it is in one .. . not very far from the mote on a hille toppe as a limes betwixt Causeland lordship, or Montgomeri, and Herfordshire, and againe not far touchith a litle in Shirbyri [b] hunderith, and againe passith a litle by Caurseland.
I hard also at Montgomery, that Offa's Dike apperith sumwhat about Radenor, and againe within a iii. myle of Oswestre.
Cumming from Bisshops Castelle to Clunne lordshippe cummeth doune a greate woode grouing on a hille, and under the hille within a mile and a half of Bisshoppes
IN WALES. PART VI 41
Towne is a riveret caullid Onke, [a] and rennith by this wooddy hille, and a quarter mile of a this side from Clunne Castelle cummith into Clunne. Clunne risith ... and at Lenterdine cummith into Teme.
Bytwixt Clunne and Knighton is a river caulid Cluideford, that after a smaulle course of running cummeth into Teme.
Teme River at Knightton devideth there Melennith [b] from Clunne lordshippe.
Knighton, as I remembre, standith bytwixt ii. rivers. Teme cumming down from Knighton.
Teme risith in Melennith hilles a v. or vi. miles from Knighton, halfe a mile above a chapel caullid, as I remembre, Bostel.
About half way bytwixt Knighton and New Radenor cummith Lugge owt of Melennith, and so doune to Presteine a good market town therabout deviding the lordship of Prestein longging to the King, and Lug Harneis lordship longging to the Baron of Burforde.
Steple-Castelle on Lug in Lug Harneis longynge to the Baron of Burford.
At Prestein towne and market most part of the cunteri of Melennithe fetche their corne.
Prestein in Walsche is caullid Llanandrew. [c]
The Walsche Poole, a market toune, taketh name of a poole therby, meatly large and plentiful of fische.
Montgomerike deflorichid by Owen Glindour.
Radenor partely destroied by Owen Glindour, and the voice is there that after he wonne the castel he tooke a iii. score men that had the garde of the castel, and causid them to be heddid on the brinke of the castel yarde, and that sins a certen bloodeworth growith ther wher the bloode was shedde.
Ther is a chapel at Radenor beside the paroch chirche in the chirch yarde.
Radenor wolle ys moch praisid.
[a] Unk R.
[c] Llan Andras.
42 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The valey about Radenor is veri plentiful of corne and gresse, and the valey streccith up one way to Limstre.
Limstre of sum is caullid in Walsche, Llinlini, of flex or hempe grouing therabout. But this is false. For it takith name a leone.
The vale of Radenor goith one way toward Chestre, and a nother toward Shreusbiri.
Bi Old Radenor is an hille caullid Pencrage.
Cumming from Radenor to the Hay I lefte Old Radenor on the lifte hond set on a hille a ii. miles from New Radenor. At Old Radenor (as sum say) was ons a market kepte. Ther is yet a veri fair chirch and welle servid.
Within a ii. myles from Radenor I cam over a broke caullid Wadele that goith into Lug, and a mile or ii. beyonde that I lefte Huntingdon-Castel a mile on the lifte hond. It longgid to the Duke of Bokingham.
A mile or more beyond that I passid at New-Chirch over Arow that goith to Limstre.
Arow risith not far from Glascumbe, [a] wher is a chirche but few houses. Thens a good mile it cummith to New-Chirch, and then thorough the fair parke of Huntingdon Castle.
A too miles, or more, from New-Churche I saw passynge by Paynes Castle a good mile of on the right hand.
The fery from Auste in Glocestreshire to a village on the farther ripe of Severn, not far from S. Tereudacus [b] Chapel yn the mouth of Wy Ryver, is a iii. myles over.
Venceland ys devidid into low, myddle, and hy. The principal towne of Low Venteland is Chepstow a ii. myles from Severne shoore. Sum say that the old name of this towne is Strigulia. Sum think that Strigulia should be sum other place, because that the Lord Herebert writeth hymself Lord of Chepstow and Strigul, as of ii. diverse places. There appere a v. or vi. Englisch myles from Chepstow yn a great wood syde under a hille very notable ruines of a castel cawlled Trogy, wherby runneth a lytle broke of the same
[b] Teudiric, i.e. Theodorici = Mathern.
IN WALES. PART VI 43
name. The name of this castel sumwhat cummeth to the name of Strigulia, but it standeth, as they say there, in Mydde Venceland. [a]
The towne of Chepstow hath bene very strongly waulled as yet welle doth appere. The waulles began at the ende of the great bridge over Wy, and so cam to the castel, the which yet standeth fayr and strong not far from the ruin of the bridge. In the castel ys one tower, as I hard say, be the name of Longine. The town now hath but one paroche chirche. The celle of a Blake Monke or two of Bermundesey by London was lately there suppressed. A great part of cumpace withyn the waulles is now converted to litle medows and gardins.
Cairguent in Base Venteland [a] is iiii. myles from Chepstow in the way to Cairlion. Yt was sumtyme a fair and a large cyte. The places where the iiii. gates was yet appere, and the most part of the wal yet standeth, but al to minischyd and tome; in the lower part of the walle toward a lytle valey standeth yet the mine of a stronge ... Within and abowt the waulle now be a xvi. or xvii. smaul howses for husbondmen, of a new making, and a paroche chirch of S. Stephyn. In the towne yet appere pavimentes of the old streates, and yn digging they finde fundations of greate brykes, tessellata pavimenta, & numismata argentea simul & aerea. A great lykelyhod ys that when Cairguent began to decay then began Chepstow to florisch. For yt stondeth far better as apon Wy there ebbyng and flowyng by the rage cummyng owt of Severn. So that to Chepstow may cum greate shyppes.
Porteskewin, [b] as I lernid, is bytwixte Chepstow and Cairguent: ther goith a riveret to the Severn Se, and ther is one of the limites of the lenght of Wales. The other is Port-Hoyger by Holihed in Anglesey.
Tyntern Abbay iii. myles from Chepstow abowt Wy side semeth to be in Base Venteland. [a]
The castel of Calecoyth [c] longging to the Kinge is in Base Venteland toward the Severn shore not far from Matthern. At this castel, as sum say, was King Henry the vii. begotten.
[b] Port Skewet.
44 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Lan Vair [a] castel yn Base Venteland a ii. myles almost nortn from Cairguent
Matthern ys a preaty pyle in Base Venteland longging to the Bisshop of Landafe.
The soyle of al Venteland is of a darke reddische yerth ful of slaty stones, and other greater of the same color. The countery is also sumwhat montayneus, and welle replenishid with woodes, also very fertyle of corne, but men there study more to pastures the which be wel inclosed.
Sum say that Cair Lion should be in Base Venteland, sum say nay. The Welschemen say that Cair Lion is but viii. myles from Chepstow, but in deade it may be counted xii. Englisch myles. It stondeth magnificently on the farther side of Wische, [b] one of the principal ryvers of South-Wales. So that very great shyppes might wel cum now to the town, as they did in the Romaynes tyme, but that Newport Bridge is a lette. Nevertheles bygge botes cummeth to the towne. The ruines of the walles of the town yet remayne, and also of the castel.
Ther is opinion that the olde Romaine chirche was abowt Mr. ... house, where I lay. There in digging apperid certen paintinges on stonis.
There were fownde a late by the castel certeyne paintid incrustamentes hard by the castel.
In the towne is now but one paroche chirche, and that is of S. Cadocus.
Sum wold that Cairuske, otherwise caullid Brenbygey, [c] should be the principal place of Mydle Venteland. The castel ther hath bene great, stronge and fair. The town by semeth not to have bene of any renown. Ther was a late an abbay of nunnes. Cairusk standeth on the farther side of Uske ... myles from Cair Lion.
The ruines of Castel Trogy within a Welsch myle of sum part of Wyske Ryver, a vi. myles from Chepstow, and almost as much from Cairlion in the way to Monemuth.
The castel of Trergreg [d] a ii. myles from Cair Uske in
[a] Llan Vair Discoed.
[b] Wysc = Usk.
[c] Bryn Buga = Usk.
[d] Tre y grug.
IN WALES. PART VI 45
Middle Venceland. Yt is otherwyse communely cawlled Lan Kiby, bycawse it is in the paroche of S. Kiby.
Newport is in Wentlugh [a] a myle and more by foote path from Cairlion, and standeth on Uske, havyng a prety stronge town; but I marked not whyther yt were waulled or no. There is a very fair castel longging sumtyme to the Bukkinghams. But this great lordship, as the Walsch-men say, ys no part of the iii. Vencelandes, yet it is cawlled in Walsch Guentluge. Wherfore yt might in description be welle yoined with Myddle Venteland. The lordship of Newport be likelyhod should strech to the ryyer of Remny, [b] limes Morganiae.
At Goldclif a iii. myles from Newport on the Severn shore was a priory of monkes of the French ordre, suppressed, and the landes given to Eton College.
Ragland yn Myddle Venceland ys a very fair and a pleasant castel, viii. myles from Chepstow and vii from Burgeveney. The town by ys bare. Ther ly to goodly parkes adjacent to the castel.
Lanternham Abbay of White Monkes a ii. myles from Cairlion lately suppressed.
The hole lordship of Abregeveney maketh the cumpace of Hye Venteland.
Abergeveney yt self is a faire waulled town, meately welle inhabited havyng paroch chirch. Ther is a fair castel. The lord of Burgeveney ys one of the auncyentest barons of the reualme.
MUNMOUTH, MUNWEY [c] cambrice.
Munmouth town ys waulled, and standeth yn the diocese of Herford as betwyxt ii. ryvers, Wy and Mone, of the which yt taketh name. Of thes ii. ryvers Wy to us standeth lower, and Mone [c] hyer. Muro cingitur ea parte qua fluminibus non defenditur, hoc est a parte aquilonari, id est a porta
[c] Mynwy, Anglicised Monnow.
46 LELAND'S ITINERARY
monachiea, et orientali usque ad ipsam fere ripam Vagae, Sed iam prae senio, mure fatiscente, pars magna praesidii collapsa est, manentibus tamen adhuc magnis ruinis, et fossa alta. Rursus a porta monachica murus ad occidentalem partem Monae flu. protenditur. Portae in muro 4or videlicet monachica, orientalis, Vagensis, a Vaga sic dicta, Monensis, a Mona flu. quia super pontem per quem Mona transitur posita est. Ultra quem pontem suburbium est in dioecesi Landavensi, ubi olim erat parochialis S. Thomae sacra, nunc sacellum tantum eidem dicatum. In oppido parochialis ecclesia tantum una, quae contigua est coenobio monachorum Benedictinorum. Castellum vetus prope forum in colliculo situm, ubi Henricus 5. natus est. Saltus Danubiensis & provincia Claudiana soloponte Vagensi a Mona oppido disterminantur. Mona liberum oppidum, ditionis Lunensis, nec adjacentis provinciae imperiis subjacet. Suburbia omnia Monae, nisi ea parte qua fluminibus tutantur, altissima fossa cinguntur. Troia antiqua sedes Herebertorum plus minus quingentis passibus a Monae suburbio distat. Extra portam aquilonarem, i.e. monachicam, est Herchenfeld, i.e. Campus Erinaceus, regiuncula comitem Salapiensem dominum agnoscens.
Tintern coenobium Barnardinorum in ulteriori ripa Vagae quinque passuum millibus distans a Mona.
The rokkes in North-Wales cawlled Venetia [a] beyng very hy, bare, and white, may properly be caulled in Latine Alpes Venetae.
The water of Severne compaseth more then one half of Guenteland.
Wye also a very great and famose river passeth thorough Ventland, and at S. Tereudakes [b] Chapel entereth ynto Severn.
Other smawl brokelettes in Base Venteland cummeth ynto Wy.
Whisk [c] River toucheth late per mediam Ventaniam, and ys as a terminus to Breknokshire.
Geveny risith ...
Remeney [d] is as a limes to Myddle Venteland and Glamorganshire.
[b] Teudiric, i.e. Theodorici = Mathern.
IN WALES. PART VI 47
Money a River rising in Ewesland a geteth a prety botom at Trewen, a gentilman's place a x. myles from Monemuth, et tandem non procul ab urbe sui nominis Vagam petit.
Castelles in Monemuth lordship. Monemuth, the Kinges, sumtyme of Lancastre dition. Skenford [b] Castel on the ryver of Money a iii. miles above Monemuth. White Castel a iiii. myles from Monemuth, and a myle from Money River. Gresmont Castel a v. myles from Monemuth not far from the ripe of Money. Qui partes circa haec castella habitant nexios Monam mittunt.
Herchinfeld [c] is a great lordship longging to the Erle of Shrewisbiry, and lieth betwyxt Monemuth and Herford, abowt a ii. myles from eche of them. On the one side alluitur Vaga flu.
Garan fluviolus riseth yn a wood cawlled the Grege [d] a vi. miles from Monemuth by north-west, as a husband-man told me, and goeth into Wye.
They cary their prisoners to Castel Goderyce [e] sumwhat owt of Erchynfeld, [c] but longging to the Erle of Shreuisbyri.
Gentylmen cawlled Minos be great possessors yn Erchynfeld.
The castel of kilpek by Herchenfeld belongging to the Erle of Ormond.
Erchenfeld is full of enclosures very full of corne and wood.
Cummynge from Monemuthe into Herford I passed over a large bridge of stone set on iiii. arches. This town is auncient, large and strongely walled, also having a mayne castel hard by the ripe of Wy. I take the castel to be of as great circuite as Windesore. The dungyn of the castel is hy and stronge, and yn the dyke not far from yt is a fair spring cawlled S. Ethelbertes Well. Withyn the castel of Hereford yn digging hath ben found non giganteae, insolitae tamen, magnitudinis ossa, and hard by in ripa Vagae assidua alluvione apparent in ripa ejusdem magnitudinis ossa. The walle of the towne is cumpased with a dike alway filled with morisch water gethering and descending onto hyt. Certen mylles servid with this water causeth the town dikes alway
[a] Mynwy, Ewias.
[b] Skenfrith, i.e. Ynys Kynwreidd.
[c] Archenfield, i.e. Erging.
[e] Gooderich Court.
48 LELAND'S ITINERARY
to have water, els they wold often be dry. This water reshire. sorteth to the botom of Wy. Ther be in the towne iiii. paroche chyrches (one of them is yn the cathedral chirch) wherof certeyne be very fair, beside the cathedral chirche, the which is of a very strong building. S. Ethelbright martyred, as sum say, at Harden a ... myles owt of the town, nat very far from the ruines of Sutton, wher yt is supposed that Ofta lay (but I think rather that is palace was at Kenkestre), was buried in the cathedral chirche; but syns that the Walschmen destroied the town in King Edward the Confessor's tyme his reliques have not bene sene ther. S. Thomas de Cantolupo Episcopus Herefor. lieth at this tyme in the chyrch rychely shrined. Ther be in the suburbes ii. paroche chirchefs, a celle of Blak Monkes longing to Glocester Abbay, ii. houses of Freres Blak and Gray, utraque in subicrbiis. Sum say that the town toke the name that yt hath now of an old forde or passage over Wy, not far from the castel. Sum say that yt was cawlled Fernlege * or otherwise Fernhil, and the place wher the cathedral chirch is now was sumtyme a chapel of our Lady cawlled our Lady Chapel of Fernlege.
ABBAYS IN HEREFORDSHIRE.
A priory or celle of Blak Munkes longging to the howse of Glocester in the suburbes of Hereford.
Lynebroke a place of nunnes withyn ii. myles of Wygmore, in the marches betwixt Herfordshire and Shrewisbiry-shire.
Wigmore a great abbay of White Chanons within a myle of Wigmore town and castel, in the marche ground toward Shreuisbiry-shire.
Feverlege sumtyme a religius howse of freres suppressed olim, and the landes given to Wygmore and Lynebroke. Mortimers Erles of the Marches were founders of Wygmore, Lynebrook, and Feverlege.
Acornbyri, [a] a howse of nunnes iii. myks from Hereford, now suppressed.
Leonmynstre a celle to Reading Blak Monkes, on the ryver of Lug, vii. myles from Hereford.
IN WALES. PART VI 49
Wormesley a house of Blak Chanons v. myles from Herford in a wooddy cuntery.
Monemuth Priory of the French order in the diocese of Herfordshire, suppressed.
Dour in Ewys [a] Land, a great house of Whyt Monkes, suppressed; and therby runneth a broke cawlled Worme. In the diocese, but not in Herfordshire.
Wy Ryver goeth thorough al Herfordshire, by Bradwardine Castel of Syr Richard Vehans, to Hereford viii. myles, to Rosse a market towne in Herfordshire.
In Wy River be umbers, otherwise graylinges, yn Walsch, as I remembre, cawllid caugin.
Lug risith hard by Melennith, and nere a chapel of owr Lady of Pylale, and so to Preston [b] a market towne a ix. myles, to Leonmynstre a market town vii. myles, to Mordeford a vii. myles of, and so ther ynto Wy iii. miles beneth Herford.
Fromey a byg broke, sumtyme raging, cummeth by Bromyard, as I remembre, and so ynto Lug, and abowt yt be very good pastures.
Leonmynstre alluitur tribus fluviolis, Lugia, Pinselo Pinfulley, tertii nominis non memini (Kenbroke). Lugia parte oppidi inferiori utrumque in se recipit. Pinselus paucis ab oppido pass. millibus oritur.
Arow River goeth sumwhat nere Leonmynstre town, but not thorowgh yt.
Arow risith betwyxt Eluethland [c] and Melenithland, and thens goeth by Old Radenor, and by Huntingdon, sumtyme a lordship of the Duke of Bokingham's, and at the laste cummeth ynto Lug half a myle beneth Leonmynstre.
The ryveret that cummeth by New Radenor is cawlled Somergille. One told me that Oney cam sumwhat toward Ludlo-ward, but I dowte of that.- Syns I lernid that Oney [d] cam
[a] Abbey Dore.
[d] Onny R.
50 LELAND'S ITINERARY
into Teme about Bromfeld a celle by Ludlo.- The dwellers of the towne say constantly that Oney cummeth not by Radenor.
Of surety ii. brokes cum by Ludlo yn Shrewisbiri-shire, that is to say Temde, and Corve. Temde cummeth ynto Severn betwyt Powik and Wykcestre.
The town of Ludlo is very propre, welle walled and gated, and standeth every way eminent from a botom. In the side of the town as a peace of the enclosing of the walle is a fair castel. Withyn the town even yn the mydle is one paroch chyrch. Withowt the waulles be aliquot sacella, and ii. howses of Freres Augustines and Carmelites. Among other gates of the town ther is Corve-Gate and Galford- Gate.
The Bishop of Hereforde hath a castel of good strenketh yn the marches toward Shreuisbyri-shire cawlled Bisshops Castel, and ther to lieth a town cawlled Bisshopes Town, wher is wekely kept a very good market.
ABBAIS AND PRIORIS IN SOUTH-WALIS.
At Chepstow a litle priori aliquot monachorum Benedictinorum, a celle to Bermundesey at London.
Tintarne an abbay of White Monkes on the ripe of Wy, about a v. miles from Chepstow.
Monemouth a priori of Blake Monkes.
Abregeveni a priori of Blake Monkes of the French ordre. Hamelinus de Barham, a Norman, was founder there. It stoode a late by the est gate in the suburbe.
Uske a priory of nunnes at Cair Uske on the river side a flite shot from the castel. It is a v. miles upward on the river from Cairlleon.
Grace of Dew an abbay of White Monkes stonding in a wood and having a rille running by hit. Veri good pastures be about this place. It stondith bytwixt Wisk and Raglande, iii. miles from Cairvisk [a] and iiii. from Raglande.
Llantarnam Abbay of White Monks stonding in a wood iii. miles from Cairlleon.
Wenny [b] a iii. miles from Cowbridge a celle longging to
IN WALES. PART VI 51
Glocestre Abbaye foundid by Syr John Loudres lord of Ogmore Castel by ...
Morgan [a] an abbay of White Monkes wher was a veri large and fair chirch. It stondith toward the se in the midde way almost betwixt Cowbridge and Nethe.
Neth Abbay of White Monkes a mile above Neth town, standing also in the ripe of Neth. It semid to me the fairest abbay of al Wales.
Kidwelly a priori of Blake Monkes containing the hedde paroche chirch of the town. It is a celle to Shirburne Abbay in Dorsetshire.
Cairmardine [b] a priori of Blake Chanons standing in Old Cairmardine on the river side.
S. Cleres [c] vii miles from Cairmardine was a litle monasteri suppressid and given to Alsoulen-College in Oxford.
Teguin ar Taue [d] an abbay of White Monkes a x. miles from Cairmerdine.
Ther was a celle of the order of monkes of S. Dogmaels in Caldey Island now suppressid.
