Leland's Itinerary of England and Wales: Part VII.

PART VII.

Shropshire.

BY Alberbyri Chirch in Shropshir appere the ruines of Fulke Guarine, the noble warriars castel, and lesse then a mile of was Album Monasterium, where he is buried, suppressid for Chicheles College in Oxforde.

Bytuixt Albertbiri and Shreusbiri a vi. miles of ground plentiful of corne, wood and pasture.

From Shreusbiri to Haghmon [a] Abbay of Blak Chanons ii. miles. Within iii. quarters of a mile leving Severn on the right hond I enterid into a woodde, and sone after over a broke that issueth thoroug Penlesmere, and sone after goith into Severn.

Thens ridyng partely thorough morisch grounde and pasture I cam to Morton Corbet village, wher I saw a fair castel of Mr. Corbettes, and a ii. miles beyond that I passid over Roden riveret, rising not far above Went village, a mile from that place.

And so a v. miles to Price [b] a litle thoroug-fare a vii. miles of, the way being sumwhat plaine, hethy, and partely fruteful of corne. Mr. Sanford hath a place and a fair poole by yt in a wood side, a mile and a half from Pryce. So to Whitchirch by meately fruteful, sandy ground a iii. mylis. At the hither ende of Whitchirch is a veri faire poole, having bremes, pikes, tenches, perches and daces, the wich except bremes be the commune fisches of al the pooles of Shropshire, Chester and Lancastre shire; in sum be also trouttes.


[a] Haughmond.
[b] Prees.

2 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Shropshire.

The tounne of Whitchirch in Shropshire hath a veri good market. And there in the paroche chirch is buried Syr Gilbert Talbot.

From Whitchirch a mile and a half of I cam by the pale of the large parke of Blakmer longging to the Erle of Shreusbiri, wherin is a very fair place or loge. The park [a] hath both redde dere and falow. In the park (as I hard say) be iii. faire poles, of the wich I saw by the pale the largest caullid Blakein, wherof the parke is namid.

It is to be supposid that thes pooles, for the most part in moresch groundes and lying sumwhat in low groundes, dreane the moist places about them, and so having no place to issue owt stagne there.

Sum be likelyhod have begon of marie pittes. For the sandy grounde of sum partes of Shropshire, and especially of Chestrejshire and Lancastreshire, wille not bere corne plentifully but it be merlyd.

Sum pooles peraventure hath gatheryd ... and water, wher greate plen ty of turves and petes hath bene diggid.

Cheshire.

Within half a mile of Blakmere Parke I cam by Merby paroche, wher the chirch is set in a botom betwixt too goodly meres or pooles.

From Blakemere to Byklem [b] in a fosse iii. miles of sand, hard by Cholmeley moss. Here first I saw the great numbre of firre rottes, the wiche the inhabitantes therby communely digge up for fier wood, but ther did I se no fyrre trees grouing. Oftentimes in diggin in this mosse or more for petes or turves they finde the hole trees of the first, sum short and sum veri long, without twiste or bow, lying sumtime not a foote, sumtime iii. or iiii. foote depe in the ground, but how or when thes trees cam doune other be cutting or wind faulle no manne there can telle. The wood of them in burning savorith of resine.

Hard on the right hond passing by this mosse almost to miles in lenght I saw a greate wood of Mr. Cholmeleys, and at the farther ende of this mosse was a chapel of woode, and in the botom hard by was Mr. Cholmeleis place, a fair


[a] Black Park.
[b] Bickley.

PART VII 3

Cheshire.

building of tymbre, and motid about with the water of a poole.

From thens to Ridle [a] Parke about half a mile, wher hard by the parke is a right goodly house of stone and tymbre buildid by Sir William of Standeley, that much favorid King Henri the vii. parte at Bosworth Feeld. King Henri the vii. gave this place after to one of the Egertons. At Ridle Place is a mere of pikes, bremes, tenches and perches, half a mile in bredth, and a mile and a half in lenght, countid for the fairest mere of Chestreshire. From thens to a place of Mr. Spurstow caullid Spurstow, made of stone and tymbre, and therby is a large poole, cumpasing the howse on the one side. About that howse I saw in the feldes mervelus good come and pastures.

And lesse then a quarter of a mile from that place is a greate redy poole, whither an innumerable sight of stares resort at night.

From thens to Bunberi half a mile. At Bunbiri is a very faire collegiate chirch, endowid by old tyme by Syr Hughe Calveley knight.

Within a mile and an half of Bunberi is Pecfordton [b] a goodly lordship having a great house ofstone now ...

Thens I ridde to Northwich, x. miles of, alwayes by sandy grounde, leving iii. miles from Bunbyri Syr John Downe knightes house, half a mile on the lift honde in the entering of the forest of Delamere, the wich sum way is xii. myles in lenght, or more; but I rydde by it not past the lenght of vi. or vii. miles, and entering a ii. miles within the forest having redde deere and falow I passid over a litle brooke caullid Sanddiford.

Betwixt Sanddyford and Northwiche I saw divers pooles in the forest, and toward the ende of the forest I lookid toward Valle Royal on the right hond, about the wich place be divers fair and large pooles, wherof one is neere Vale Roial, as within a mile, cawllid Pety Pole [c] though it be greate.


[a] Ridley.
[b] Pecforton.
[c] Petty pool.

4 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cheshire.

There is a place in the forest of Delamer cawllid the vii. Loos, wher be scene vii. caste dikes. The people there speke much of them. I think that they were made by men of warre.

In the forest I saw but litle corne, bicause of the deere.

And as I roode I marked the forest ground on the right hond to be plaine blake hethi grounde, and on the lifte hond to be sumwhat hilly and wooddy.

Northwich is a prati market toune but fowle, and by the salters howses be great stakkes of smaul clovyn woode to sethe the salt water that thei make white salt of. The salt water pitte is harde by the brinke of Dane river, the wich within a good but-shott beneth runnith into Wyver. [a] Apon the bank, betwixt the salt springging pitte and Dane river, I saw Congleton, a market toun x. miles of, and Maxwel Forest therby.

Ther be ii. salt springges at Middlewich, that stondith, as I remembre, apon Dane river, and one at Nantwich, the wich yeldith more salt water then the other iii. Wherfore ther be at Nantwich a iii. hunderith salters.

A mile from Cumbremere Abbay in time of mind sank a peace of a hille having trees on hit, and after in that pitte sprang salt water, and the abbate ther began to make salt, but the menne of the wichis componid with the abbay that ther should be no salt made. The pitte yet hath salt water, but much filth is faullen into hit.

The pittes be so set abowte with canales that the sake water is facily derivid to every mannes howse.

And at the Nantwiche very many canales go over Wyver river for the commodite of deriving the water to the salters troughs. They sethe the salt water in furnesses of lede, and lade out the salt some in cases of wiker, thorough the wich the water voydith, and the salt remaynith. Ther be also a ii. or iii. but veri litle salt springs at Dertwiche in a low botom, were sumtimes salt is made. Dertwich is a mile and a half from Malpass village wher Syr Randol of Brereton dwellith.

Cumming from Northwiche toward Manchester at Northwich toune I passid over a riveret, and thens riding a v.


[a] Weaver r.

PART VII 5

Cheshire.

miles be cawse-way I rode over Waterlesse and Pyverey [a] river that be lykelihodde resort to Wyver, and yn this way I cam by a park on the lifte hond, wher Mr. Leyrcestre dwellith, (Table, [b] Mr. Leyrcestre place). Here about in a mosse is fyrre woodde. And a iiii. miles farther I cam by a parke on the lifte hond wher Master Bouth dwellith, (Dunham Masse the name of Mr. Bouth howse in his parke); and aboute that place by good culture is made veri good corne ground, wher sumtime was very fernny and commune grounde.

And therabout by Roston Chirch on the right hond is a poole (Roston Mere) of a ii. or iii. miles in lenght, very plentiful of fische.

A iii. miles of I rode over Mersey Water by a great bridge of tymbre caullid Crosford Bridge.

Within a iii. miles of Crosford Bridg on Mersey I cam over the prati river of Bolyn, [c] that, as I lernid, risith about Maxwel Forest, and goith a good way byneth Crosford Bridge into Marsey.

This water of Mersey to the veri maine se departith Lancashire. Chestreshire and Lancastreshire. So about a iii. miles to Manchestre, in the wich way first I left Syr Alexandre Radcliffes parke and house on the right hond (lift hond over Irwel). But or I saw that I passid over Corne Brooke, and after I touchid withyn a good mile of Manchestre by Mr. Traiford's park and place. [d]

And after on the lift hond I saw Mr. Prestwikes place on the lift hond over Irwel, wherby the Lord of Darby hath a place, and a parke caullid Alparte [e] parke. Here about I passid over Medlok river, and so within lesse then a mile to Manchestre.