Penbrooke a celle of monkes longging to S. Albanes Montaine. Monastery.
At Arforde West [e] a priori of Chanons.
Pille, otherwise Pille Rose, a house of monkes of S. Dogmaels Order, standing in Rose Cimtery iiii. miles above Arford West apon the farther shore of the Haven of Mylford.
The priori of Bonhomes caullid S. Dogmaels.
Ther was a priori in Cairdigan toune, but in hit was but a ii. religiose menne Blak Monkes. It stondith yet, and is a celle onto Chertesey.
Llan Lleyr a nunnery of White Nunnes in Cardiganshire apon the brook of Aeron. It was a celle of Stratflur [f] and stoode from Stratflere x. miles in the hy-way to Cairdigan. The village hard by it is caullid Talesarne [g] Greene.
Strateflure an abbay of White Monkes on Tiue. [h]
Aber Ayron is a iii. miles beneth Llanclere, [i] and ther he goith into the maine. Peraventure Lleuys Morganne the
[b] Carmarthen, Priory Street.
[c] St. Clears.
[d] Ty gwyn ar Dav.
[e] Haverford West.
[f] Ystrad fflur.
[g] Tal y sarn.
[h] River Teivi.
[i] Llan Lleyr.
52 LELAND'S ITINERARY
barth was deceivid in this, taking it for Neuport. Ayron risith in a montaine by a chapel caullid Blaine Pennial. [a] This chapel Longith to Llandewibrevi, but it is in Cairdiganshire over Tyue [b] a iii. or iiii. myles from Tyue ripe.
Talleye [c] a priory of White Chanons, a iiii. miles from Abermarleys, a castel of Sir Rhese ap Thomas almost standing in the midde way almost betwixt Brekenok and Cairmardine.
Comehere [d] an abbay of White Monkes stondith betwixt ii. great hilles in Melennith in a botom wher rennith a litle brooke. It is a vii. miles from Knighton. The first foundation was made by Cadwathelan ap Madok [e] for lx. monkes. No chirch in Wales is seene of such lenght as the fundation of walles ther begon doth show; but the third part of this worke was never finisched. Al the howse was spoilid and defacid be Owen Glindour.
Clunnok Vaur [f] a monasteri sumtime of White Monkes suppressid many yeres ago. But the original of this monasteri was by S. Benow, [g] of whom mention is made in S. Wenefrides life. The Whit Monkes were of a newer fundation. Guithin, uncle to one of the princes of North-Wales, was the first giver of Clunnok village and place to Beunow. The chirch that is now ther with crosse isles is almost as bigge as S. Davides, but it is of a new worke. The old chirch wher S. Beunow liyth is hard by the new.
This Clunnok stondith almost on the shore of the maine sea x. miles above Cair Arvon [h] toward the counteri of Lline. [i]
Matravel Castel in Poisland, [k] wher, as sum sai, was one of the princes palaces of Walis as for the Prince of Poisland.
In the depes in Mone [l] wher they digge turves be founde greate rootes of trees that serve men for wood. For after the trees wer cut doune sogging yerth and mosse overcoverid them, and now the same yerth parid away for turves the old mayne rootes appere.
Likewise at low water about al the shores of both shores
[a] Blaen pennal.
[b] River Teivi.
[c] Talley, a contracted form of Tal y llycheu.
[d] Cwm hir.
[e] Cadwallon ap Madog.
[f] Clynog Vawr.
[g] St. Beuno.
[h] Caer yn Arvon.
[k] Mathravel in Powisland.
[l] Mon = Anglesey.
IN WALES. PART VI 53
of Aberdeui and Townen [a] Merioneth appere like rootes of trees.
Ther is in Mone as right againe Neuen tounne in Lline, [b] that is a kenning of, a little isle caullid Sainct Dunwen, a woman, and in this isle is the chirch of S. Dunwen. This isle is veri fertile of cunnies, and hath ii. fair welles. Ther is now a litle balk of sand cast up, the wich at low waters prohibitith the se to cum about.
This isle is a ii. mile from Henerosser. [c]
Ther is by Conwey on the hither side of Conway water an arme like a peninsula, caullid Gogarth, liying against Prestholme, and ther be the ruines of a place of the bisshops of Bangor.
Raeder [d] the chefe village of Melennith, and Wy River rynneth by hit.
Walsche Poole v. miles from Montgomery, the best market of Powisland.
Clunne [e] was a praty market towne, and yet sometyme they keepe market there. Clun, alias Colunwye.
CASTLES IN MONTGOMERIKESHIRE.
Walschpole had 2. Lorde Marchers castles within one waulle, the Lorde Powis namid Greye, and the Lord Dudley caullyd Sutton; but now the Lord Powys hathe bothe in his hond. The Walche Pole is in compas almoste as muche as a litle towne. The Lord Duddeles parte is almoste fallen downe. The Lord Powys parte is meatly good.
Clunne Castell longynge to the Erle of Arundal, sumewhat minus. It hath bene bothe stronge and well builded, vii. miles from Mountgomerik, andiii. from Bisshops Towne, and x. from Ludlo.
Clune was a lordshipe marched by it selfe afore the new Acte.
[a] Aber Dyvi and Towyn.
[b] Nevyn in Llyn. St. Dwynwen, the patron saint of Llanddwyn Abbey, Newborough, Anglesey.
[c] ? Hendre Rossyr = Newborough.
54 LELAND'S ITINERARY
By Cluno is a great forest of redde dere and roois longinge to the Lord of Arundell, and standinge in the lordshipe of Temecestre, thrwghe the whiche Teme Ryver cummethe longinge also to the Lord of Arundle.
Dolveron Castle [a] ruinus in the lordshipe of Kidowen apon an halfe mile or more from Severne, a iii. miles up Severne from Montgomery, and was the very chefe place of the hole lordshipe of Kidewen.
Cair Dicol [b] is a iiii miles from Montgomerike. It stondithe in Chyrbiry Hundred on a hille, and is motyd and diked lyke the mote a mile owt of Bysshops Towne.
All Chirbyri Hundrid by the new Acte is adjecte to Shrobbschere. Afore the devisyon it was a member to the lordshipe of Montgomerike, and then Worthinge vilage, vi. mils from Montegomerike, was a lymes to Shropshire, but now Shrobbshere some way towchithe within a mile and a halfe of Montgomerike towne.
It apperithe in the Acte what lordshipps be adjoynid to the v. new shires.
Kenlet a preaty broke in the vale by Montgomerike. His cowrce is about vii. miles in lengthe, and enterithe into Severne abowte a mile from Chirbyri Priory.
Clunne Forest very faire and good game.
Kery Forest, but no dere in it.
Kidowen Forest, but no dere in it.
Al the lordshipps set to Mongomerikeshire be for the moste parte mountainius, well woodid, and as they be usyd bettar for catell as gressy, then for corne; yet about Walschpoole and Montgomerik is good plenty of corne.
In Hye or Uper Powesland northewestward toward Abreustwith [c] be 2. lordshipps, Arustle and Cauilioc. [g]
In Rustle [d] is no praty towne, or of any market, but Llanidles. Yet at poore Cairllews [e] hathe bene a market and borow privilegid.
In Cauilioc is none but Mahenclif. [f]
Powis borderithe one way apon North-Wals in Merionetheshire as concerninge the limits of Cauilioc [g] lordshipe, and is in lengthe by gesse a xx. miles. For it is xvi. miles betwixt
[a] Dol Vorwyn Castle.
[b] Caer Digoll on " Long Mountain." [c] Aberystwith.
[e] Caer Sws.
IN WALES. PART VI 55
Cairllews and Mahenclif, and at the ends of eche of thes places it extendith somewhat from the townes.
Low Pois is in lengthe from Buttigton Bridge a 2. miles from the Walche Poole toward Shrobbsheri onto above.
In all Hy Powis is not one castle that evidently aperithe by manifest ruins of waulls; and they wer wont to bringe in tymes past in the old Lord Duddley's dayes theyr prisoners to Walchepoole.
And in Low Powis is but onely the castle of the Walchepoole.
Llanlligan a veri litle poore nunneri about the border of Kidewyn and Nether Powis.
Chirbiri a priori of Chanons in Chirbiri Hunderith 2. miles from Montgomerike. Muche of the stone and leade browght to repayre Montgomery.
Strate Marcelle [a] Abbey. White Monkes in Lowe Powis 2. mils from the Walsche Poole, hard on the farthar banke of Severne.
Mastar Mitten of Shropshire now lord of Mouthey [b] lordshipe set to Montgomerishire.
Keri lordshipe, Kidowen lordshipe, Alcestlitle lordshipe, the lordshipe of Treelte, alias 3. townes, longe to Montgomeri, as partes or members of it, and be in the Kyng's hand.
Arustle and Keuilioc lordshipps long also to the Kynge, late the Lorde Duddley's.
Clunne and Temecester lordshipps longe to the Lord of Arundle.
Al Nether Powis lordship with Walchepoole market and castel to the Lord Powis.
Llanwordell dyd longe to the Lord Duddley, now to the Lord Powis.
Dowder [c] lordshipe longid to the Lord Dudeley, now to Mastar Andrews of Oxfordshire.
[a] Ystrad Marchell.
56 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Abreostuthe [a] hath bene waullyd, and hathe greate privilegis, and is better market then Cairdigan.
There is but a great hill bytwyxt Ostvvith River and Stratflure, so that ther is but distance of 2. miles bytwyxt the streames of Tyue [b] and Ostwith.
Abow Strateflure cummithe owt of the mowntanes a wild watar, and goythe into Tyue. [b] The watar, as I hard say, is caullid Glesse rode. [c]
There is a Lline [d] a iiii. miles from Stratflure caullyd Llin Tyue about ... in bredthe. Tyue cummithe out of this poole, so to Strateflure Abbay, and there aboute commithe in Glesrodeburne, sumwhat benethe the abbay. Glesrode risethe a 3. miles from Stratflure in the mountaynes in the hy way toward Buelthe.
Tyue or evar he cum to Stratflure, takethe but a lytle botom, but fletithe and ragith apon stones as Glesrode dothe.
And or Tyue cum to Stratflure he reseivithe a litle brooke caullyd Llinhiglande.
Glesrode sometyme so rageth that he cariethe stones from there placis.
Tyue goith from Stratflur to Tregaron a village a iiii. miles of on the hither side, and this commithe in a nothar brooke caullid Crose [e] that within a litle goithe into Tyue.
Grifin Dun Justice of Cairmardine tolde me that ther is a place about Strateflure caullyd Cregnaullin [f] as a stone or rokket from whens a man may se ix. llines.
ABBAYES AND PRIORIES IN CARDIGANSHIRE.
Strateflur [g] apon Tyue xxiiii. miles of montaine ground from Brekenauc.
Talley [h] a priori of White Chanons in a valley within 3. mils of Abermarlais, and it stode in Carmardynshire.
[a] Aber Ystwith.
[c] Glas ffrwd.
[g] Ystrad Flur, or Strata Florida.
[h] Tal y llycheu.
IN WALES. PART VI 57
Landewi [a] breui a prety village and a college of xiiii. prebends longinge to S. David's. It stondithe 2. mils from Tregaron, and by Landewi rinnith a streme caullyd Breui. [b]
MARKETTES IN CAIRMARDINSHIRE.
CASTELLES IN CAIRMERDINSHIRE.
New Castel, alias bi the old name Elmelin, [c] almost on the very banke of Tyue, but in Cairmardinshir, repairid or new buildid by Syr Rhese ap Thomas. In this lordship of Elmelin is other litle fair building. Ther is a litle forest by Elmelin, and a park was ther ons palid.
Clare Castel ruines hard by Saint Cleres Chirch vi. or vii. miles from Cairmairdin.
Llanstufan in ostio Tevii [d] flu.
Lacharne in hostio Tauae flu. Taua a little lower goith into Tewe. [e] It longid sumtime to the Erle of Northumbreland.
(Loke here about for Lanamdeueri Castel. [f]
For Dineuer Castel apon Tewi [g] on the same side of Tewi that Cairmardine-shire is. Here was sumtime a long streat, now minus.
For Dryslin Castel apon Tewi [b] on the same ripe that Dineuer is. Drisloyn, Dris dyrys inexplicabilis, lloyn a busch.)
Kerikennen [i] a iii. miles from Dineuer at the roote of Blake Montaine.
[a] Llan Dewi brevi.
[c] Emlyn, on the bank of the Teivi.
[d] Llan Stephan in ostio Towy.
[e] The Tav and the Towy.
[f] Llan ym ddyvri = Llandovery, which is about thirty miles away.
[g] Dinevor on Towy.
[h] Dryslwyn upon Towy.
[i] Carreg Kennen.
58 LELAND'S ITINERARY
ABBAIS AND PRIORIES IN CAIRMARDINSHIRE.
Cairmardin Priori of Blak Chanons, down.
Teguin ar Taue, [a] Barnardines, yet stondeth.
Talley Priory, White Chanons.
The Collegiate Chirch of ... was translatid to Abreguili [b] for vitiating of a maide, the Canons being killid or fleing for hit.
Aberguili a collegiate chirche of xx. prebendes or mo longing to S. David's. And this is a lordeship of the Bisshop of S. David, lying amonge other lordshippes in Diffrin (valis) Tewe. [c]
Llandilavar [d] a lordship of the Bisshops of S. David a mile from Dinevor on the same side of the river that Dinevor is, but a mile above it.
RIVERS IN CAIRMARDINESHIRE.
Tewi [e] risith in the montaines of Elennith, and cumming thens partith Cantermaur and Canteruehan by Laneneri [f] by Dinevor, by Cairmardin, and by Landistufan [g] Castel into the se.
Taua [h] risith in the montaines of Presseleu not far from Teguin ar Taue, by the which it cummith, and so by S. Clares, and not far from Abercorran [i] and Talacharne [k] it goith into the se. I hard ons that it risith in a montaine caullid Wrenne Vaur l a iiii. miles from Cairdigeon. [m]
Cowe [n] Riveret runneth almost in the middel way bytwyxt Cairmardin and S. Clares.
[a] Ty gwyn ar Dav.
[b] Aber Gwili, near Carmarthen.
[c] Dyffryn Towy.
[d] Llan Deilo vawr.
[f] Cantre mawr and Cantre bychan by ? Llan Dovery.
[g] Llan Stephan.
[i] Aber Cowyn.
[l] y Vrenni vawr.
[m] Ceredigion = Cardigan.
IN WALES. PART VI 59
I lernid ons that Kennenn Riveret risith in Blake Montaine and goith into Tewi about Dinever.
Kidwely, otherwise Cathgweli, i.e. Cattilectus, quia Cattus olim solebat ibi lectum in quercu facere, alias legi Cadweli. Ther is a litle toune now but newly made betwene Vendraith Vaure and Guendraith Vehan [a] rivers but hard apon Vendraith Vehan. Vendraith Vaur is half a mile of.
Ther is betwixt New Kidwelly and the Old but a bridge over litle Wendraith. [b] The old toun is pretily waullid, and hath hard by the waul a castel. The old town is nere al desolatid, but the castel is meately wel kept up. It longgid to the Duke of Lancastre. In the new toune is onely a Chirch of our Ladi, and by is the celle of Blake Monkes of Shirburne. Ther the prior is parson of our Ladi Chirch.
I saw ther iii. gates, and over one of them was the ruine of a fair toun haul, and under, a prison.
A peace of the new toune was lateli burnid. The new toune is three times as bigge as the old.
Sins the Haven of Vendraith Vehan decaied, the new toune is sore decaied.
Cairmardine hath incresid sins Kidweli Havin decaied. ... e,* as I remembre, Alice of London wife to one of the Dukes of Lancastre lay in the castel, and did a reparation on hit.
Reparation was done on the castel againe the cumming of King Henry the VII. into Wencelande. [c]
The castel is veri fair and doble waullid.
The se flouith by Vendreth Vehan, flouith apon half a mile above the town of Kidwelley.
Bothe Wendreth Vaur and Vehan goith into the se about a mile beneth the toune, al only a litle nesch of sand deviding their mouthes.
Ther lieth a long on eche side of Wendreth Vaur pittes, wher menne digge se cole.
At Llanelthle, [d] a village of Kidwelli lordship, a vi. miles
[a] Gwendraeth vawr and Gwendraeth vechan.
[d] Llan Elli.
60 LELAND'S ITINERARY
from Kidwelli, the habintans digge coles, elles scant in Kidwelly land.
Ther be ii. maner of thes coles. Ring coles for smith be blowid and waterid.
Stones coles be sumtime waterid, but never blowen, for blowing extinguishit them.
So that Vendwith Vaur [a] coles be stone coles; Llanethle [b] coles ring colis.
In Kidwelli is litle wood, but in the very litle forest of Kidwelli within a mile of the town on Vendrath Vehan.
Lochor River partith Kidwelli land from West Gower lande.
Penbre [c] a litle lordship longging to Kidwelli lande ii. miles from Kidwelli by south est linyng.
The foreland bytwixt the pointes of the mouthys of Vendraethis is caullid Calicot, and this part of Kidwely land berith the best woolle of Hye Walys.
Toward the se side in Kidwelli land is good corne.
Eskenninge [d] commote hath no notable castel or goodly building or toune, and was in King (Edwarde) the (fourthes) dayes a mere membre of Kidwelli lordship, but Syr Griffin Nicolas, graundfather to Sir Rhese ap Thomas, did by poure sumwhat sever them to take justice at Cairmardine and nat at Kidwelly.
Carnobthlon [e] commoth hath nother castel nor good tounne. Llanelthle is in this commote. So that yn al Kidwelly land be iii. commotes, Kidwely, Eskenning and Carnolthlon. [e]
Eskenning and Carnobthlon be names of commotes, not of tounnes or villages.
Vendraith Vaur and Vendraith Vehan risith both in Eskenning commote, the lesse an eight milys of from Kidwelli, the other about a x. and hath but a litle nesche of sand betwixt the places wher thei go into the se.
[a] Gwendraeth vawr.
[b] Llan Elli.
[d] Is Kennen.
[e] Carnwyllon commote.
IN WALES. PART VI 61
Vendraith Vehan in one place cummith within iii. miles of Cairmardin. Nother of the Vendraithes cummith to ani notable place but to Kidweli.
The next great streme that cummith more southerly into the Severn Se is Lochor, [a] and that I did well perceive at the mouth of Vendraithis. Lochor devidith Gower-Land from Kidwelli lordship.
The next river by west to Vendraithes is Tewe, [b] that at Llanstufan [c] Castel a iii. miles of cummith into the Severn Se.
The Severn Se at ful water betith on the point of Llanstufan. At low water it is ii. good miles of. At ful se Taue [d] semith to cumme as it were to the mouth of Towe [b] River, but at low water marke a man may perceive how it hasteth to the se on the sandis hard by Towe.
Llanstufan is v. miles from Cairmardine, and about a iiii. miles above Llanstufan on the same ripe is a place or clif caullid Grene Castel, wher that shippes use to ly at ancre. Smaul balinggers otherwise cum to Cairmardine.
Beyond Llanstephan before the havin mouth liith a barre, so that shippis lightteli cum not in withjowt a pilote.
Ther is in Gower-Land bytwixt Suansey and Lochor a litle promontori caullid Wormes Hedde, from the wich to Caldey is communely caullid Sinus Tinbechicus.
From Swansey to Kidweli a xii. miles.
From Kidweli to Tynbighe [e] a xvi. miles.
Tinby ys a walled towne hard on the Severn Se yn Penbrookeshire. Ther is a sinus and a peere made for shyppes. The towne is very welthe by marchaundyce: but yt is not very bygge having but one paroche chyrche. One thinge is to be merveled at. There is no welle yn the towne, as yt is saide, wherby they be forced to fech theyr water at S. John's withowt the towne.
Mainopir, i.e. Mansio Pirrhi, is now communely cawlled Manober [f] a towne of howsbondry, the parsonage wherof is impropered to Christes College yn Cambridge. The ruines of Pirrhus Castel there, many walles yet standyng hole, do openly appere. This place is iii. myles fro Tynby, and almost as muche from Pembrook, but not in the hye-way,
[c] Llan Stephan.
[e] Tenby, in Welsh Dinbych y pysgod.
[f] Maenor Pir, ignorantly written Manobeer.
62 LELAND'S ITINERARY
for yt standeth nere the shore of the Severn Se. And agaynst this towne, or betwixt yt and Tinby, liyth Inis pir, i.e. Insula Pirrhi, alias Caldey.
A good deale upward above Milforde Haven lyith Great Scalmey [a] and Lytle Scalmey, one almost joyning to a nother, longing booth to the King, but not inhabited propter piratas et cell inclementiam. Great Scalmey hath no howse in yt, as I remembre. M. Hogan said that therein is a chapel. The fermers bring over thither shepe and coltes of horses, the which feede very wildely there; but the coltes taken fro thens be larger and better fed then harted or apt for war.
Schoukhold [b] Isle yoinith to Scalmey bygger isle then she, onli a passage for shippes deviding them. As I remembre it liyth souther then Scalme. These isles ly not far from the shore in the side of the mouth of Milleford Haven.
Beyownd Scalmey farther ynto the ende of the Severn Se lieth a great blakke and hy rokke lyke an isle.
Gresse Holme is a good way into the se, and is but smaulle and without habitation.
Ramesey Isle conteinith iii. islettes, wherof the Bisshop of S. Davides is owner of the gretest, but the Cantor of S. Davids claymith another of them. In them is good feeding for sheepe and horses. And the Archidiacon of Cairmardin the 3.
Llanstufan Castel and lordship by the new Acte is remevid from Cairmardinshire and adject to Penbrookeshire, by cawse it longid in tymes past to the Erle of Penbrooke.
Narbarthe [c] a litle preati pile of old Syr Rheses given onto hym by King Henri the VIII. Ther is a poore village. Narbarth lordship cummeth almost from Est or Lower Gledy, [d] and so stil bi est nere onto Whitland wher Taue Water devidith it from Cairmardinshire. (In the statute caullid Herberth.) Grifith Nicolas graundfather to Syr Rise boute it of the Duke of York, but after loste. By Narbarth is a litle forest caullid Narbarth Foreste.
Dueglevi [e] lordship is conteynid bytwixt the ii. rivers of
[b] ? Skokam.
[c] Narberth, older form Arberth.
[d] Cleddeu or Cleddiv.
[e] Deugleddiv, ignorantly written "Dungleddy."
IN WALES. PART VI 63
Glevi. [a] In this lordship or grounde be few or none notable buildinges. Ther is a litle rille betuixt the ii. Gleves [a] caullid Killell, i.e. Cultellus.
Lannhadein lordship on the est side Gledi a wher is a castel buildid on a rokke longging to the Bisshop of S. David and a village by ...
Therby is also a forest of redde deere caullid Lloydarth. [b]
Dewys land, [c] alias Pebidiauc, [d] and Canterdewy [e] bare of wood and meately plentiful of barly corne, and reasonably of al other corne.
Roche Castel longging to the Lorde Ferres and old Langeville knight of Bukinghamshire bytwyxt Harford West and S. Davids.
Slebyche comaundry of the Rodes liith apon the Est Glevy [a] even adjoyning to the west parte of Narbarth lordship.
Haverford West lordship hath the waullid toun of Haverford and castel. The water of Mylford Haven devidith the lordship from Penbrooke. In Haverford toun thre paroch chirches, one of them withowt the toune in the suburbe. Blak Freres within the toune. Chanons without suppressid.
Rose [f] Market. The market is lost, and is now a poore village. It is as in the midde way bitwixt Arford West and Penbrok.
Gualwin castel and lordship is perteining to Harford West. It longgid to the lord of Northumbreland, now to Perot.
Harford lordship is in Roselande, and part of Rose [f] lordship occupieth sum of Pembrokeshire.
In the extreme part of Penbrokeshire after the old limites is a pore village caullid Angle touching hard apon Milford Haven.
Toward this extreme part of Pembrokshire be the vestigia of Martine Castel.
Marreys [g] a faire place longging to the Eliottes.
Betwixt the ii. Gleves [a] by Harford West is a litle ryveret
[a] Cleddeu or Cleddiv.
[c] Dewi's land, i.e., St. David s land.
[e] Cantre Dewi.
[g] ? Marros, or St. Mary's = Maen clochog.
64 LELAND'S ITINERARY
caullid in Walsch Kyllell in Englisch Knife. One beyng requirid wher he lay al night answerid that he lay having a swerd on eche side of hym, and a knife at his hart, alluding to the iii. rivers in the midle of whom he lay al night.
Rowse [a] Lordship hath corne sufficient, and to selle to other, and especially toward Milford Haven. There is wood also competent.
Roche Castel withowte faile is yn Rouselande.
In Pebidiauc. [b]
The remayne tokins of Cairboias [c] Castel standing by Alen ryveret about a quarter of a myle lower then S. David on the same ryveret.
And sum say that there hath beene a castel at or aboute Port Maur, [d] but the tokens be not very evidente.
There is a litle woode at Perskilly [e] an viii. miles from S. David, bytwixt Fischard [f] and it, and moch better at Treugarn [g] a 4. miles ...
There appere in dyvers partes of Pebidiauc hilles and dikes with bulwarkes of yerth as campes of men of warre or closures for catelle.
The soile of Pebidiauc is stony, yet there is meatly good corne. There is plenty of fisch bycause of the crekes.
S. David-Land beginnith at Newgulle [h] a crek servid with bak fresche water. There is a bay afore this creke betwixt it and Milforde.
There be divers other litle crekittes betwixte Newgalle and S. David Hedde, and againe betwixte S. David and Fischard [f] beside them that be written of heere.
[a] Rhos, ignprantly written Rowse and Roose.
[c] Clegir Voia. Boia, a man's name, is stupidly confounded in the Ordnance map with the adjective mwya.
[d] Porth Mawr, at St. David's Head.
[e] Cf. Preseleu Forest on the West Cleddiv.
[g] Trevgarn, fourteen miles west of St. David's, on the Cleddiv.
IN WALES. PART VI 65
Newgull 6. mile from S. David in the midde way betwixt Herford [a] and S. David.
A 4. miles from Newgal upward on the shore is Solvach, otherwise Salverach, a smaul creke for ballingars and fischar botes. And hither resortith a litle fresch water.
Thens to Porte Clays 3. miles, a litle havenlet, wither Alen that rennith thorough S. David Close cummith.
This Porte Clais lyith a myle south weste from S. David.
About a mile of is Port Maure, where is a greate sande with a shorte estuary into the lande. S. Stinans [b] Chapel is a mile strait weste from S. Davids, and ther is the Pass to Ramesey a myle of by water. This chapel is betuixt Portclais and Porth Maur. [c]
Then to Pendewi or S. David Hedde half a mile.
To Llan Rean [d] paroche, a prebend, 3. miles, where is a litle creket.
To Tredine 2. miles. Thens a peace of Llanrean paroch, wher the Bisshop of S. David hath a place, and heere is a litle creket.
To Llanunda [e] paroche about a 4. miles having a creke. Here about is hering fisshing. Here Gueyn [f] River devidith Pebidiauc from Fisschcard in Kemmeisland.
To Fischarde a 4. miles. Here is a litle haven, havynge a resort of shippis.
Syr John Talbot that maried Troutbeks heire dwellith in a goodly logge on the hy toppe of Albrighton Parke. It is in the very egge of Shropshire 3. miles from Tunge. [g]
Corbet of Morton Corbet viii. c. marke lande, it liith round about the shire. He hath a manor by Layton Bussard in Bukinghamshir.
Corbet of Lee, 2. miles from Caurse Castel [h] of a yongger brother of Morton. It cam yn partely by mariage, c. mark lande.
Sum say that of late dayis Corbettes were owners of Caurse Castel.
[b] St. Stinans = St. Justinian.
[c] Porth Mawr is several miles from Porth clais, but Porth llisky lies about a mile to the west.
[d] Llan Rian.
[e] Llan Wnda.
[f] Gweun, ignorantly written Gwaen.
[h] Cawres Castle.
66 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Corbet of Langmer, [d] 4. miles from Shrobsbyri toward Ludlo. Ther is a park, xl. li. lande.
Syr Richarde Mainewering of Higthfeld, 2. miles from Whitchirch.
John Dodde of Cloreley, a mile from Hightfeld, [a] a c. marke.
Syr Robert Nedarh of Sheinton, 4 c. marke lande.
Grosevenour of Beleporte, 3. miles owt of Draiton Market. This man and Grosevenour of Eiton Bote in Chestre cam of 2. yongger brethern of Grosevenour of Houme, whos v. doughtters and heires were maried ...
Shakerley of Lancastre maried the eldest daughter, and had the manor of Houme.
Newport of Archhaul a lordship of a c. li. with park, and hath a c. li. lande by. This man, and Mitton of Cotton by Shrobsbyri had Syr John Boroues landes in Shropshir and Warwik. Mitton had his best house More Haul in Warwicshire.
Leighton of Leighton.
Leighton of Watelesborow.
Leighton of Plasch a mile or 2. from Acton Burnel.
Leighton of Rodimer 2. miles from Chorleton Castel, and is on Roden Ryver.
Mitton caullid lorde of Mouthey, [b] but I trow he be but steward to the King there. His house is at Cotton a quarter of a mile owt of Shreusbyri, 2. c. mark lande.
Trentam of Shropshire dwellid in the toune self, wher his best house was, a man of 1. li. lande. Now he hath sold his lande in Shropshir, and hath boute Rocestre Priory in Stafordshir on Dove.
Thornes of Shreusbyri, 1. li. land.
Onesloo of Oneslo, xl. li. land. 2. miles from Shreusbyri. Oteley of Pichefert, [c] 4. miles from Shousbyri and a mile from Acton Burnel, a c. li. lande.
Skriven of Frodisley a mile from Acton Burnel, c. mark land.
Le of Longmer [d] a fair manor and park, c. li. land, a mile from Acton Burnel. He is elder brother to Le that maried Leighton's wif of Watelborow.
[a] Cloverley, Ightfeld.
[b] Mowddwy in Merioneth.
IN WALES. PART VI 67
Laken of Wyley, [a] wher is a park. 3. miles from Bridgnorth, 3. c. markes.
Gateacre of Gataker, a c. marke lande, 3. mile from Brigenorth.
Wolrige of Dudmistre [b] of Severne Bank. c. mark lande.
Haughton of Becbyri, 4. miles from Brigenorth. xl. li. land.
Yong of Caineton. c. mark.
Vernoun of Hodenet Syr Henry Vernoun sun. 2. c. markes by one of the heire of Ludlo.
Cotton of Cotton, a 1. li. lande.
Chorleton of Apeley hard by Welington.
Chorleton of Wombridge uncle to ...
Englisch Maylor lyith altogether on the south side of Dee conteyning 3. paroches, Oureton, Bangor Vaure, [d] Hanmere. The paroches be very greate, and they have sum chapelles. There was a praty pile or castel at Oureton yn auncient tyme, the which was throuen doune by the violence of Dee Ryver chaunging his botom. For of olde tyme Dee ran half a mile from the castel yn a place of the valley caullid Whistan, where now is woode and ploughid grounde right agayne Oureton. The toune of Oureton hath had burgesses, but now there is not 20. houses. One parte of the diches and hille of the castel yet remaynith; the residew is in the botom of Dee.
The next paroche lower on Dee is Bangor. And yet yn deede Oureton is but a membre to Bangor, and Dr. Knight is parsone of it. This is Bangor wher the great abbay was. A parte of this paroch, that is as much as lyith beyond Dee on the north side, is yn Walsche Maylor, and that is as half the paroche of Banjgor. But the abbay stoode yn Ynglyshe Mailor on the hither and south side of Dee. And it is ploughid grownd now where the abbay was by the space of a good Walsch myle, and yet they plough up bones of the monkes, and in remembraunce were diggid up pecis of theyr clothes in sepulturs. The abbay stoode in a faire valley, and Dee ran by it. The cumpace of it was as of a
[d] Bangor Iscoed.
68 LELAND'S ITINERARY
waullid toune, and yet remaynith the name of a gate caullid Porth Hogan [a] by north, and the name of a nother caullid Port Clays [b] by south. Dee syns chaunging the botom rennith now thoroug the mydle betwyxt thes 2 gates, one being a mile dim. from the other, and yn this grounde be ploughid up foundations of squarid stonys, and Romayne money is founde there.
Beneth Bangor stil lower on the south side of Dee Ryver is a paroche caullid Worthembre, [c] in Walch Guothumbre, having a faire chirch, but as a membre to Bangor.
Hanmere paroche lyith south est on Oureton, Bangor, and Worthembre; but so that these 3. ly bitwixt it and Dee Ryver. And sum parte of this yoinith apon Whit-Chirche Market a paroche in Shropshire, but in the egge of Chestershire, and apon Malpasse. This Hanmere is a very large paroche, and hath a greate deale more riches then al the residew of Englisch Maylor.
In Oureton is meately good woode, corne and pasture, and standith sumwhat on hyer ground than Bangor or Worthembre. Bangor hath goode corne and pasture, but litle or no woode, and lyith al yn valleys, and in Worthembre no woode but good corne and pasture.
Hanmere paroche hath good plenty of wood, corne, medow and pasture; and by Hanmere Chirch is a greate pole aboute a mile yn lenght, and half a myle yn bredth. And every gentilman hath there his fayre pooles. There is a xl. gentilmen yn this paroch that have praty landes.
Pilston knight hath much land yn Hanmere, but his chefe howse is yn Worthembre paroche at a place caullid Emerhaule. [d]
Hanmere knight dwellith at Hanmer, and yn that paroch be aliquot of the Hanmers that hath landes.
There is a greate more in Hanmore cawllid of sum the Fennys.
Dymok dwellith at Haulton.
Edward Pilston sunne to the knight dwellith yn Oureton paroche at Coitegolle.
[a] Porth Wgan (i.e., Guocaun, modern Gwgan).
[b] Porth Klais.
IN WALES. PART VI 69
Ellys ap Richard dwellith yn Bangor at Alre [a] on Dee south syde, a fair hous.
John Broughton dwellith yn Worthembre paroche at Broughton.
Al this Englisch Maylor tho it ly not hard on Flyntshire, but hath Walshe Mailor betwixte it and Flynt, yet it longith to Flynte shire, and they cum to sessions to Flynte.
Yet they have liberte in token of the olde castel to kepe a prisoner 3. dayes at Oureton, and so to send hym to Flynt.
Walch Maylor caullid yn Englisch Bromefeld lying on the north side of De, lower on Dee then Yale, and yoining hard apon Yale. It lyith est apon Holt Bridge, the which devidith Chestershire from Bromefelde. Flintshir liyth north on it. Diffrin Cluit [b] lyith west on it. And Englisch Mailor, alias Mailor Sesneg, id est Saxonica, lyith south on it.
Bromefeld is a playne countery, and hath good plenty of wood, and goode corne and pasture; and se-coles at Harwood, and at a place caullid the Mines.
The best woode of Bromefeld is yn Ruabon, a bygge paroch, by part wherof De cummith. There is a good quarre of grinding-stonys yn Ruabon paroch.
The Holt is a praty riche Walsche toune, governid by a maire, having ons a yere a fair, but surely now no celebrate market. Yn it is a praty church, and a goodly castel. The chirch is but a chapel to Gresforde.
Gresforde is as faire a chirche as Wrexham, having a steple of vii. score foote hy, beside the 4. pinnaclid towers. This chirch is a 2. miles from the ... bank of De ... cum ... litle ... chirch ... n to ... if a ... th ... te ... he ... t to ... ande.
Wrexham, treuly caullid Wrightelesham, is the onely market towne of Walsch Maylor, having a goodly chirch collegiate, as one of the fairest of all North-Wales, and is a 2. miles
[b] Dyffryn Klwyd.
70 LELAND'S ITINERARY
above the Holt on the same north side of the ryver. There longgith no prebendes to it, though it be collegiatid. There be sum marchauntes and good bokeler makers. There cummith a broke caullid Wenbro thorough the toune. Wrexham is 3. miles north from De Ryver. Ther be 2. other paroches (? in) Bromefeld, and so in all 4.
Waters in Bromefeld.
Ruededoc Broke, having good trouttes, cummith in one place withyn a quarter of a myle of Wrexham, and goith ynto De a mile above the Holte Castel. [b]
Abon that cummith by Ruabon [c] Chirch waul, and after renning lesse then a myle goith into Dee.
Pylleston the knight hath a faire maner yn Gresforde paroch at Llay [d] by marying an heyre doughter to one of the Hanmere.
John Eyton dwellid yn Ruabon.
John Pylleston sergeant at armes hath a manor and place withyn half a myle of Wrexham at Marsche.
Yale lordship yoinith to Bromefeld upon the farther side of De Ryver, and there is no parte of it on the hither side of Dee. There is in it a 4. or 5. paroches, wherof the moste famose is Llanarmon, i.e. Fanum Germani, and Llan Tegla, [e] i.e. Fanum Teclae.
Greate pilgremage and offering was a late to S. Armon.
Llanegwhiste [f] alias Vallis Crucis, ys yn Yale half a myle from Dee ripe.
Dinas Brane [g] Castel on a rokky hille stondith almost as neere as Vallis Crucis to Dee ripe, and going up on De water is sumwhat lower then the abbay.
Owen Glindour had a place yn Yale apon the north side of De caullid Ragarth v. mile above Dinas Brane.
Almost in the midle way betwixte Llanegwhist and
[a] Dyvrdwy = sacred water.
[b] The Clywedog flows south of Wrexham and into the Dee a little north of Pickhill Hall. The brooklet flowing into the Dee "a mile above the Holte Castel" does not come anywhere near Wrexham.
[c] Rhiw Abon.
[e] Llan Degla.
[f] Llan Egwestyl.
[e] Dinas Bran.
IN WALES. PART VI 71
Rithyn [a] appere vestigia of a castel of Owen Glindour (as it is saide) caullid Keuen De, [b] i.e. the bakke of the Blake Hille, wher now shepardes kepe shepe.
Chirk and Chirkland lye by south on De agayne Yale, so that De for a space devidith Yale and Chirke.
The hole soile of Yale is rokky, and by that not thoroughly fruteful of corne, yet yn diverse placis and valleyis betwixt hilles is meately good corne, medow and pasture, and especially for corne aboute Llaneghwiste, and Llanarmon.
In Yale ys plenty of kyne, shepe and gotes.
John Llued dwellith in Llan Teglas [c] paroche.
Edwarde Llued yn Llanarmon.
There is meately good wood yn the valley places of Yale, and especially at Llanegwhist, alias Vallis Crucis. The montaynis of Yale standing north be baren of wood. The people there for the more part brenne turffis.
De Ryver cummith by the side of Yale as limes betwixt it and Chirk.
The greatest water beside De that is yn any parte of Yale is Alen that risith in Llin Alen. [d] This Alen rennith doune from weste to este firste to Llantegla, to Llanarmon, to Llanuerrys yn Yale, thens into Molesdale lordship, at a place wherof caullid Hespalen [e] it rennith into the grounde by the space of a quarter of a myle, and there is a marche betwixt Moledale and Flynte, and after rising departith stille by v. Walsche miles in cumpase Molesdale from Flyntshire. Thense thorough Hope Dale, a lordship perteining to Flynt. Thens ynto Bromefeld, alias Mailor Camrege, [f] and half a mile beneth Holt-Bridg into De. This water hath mervelus good and greate trouttes.
Chirke and Chirkelande lyith on the hither side by south of De agaynste Yale, and weste of it upper on De hither ripe lyith a commothe of Merionithshir caullid Dernion, [g] and plaine south of this Chirke in sum place touchith Poys [h] lande. There is never a market toun in this lordship. At
[b] Keven du.
[c] Llan Degla.
[d] Alun, Llyn Alun.
[e] Hesp Alun, about a mile east of Kilken.
[f] Maelor Gymraeg.
72 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Chirk self be a few houses, and there is on a smaul hille a mighty large and stronge castel with dyvers towers, a late welle repayred by Syr Wylliam Standeley, the Yerle of Darby's brother.
There hath beene 2. parkes. One yet remaynith caullid Blake Park. Keriog Ryveret cummith on the south side of Chirk Castel. De Ryver is wythin a myle of the north side of it.
The moste parte of Chirk and Chirkeland on the south toward Poys lande is great plenty of mervelus good woodde, and thorough reasonable wood. Moch of the lordship ys hylly, but yn valleys by De and Keriog good corrie and medow, and in sum other places.
This lordeship or lordships in Walsch is caullid Guaine, and is devidid into Low and Hy Guayne. [a]
Gentilmen of Chirke.
Trevor dwelling in Chirk paroche at Place Newith. [b]
Edwards sunne dwelling not far from Chirk Castel.