Mancestre on the south side of Irwel River stondith in Salfordshiret, and is the fairest, best buildid, quikkest, and most populus tounne of al Lancastreshire; yet is in hit but


[a] Peover r.
[b] Tabley.
[c] Bollin r.
[d] Old Trafford.
[e] Alparc.

6 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Lancashire.

one paroch chirch, but is a college and almost thoroughowt doble ilyd ex quadrato lapide durissimo, wherof a goodly quarre is hard by the towne. Ther be divers stone bridgis in the toune, but the best of iii. arches is over Irwel, cawllid Salford bridge. This bridge devidith Manchestre from Salford, the wich is as a large suburbe to Manchestre. On this bridge is a praty litle chapel. The next is the bridge that is over Hirke [a] river, on the wich the fair builded college standith as in the veri point of the mouth of hit. For hard therby it renneth into Wyver. On Hirk river be divers fair milles that serve the toune.

In the towne be ii. fair market placys.

And almost ii. flyte shottes withowt the towne beneth on the same syde of Irwel yet be scene the dikes and fundations of Old Man Castel [b] yn a ground now inclosid.

The stones of the ruines of this castel wer translatid toward making of bridgges for the toune.

It is no long season sins the chirch of Manchestre was collegiatid.

The toun of Manchestre stondith on a hard rokke of stone, els Irwel, as wel apperith in the west ripe, had beene noiful to the toune.

Irwel is not navigable but in sum places for vadys and rokkes.

Cumming from Manchestre toward Morle, [c] Syr William Lelandes howse, I passid by enclosid grounde, partely pasturable, partely fruteful of corne, leving on the lift hand a mile and more of a fair place of Mr. Langfordes, caullid Agecroft, [d] and there is a bridge veri hy and greate off tymbre on Irwel, and thereby is Pilketon [e] Park, and therin is a stone howse of the Pylketons attayntid by King Henry the vii. and givin to the Lorde of Darby. And within a ii. miles of Morle on the same hand not far of a place of Master Worseley of the Bouthe.

And so within a mile and sumwhat more of Mr. Leland's place I cam over Heding (Agyding) brooke that ther seperatith Salfordshire from Darbyshire. [f]


[a] Irk r.
[b] Mancastle.
[c] Morley.
[d] Edgecroft.
[e] Pilkington.
[f] I.e., West Derby Hundred.

PART VII 7

Lancashire.

Mode (in Darbyshire) Mr. Lelandes place is buildid, saving the fundation of stone squarid that risith within a great moote a vi. foote above the water, al of tymbre after the commune sorte of building of houses of al the gentilmen for most of Lancastreshire. Ther is as much pleasur of orchardes of great varite of frute and fair made walkes and gardines as ther is in any place of Lancastreshire. He brennith al turfes and petes for the commodite of mosses and mores at hand. For Chateley Mosse [a] that with breking up of abundance of water yn hit did much hurt to landes therabout, and rivers with wandering mosse and corrupte water, is within lesse than a mile ofJ Morle. And yet by Morle as in hegges rowes and grovettes is meately good plenti of wood, but good husbandes keepe hit for a Jewell.

Syr John Holcroftes house within a mile or more of Morle stoode in jeopardi with fleting of the mosse.

Morle stondith in Leghe paroche a mile and more from the chirch.

Riding a mile and more beyond Morle I saw on the right hond a place nere by of Mr. Aderton, and so a ii. miles of to Lidiate [b] Mosse, in the right side wherof my gide said that ther were rootes of fyrre wood.

Abowt this Mosse I began to se a hille or hilles on the right hond that stil continuid on the same hand as a mighty long bank ontil I cam to Lancastre. One part of this hille wher I saw it first is caullid Faierlokke. Butcommunely the people therabout caullith hit Rivenpike. [c] One told me that aboute Lidiate Mosse under the hille is a village caullid Riven or Riventon, stonding on a water caullid Andertonford: and Anderton a gentilman having a place caullid Andreton dwellithe therby, and Mr. Riventon's howse by Riventon. Anderton water cummith into Duggles. [d] And ther about I markid my self that ther was a coppe in the hille as a bakke stondding up above the residue of the hille.

Then I cam over Dugles, communely caullid Duggels, that cummith by Wigan and goith into the se toward Latham. [e] Buggies rennith thoroug Newborow village bridg a myle and dim. from Latham. This Dugles wher I passid over


[a] Chat Moss.
[b] Or Lediate.
[c] Rivington Pike.
[d] Douglas r.
[e] Lytham.