MOLESDALE YN WALSCH CAULLID STREDALEN. [c]
In Molesdale is but one greate paroche caullid Plouhe (paroche) Wriothegrig, [d] of sum communely Molesdale, there longe 3. chappelles onto it. Sum say that Molesdale was ons a market toune. There be 2. fayres yet kept at Molesdale, but the wekely market is decayed. Yet it hath the name of a maire, and a greate numbre of houses be withowt token almost destroyed, and there hath beene 2. streates,as Streate Byle, [e] and Streate Dadlede [f] in Walsch, in Englisch the Court House Streate, byside other litle lanes. Now in al be scant 40. houses. At the north ende of Byle Streate appere diches and hilles yn tokyn of an auncient castel or buildinge there. It is nowcaullid Mont Brenebyley, [g] and on the side of it is a fayre springe. Alen Ryver cummith withyn a bou shot of Molesdale Chirche. And at the southe ende of the towne is a rylle caullid Houne, and sone after rennith into Alen.
[a] Y Weun, ignorantly written "y Waen."
[b] Plas Newydd = New palace.
[c] Ystrad Alun.
[d] Yr Wyddgrug = mons altus. Ploughe = Plwyv = Parish.
[e] ? Belli.
[g] Bryn y beili.
IN WALES. PART VI 73
Robert Edwardes a gentylman dwellith at ... on the side of Alen yn Molesdale, having plenty of wood and goodly medow by Alen side. The wood thens is caried to Chestre a vi. miles of.
Moste parte of the paroch is meately level ground, having beside other thinges very good corne. And there be cole pittes a 3. quarters of a mile from Molesdale toune. Ithel (Angl. Ellys) Griffith dwellith on the north side, scant a quarter of a mile from Molesdale toune at a place caullid Lloen (grove) Egrine. [a]
John Wenne ap Roberte dwellid at a stone tower caullid Broncoit, [b] alias Regnaultes Towre, 3. quarters of a mile from Molesdale toune. There cummith a litle ryllet by this square toure caullid ... and a quarter of a myle beneth the tour goith into Alen descending from west to este. There is a nother water in Molesdale caullid Avon Terrig almost as byg as Alen. Yet goyng from west to north-est it goith ynto Alen. Terrig Ryver cummith thorough a peace of Yale or it cum into Molesdale.
There be other smaulle ryllettys yn Molesdale. So that by springges and rylles this paroch beyng yn lenght a v. myles is wel servid of water and of dyvers other good thinges.
Molesdale lyith north on Hopesdale, and Yale lyeth west on it. Flyntshire lyith north on it, and Ardin [c] by est.
Hope, alias Quene Hope lordship, longging chefely to the King. It conteynith but one paroche. The grounde ys hilly. In the valleys is meately good corne. Alen Ryver cummithe thorough it. In it be also other obscure rylles. The toune of Hope now decayid was sumtime burgesid and privilegid, and is caullid yn Walsch Cairgorles. [d] Ther stonde yet greate walles of a castel set on hylle, wher be diggid good mille stonis of a blew girthe.
Oswestre xii. miles north west from Shrobbesbyri.
It is from Traflon, [e] alias the Walsche Pole, xii. miles.
From Wrexesham x. miles.
From White-Chirch in Shrobbeshire xii. miles.
From Oswestre to Wrexham x. miles, and thens the hyway to Chester viii. miles.
[a] Llwyn Egrin.
[d] Caer Gwrle.
[e] Trallwng, i.e., Welshpool.
74 LELAND'S ITINERARY
From Ruthine xv. mile, and so to Denbigh v. mile.
From Flynt Castelle xx. miles.
From Ellesmere, wher was a castelle, and very fair polis yet be. Ellesmere hath a 4. streates of meately good building, privilegid with ii. faires, but no cummun market now.
The site of Croixoswalde [a] is on a plain in a Valley xii. long miles by champain having almost no wood, north-weste from Shreusbyri.
The cumpace of the towne withyn the waulle is aboute a mile.
There be 4 gates, the New Gate [b] (Portnewith) by south.
The Blake Gate, alias Portdee, [c] by south est toward Shrobsbyri.
The 3. Beteriche Gate, unde et vici nomen qua ducit in urbem, north est toward Chester.
The 4 Wulliho Gate, alias Montain Gate, quia per eam ad vicinos monies itur quarta milliarii parte distantes, north west toward the montaine of Penllin [d] in Merionneth.
There be no towers in the waulles beside the gates.
The tounne is dikid about and brokettes ren ynto it.
The Chirch of S. Oswalde is a very faire leddid chirch with a great tourrid steple, but it standith without the New- Gate; so that no chirch is there withyn the towne. This chirche was sumtime a monasterie caullid the White Minster. After turnid to a paroche chirch, and the personage impropriate to the abbay of Shreusbyri. The cloister stoode in hominum memoria ubi monumenta monachorum. The place and streate wer the chirch standithe is caullid Stretllan. [e]
There be chapelles clene without the suburbes. One betwixt Stratllan [e] and Porth de [c] (Sacellum S.Joannis Bapt.). The secund without the same suburbe within a bow shot of S. Oswalde (S. Osuualdi Sacellum ubi et Fons Osualdi). The 3. north est toward Chester (of S. Editha). Ther be withyn the towne a x. notable streates. The 3. moste notable streates be: the Crosse Streate, ubi crux lapidea. The
[a] Croes Oswallt, i.e., Oswald's tree.
[b] Porth newydd.
[c] Porth du.
[e] Stryd y llan = Church Street.
IN WALES. PART VI 75
Bayly Streate, ubi forum maximum et mercatores. The 3. the New-Gate Streat.
Domus Civica, the Bouth Haulle of tymber, a fair house, standith by the castel.
Madocus, filius Meredoci, Princeps Polsiae, castrum, ut aiunt, posuit. Extat turris in castro nomine Madoci. Et ibidem camera Richardi 2. regis, constructa post caedem Arundovalii lasae majestatis condemnati.
The houses withyn the towne of Oswestre be of tymbre and slatid.
There is a bayly and sergiantes.
Ther is a castelle sette on a mont be likelihod made by hand and dichid by south west betwixt Beterice Gate and Williho Gate, to the wich the town waul cummith.
The towne standith most by sale of cloth made in Wales.
There is a fre schole on the south west side of the chirch made by one Davy Holbeche a lawier, steward of the town and lordeship, and gave x. li. land to it. Sum say that this David made David Yn yn London.
There be 4. suburbes. The greatest wherin be iiii. streates, thus caullid, Stratellan; the secunde suburbe strete Wulliho; [a] the 3. Beteriche, [b] wher be many barnes for corne and hay to the number of a vii. score several barnes. The 4. Blake Gate Streate, and ther be with other howses a xxx. barnes for corne longging to the tounes men. There goith thorowg the town by the crosse a broke cumming from a place caullid Simons Welle, a bow shot without the waulle by north-west. This broke cummith in thorough the waulle betwixt Wulliho Gate and New-Gate, and so renning thorough the towne, and goith oute under the Blak-Gate.
S. Oswaldes Wei is a bow shot from S. Oswaldes Chirch in the feldes south west. Fabulantur aquilam brachium Oswaldi a stipite praeripuisse, sed excidisse ei quo loco nunc fans est superstitione nuper Celebris. Ther is a chapel over it of tymber and the fountein environed with a stone
[a] Willow or Wallia.
[c] Avon Crwys.
76 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Ther is a brook caullid Betterich, bycause it rennith thorough a bridglet of tymber at Beterich-Gate.
The 3. goyth under the stone bridges of Wulli-Gate, New- Gate and Blake-Gate. Then go they all 3. with Crosse Broke a mile lower by south west in to Morda Ryver.
Morda risith in a hille caullid Llanvarda [a] wher was a chirch now decaid. Sum say this was the paroch chirch of Oswestre.
The soile about Oswestre is playn, except toward the north west into Merionithshere fruteful of corne and grasse.
There be wooddes toward Whitigton as in the lordshipe of Llouenhene Dinas [b] in Witington Parke and yn Witington More.
Hene Dinas a quarter of a mile out of Oswestre northwest. The toune or castelle of Hene Dinas [c] standith apon a rounde hillet aboute half a mile in cumpace. Ther be iii. greate diches in the botom of the hillet cumpasing it, and in the toppe of the hille now grow great treas of oke. The commune people say that ther was a cite withyn those diches. I think rather a campe of men of war, wheras peraventure was the campe when Penda and Oswaldes did fight. There is a nother hillet of caste yerth bytwixt it and Oswester not far from Dinas self.
The town of Whitington is a gret mile north est from Hene Dinas. It is a village in a valley conteining a hunderith houses, and hath a dichid round castelle not very large in the midle of the village.
Ardudwy strecchith from half Traitmaur to Abermaw [d] on the shore xii. myles. At the mowth of Maw Ryver lyith a litle islet scant a bow shot over withowte habitation. At ebbe it is fresch water aboute, and at fludde salt.
There be dyver rivers yn this commot that entre the se.
[a] Lan Vorda.
[b] Llwyn hen dinas.
[c] Hen Dinas = old fort.
[d] Aber Maw-Sach in full; contracted in Welsh to Bermo, and stupidly Anglicised into Barmouth.
IN WALES. PART VI 77
Harlauche [a] Castel and market toune yn this hundrede.
Kemmer [b] Abbay is yn this hundrede.
Ther be a x. paroches yn it.
This hundrede is devidid into 2. partes, Huwch Artro and Isseartro [c] of Artro River that goith into the se about a mile above Harleche that is yn Isse Artro.
Kemmer is in Huwch Artro.
This commot nor no part of Merionithshire lyith in Crege Ery. [d] So that though this shire be montanius, yet is al Cregery yn Cairarvonshir.
Wher this commot is longeste uplandwarde it is xvi. miles.
Towarde the se side and low partes is summe good corne.
Meate good plenty of wood in this commot.
Talebonte [e] hundred touchith from Abermaw a litle upon the shore. The residew saving this point is yn the upland toward Keuiliauc yn Poyslande, and there justely marchith on Keuiliauc. [f] It is a viii. mile yn lenght, and vi. yn bredth. The best corne yn this is toward the se. It hath meately good plenty of wood.
Dolgethle is the best village in this commote.
Commote Ystymaneir stretchith from the pont of Talebont to the very mouth of Deuy. [g] It is by the shore a ix. or x. miles. It cummith by March in Upland to the very bridge of Mahenclif, [h] and it yoinith also on Keuiliauc in Powis land.
In this commote is Towen. [i]
This commote hath good corne, but meanly woddid as toward Mahenclif.
Wher now the wild se is at the mouth of Deuy, and farther into the se, were ons 2. commotes of good plentiful but low grounde caullid Cantre Gwaylode, [k] i.e. terra demissa vel subsidens planitie, now cleene eatin away.
Commote Penthlline [l] lyith al up in the lande, and marchith
[b] Kymmer Abbey, near Llan Illtud.
[c] Uwch and Is Artro.
[d] Craig Eryri, i.e., Snowdon.
[e] Tal y bont.
[f] Kyveliog or Kyveilog.
[g] Dyvi (Anglict, Dovey).
[k] Cantre 'r Gwaelod. See p. 90.
on Talebont, and Ardudwy, and Dernion [a] commotes of Merionithshire, and apon the lordship of Mouthey [b] yn Poislande, and apon parte of Denbighland.
In this commote is Llin Teggy [c] the hed of Dee Ryver.
Bale [d] a litle poore market is yn this commote withyn a litle of the hedde of Llinnetegy.
Much wood yn this commote.
Plenty of pasture.
There be great hilles yn this commote.
Mouthey is now adject as a nother commote to Merionithshire.
Deyrnion [a] commote lyith thus on the est side of Penthline, and hath on the north side Denbighland, and Yale on the north est side, and hath on the south side Powys lande.
Dernion commote the beste woddid of al Merionithshir.
It hath yn the greate valley by De River good corne.
It bredith good horsis.
In this commote ys the ruine of Toure Kenuyn [e] (nomen viri) now caullid Yr hendwr.
Owen Glyndour dwellid yn this commot.
Lluelin ap Irrwarth Droyndon [f] Prince of al Wales, had Grifith. Grifith had Lluelin. Lluelin had Catarine his heire. Catarine had Eleanor. Eleanor had Helene and Catarine. This Helene was mother to Owen Glindoure. Catarine had Meredik. [g] Meredik had Owen. Owen had Edmunde Erle of Richemonde, and Gasper Erle of Penbroke. Edmunde had Henry the VII. Henry was, as I hard, posthumus.
In Cairarvonshire in Huwhcurvay [h] commote is Llin
[c] Llyn Tegid, i.e., Bala lake.
[f] Llywelyn ap Iorwerth Drwyndwn.
[h] Uch Gwrvei.
IN WALES. PART VI 79
edwarchen, [a] wher is the Swymming Island, and ther of it hath the name as of a suimming swarth of yerth.
There be yn Cairarvonshire ix. hundredes or commotes.
Llechwedd issa and Creythyn. Crethin is so much of the hundrede of Llechwedd issa as is on the hither side of Conwey [b] River. This hundrede strecchith on the shore of the salte water to a litle above Penmain Vaure [c] that is a 4. miles above Conway. Conway toune is yn this hundrede.
Llechwed iha [d] hundrede goith up on the shore onto Avon Gegyn [e] beyound Penryne wher Mr. Grifith dwellith. One of the notablest thinges in this commote is Abreguynne [f] Gregin, wher was a maner or litle pile of the Princes of Wales.
Is curvay [g] hundrede stretchith from Abregyn [f] by shore to Avon Guruay. In this hundrede is Bangor and Cair Arvon and Dolebaterne [h] Castel. In this hundred is token of an old manor place, Lies yn Dynorwek [i] wher one Syr Grifith Lloid lay in King Edwarde the First tyme, and bringging hym tydings of the byrth off Edward Cairarvon was rewardid with this lande as sum say. It is yn the middle of the hundrede. In the olde toun of Cair Sallog, alias Cairsaint [k] or Segent, appere parte of the old castel yn the old toune, of the wiche castel is faullen into the haven salt water. Within this hundred is Dinas Emerys. [l]
Hughegurvay [m] hundered goith from above Guuay [n] Water onto Boulchryvel [o] the top of the hille by Vortigers [p] Valley. Clunnok Vaur is yn this.
[a] Llyn y dywarchen.
[c] Penmaen mavvr.
[d] Llechwedd ucha.
[f] Aber Gwyn gregyn.
[g] Is Gwrvei.
[i] Llys in Dinorwig.
[k] Caer Seint yn Arvon.
[l] Dinas Emrys, near Beddgelart.
[m] Uch Gwrvei.
[o] Bwlch yr Eivl.
[p] Nant Gwrtheyrn in Pistill parish.
80 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The 3. commotes touching Lleene. [d]
Dynllayen [a] hundrede goith up from Boulchrivel to a litle above the paroch of Penlleche. [b] Neuyne [c] is yn this hundrede.
Comote Mayne hundrede so caullid of a hille namid Uwch Mennith yn Llene. [d] Abredaron [e] and Berdesay is yn this, but the great parte is the ground to the shore.
Al Llene is as it were a pointe into the se, and yn the hole is 3. commotes, of the which this is the very point into the se.
Gaflogeon hundrede goith from the ende of Uwch Mennith in commot mayne towarde Traithmaur as far as Abreerche. [f] In this commot is Pulthely. [g]
Hiujonith [h] commote strecchith onto Traitmaure where Abreglasllynne [i] devidith. So that but parte of Traithmaur [k] is yn it. In this is Crekith [l] Castel and Pooretoun.
Nant Conwey hundrede is by the side of Conway Ryver, and goith upward to the hed of the ryver westward. In it be a v. paroches, Dolewithelan, Penmachno, Bettus, Llan Rruchwin [m] and Treuereu.
Market Townes in Cairarvonshir.
Bangor yn Iscurvay hundred hath ii. fayres a yere, but
[e] Aber Daron.
[f] Aber Erch (locally pronounced as y Berch).
[g] Pwll Heli, i.e., Brine pool.
[i] Aber Glaslyn.
[k] Traeth Mawr.
[m] Bettws, Llan Rhychwyn, and Trevriw.
IN WALES. PART VI 81
skant a market every weke. There rennith a litle rylle thorough Bangor. (See page 85.)
Cairarvon [a] apon the hither side of Segent [b] River, in Iscurvay hundrede.
Howsis of Religion.
A priory of White Freres by Bangor dedicate to Jesu.
There were ons White Freres at Rithyn yn Diffrin Cluit.
Mr. Garter told me that Gray of Rithin emong the armes of his auncetor gyvith the armes of the Lord Ruhan of Bretayne in Fraunce. Wherefore loke wither any of the name of the Rohans were ever lord of Ruthin, [e] or wither it toke name of hym.
Al Cregeeryri [f] is forest.
The best wood of Cairarvonshir is by Glinne Kledder, [g] and by Glin Llughy, [h] and by Capel Kiryk, and at Llanperis. Meately good wood aboute Conwey Abbay, and Penmachno, and about Cotmore, and Coiteparke [i] by Bangor, and yn other many places.
In Llene and Iuionith [k] is litle wood.
Cairarvonshire aboute the shore hath reasonable good corne, as abouth a myle upland from the shore onto Cairarvon. Then more upwarde be Eryri Hilles, and in them ys very litle corne, except otes in sum places, and a litle barle, but scantly rye. If ther were the deere wold destroye it.
But in Lleene and Hiuionith [k] is good corne, both by shore and almost thorough upland.
[b] Seint, modern saint.
[c] Ynys Enlli, i.e. Bardsey.
[e] Ruthin = Rhudd din, i.e., Red fortress.
[f] Craig Eryri, i.e., Snowdon.
[g] ? Glyn Lleder.
[h] Glyn Llugwy.
[i] Coetmor and Coed y Park, near Bethesda.
[k] Llyn and Evionydd.
82 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Ther is but a bridge betuixt thes two.
In these 2. pooles be redde bely fisches caullid Thorgoughe, [a] id est, thori aut pectoris rubei. There be also of them yn Llin Tarthennyne, and yn Llin Boladulinne. [b] They be taken yn these 3. poles yn ordre, and taken yn one not sene yn the other.
Linne Dolbaterne [c] 2. miles in lenght, and a dim. mile yn bredth. Linne Peris [d] alias Nant Manach (Vallis monachus), a myle yn lenghte. Segent cummith first thorough Llinn Peris, and a bow shotte of ynto Dolbatern Poole.
Linne Doudhouc [e] nothing so bigge as Linne Perys.
Al yn the paroch of Peris, v. miles est south est from Cairarvon. And ly in valleis west north west from Llanperis.
Boladulynne is yn Hugh Curvay [f] hundrede, a vi. miles beyounde.
Al these be yn the hunderede or commote of Iscurvay, and al the greate Withaw [h] Hille is holely in this commote. This hille is a radicibus a 5. miles to the toppe.
Llinne Tarthennyne [b] 4. or 5. miles from Cairarvon by south. It is a one mile yn lenght lying in a valley, and a dim. myle yn bredth.
Linne dan cader erechiugi [g] a quarter of a myle every way.
Linne Dinas Emeris [i] a good mile in lenght, and a dim. mile in bredthe.
Linne Guinanhal [k] a good mile from Linne Dinas a myle long and a dim. in bredth.
Llinn Lleddau [l] about a mille in lenght.
Fonnon glase [m] yn Withaw yn the hyest parte by Est Eryri and nere Lleddau. Fonnon de Fonnon Guase [n].
[a] Torr goch.
[b] Cwellyn lake and Bala deu-lyn.
[c] Llyn Dol Badarn.
[d] Llyn Peris.
[e] Llyn Dwythwch.
[f] Uch Gwrvei.
[g] Llyn dan gader yr Eurwrychyn.
[h] Y Wyddva, i.e., Snowdon.
[i] Llyn Dinas Emrys.
[k] Llyn Gwynan (ignorantly written Gwynant).
[m] Ffynnon Las or Glaslyn yn y Wyddva.
[n] Ffynnon y gwas.
IN WALES. PART VI 83
Llinne Ogweyne [a] almost a mile yn lenght in Llechuueth vcha, [b] i.e. superior hundrede.
Llinne Mam [c] Avon a litle poole in Llechuuethe vcha also.
Llinne Idwalle a smaule pole wher they say that Idwalle Prince of Wales was killid and drounid. 'Tis yn Nant Franco [d] valley.
Both in the paroch ofCairhene. [h]
Llinne Dulinne [e] (Blak Poole) not half a myle in lenght, ful of stones, in Llechuueht Issa, [f] i.e. inferior hundrede.
Linne Yge [g] almost a mile yn lenght in Llechuuet Issa hundrede.
Llinne Colluid [i] a mile from Yge Poole southward a good mile yn lenght in Llechuuet Issa. Few or no pooles nother yn Llenan or yn Heuionith. [k]
Al yn Nant Conuuey hundrede or commote.
Linne Dolwithelan paroche on a hille side in Nant Conuuey hundrede.
Linne Kledder [l] (a litle ponde) Fonnon (Lughy), alias Linn Llughy, a quarter of a mile yn lenght.
Linne Cravenant, [n] a good 2 myles in lenght, a ii. miles south from Conwey Abbay in a valley.
Llin Enog, Llin Else [o] litle distant asunder.
Lin Riscog betuix Llughy and Kledder.
Llin Gerionith a mile yn lenght and more.
Both in Llan Roughwyn [m] paroch.
[a] Llyn Ogwen.
[b] Llechwedd Ucha.
[c] Llyn Anavon. See infra.
[d] Nant Ffrancon.
[f] Llechwedd issa.
[g] Llyn Eigieu.
[h] Caer Rhfln.
[i] Llyn Cowlyd.
[k] Liyn and Evionydd.
[l] Read Llyn Lleder (a little pond), Ffynnon, alias Llyn Llugwy.
[m] Llan Rhychwyn.
[n] Llyn Cravnant.
[o] Llyn Elsi.
84 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Llin Thervenid [a] halfe a mile in lengthe, not far from Gerionith.
Castelles in Cair Aroonshire.
Hegannow yn Cryden. [b]
Tre Castel, alias Castel Marchog a Fonon.
Treurewe [c] (a myle from Conwey Abbay) where Lluelen [d] lay that maried Jane, King John's doughtre. It stondith on Conwey and Treurewe rivers.
Sinnodune a mile from Conwey. The fundation of a greate thing yet remayne there.
Dolewythelan in Nant Conwey commote apon great Kledder [e] River a xiii. miles from Cairmainan [f] by south este, and as much from Conway.
Dolebaterne [g] a v. mile from Cairarvon by est south est hard by Llynne.
Dolebaterne on a rok bytwixt 2. linnys. [h] There is yet a pece of a toure, wher Owen Gough, [i] brother to Lleulen, last prince, was yn prison. It is yn Iscurvay commot.
The Moode, in the paroche ofAber otherwise Llan Boduan, [k] wher Tussog Lluelin uab Gerwerde Trundon [l] had a castel or palace on a hille by the Chirch, wherof yet parte stondith. Syr Gul. Grifith hath a faire house at Penryne [m] a ii. myle a this side Bangor.
Wyllyam uab William dwellith at a place Gochichlan [n] a mile a this side Penryne.
[a] Llyn Terwenydd.
[b] Beganwy in Creuddyn.
[g] Dol Badarn, near Llan Beris.
[h] " Linnys," i.e., lakes.
[i] Owen Goch.
[k] Aber Gwyngregyn = Llan Bodvan. The Mwd is an artificial mound.
[l] Tywysog Llywelyn vab Iorwerth drwyndwn.
[m] Penrhyn Castle.
IN WALES. PART VI 85
Wylliam Cotmore [a] dwellith at Cotmore by Tale Linne Ogwein. [b]
Pillesdon yn Cairarvon toune.
John uab Madok uab Poel dwellith yn Lleene [c] at Bodwel.
John Wen uab Meridith dwellith at Gweder [d] a ii. bow shottes above Conwey toune on the ripe of Conwey Ryver. It is a praty place.
Elys uab Moriche yn commoth Hiuionith yn Llan Morva paroche at Clannenne. [e]
Grifith ap Robert Vehan [f] dwellith at Tale Henbont, i.e. veteris pontis, in Iuionith.
John Oen dwellith at Kegid an auncient house in Hiuionith.
Conwey Ryver (risith in Llin Conwey); the haven stondith by north and west.
Avon Duegeuelth [g] a 3 miles above Conwey, it risith in the montaynes a mile of, and goith by it self ynto Meney Salt Arme. (On this shore lyith Penmayn.) This broke rennith bytwixt Penmayne Maur and Penmaine Vehan.
Avon Llannuairuehan; [h] it risith yn a montayne therby,and goith ynto the se a 2. miles above Duegeuelth. [g]
Avon Aber a 2. large miles above that; it risith yn a poole caullid Llin Mam (mater) Avon, [i] a 3. mile of.
Aber Ogweine a 2. good miles above that.
Aber Gegyne, [k] out of a monteine by, a myle above, and Bangar almost a mile above it. It stondith on Toronnen.
Aber Poull: [l] a 3. into the lande it risith; 4. mile beyond Bangor on Meney shore, where is a litle cumming yn for bootes by entering of it ynto Meney.
Moileeton, [m] a passage a litle shot above. There lyith fery bootes to go ynto Terre Mone. [n]
[b] Tal llyn Ogwen.
[c] Ltyn at Bodvel.
[e] Pen Morva, Clenenne.
[f] Vychan. Plas Hen.
[h] Llanvair vechan.
[i] Lyn Anavon (in ordnance map).
[k] Aber Cegin, now Port Penrhyn.
[l] Aber pwll.
[m] Moel y don.
[n] Tir Mon, i.e., Anglesey.
86 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Guenwynmyreth, [a] i.e. Horsis Broke, 2. mile of, it risith at shire. Guen win myrith Wei, a mile of.
Thens to Cairarvon 4. mile.
Segent [b] Ryver rennith hard on the farther side of Cairarvon, as the shore side goith, and there cummith in praty shippis hard to the castel side from Meney into Sainct. Cadnant Broke rising a 3. miles of cummith thorough the toune bridg of Cairarvon, and goith bi it self ynto Meney Arme. So that Cairarvon stondith bytwixt ii. ryvers. Both cum into Cadnant.
There cummith a water caullid Avon Guiruay [c] thorough a bridg caullid Bontnewith, a 2. myle above Cairarvon, and after cummith ynto Meney at South Crok a 2. miles of.
South Croke is a 3. miles above Cairarvon.
Againe South Croke by the mouth of Skeuernoc the se hath ete up a litle village on Cairarvon side.
South Croke is the very point of Abremeney. The name of Abremeney is not passing a mile above Cairarvon, yet the water of sum is caullid Meney til Poullthelly. [d]
Frode Skeuernok a litle broke a vi. miles above Abreseynt.
[e] On the farther side of it is a litle chapel caullid Bethouse and 2. or 3. housis. [f]
Lleuonbroke [g] goith into the se 2. mile above Skeuernok.
Lleueny a great broke aboute a mile above cumming to the se. And ther is a paroche caullid Llane Lleueny. [h]
There be 2. broks betwixt Guiruay, [c] Anglice an Hav ... and Skeuernok, whereof the mydle is the bygger, caullyd Colaide, and is ...
There is a brooke a mile beyond Abre Lleueny goyng by it self into the se.
Clunnok Vaur a Arvon a great paroch, and the fayrest chirch yn al Cairarvonshire, as better then Bangor, is a mile
[a] Gwenwyn Meirch.
[b] Seint or Saint.
[d] Pwll Heli.
[e] Aber Seint, i.e., Carnarvon.
[f] ? Betws Garmon.
[h] Llyvni; Llan Llyvni.
IN WALES. PART VI 87
beyond it, and as far from the shore. There is a litle ryllet. There is a broke more then a mile above Clunog dimming in to the mayne se.
Clunnog paroche is in commot Uch Curuay.
Fro Clunnok Chirch to Llanael Hairen [a] Chirch a 4. miles in Uch Curuay commote.
From Llan Aelheiren to Egluis Epistel [b] Chirch a 3 mile.
The next paroche above Clunnok is Llan Aelhairen.
The nex paroch onto it on the shore is Egluis Epistil [b] (fistula) wher cummith downe owt of a rokkie a litle rylle as it were renning yn a pipe. This rok is caullid Guortheren, i.e. Vallis Vortegerni in Llene. And hither cam, as sum say, S. Bennow. [d] A peace of this roke is fallen, and valleith after a strange fascion.
The next paroch on the shore is Treneuen. Treneuen [e] townelet is a 2. miles up the lande, and there is a 2 faires every yere, but no wekely market. Hitherto the counterey is montainyus.
From Llan [f] Egluis to Treneuen Chirch a 3. myles.
There is a litle broke on the hither side of Treneuen.
Avon Ederne, alias Girath, [g] a 2. miles above Treneuen.
Ther be other smaul rilles betwixt it and Daron.
From Treneuen to Abredaron a xii. milys. The grounde betwyt is sumwhat playne and hath 2. or 3. paroches, havyng very good plenty of corne and grasse, but very litle woodde. They burne turffes, feme, and gorsses, otherwise caullid fyrres.
Bytwixt Vallis Vortegerni [h] and Aberdaron the cumpase of the se gatherith a hed, and the se enterith at both endes.
The smaule townelet of Abredaron, wher is a 30. or mo housis, is on the very farther ripe of Daron. The se is about a quartre of a myle of. The paroche chirch is above almoste a mile on the shor as the salt water cumpasith aboute with a hedde. The chirche is caullid in Walsch Llan engan Brening, [i] id est, Fanum Niniani Reguli, where was a late a great
[a] Llan Aelhaiarn.
[b] Eglwys y Pistyll.
[c] Craig Gwrtheyrn.
[d] St. Beuno.
[e] Tre Nevin.
[f] ? Llannor.
[h] Nant Gwrtheyrn.
[i] Llan Engan Vrenhin. A passage must be missing here as Llan Engan is about eight miles east of Aber Daron.
88 LELAND'S ITINERARY
pilgrimage. This paroche is al yn Lleene, and it endith Lleene. [a]
Lleene a xvi. miles by shore, xii mile by the hy way yn lengh.
The bred of Llene an viii. mile.
The hither ende of Llene by the shor cummith at a hil caullid Brith Rivil, [b] ubi Vallis Vortegerni.
The countery above Lleene is caullid Heuionith.
In Leene a mile above Fanum Niniani is Penrynde [c] a good haven roode.
Almost a mile from Penryne de [c] yn Leene is Inis Tidwale [d] a vi. acres yn cumpace. In it is a litle chirch desolate. Ther be kept shepe, and there be conys. It is a myle from Penryne lande by south est.
Ther is an other islet betwixt it and the shore, caullid Inis Mirach, [e] i.e. equorum, having good grasse.
Pollele [f] Bay a poore market, now a late statio opt. carinis. The prince had a place there, as yet apperith.
From Llan engan Brennine to Crikith about a xiii. myle by meatly playne ground, having reasonable good corne and pasture, but not like Lleene. There lyith betwixt Llan engan and Criketh a 3. or 4. parochis. At Crikith be a 2. or 3. poore houses, and there is a smaule rylle. There hath beene a franchisid toune, now clene decayed.
From Crikith to Trahtmaure [g] a 3. myle. Bytwyxt Traithmaure and Traith Vehan [h] a mile thorough a point of wood caullid Penryn Duetith, [i] as yn the myddle, rennith at low water thorough the Traith Maur Warth, Glesse Llinne [k] Water, and dividith Heuionith of Cairarvonshir from Merionithshire.
[a] Legin = Lleyn = Llyn.
[b] Bwlch yr Eivl.
[c] Penrhyn Du.
[d] St. Tudwal's Island.
[e] Ynys y Meirch.
[g] Traeth Mawr.
[h] Traeth bach.
[i] Penrhyn deu-draeth.
IN WALES. PART VI 89
Al Penrine [a] Pointe is in Merionithshire, and as much as is beyounde Gleslin on the warth of Traithmaure. shire.
Credine [b] a commote of Cairarvonshire a this side Conwey River.
This commote partely be Conwey Ryver, partely by the se is yn a maner as insulatid, and one way owte of Denbigh land the way is over a made causey over a marsch often overflowen.
The cumpace of it, as I gesse, is an viii. miles. Yn lenght it is a 3. miles.
In it is a 3. paroches.
In it is very litle wood, and that is at Penrine (Little Orme's Head).
It berith very good corne and grasse.
There is northward in Credine a bay or rode very goode for shippis, and that greate, caullid Carrig Gonnyon, [c] Anglice White Stonys. Here a mile up ynto the land appere greate ruines of Hegannoye [d] Castel stondding on an hille, wher, as sum say, Mailgo Guined [e] dwellid and Lluelen Prince of North Wales.
Place Penrine [f] an auncient stone house by est north est on the shore longing to Mr. Poel of Flintshire.
Cogarth [g] almost clene doune on Conwey River shore betwixt ... here laye D ...
Segent, [h] as I hard say, risith at Lynne Dolebaderne. This poole is a 3. miles yn lenght, yn sum place a mile broode, and yn divers places lesse and lesse. It lyith by Withow [i] Hille, and is distant a v. myle from Cairarvon toward south est from Cairarvon.
Ogweyne risith at a place caullid Tale Llinne Ogweyne, a poole a v. mile above Bangor yn the est side of Withow. Conwey Ryver hedde is withyn a 3. myles of Penmachno Hille, and this hille is a vi. or 7. miles from Conwey Abbey.
[a] Penrhyn deu-draeth.
[c] Cerrig Gwynion.
[e] Maelgwn Gwynedd.
[f] Penrhyn Castle.
[g] Gogarth, i.e., Great Orme's Head.
[h] Seint or Saint.
[i] Y Wyddva.
90 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Traith Vehan and Traith Maur be salt armes and crekes fedde with no notable fresch ryvers.
Mr. Rouland Griffith tolde me that there were 2. commotes betwixte Abredeuy [a] and Towen Merionith that were yn tymes paste plentyful of corne and grasse, but lying low, and almost as level grounde, the se ful many a yere syns hath clene devourid them up, and now it is totally a sandy warth.
He told me also that at the chyrch where he dwellith yn Anglesey, by the commune fame of all the counterey, there was of auncient tyme an house of relligion.
In tyme of mynde menne usid not in Termone [b] to seperate theyr grounde, but now stille more and more they digge stony hillokkes yn theyre groundes, and with the stones of them rudely congestid they devide theyre groundes after Devonshire fascion.
In digging of these they digge up yn many places yerthen pottes with the mouthes turnid douneward, conteyning cineres et ossa mortuorum.
The bridge at Chester apon Dee.
The toun of the Holt 5. miles by land from Chester, and there is a great stone bridge on Dee Ryver.
Llangotlan [c] is a ix. miles above the Holt, and there is a great stone bridge over Dee Ryver.
Llan Gotlan village is on the south side, and Dinas Brane Castelle stondith apon an high hille on the north ripe of Dee a 3. quarters of a mile of.
The castelle of Dinas Brane was never bigge thing, but sette al for strenght as in a place half inaccessible for ennemyes. It is now al in ruine: and there in the rok side that the castelle stondith on bredith every yere an egle. And the egle doth sorely assaut hym that distroith the nest, goyng doun in one basket, and having a nother over his hedde to defend the sore stripe of the egle.
Llan Egwiste, [d] alias Vallis Crucis, an abbay of Whit
[a] Aber Dyvi.
[c] Llan Gollen.
[b] Tir Mon, i.e., Anglesey.
[d] Llan Egwestyl.
IN WALES. PART VI 91
Monkes, was 3. quarters of a myle of by west north weste.
Wyrale begynnith lesse then a quarter of a mile of the Cheshire, very cite self of Chester, and withyn a 2. bow shottes of the suburbe without the northe gate at a litle brocket caullid Flokars Broke that ther cummith ynto Dee Ryver, and ther is a dok wherat at spring tide a ship may ly, and this place is caullid Porte Poole.
Half a myle lower ys Blaken Hedde, as an armelet of the grounde pointing oute. At this is an olde manor place longging to the Erle of Oxforde, and theryn lyith sumtyme Syr Gul. Norres.
A mile be water lower hard on the shore is a litle village caullid Sauheho. [b]
Lesse then a mile lower is Crabho [c] village.
A myle lower is Shottewik Castelle on the very shore longging to the King: and therby ys a park.
Shottewike townelet is a 3. quarters of a myle lower.
And 2. mile lower is a rode in Dee caullid Salthouse, wher again it on the shore is a salt house cotage.
Then is Burton hedde, wherby is a village almost a mile lower than Salt House.
ii. myles lower and more is Denwale Rode, and agayne it a farme place caullid Denwaulle Haul. It longith to Mr. Smithe, and more up into the land is Denwaulle [d] village.
ii. miles and more lower is Neston Rode, and ynward a mile ynto the land is Neston village.
About a 3. miles lower is a place caullid the Redde Bank, and ther half a mile withyn the land is a village caullid Thrustington. [e]
A mile and more lower is Weste Kirkeby a village hard on the shore.
And half a mile lower is Hillebyri, [f] as the very point of Wyrale.
This Hillebyri at the floode is al environid with water as an isle, and than the trajectus is a quarter of a mile over and 4. fadome depe of water, and at ebbe a man may go
[a] A barbarized form of Kilgwri.
[f] Hilbre Point.
92 LELAND'S ITINERARY
over the sand. It is about a mile in cumpace, and the grounde is sandy and hath conies. There was a celle of monkes of Chestre, and a pilgrimage of our Lady of Hilbyri.
The barre caullid Chester Barre that is at the very mouth of the sandes spuid oute of Dee Ryver is an 8. or 10. mile west south west from Hilbyri.
It is by estimation a xvi mile from the point of Hilbery to crosse strait over to the next shore in Lancastershire. For Lyrpoole [a] lyith a x. miles into the lande from the mouthe of Mersey Water, and lytle lak of xx. from the very barre of Mersey that lyith in the mayne se.
From the poynt of Hylbyri to Lirpoole as it lyith withyn the lande a x. mile.
From Hilbyri to cumpace about the shore of Wyral on Mersey side to Walesey [b] village on the very shore, wher men use much to salten hering taken at the se by the mouth of Mersey, is a seven or eight miles.
Thens a 2. myles to the fery house on Wyrale shore, and there is the trajectus proximus to Lyrpole a 3. miles over.
Aboute half a quarter of a mile upward hard on Wyral shore is Byrkfet [c] a late a priory of a xvi. monkes as a celle to Chester without any village by it.
Al the shore grounde of Wyral apon De side ys highe bankid, but not veri hilly grounde. And so ys the bank of Wyrale onto Briket [c] on Mersey side.
The trajectus from Hillebyri directely overthwart bytwixt Flint and Basingwark is at the ful se a vii. miles over.
The est parte of the paroche of Potuarry [d] is in Flintshire: and part of the same paroche toward the south ys yn Diffrin Cluid.
Hoele communely caullid in Englische Poele [e], and, as sum say, it is the name that we caull Hughe.
Hoele was a gentilman of Flyntshir that by auncient accustume was wont to gyve the bagge of the sylver harpe to
[c] ? Birket R.
[d] Bod Varri.
[e] Poele or Powel = ap Howel, i.e., son of Howel.
IN WALES. PART VI 93
the beste harper of North Walys, as by a privilege of his auncetbrs, dwellith at Penrine yn Flyntshir. He hath also a ruinus castelet, or pile, at a place caullid Castel Yollo. [a] This word Yollo [b] is the same in Walsche that Lluelen ys, and Ludovicus in Latine.
Yollo ys 2. miles from Northob village a litle on the lift hand yn the highe way to Chester.
Thisarte, [c] or Disarte, Castelle yn Flyntshire, by the name yn Walsche is thus expoundid. Thi is privativa particula, as not. Sarte is stepe up. Not stepe or cliuing up, that is to say playne.
Rethelan, [d] communely caullid Rudelan, cummith of Rethe, that ys to say roone color or pale redde, and glan, that is the shore; but G when Glan is set with a worde preceding G is explodid.
About Glascoit (viridis silva) Hille, that is a 4. miles beyond Rethelan, is the limes of Flintshir and Denbigh lande.
Commotes yn Denbigh-Land.
Ise Dulesse and Hughe Dulesse, [e] both by northe toward Llan Elwy, alias S. Asaphe.
And boothe be namid of Dullesse a broke there rennyng.
Ise Aleth and Hughe Aleth [f] ly bothe flat weste toward Conwey, and hath the name of Aleth Ryver.
Kinemarth [g] cummith from withyn a mile and a half of Ruthine to the very toune and castelle waul of Denbighe, and lyith most by south south est.
Sum take the paroche self of Denbigh for a commote, and lyith much by este, and is a 4. mile yn cumpace or more.
Sum say that afore the toune of Denbigh was made yt was yn Hughe Dulesse [h] commote, but sins of late tyme it hath be provid by ple to be a cort and commot of it self.
There is no place yn al these commotes where the people dwelle vicatim, but al sparsim, saving at Denbighe toun self.
[a] Ewloe Castle.
[b] Yollo or Iolo stands for Edward in Welsh.
[e] Is Dulas and Uch Dulas.
[f] Is Aled and Uch Aled.
[h] Uch Dulas.
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And yn al these commotes was no howse of priory or abbay, saving a place of White Freres at the very este ende of the toun of Denbighe.
There be diverse paroche chirches in eche of these commotes, saving that if Denebigh paroch be a commote, ther is but one paroche chirch yn it, and that is S. Marcelles a mile and more out of the toune of Denbighe by est.
Ther be ii. of ease by side withyn the toune self, wherof one is caullid S. Hilaries, very large and welle servid.
Kinemarth [a] is the greatest commot of al the residew, and yet hath but 2. or 3. paroches, Lan Rayhader, [b] that is a 7. miles in lenght, and Llaneinys, [c] that is not al in Kynmarth, but parte in Diffrin Cluid. It is caullid Llaneinis, by cause the chirch is set betwixt the ryvers of Cluid and Cluedog [d] as in an isle. These ii. stremes ren ther withyn a quarter of a mile togither.
Loke wither Llanvair Vadelen be not in Kinemarth. This paroche is caullid in Walsch Kereg Edridion. [e]
There is yn the est ende of Lan Raihader paroch very goodly corne and grasse, but by west south west yt is baren and hilly with bogges. Wood inough yn Raihaider by north est.
There is good corn, as whete grounde, about Llaneinys, metely woddyd.
Lanvair Vadeflen is much baren, but for otes withe great labor. No wood but turfe. Ful of hilles and bogges. The paroche self of Denebighe is plentiful of corne and gresse, but no great wood,
Ise Dulesse [f] is good for corne as whete, rye, peason and benes, and hath very good fine pasture and medois, and hath litle wast ground yn it, and hath good woodde as in the lesse parke longging to Denbighe, and yn other places. This litle parke is caullid in Walsch Gorse (firres) nodiog. [g] There is a quarre of harde stone. Its of a blakisch or sad marble color, much usid for ovens and chimeneis in this litle park: and there also they dig oute slate stones to kyver houses.
Hughe Dulesse [h] is less fruteful then Ise Dulesse, and more hylly and rokky. Ther is plenty of woodde in it. And the
[b] Llan Rhaiadyr.
[c] Llan Ynys.
[d] Clwyd and Clywedog.
[e] Kerrig y Drudion.
[f] Is Dulas.
[g] Gorse, i.e., Cors = morass, not "firres." [h] Uch Dulas.
IN WALES. PART VI 95
great park by Denbigh is, as I lernid, in this commote. This parke is caullid in Walsche Moil evig, [a] that is to say of the balde hyndes.
Other parkes then the 2. aforesaid be not in Denbighe land.
Ise Aleth [b] cummith to the very shore of Rethelan Bay.
This bay bereth the name from Rethelan and the mouth of Cluide to the mouth of Conwey.
These ii. paroches in Ise Aleth ly apon the shore: first Lan S. George next to the marches of Flyntshir, and more upper west to Credin [c] Abergele paroch, where be likelihod is a water caullid Gelle. [c]
The north part of Ise Aleth as to the shore is meetely fruteful of corne. The south part is hilly, good for gotes, and hath litle wood in respecte.
Hughe Aleth [d] cummith by weste onto Conwey Ryver bank agayn the towne self of Conway, and ther metith with Come Credine [e] a pece of Cairarvonshir cis Conwey River: and leving Credin on the north side of the shore, as on the right honde: and then goith on Conwey River bank up a litle by south south west, and then levyng Conwey bank it goith plain south and metith with Penthline [f] lordship.
In Hughe Aleth be many bogges, rokky hilles, and morisch ground: and the soil is to cold to have good corne, yet yn diverse places it berith otes and sum rye. It hath in sum places woodde. In these hilles be kept nete horse and shepe. This commote is the worst parte of al Denbigh land and most baren.
In Kinemarch [g] commote be 2. places wher be likelihod hath beene sum castelettes or piles of defence. Llesguen-llean [h] is the one, and that is a 3. quarters of a myle owt of Denbigh toward south in the way to Ruthine on the right hond. There apperith no building now, but great diches and hilles over growen with bussches.
Place amedowe [i] is the other, wher is a great diche and a hille. The name declarith it to have beene the place of an heremite. Wither ther hathe beene any other thing there it is out of memorie. There is nothing now but a
[a] Moel yr Ewig.
[b] Is Aled.
[d] Uch Aled.
[h] Llys Gwenllian.
[i] Plas y Meudwy.
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fox borow. It is a mile and more from Denbigh by south in the way to Ruthin on the lifte hand.
After that King Edward had extinctid the Prince of Wales, and had holely al Wales in his possession he much studied to the fortification especially of North Wales, and the marches of it. And by this meane Lacy a man of greate estimation about Edwarde the I. had the land of Denby gyven onto hym.
And I have hard say that it was partely in consideration that he maried in the bloode of the Prince of North Wales. Lacy was a great lord marcher afore in Ewisland [a] bering the name of Lacye.
This Lacy firste began the toun of Denbigh, walling it and making a castelle there. Afore his tyme I cannot lerne that there was other toun or castelle.
The toune and castel of Denbighe standith on a craggy hille, and is nere a mile in cumpace, and ys pene orbe culari figura. The castelle lyith south on the toune: and the toun lyith to the castelle by north and est.
In the toun be but 2. gates, the Escheker Gate, and the Burges Gate. In the first was the lordes court kept: and in the other the burgesis. The Eskeker Gate lyith playne west, and the Burgeses Gate plain north.
These ii. gates as the cumpace of the waulle goith be a great flite shot one from the other: and betwixt them in the waulle is never a tower.
And from the Eskeker Gate to the castel is never a towre: but ther is a galery out of the castel into it.
These towers be in the toune waulle by est from the Burgeses Gate to the south est side of the castelle.
First a great quadrata tower caullid ...
[a] Ewias Lacy.
IN WALES. PART VI 97
secondly the countes toure a goodly square tower of 2. loftes highe. The third the Goblin Hole semicirculari figura, the leades of which in hominum memoria about a 80. yeares agoe were with tempest carried awaye, as farre almost as St. Marcelles the paroche church, and so it hath lyen uncovered.
There be 2. rounde toures beside.
There hath beene diverse rowes of streates withyn the wald towne, of the which the most part be now doone in maner, and at this tyme there be scant 80. howsolders. There is a goodly and large chapel of ease in the old toune, of S. Hilarie, wither yet moste of the new toun yet cumme.
I have not yet lernid the certente how this wallid toune decayed withyn, wither it were by fier or for lak of water, wherof there is litle or none, or for lak of good caryage into the toun standing sumwhat high and on rokky ground, I cannot surely telle.
But the towne of Denbigh now occupied and yoining neere to the old toun hath beene totally made of later tyme, and set much more to commodite of cariage and water by many welles in it. And the encreace of this was the decay of the other. At this present tyme the newe is 3. times as bigge as the oulde, and is a mile ... and it lyeth all in one streete ... and in the market place wellbuilded, which is fayre, and large, and paved of late yeares, the confluence to the market on Tewesday is exceding great. St. Marcelles a mile of was paroche chirche to the ould towne, and so it is to the newe.
There is a chapelle of ease in the midle of the new towne, of S. Anne. One Fleming was the builder of this, and yet it is caullid Capelle Fleming, and is of a good largenes. Ther was an almose house hard by this chapelle ex saxo quadrato made by the same Fleming. But now it is desolate.
The new toune of Denbigh was clere defacid with fier by hostilite, ao.D. 1468. Sum say that this was doone by the Erle of Penbroke.
The castelle is a very large thing, and hath many toures yn it. But the body of the worke was never finishid.
The gate house is a mervelus strong and great peace of
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work, but the fastigia of it were never finischid. If they had beene, it might have beene countid emong the most memorable peaces of workys yn England. It hath diverse wardes and dyverse portcolicis. On the front of the gate is set the image of Hen. Lacy Erle of Lincoln in his stately long robes.
There is a nother very high towre and larg in the castelle caullid the Redde Towre.
Sum say that the Erle of Lincoln's sunne felle into the castelle welle, and ther dyed: wherapon he never passid to finisch the castelle.
King Edward the 4. was besegid in Denbigh-Castelle: and ther it was pactid bytwene King Henry's men and hym that he should with life departe the reaulme never to returne. If they had taken King Edwarde there debellatum fuisset.
There is every Sunday prayers made in S. Hilarie Chapelle for Lacey and Percy.
Denbigh lande on sum places marcheth apon Cluide Ryver.
Wher Quid cummith niest to Denbigh toun it is 2. miles of by este.
Loke here for Fonnon Dunoc [a]: S. Dunokes Welle a mighty spring that maketh a brok renning scant a mile.
Cluedog [b] Ryver cummith ynto Cluid 4. mile lower by water, and 3. by land, and than ynto ... by west. It is Llanharder [c] paroche, of sum caullid S. Dunnokes, then Ruthin town on the weste ripe of it.
Looke heere for these brokes.
Ustrate [e] cummith within half a mile by south of Denbigh toun, and goith ynto Cluid [f] by the west ripe almost againe Denbigh toun that is a 2. miles of.
Aleth risith in Llin Aleth [g] poole an 8. miles west from Denbigh toun in the paroche of Llan Sannan, and rennith about an 8. miles towarde the north, and go ynto the south ripe of Elwy in Llan Heueth [h] paroche, a 6. miles above
[a] Ffynnon Dyvnog.
[c] Llan Rhaiadr.
[h] Elwy yn Llan Nevydd.
IN WALES. PART VI 99
S. Asaph. So that the course of it goith an 8. miles by estimation.
Ther is a litle water caullid Merach Mirchion, [a] wherby, as sum saie, was Lorde Marach a Mirchions [b] place. It is Henellan paroch.
On the farther ripe of Elwy a 3. or 4. miles above S. Asaphes is a stony rok caullid Kereg thetylluaine, [c] i.e. the rok with hole stones, wher a great cave is, having divers romes in it hewid out of the mayne rok.
There is in the paroch of Llansannan in the side of a stony hille a place where ther be 24. holes or places in a roundel for men to sitte in, but sum lesse and sum bigger, cutte out of the mayne rok by manneshand, and there childern and young men cumming to seke their catelle use to sitte and play. Sum caulle it the round table. Kiddes use ther communely to play and skip from sete to sete.
There is an hille with pasture in Guitheryn paroche in Denbigh lande caullid Penbere, [d] i.e. caput sepulcri, wher a stone like a flat stone of a grave lyith, and one, as it is sayde, lyith under it byried.
Market townes in Glocestreshire.
Castelles in Glocestreshire.
Sudely by Winchelcumbe.
Cirecestre had a castel by lykelyhod.
[a] March Meirchion.
[c] Karreg y tyllvaen.
[b] March ap Meirchion.
[d] Pen Bere.
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Ryvers in Glocestreshire.
Avon touchith at Twekesbiri.
Another Avon at Bristow.
Isis risith a iii. myles from Cirencestre not far from a village cawlled Kemble within half a myle of the Fosse Way, betwixt Cirecestre and Bath. Thens it runneth to Latinelad [a] a 4. myles of, and so to Grekelad [b] abowt a myle lower, sone after receyving Churn.
Wher as the very hed of Isis ys, in a great somer drought appereth very litle or no water, yet is the stream servid with many ofspringes resorting to one botom.
Churne at Cicestre, proprie Churncestre, a hard by Chestreton, improprie pro Churnetown. Theprincipal hedde of Churn risith at Coberle, wher is the hed howse of Sir John Bridges. It is a vii. myles from Glocestre, and a five myles or more from Cirecestre by the which yt renneth, and thens a vi. myles uno infra Greklad milliari yt goith into Isis.
Communely thorough al Glocestershire there is good plenty of corn, pasture and wood, saving at Coteswold wher the great flokkes of sheepe be, and yet in sum places ther groweth fair corn.
Glocestre where yt is not sufficiently defended by Severn ys waulled. The castel is of an wonderful old building, but no old Britons brykes yn yt, sed lapides plerumque quadrati. Of al partes of yt the hy towr in media area ys most strongest and auncient. Withowt duplici fossa munitur. In the towne be xi. paroche chirches, withowt Blak Monkes yn the town. Blak Chanons lately withowt.
An arow shot withowt the town toward Herford ys a long bridge of stone, under the which goeth a great arme of Severne, as I remembre, cawlled Owseburne. Yt breketh owt of the great streame above the town, and beneth yt goith againe into the mayne streame. The curse of yt is abowt a myle. So that it insulateth a goodly medow.
Bristow apon Avon a greate cite, well waulled, having a fair castel. In yt is now, as I remembre, xviii. paroche
IN WALES. PART VI 101
chirches. S. Augustines, Blak Chanons extra maenia; ibique in magna area sacellum, in quo sepultus est. S Jordanus, unus ex disripulis Augustini Anglorum apostoli. A howse withowt the waulles, as I remembre, cawlled the Gauntes otherwise Bonhommes. iiii. howses of freres, of the wiche the White Freres place ys very fair. Avon Ryver abowt a quartre of a mile beneth the towne in a medow casteth up a great arme or gut by the which the greater vessels as mayne toppe shippes cum up to the towne. So that Avon doth peninsulate the towne, and vessels may cum of bothe sides of yt. I marked not wel whither ther cam any fresch water from the land to bete that arme.
Avon goith into Severn at Kynges Rode iii. myles beneth Bristow by land, and vi. by water.
In the hilles about Bristow towne be found litle stones of divers colours counterfetynge precious stones.
Cirecestre, corruptely for Churnecestre, peraventure of Ptoleme cawlled Coriminum, stondeth in a botom apon the ryver of Churne. Be lykehod yn times past guttes were made that partes of Churn streame might cum thorow the cyte, and so to returne to their great botom. The cumpace of the old waul, cujus pauca adhuc extant vestigia, was nere hand ii. myles. A man may yet walking on the bank of Churne evidently perceyve the cumpace of fundation of towers sumtyme standing in the waul; and nere to the place wher the right goodly clothing mylle was set up a late by the Abbate, was broken down the ruine of an old tower toward making of the mylle waulles, in the which place was fownd a quadrate stone fawllen down afore, but broken in aliquot frusta, wherin was a Romaine inscription, of the which one, scantly letterd, that saw yt told me that he might perceyve Pont. Max. Among divers numismata fownd frequently there Dioclesian's be most fairest, but I cannot adfirme the inscription to have bene dedicate onto hym. In the middes of the old town in a medow was found a flore de tessellis versicoloribus, and by the town nostris temporibus was fownd a broken shank bone of a horse, the mouth closed with a pegge, the which taken owt a shepard founde yt fillid nummis argenteis. In the south sowth west side of the waul
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be lykelyhod hath bene a castel, or sum other great building, the hilles and diches yet remayne. Sum say that it was the place wher sege was laide to the town, and not far thens is a steepe rownd biry like a wind myl hill extra muros cawlled Grismundes Tower, for Gusmundes Tower, as theie say. The place is now a waren for conys, and there hath be fownd mennes bones insolitae magnitudinis, also to sepulchres ex secto lapide. In one was a round vessel of leade covered, and in hit ashes and peaces of bones. More then iii. partes of the old town is now goodly medow ground. The iiii. part ys yet wel inhabited, having one paroche chirche very richely wrougt, and an abbay of Blak Chanons fundatore Henrico primo. But thereafore was a great chirch of prebendaries. In the body of the chirch in a sepulchre crosse of white marble is this inscription, Hic jacet Rembaldus presbyter, quondam hujus ecclesiae decanus, et tempore Edwardi regis Angliae cancellarius. There is also a litle chapel as an almose house.
The soyle in the stony feeldes abowt Cirecestre is more apt for barle then whete.
Therabowt as in Coteswold is smawl plenty of wood except in few places kept of necessite.
Cummyng fro Glocester to Cirecestre almost yn the myddle way betwyxt wher the wood fayleth and champayne countery toward Coteswold appereth, the faire old way made by the Britons ys very evidently seen, and so goeth as strayt as a line to Cirecester, and fro thens to Bathe. But sum wold that the way from Cirecester to Bath should be the very fosse, and the way betwyxt Cirecestre toward Glocester to be an other of the iiii. wayes made by the Britons. The Abbat of Cirecestre told me that abowt Cirecestre should be crosse meating of al the iiii. wayes.
At Litle Subbiri, alias Sodbiri, in Glocestreshire a xii. miles from Bristow as yt were by north est appereth on a hille a strong camp of menne of warre doble dichid. It is usid now to be sowen by Mr. Walche.
Kenchester standeth a iii. myles or more above Hereford
IN WALES. PART VI 103
upward on the same side of the ryver that Herford doth; yet is yt almost a myle fro the ripe of Wy. This towne is far more auncyent then Herford, and was celebrated yn the Romaynes tyme, as appereth by many thinges, and especyally by antique mony of the Caesars very often fownd withyn the towne, and yn plowghyng abowt; the which the people ther cawlleth Duarfes Mony. The cumpace of Kenchestre hath bene by estimation as much as Herford, excepting the castel, the which at Herford ys very spatiose. Peaces of the walles and turrets yet appere propre fundamenta, and more should have appered if the people of Herford town and other therabowt had not yn tymes paste pulled down muche and pyked owt of the best for there buildinges. Of late one Mr. Brainton buylding a place at Stretton a myle from Kenchestre dyd fetch much tayled stone there toward his buildinges. They told me ther that one M. Lingham ys owner both of Kenchester and Sutton. By lykelyhod men of old tyme went by Kenchester to Hay, and so to Breknoc and Cair Mardyn. [a] The place wher the town was ys al over growen with brambles, hasylles, and lyke shrubbes. Neverthelesse here and there yet appere ruines of buyldinges, of the which the folisch people cawlle on the King of Feyres Chayre. Ther hath ben fownd nostra memoria lateres Britanniri, et ex eisdem canales, aquae ductus, tessellata pavimenta, fragmentum catenulae aureae, calcar ex auro, by side other strawng thinges. To be short, of the decaye of Kenchestre Herford rose and florishyd. Withowt fayle Herford ys better set as hard apon Wy Ryver, and so nerer to the pastures. But I cannot perceyve that Hereford had any great begynning afore King Offas tyme, the which be al likelyhod had a palace at Sutton.
Sutton ys a iiii. myle from Hereford, wher appere notable ruines of sum auncyent, and great building. It is thowght ther and a great lykelyhod is that it was sumtyme the mansion of King Offa, at such tyme as Kenchestre stood, or els Herford was abegynnyng.
104 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Marden village is abowt a myle from Sutton, and harde by ys a hil wher, as men say, S. Ethelbricght was behedded. At the village now is a fair chirche dedicate to hym. I thynk verely that he was slayn at Sutton yn King Offa's howse. The name of Marden semeth to expresse the Martyrs Hil.
Breknocshire is very montanius, and in sum place very wooddy; netherthelesse in the valles fruteful of corn, and especially of pastures, for the Walschmen yn tymes past, as they do almost yet, did study more to pasturage then tylling, as favorers of their consuete idilness. Among al the montaynes of that shire Blak Montayne is most famose, for he strecchith, as I have lerned, his rootes on one side within a iiii. or v. myles of Monemuth, and on the other side as nere to Cairmerdin. [a] Though this be al one montayne, yet many partes of him have sundry names. Owt of this montayne springeth the heddes of iiii. famose ryvers, that be diverse cowrsys thorowgh Sowth Wales at the last cum ynto the Severn Se. Ther be yn the shire diverse other litle rivers, of whom Giraldus writeth at length, as Hodeney [b] that giveth the old name to Breknoc, that is to say Aberhodeney, [c] and Lleueney [d] that cummeth owt of Atterel Hylles, the wich be cawlled in Walsch Meneth [e] Cadair, [e] id est monies alti instar cathedrarum, and so descendeth ynto Breknoc Mere, the which is a ii. myles in lengeth, and a myle or more in bredthe. This lake is cawlled in Walsche Llin Seuathan [f] Here one thing is to be noted, that after a great reyne Lleueney cummeth owt of the montaynes with such a rage that he bringethef the color of the dark redde sand with hym, and ys sene by the color wher he violently passeth thorowgh the mere. Thens Lleueney renneth into Wy abowt Glasbyri a iii. myles from the Hay, the which is in the right way betwixt Herford and Breknoc. Looke more diligently for this lake apon Giraldus book cawlled "Itinerarium Cambriae."
[b] Hodni, now Honddu.
[c] Aber Hodni, now corrupted into Aber Honddu.
[e] Mynydd y Gadeir.
[f] Llyn Syvaddan.
IN WALES. PART VI 105
In the lak be umbers, yn Walsche cangans, and great store of pykes, wherof many cum into Wy River. The Lake of Brecnok ons frosen over, and than in a thaue breking, maketh mervelus noise per totam vidniam.
The town of Breknoc is welle waulled, and hath a fair castel yoining to hit. The Duke of Bokingham was of late lord there. In the town be ... paroche chirches, and withowt ... There a late was a celle of Blak Monkes longing to Batayle Abbay.
Brekenok waullid. iiii. gates. Old Port superior, as the Hy Gate by north. West Gate by the Blake Freer. They be in the suburbe. Est Gate, Water Gate, Cambrice Porthene hichca, [a] i.e. superior, the Old Gate. Portbont, [b] Bridgate, alias West Gate. Portissa [c] the lower gate, alias Est Gate. Portdoure, [d] Water Gate, alias Portwiske. Beside thes gates is one without in the beginning of a suburbe caullid also Porthene. [e] In the towne is a mighti great chapel (S. Mariae), with a large tour for belles of harde ston costely squared with the expences of a thousand poundes.
The paroche was wher the priori was, and was afore ther or the priori was made, and yet is. It stondith north withowt the waulle apon the ripe of Honddye. [f]
The paroch of Llanuays. [g] Llan Chirch, vais extra, ac si diceres extra muros. It standeth betwixt the river of Uske and Tyrtarelle [h] Brooke, that is about the lower ende of the toun of Brekenok.
In the est suburbe ys an hospitale with a chapel.
The castel standith in the suburbe and is devidid from the toune by Hondeney [i] River, over the wich is a hy bridge of ii. arches to go into the castel, the wich is very large, strong, welle mainteynid; and the keepe of the castel is very large and faire. Ther apperith digging, wher menne laborid to bring a peace of Hondy [i] about to insulate Brekenok with hit and Wiske.
In the toune is a market twys a weeke Wensday and Saturday.
[a] Porth hen ucha.
[b] Porth y Bont.
[c] Porth issa.
[d] Porth dwr alias Porth Wysc.
[e] Porth hen.
[g] Llan Vaes.
106 LELAND'S ITINERARY
There hath beene founde about the toune in the feeldes Romaine quenes.
At the ende of the lower part of the castel cummith Honddey [a] into Uske as soone as Wske is ones passid thorough the great bridge.
Uske Bridge at Brekenoc was throuen doun by the rage of Wske water anno 26. Henrici 8. die S. Hugonis. It was not by rain but by snow meltid that cam out of the montaines. The water ranne a yarde above the toppe of the hy bridge, and the circle mark apperithe almost to the midde waul of the Blake Freres cloistre.
To the lordship of Brekenoc longgith but only the market of Brekenok.
In al the lordship of Brekenoc was not in time of memori but the priori of Blake Monkes in Brekenok a cell to Bataile.
Barnardus de novo mercatu was founder of hit.
Llanthonddye [b] a priori of Blake Chanons, ther caullid Honddye Slade, stondith in the vale of Ewias xiiii. miles from Brekenok. But it is a nother Honddye [c] then that that cummith to Brekenok. This priori was fair, and stoode betwixt ii great hilles.
For the parte about Honddye Slade it put be likelyehodde Hochuyslade.
Artures Hille is iii. good Walsche (almost v. Englisch) miles south west from Brekenok, and in the veri toppe of the hille is a faire wellespring. This hille of summe is countid the hiest hille of Wales, and in a veri cleere day a manne may se from hit a part of Malvern Hilles, and Glocestre, and Bristow, and part of Devenshir and Cornwale. Ther be other diverse hilles by Artures Hille, the wich, with hit, be communely caullid Banne Brekeniauc. [d]
Llin Seuathan [e] is a iiii. myles by the south south est from
[c] Afon Honddu.
[d] Banne Brycheinog.
[e] Llyn Savaddan.
IN WALES. PART VI 107
Brekenok. It is in bredth a mile, and a ii. miles of lenght, and wher as it is depest a xiii. fadom. On the one side wel nere the ripe is a kinde of weedes that goith alonge the Llin, wherin the spaune hath socur, and also the greate fische. At great windes the water doth surge ther mervelusly. Lleueny cummith thorough this lake, no great river, and after great raine is parfightly scene of redde color in the middest of the lake. After that it is frosen and with thaue beginnith to breeke it makith such a noise that a man wold thinke hit a thunder. It berith as the principale fisch a great numbre of bremes, and they appeyre in May in mightii sculles, so that sumtime they breke the large nettes: and ons frayed appereth not in the bryme of the watar that yere agayne. It bereth also good pikes, and perches in greate numbre. Trowtes also, and cheuyns by cumming in of Lleueny.
Menne fische there uniligneis, and they be very narow.
The hedde of the lake wher Lleueny River cummith in is at Llanuihengle (Michael) Kethedine. [a]
The ende is at Llanuihengle Tale Llin. [b]
Penkelthle [c] Castel ii. mile from Brekenok, ther on the fans. farther side of Uske. But ther is onely a faire medow bytwixt Uske and hit. Sum say that it longgid to the Mortimer. Syns the lordship was dividid betwixt the Duke of Bokingham, and one of the Herebertes at Montgomeri. But the castel longgith to the Herebert.
Blain Lleueni [d] in sum auncient writinges caullid Eueri Castel, and Lleueni Water caullid Eueri Brooke.
The honor of Blain Lleueni, iii. miles from Penkelthle, and v. from Brekenok, and within a mile of the mere, standing in a valley ys in the Walsche Talegarth, wher is yet the shape of a veri fair castel now dekeiyng, and by was a borow town now also in decay. Both longgid to the Erle of Marche. Though Blaine Lleueni be in the Walsch Talegarth, yet the tenauntes kepe the Englische tenor.
Llangors lordship in Talgarth is a membre to Blain Lleueny.
Dinas Castel stondith a good mile from Blan Lleueni
[a] Llan Vihangel Cathedine.
[b] Tal y llyn.
[c] Pengelli Castle.
[d] Blaen Llyvni.
108 LELAND'S ITINERARY
apon a topp of a notable hille. It is now minus almost to the hard ground. Ther be manifest tokins of iii. wardes waullid abowt. And therby was sumtime iii. parkes, and a forest. The parkes be down, but yet good plenty is ther of redde deere. The tenantes of Dinas hold of the Walsch tenor. It is set by like of one of the hilles caullid Chathedrales. The people about Dinas did burne Dinas Castel that Oene Glindour shuld not kepe it for his forteres.
Part as sum say of Llinseuatan is in the Walsch Talegart, and part in Breknok lordship, the whiche be devidid by Lleueni.
In the Walsch Talgar [b] is no notable town nor castel besides thes.
Lleueny risith in the Walsch Talegart hard by Blain Lleueny.
In the Englisch Talegart is no notable building but a litle prison by Talegarth Chirch in the town, and Mr. William Vehans Esquiers place caullid Porthamal, i.e. Porta copiae, half a mile from Talegarth Chirch in the valley. The howse hath a fair gate and a strong waul embatelid.
Tretour, [c] a smaulle village stonding on a litle brooke, and within half a mile of Wiske. Ther is a prety castel longging now to the King, and therby also in the village is a fair place of Henry Vehan Esquier.
Crekehouel [d] a preati tounlet (Cragus Hoelinus a mile from Tretour, and iiii. miles from Abergeveni) stondith as in a valley apon Wisk, but by hit is an hille, and in the valley hard by the toune is a castel longging ons to the Paunsford, but now to the King.
Tretour and Creghouel stand in Estrodewe [e] hundrede.
The Hay x. miles bi est from Breknok.
Glindama a lordship within a mile of the Hay. In it is no market toune nor castel; but at Llanigo [f] apperith a tour tanquam noxiorum custodiae deputata.
[a] Owen Glyndwr.
[e] Ystrad yw.
IN WALES. PART VI 109
Broynlles [a] (a place wher russhis grouith) Castel in the midde way betwix the Hay and Breknok. It standith in the hundrede of Cantercely. (Brwyn-llyo = the Court of (the man) Brwyn.)
Buelth apon Wy is a good market toun, and ther is a fair castel of the Kinges. This lordeship hath good plenti of woode.
Lannedeu, [b] a mile from Brekenok, a lordship of the Bisshops of S. David, wher was sumtime a veri place of the bisshops, now no thing but an onsemeli ruine.
The Archidiacon of Brekenok hath a house even there, and that is also fallen doune for the more part. Giraldus makith mention of this house.
Ther is a Llinne yn Low Eluel [c] within a mile of Paynes Castel by the chirch caulled Llanpeder. [d] The Llinne is caullid Bougkdamallinne, [e] and is of no great quantite, but is plentiful of pike and perche and eles.
Hene (Old) Wy had a course in Low Eluel not far from the chirch of Glasebiry, but now he hath suarvid his course a good but shotte of. Wher of old time he ran, is now a poole cawllid Henewy, [f] wher in now be greate luces and tenchis. The poole is of no greate quantite. At Clunne [g] in the low medow is a preati poole wherin be good luces and tenchis.
Loogh (Poole) Tawe [h] in Blake Montaine, wher sum say is the hedde of Tawe that cummith to Swansey, bredith no fische, and if fisch be cast into hit it dieth shortely. Part of Melennith is welle wooddid, the other is but scant. Ther is in Melennith plenty in sum places of corn, and great plenty of gress. In Melennith is a good breed of horse on a montain caullid Herdoel. [i] Ther be left al maner of catail al winter, and prove welle.
Comothuder [k] is a prety tounlet, and ther about is plenty of wood.
Honddye [l] risith at a place caullid Blainhonddy (blain, a point), a vii. miles from Brekenok, and in Brekenok lordship, and rennith thorough a valley caullid Dyffrin Honddye. Wisk risith in Blake Montein [m] a x. miles above Brekenoc
[e] ? Bwch dana.
[f] Hen Wy.
[h] Llwch Tawe.
[i] ? Rhy Hywel.
[k] Cwm Doyddwr.
[m] Y Van.
110 LELAND'S ITINERARY
toward Cairmadine, [a] and so rennith thoroug the litle forest and great forest of Brekenok, and so cummith thorough Redbryuu [b] (Redbreu, i.e. vadum fractum) Bridge to Brekenok, to Aberconureg [c] a maner place of the Aubres, to Penkelthle, [d] to Creghoel, to Abregeveni, to Uske, Cairleon, Neuport. Sum say that the Vers Erles of Oxford wer caullid Aubres.
Lleueni risith hard by Blainlleueni Castel, and so within a mile thorough Llin Seuathan by Broynlles Castel, and so by Glasebiri into Wy at a place caullid Abrelleueny.
Brennik [e] risith in one of the hilles caullid Mennith e gader [f] and rennith thorough Englisch Talegarth and by Broynlles Castel into Lleueni at Aber Brennik.
Brenych [g] risith a iii. miles from Brekenok at a place caullid Blain (Brenych) and cummith into Wiske at Abrebrenych against Mr. Aubereis maner.
Tertarith [h] a great broke risith in the Banne Hilles a v. miles from Brekenok, and cummith into Uske in Brekenok suburbe by a place caullid Trenewith. S. David Chirch in the suburbe of Brekenok stoode ons on this brooke, and spillid alluvione was remevid to an other place,
The hilles caullid in Walsch Mennith e gader [f] appere in Talegarth about Dinas, and so to the places about Nanthonddy, and with sum part of thes montaines meate the greate hilles caullid Banne Brekeniauc, [i] and renneth in lenght to the Blake Montaine to my estimation apon an xviii. miles.
When I approchid nere the Hay, and began to discend from thens I saw on the hither side of Wy a good mile from the Hay the castel of Clereho. [k] After passing over Wy River, the which for lak of good knowleg yn me of the fourde did sore troble my horse, I cam in crepusculo to the Hay.
The Hay stondith hard apon Wy, and yet sheuith the
[b] Rhyd-friw. (?) [c] Aber Cynvrig.
[f] Mynydd y Gader.
[i] Banne Brycheinog.
IN WALES. PART VI 111
token of a right strong waulle, having in hit iii. gates and a posterne. Ther is also a castel, the which sumtime hath bene right stately.
Within the toune is but one poore paroche. In the suburbe hard by Wy is a paroche chirch meately fair. Ther is also in the suburbe a chapel wher on a Sunday I hard Messe. Not far from the paroche chirch in the suburbe is a great rounde hille of yerth cast up by mennes hondes other for a wynd mille to stond apon, or rather for sum fortres of bataille.
The toun of the Hay yet hath a market, but the toun within the waulles is wonderfully decaied. The ruine is adscribid to Oene Glindour.
One shewid me in the town the ruines of a gentilman's place caullid Waulwine, [a] be whose meanes Prince Lluelin was sodenli taken at Buelth Castel, and ther beheddid, and his hedde sent to the Kinge.
Dulesse [b] a prety river rising in the montannes about a iii. myles from Hay cummeth even thorough the toun, and strait into Wy without the est gate of the town. In feldes hard by in ploughyng hath be founde offtimes numismata Romanorum, the wich ther communely be caulled the Jewis mony.
The tounne longgid to the Duke of Bokingham. It perteinith now to the Lord Staford his sonne. Artures Hille, and summe other of the banknes veri manifestly apere to a man loking out of the west gate of Hay.
Cumming to the midde way bytwixt the Hay and Breknok I left on the lift honde the great ruines of the castel of Broynlles in Canterceli, [c] and saw on the lifte hond also a ii. miles from Broynlles on the toppe of an hille the ruines of Dinas Castel.
And then to Brekenok, wher nere to the toune I cam stille doune hilles, seing Honddye River and the foote, enterid into the suburbe of Brekenok by Porte Hene. [d]
Going from Brekenok toward Llinseuathan a ii. miles out of Brekenok I saw the castel of Pengelthle, leving it on the lifte honde. And at the Llinnseuathan I saw on the right honde scant a mile of Blainlleueny [e] Castel.
[c] ? Cantre Celli.
[d] Porth Hen= Old Gate.
[e] Blaen Llyvni.
112 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Going from Breknok to Englisch Talgarth Chirch, and so shire. to jy r William Vehans dwelling at Porthamal I lefte, almost at Talgarth Chirch, Broynlles almost a mile on the lifte honde, and Dinas a ii. miles on the right hond.
Cumming from Brekenok toward Llanameueri [a] within lesse then iii, miles I enterid into the great forest of Brekenok, wher menne of late were not wont to passe without tolle of mony, and so thorough that a iii. myle to the litle forest, leving Wisk alway on the right hond, and about the ende of the litle forest I saw a litle pile on Wiske strongli buildid as a logge. The people say ther that it was buildid of a ladi, the wich also buildid much of Breknok Castel, caullid Malt Walbere. This was she that sum caul Matabrune, of whom so many fables be told as of a wiche (saga). And about a mile thens I cam to Trecastel toune, sumtime a large borow and market, now much in ruine, wherby yet apperith the ruines of a castel. In the botom of this toun rennith Luggun, a brooke rising a ii. miles of in a marisch on the side of an hille, and by Trecastel rennith into Wiske. Ther is buillding on the farther side of this river hard joining to Trecastel, and is caullid the Bisshops Toun, and it kepith Lawday at Llanddew lordship a myle from Brekenok as Trecastel dothe at Brekenok.
Then passing upwarde the hille a mile and more I left on the right honde Munnith du, [b] the Blake Montaine, and a ii. myles thens also on the lift hond apperid the place wher the river of Wiske doth springe, as owt of a fontaine or welle caullid Blainwiske.
The ground from Trecastel to Llanameueri is hilli, for the most part baren of wood, but toward the valley wherin Llanameueri is set meately plenteful of pasture and corne.
And here marke that not xxx. yeres ago ther was nother barley sowid in the lordship of Brekenok nor Llanameueri,
[a] Llan ym ddyvri = Llandovery.
[b] Mynydd du.
IN WALES. PART VI 113
but the inhabitantes did by their barlei owt of the partes of Herfordshire, and moche other corne, wher as now thei have ynough for their oune use and also to selle.
About a iii. myles a this side Llanameuery is a rillet of veri bare streame, wher is a limes betwixt the lordshippe self of Brekenok and Llanameueri.
Trecastel is a ix. miles from Brekenok, and Breknok, and Llanameueri is vi. miles thens.
A litle or I cam to Llanameueri I passid over a brooke caullid Guitherik, [a] whos course was not long or it cam into Tewe, [b] not far from the toune of Llanamuery.
Nor far of this brooke I cam over Brane [c] River that risith a xii. miles of, and cummith hard by the foote of Llanameueri Castel.
And even almost by hit passid over the litle brooke of Eueri, [d] renning thoroug the middes of the toun of Llanameueri. So that the castel hath on the one side Brane River, and on the other Euery Brooke.
Brane a litle beneth Castel, and also Euery goith into the great river of Tewe.
Llanameueri a poore market, much standing by repears that cary fische from the quarters of Cairmardine to the lower partes of Wales, hath but one streate, and that poorely buildid of thatchid houses. To the tounlet longgith on chirch withyn, and a nother a quarter of a mile oute of the toune.
Passing owt of Llanameueri within a ii. forow lenght I rode over the river of Tewe, the wiche ther oftentimes dronith in winter divers menne for lakke of a bridge, and thens or I cam to Abremarlais [e] iiii. miles of I passid over ii. brokes whereof the one was caullid Munneys.
Marleis Broke maketh no great course, but cumming thorough the parke that he givith name onto goith into Tewi. [b] In Marleis Parke is a welle favorid stone place motid, new mendid and augmentid bi Sir Rhese ap Thomas. Ther now dwellithe Thomas ap Jonys an esquier.
[e] Aber Marleis.
114 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The grond bytwixt Llanameueri and Abremarlais is well wooddid.
I lernid at Llanameueri that Tewe cummith by Llangerik [a] in Powisland in the lordship of Arustle, and that is hedde is not far thens.
Cumming from Abremarlais a ii. miles toward Cairmardine I saw on the right hond about a iii. miles of the desolate Priori of White Chanons, communely caullid Talley alias [b] ...
Again forward to good miles more I rode doun into a greate botom wherin ranne the preti river of Dules and so into Tewe. [c]
But or I came into the vale I espied on the right hond the castel of Dineuer [d] by estimation a iii. miles of in citeriori ripa Teuii. [c]
From this Dulesse [e] about a ii. mile farther I passid over a nother caullid ... And a iii. or iiii. miles beyond that I roode over a nother riveret caullid Dules that goith into Tewe hard by Drislan Castel. [f]
Dryslan (as I lernid) is as moch to say as a place ful of difficulte and encombrance to passe thorough.
A iii. miles beyound this I passid over a great bridge, under the wich rennith the fair river of Cothey [g] and not veri far into Tewe.
And so thorow a litle valle, hi hilles being on eche side, onto Abreguile [h] a iii. miles or more, wher is a fair collegiate chirch of prebendaries longging to S. David.
And a mile thens to Cairmardein.
From Cairmardine to Cowen [i] Bridge. Cowen risith at Blaincowen [k] a ii. miles or more above the bridge, and after into Taue River.
From Cowen Bridge to Duddey [l] riveret. From Duddey a flit shot of to Garthkiny [m] River that rennith under the townlet of Sainct Clare. [n]
From thens to Whitland apon Taue [o] iiii. miles.
[a] Llan Gurig.
[b] Tal y Llycheu.
[f] Dryslwyn Castle.
[h] Aber Gwili.
[i] Cowyn [k] Blaen Cowyn.
[n] St. Clears.
IN WALES. PART VI 115
But or I cam to Whitland I passid over the brooke of Venny.
As I here say ther is a forest by Llanandeuery. [a]
But bytwixt Cairmardin and Whitland is in no place such plenti of wood as is at Whitland self standing in a vast wood as in a wildernes. Moch ground otherwise and hilles abowt hit baren of wood.
From Whitland passing toward Llanfith [b] half a mile owt of Whitland I passid over the litle broke of Marleis, and so continuing my jorney by meane hilles and dales cam to Llanfith wherby the Bisshop of S. David's hath a place of stoone after castel fascion standing on ... Brooke that goith to the salt water by Penbroke.
Bytwixt Whitland and Llanfeth is xii. Walsche miles, conteining abowt an xviii. Englisch miles.
Al the hy way betwixt Whitland and Llanfeth is almost hethy, yet on everi side sumjwhat distant I sau in valleis and on hille sides good corne.
But the ground is sumwhat baren of wood, as al Penbrookshire almost is, except wher a few parkes be. But the ground in divers partes of Penbrokeshire berith se coles, wherwith communely the people make fier and with firres, as thei do also about Cairmardine, though ther be better plenti of wood. Bi one of thes coles pittes being a iiii. miles from Llanfith I cam.
Also almost in the midde wai betwixt Whitland and Llanfeth I saw a place on the right hand as it wer a castel distant by estimation a iii. miles.
And within a ii. miles of Llanfeth on the right hond I saw the castel of Carew repairid or magnificently buildid by Syr Rhese ap Thomas. It stondith by a creke of Milford Haven.
From Llanfeth to Penbrok is but a good mile.
Penbroke standith upon an arme of Milford, the wich about a mile beyond the towne creketh in that so that it almost peninsulatith the toune that standith on a veri maine rokki ground.
The toune is welle waullid and hath iii. gates by est, west and north, of the wich the est gate is fairest and strongest,
[a] Llan-am-ddyvri, i.e. Llandovery.
[b] Llan-ffydd, now Lamphey.
116 LELAND'S ITINERARY
having afore hit a compasid tour not rofid, in the entering wherof is a portcolys ex solido ferro.
The castel stondith hard by the waul on a hard rokke, and is veri larg and strong, being doble wardid. In the utter ward I saw the chaumbre wher King Henri the VII. was borne, in knowlege wherof a chymmeney is new made with the armes and badges of King Henri the VII. In the botom of the great stronge rownd tower in the inner ward is a mervelus vault caullid the Hogan. The toppe of this round towr is gatherid with a rofe of stone almost in conum, the top wherof is keverid with a flat mille stone.
In the toune be a ii. paroche chirchis, and one in the suburbe.
Montaine a celle of Blak Monkes in the suburbe is suppressid.
The toune hath bene welle buildyd, and the est suburbe hath bene almost as great as the toun, but now it is totally yn ruine.
Cumming from Llanfeth towarde Tinbighe [a] I rode by a ruinus waulle of a parke sumtime longging to Syr Rhese, now voide of dere. In the parke is veri litle or no hye woode, but shrubbis and fyrris, like as is in the ii. parkes about Carew, waullid with stones.
The Chirch of S. Florein [b] and tounlet is in a botom by the parke.
A litle beyond this as more then half way betwixt Penbroke and Tinbigh apperid the castel of Mainorpirrhe [c] a mile of on the right hande. It standith as it were betwixt to pointing hillettes, betwene the wich the Severn Se gulfith in almost the length of a quarter of a mile.
Thens to Tinbigh.
Tinbigh town stondith on a main rokke, but not veri hy, and the Severn Se so gulfeth in about hit, that at the ful se almost the thirde part of the toune is inclosid with water. The toune is strongeli waullid, and welle gatid, everi gate having his portcolis ex solido ferro. But that gate that ledith
[a] Dinbych =Tenby.
[b] St. Florence.
[c] Maenor Pir, vulgarly written Manorbier.
IN WALES. PART VI 117
to Cairmardin ward is most semeliest, as circulid without with an embatelid but open rofid towr, after the fascion of the east gate of Penbroke. Without this gate is a preti suburbe.
In the middes of the town is a faire paroche chirch.
The toun it selfe lakkith fresch water, wherfore utuntur importata.
From Tinbigh I went to the cole pittes on a hille topp ii. miles of, not far from the Severne shore. And a good mile beyond them I roode thorough a wood not veri greate, but yet the fairest that I remembre that I saw in Penbrokshire.
Thens I enterid again into Whitland way.
The nerest trajectus into Caldey is almost in the midde way bytwixt Mainorpirrhe and Tinbighe at a poynlet, and ther it is litle above a mile.
Beinge against Mainorpirrhe I saw Lundey lying far of in the Severn Se.
Cumming from Cairmardine toward Llandewibreui, a mile owt of Cairmardine, I passid over Guily River, [a] and so folouid the curse of hit, having yt in sighte by the riding of iiii. or v. miles, marking divers litle brokes going into hit as into the botom of the valley.
Then ridingper aliquot miliaria I began to se Tyue [b] River, and kept it stil in sight, riding stille by stony hilles and valleys, and passing thoroughe a wood of okes caullid ... and after by a prety Llin on the right hond cawllid Gogurne, and so leving also hard on the right hond Pencragan, [c] a rokke so caullid bycawse it is a rounde coppid hil of stonis, cam a litle of into a vile cotage standing in a vale by Tiue to bayte.
Thens I rode to Llandewy Breui [d] v. miles of (Landewi, as sum say, caullid Breui, bycause it stondith on Breuy Brooke), betwixt the which places I saw a prety Llin not far from Tyui side caullid Llinpeder, [e] sumwhat bigger then Llingogurn; but I saw out of neither of them any notable issue of water.
I saw also a bridge or ii. over Tiue.
[d] Llan Dewi Brevi.
[e] ? Pencarreg Lake.
118 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Landewi Brebui is but a simple or poore village. I passid over a litle broke to entre into hit. It is set among montaines on every side but by west, wher is the valley of Tiue. Tiue River is about half a mile of. The collegiate chirch of prebendaries standith sumwhat apon a hy ground, but it is rude. Thens to Tregaron ii. miles, wher is a chirch standin apon a round coppe of cast yerth.
By rennith a broke caullid Brennig ...
So passing under a hy hille side, I saw hard by on the lift honde a great fenny more, owt of the wich the inhabitantes therabout digge turfes for fier, and by the same fenne is a fair llin cawllid Llinridde ii. miles from Strateflur.
Strateflure [a] is set round about with montanes not far distant, except on the west parte, wher Diffrin Tyue [b] is. Many hilles therabout hath bene well woddid, as evidently by old rotes apperith, but now in them is almost no woode.
The causses be these; first the wood cut doun was never copisid, and this hath beene a great cause of destruction of wood thorough Wales. Secondly after cutting doun of wooddys the gottys hath so bytten the young spring that it never grew but lyke shrubbes. Thirddely men for the nonys destroied the great woddis that thei shuld not harborow theves.
The chirch of Strateflere is larg, side ilid and crosse ilid. By is a large cloyster, the fratry and infirmitori be now mere ruines. The coemiteri wherin the cunteri about doth buri is veri large, and meanely waullid with stoone. In it be xxxix. great hue trees. The base court or camp afore the abbay is veri fair and large. The fundation of the body of the chirch was made to have bene 60. foote lengger then it is now.
[a] Ystrad Fflur.
[b] Dyffryn Teivi.
IN WALES. PART VI 119
Thens I went a good half mile by Tiue Vale, and a mile and
a half up the craggi and stoni montaines to Llin Tyue, [a]
and ii. miles beyound hit, passing over Clarduy, to Cregnaulin.
[b] If I had goone from thens a mile of to a hy hille I might have sene Penlinmon, [c] then distant a v. miles. The hilles bytwyxt Linne Tyue and Cragnaugllin were not in sight so stony as the hilles bytwyxt Stratfler and Llin Tyue.
I standing on Creggenaugllin saw in no place within sight no woodd but al hilly pastures.
From Strateflere I roode by rank, hylli and valley pastures a ii. Walsche miles, and so passing over Maknant [d] a wild brooke renning on rokkes and a nother whos name I remembre not, cam to the thirde caullid Nantlluys, [e] and therby on the right hond I saw an hille caullid Crag John, and so over Melewen [f] River that therby in sight went ynto Ustwith [g] River.
Or I cam to Melewen I had riden bi the space of a iii. miles in Comeustwith. [h]
From Melewen I enterid to the valley of Ustwith, so narowly with rokky montaines enclosid, that in wynter the streame occupieth al the botom of the valley.
First entering this bptom I saw on the right hond an hille caullid Menithduy. [i]
The first river be side Tyue that I passid over was Clardue, that is to say Blak Clare, no great streame but cumming thoroug cragges. In the farther side of hit I saw ii. veri poore cotagis for somer dayres for catel, and hard by were ii. hillettes, thorough the wich Clarduy passith, wher they fable that a gigant striding was wont to wasch his hondes, and that Arture killid hym. The dwellers say also that the gigant was buried therby, and shew the place.
Clarduy risith about half a mile from that place in a mares, and rennyng ii. Walsch milys in al goith into Clarwen.
[a] Llyn Teivi.
[b] Craig naw-llyn.
[c] Pumlumon, i.e. Pump llumon= five points, vulgarly written Plinlimon.
[h] Cwm Ystwith.
[i] Mynydd du.
120 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Clarwen [a] risith in a valley not far from Llinyuigin Velen, that is a good mile from Cargnaullinn. After that Clarwen hath receivid Clarduy he rennith a iii. miles or he cum into Alen River, far bigger river then other of the Clars.
Alen [b] River risith in the blain or upper part of Comeustwith in Cairdiganshire, and renning iiii. Walsch miles cummith into Owy, caullid in Englisch Wy, a litle beneth Rather gowy [c] a market toun yn Comemytother. [d] It is caullid Rather Owy bycause it stondith on Wy River. But or ever I cam to Clarduy, that is about a iii. mile from Ystradfler, I passid per monies praeruptos, per paludes et invia saxa, and cam to Llin Tyue, the wich is in cumpace a iii. quarters of a mile, being ii. miles be east from Strateflere.
It is fedde fro hyer places with a litle broket, and issueth out againe by a smaulle gut. Ther is in it veri good trouttes and elys, and noe other fisch.
From Clarduy to Cragnaullinn is a good mile by est, and standing by a stone on the top of this hille I saw v. poolis by south west, wherof the biggest is Llinn Helignant, shorter Lignante, having no other fisch but trouttes and elys. One side of the pooles, that is the south side, hath trouttes as redde as salmon. The west side hath white, likewise as hath Llin Tyue. This pole is seene to be fedde with no brooke, and hath a brooke issuing out of hym of his oune name, and cummith into Tyue in the west side of Tyue half a mile above Stradfler.
Llinnher, [e] i.e. longus lacus, for it is iii. quarters of a mile in lenght, having no great bredthe nor issue of brok owt of hit, but plentiful of trouttes and elys.
Llinn Gorlan hath no issue, but berith elys and trouttes.
Llinngronn hath an issue, and semid to me hard yoinid to Llin Gorlan.
Llin Tyue the fifte apperid also from Cragnaulin, but distant a mile from the other iiii.
Nere about the Cragnaulin stone apperid other iii. pollis.
[c] Rhaiadr Gwy.
[d] Cwm Doyddwr.
[e] Llyn hir.
IN WALES. PART VI 121
Llin Veryddon Vaur [a] having trouttes and elis but no broke cumming into hit or going owt.
Limn Veryddon Vehan [b] having trouttes and elys, but no brok cumming into hit or going owt.
Linduy, [c] i.e. lacus niger, even under the botom of the hille side having trouttes and elys but no broke cumming into hit or going oute.
Llinyuigin Velen [d] that is a mile from the stone by south west. Yuigin is to say a quaking more. Velen is yelow of the color of the mosse and corrupt gresse about hit.
Of al these pooles none stondith in so rokky and stony soile as Tyue doth, that hath also withyn hym many stonis.
The ground al about Tyue, and a great mile of toward Stratfler is horrible with the sighte of bare stones, as Cregeryri [e] Montaines be.
Llinnllanabeder within half a mile of Llanbeder having trouttes and elys.
Llinnyrythe [f] having trouttes and elys standinge by a great fenn in the midde waye betwix ...
Thes iiii. poles be in the lordship of Pennarth [g] longging to the principal of the Hoghans. The chefe toun of this lordship being in Cairdiganshire is Trecharon. [h] But the Abbate of Strateflere hath much landes in the same lordship, and thes iii. pooles longe to the Abbat of Stratflere.
Llin Yridde ii. miles from Strateflere owt of whom goith a litle issue or broket. I writ of this afore.
Llinycregnant a bigge poole veri ful of trouttes and elys. It is from Strateflur a iii. by west toward Llanandeuery. [i]
Llinne duy, i. lacus niger, very deape and ful of trouttes and elys. It is iii. miles by south from Strateflur toward Buelth lordshippe.
Linnygorres, [k] not ii. miles from Llinduy. Gorsse in Walsche, a myer in Englisch. It hath trouttes and elys.
[a] Llyn Gweryddon Vawr.
[b] Llyn Gweryddon Vechan.
[c] Llyn du.
[d] Liyn y Vigin velen.
[e] Craig Eryri = Snowdon.
[f] Llyn y rhyd.
[h] Tre Garon.
[k] Llyn y Gors.
122 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Al thes that be byfore fave Llinn Llanabeder, and al thes that folow long to the Abbat of Strateflere.
Llinngynon apon a hy montaine iiii miles from Strateflure by south west, having trouttes and elys, and a litle issue owt of hit, and goith into the broket that cummith owt of Llin Helignant.
Llinn Greg lloydon [a] v. myles or vi. from Stratfler toward Poysland. It hath an issue that goith into Elan or Alan Water, that goith into Wy.
Llin Winge is almost yoinid to Llinncreglloydon, but it hath no issue.
The river of Alan in the next part of hit is viii. miles from Strateflere, and ther parteth Cairdiganshire from the lordship of Rather or Comemytother. [b]
Rather is the chefe toun yn Comytother.
Al the montaine ground bytwixt Alen and Strateflure longgeth to Stratefleere, and is almoste for wilde pastures and breding grounde, in so much that everi man there about puttith on bestes as many as they wylle without paiyng of mony.
From Stratefler toward Lanandeueri is xviii. miles, of the wich xii. miles of montain grounde partely pasture soyle partely longgith to Strateflere, and ther about partith Cairdiganshire from Cairmardineshire. For therby hath Stratefler a graunge caullid Nantbay in Cairmardineshire.
Strateflur is xx. Walsch miles from Mahenclif, [c] and al the soile bytwyxt is montanius ful of pasture for a xvi. miles, but within a iiii. myles of Mahenddlif wooddy.
From Stratefler to Llangyric (fanum Cyriaci) xii. miles. Llangyrik is in Arusteley [d] lordship in Poisland. Wy renning therby devidith Cairdiganshire from Powislande. Of these xii. miles viii. be montanius ground longging to Stratefler, al for pasture.
Betwixt Stratefler and Buelth toun xvi. of thes be vi. in in Cairdiganshire, the wichf Towe [e] River devidith from
[a] Llyn Cerrig Ilwydon.
[b] Rhaiadr or Cwm doyddwr.
IN WALES. PART VI 123
Cairdiganshire. Al this vi. miles is montayne ground for pasture, and longgith to Strateflure Abbay, but the pastures of thes shire. hilles be fre to the inhabitantes, as well as al other montaine pasture longging to Strateflere.
The pastures of the montaynes of Cairdiganshire be so great that the hunderith part of hit rottith on the ground, and maketh sogges and quikke more by long continuance for lak of eting of hit.
Afore the new Acte Llanduebreui [a] was a separate lordship, limes on one side to Cairmardinshire, on the other side to Cairdiganshire.
From Stratflur to Cairdigan xxx. but caullid xxviii.
Tiue [b] devidith toward the mouth Pembrokshir from Cairdiganshire.
From Cairdigan to Aberustwith a market toun ons waullid xxx. miles.
From Aberustwith to Aberdeuy vi. miles. Deuy [c] devidith Cairdiganshire from Merionithshire in North Wales.
Mahenclif in Poisland vi. miles from Aberdeui. [c]
Llandewibreui xxiiii. miles from Cairdigan.
The Abbat of Whiteland told me a meri tale of one that purchasid a licens by a color of ii. rivers about Powysland, of the wich (as I remember) soundid that in Walsch, that is in Englisch a hogge of ii. yeres, and the other a hogge of iii yeres.
Ther hath beene in times paste a greate mine digging for leade in Comeustwith [d] a vi. myles from Strateflur, wher is a graunge longging to Strateflure. But summe menne suppose that it sesid, bycawse the wood is sore wastith.
A monke of Strateflur told me that for a certenty Newport in Kemmisland is caullid Tredraith in Walsch.
Ther is a church caullid Llansanfride [e] vii. miles from Aberustwith upper to Cairdigan on the se side, and ther hath bene great building. But wither this was the Abbay of Llanfride of the wich mention is made in the booke " De Dotatione Ecclesiae S. Davidis," or no, I can not telle.
Ther is a nother Llansanfrid in Cornytother, [f] and
[a] Llan Dewi Brevi.
[c] Dyvi ... Aber Dyvi.
[d] Cwm Ystwith.
[e] Llan San Ffred, a little north of Aber Aeron.
[f] Near Rhaiadr Gwy.
124 LELAND'S ITINERARY
peraventure this is that Llansanfride Nunneri made in a newer world, of the which Giraldus spekith.
Ther hath bene great building at Llanrustyt, [a] a mile lower on the se banke then Llansanfride Cairdiganshire, and sum suppose that ther hath bene a nunnery.
Ustwith risith owt of a mares grounde caullid Elaine Ustwith iii. miles from Llangibike [b] on Wy. It is in Comeustwith, and so rennith good vi. miles thorough Comeustwith, and a vi. or vii. mo miles to Abreustwtth.
Tyue [c] rennith from the hedde stil almost playne west ontille he touchith within a vi. miles of Cairmardin, and then turneth toward the northe.
Towe [d] risith a iii. myles by south from Llinntyue [e] in a morisch ground, and hath no llin at his hedd, and by estimation rennith a xxii. miles or he cum to Llanamdeuery. He first rennith sumwhat by south, and then a greate way bi west, and at the last turneth againe toward south,
So about the midle of this Wstwith [f] botom that I ridde yn, being as I gesse a iiii. miles in length, I saw on the right hond on a hille side Clothmoyne, [g] wher hath bene great digging for leade, the melting wherof hath destroid the wooddes that sumtime grew plentifulli therabout. I hard a marvelus tale of a crow fedd by a digger there, that tooke away his feder's pursse, and wille the digger folowid the crow for his purs, the residew of his felows were oppressid in the pitte with a ruin.
So leving Ustwith botom, and taking up a hy hill I cam a mile of to a place wher I saw a greate grene place in a botom, owt of the wich morisch plot Ustwith doth rise, and withyn a flit shot of that I saw an other like plot, owt of the wich spring a litle riveret cumming to Wy that ranne a good mile beneth in a botom.
So passing over Wy, and stiyng up a hill I lokid bak and
[a] Llan Rhystud.
[b] Llan Gurig.
[c] Teivi runs first of all south and then westward, and nowhere gets within xi. miles of Carmarthen.
[e] Llyn Teivi.
[g] C ... mwyn.
IN WALES. PART VI 125
vuyd Penllummon the hed of Wye. It semid to me a veri hy montaine, and was distant by gesse a vi. miles.
From Strateflere to this place I saw almost nother wood nor corne, but after the soile waxid stil pleasant, having fair medows, corne and wood.
So to Llan Kirik [a] apon Wy a good mile of, and ii miles by corne, wood and medows to Llan Ydlas [b] on Severn.
There is not ii. miles betwixt the streames of Wy and Severn.
Sum brokettes were bytwixt, but of smaulle name.
To Llan dynnan [c] iiii. miles of on Severn by good corne ground and medows with veri much plenti of woodde.
And like in the v. miles to Newton, wher at one side of the toune cummith a litle brooke ynto Severn.
And yn like forme the vi myles to Montgommrye. Bytwixt Newton and Montgomery I saw on the lift hond apon a woodd hille top the waulles now ruinus of Taluarran [d] Castel.
Going from Montgomerik to the Walsche Poole a v. myles of I passid over a forde of Severn. The soile betwixt thes to tounnes lakkith nother corne nor woode, but the grounde about the bankes and valley of Severn there is most pleasaunt.
The toune it self of the Walsch Pole is of one paroche wel buildid after the Walsch fascion. Gledding a riveret cummith almost by the chirch, and so to Severn that is a ... of.
Castel Cough, [e] in Englisch Redde Castel, standith on a rokke of darke, redde colorid stone. It hath ii. seperatid wardes, wherof the one was the Lord Duddeleys. Now both long to the Lord Powys.
By the castel is a faire palid park. Bituixt the tounne and Castel Cough is a preati llin or poole wherof the toun takith name.
From the Walsche Poole to Albertbyri [f] a vii. miles, hilly. The soile is wooddy, the valley corneful. Bythe hillis I passid over iii. or iiii. preaty brookis, whos names I know not. And wille I passid this way within a iii. miles of Walsch Pole I saw a veri notable hille beyound the valley on the
[a] Llan Gurig.
[b] Llan Idlos.
[c] Llan Dinam.
[d] Dol Vorwyn.
[e] Castell Coch.
[f] Alberbury (Shrops.).
126 LELAND'S ITINERARY
lift hond having iii. toppes as iii. heddes rising owt of one body. Thes toppes I first espied a fronte about Neuton a xiiii. miles of, and after Shreusbiry and White Chirch passid, a xvi. miles of I saw them againe a tergo.
By this hille I roode by the lenght of a iii. miles, one of the toppes wherof being hyest is caulid Molegolua, [a] the wich is countid a limes of the farthest part of Powisland that way. The secunde is caullid Bridin, [b] being in Caurseland. The name of the third [c] I know not, but communely thei be caullid Brethin Hilles.
Not far from thes hilles enterith Shropshir. So ther be limites of Pois, Caursland, and Shropshire.
[a] Moel y golva.
[c] Keven y Castell.
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