8 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Lancashire.

hym is a vii. miles from Morle. After a mile and a half or more beyond Duggils I passid over Yaro river, [a] and then a mile and more to Chorle [b] a litle market toune in Lelandshire, [c] the wich about the river of Duggels departith Lelandshire from Darbyshire. [d]

Yaro and Dugles be likelihod should cum fro the hilles toward Yorkeshire.

Ther is beside Chorle, Crosseton [e] a market toune in Lelandshire. It is a iii. miles from Chorle, and Latham is a iii. miles from hit.

In Lelandshire be about an eight paroche chirchis, wherof Leland [f] paroche is one, and, as I remembre, Standich another, Eccleston ... Under the foote of Chorle rennith a litle flat brooke. A mile and half from Chorle I saw on a hille side a great quarre, owt of the wich men digge veri great and good mille stones.

Beyond the quarre on the right hond I saw a good mile of Leland paroch wher the Faringtons ... el auncient gentilmen dwelle.

Within a mile of Preston I cam over Darwent river, the which at Penwardine [g] paroche a celle to Evesham goith into Ribil.

This Darwent [h] devidith Lelandshire from Andernes [i] and a mile above beyond the place wher I passid over Darwent Mr. Langton dwellith at Walton on Darwent, and is baron of Newton in Macrefeld a iij myles from Warington ... Howse at new ... parke faul ...

Half a mile beyond Darwent I passid over the great stone bridge of Rybill having a v. great arches,

From Ribyl bridg to Preston half a mile. Preston hath


[a] Yarrow r.
[b] Chorley.
[c] The Hundred of Leland or Leyland.
[d] West Derby Hundred.
[e] Croston.
[f] Leyland.
[g] Penwortham.
[h] Darwen r.
[i] Amounderness Hundred.

PART VII 9

Lancashire.

but one paroche chirch. The market place of the toun is fair. Ribil goith round aboute a greate peace of the ground aboute toune, yet it touchith not the toune self by space of almost half a mile.

Penwardine semid to me more then half a mile from Preston, and ther goith Ribil stonding in respect of the toune of the farther side of Ribil, the wich ther devidith the dicecese of Chestre from the dioecese of York. Penwardine is a paroch chirch and celle to Eovesham Abbay, and standith in Chester dicecese.

Preston is in Yorke dioecese.

From Preston to Garstane [a] x. mile.

A mile without Preston I rode over Savok [b] a bigge brooke, the wich rising in the hilles a iii. or iv. miles of on the right hond not veri far of goith into Ribil.

After I rode over Brok [c] water rising a vi. miles of in the hilles on the right hond, and goith at the last into Wyre.

Calder rising about the same hilles goith also into Wyre. I rode over hit.

By the tounes ende of Garstane I rode over a great stone bridge on Wyuer [d] or I cam to hit.

Wyre risith a viii. or tenne myles from Garstan owt of the hilles on the right hond, and cummith by Grenehaugh a prety castel of the Lorde of Darbys, and more then half a mile thens to Garstane in Aundernes. Sum saith that Garstan was a market toune.

Wyre ebbeth and flowith a iii. miles beneth Garstane, and at a chapel of Alhalowes a x. miles from Garstan goith into the maine se.

Or I cam to Garstane by a mile and a halfe I left Merscow [e] a great parke partely enclosid with hegge, partely al on the moore side with pale. On the right it is replenishid with redde deere. The Erle of Darby hath hit in farme of the king.

From Garston to Sainct Mihels [f] a village a ii. miles, and a mile lower on the farther side be the places of Mr. Kyrkeby of Raudeclif, and Mr. Boteler of Raudeclif. [g] So a vii. myle


[a] Garstang.
[b] Savick r.
[c] Brock r.
[d] I.e., Wyre r.
[e] Myerscough.
[f] St. Michaels on Wyre.
[g] Rawcliffe.

10 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Lancashire.

to Alhalois village, and then to the se. Raudeclif of Wimmerlaw [a] a mile from Garston hath hys place at Wimmerlaw.

Up toward the hilles by Grenehaugh [b] Castle be iii. forests of redde deere, Wyredale, Bouland, and Blestale. They be partly woody, partly hethye. The ground bytwixt Morle and Preston enclosid for pasture and corne, but f were the vaste mores and mosses be; wherby as in hegges rowes by side grovettes ther is reasonable woodde for buildding, and sum for fier, yet al the people ther for the most part burne turfes.

Likewise is the soile bytwixt Preston and Garstan; but alway the moste part of enclosures be for pasturages.

Whete is not veri communely sowid in thes partes aforesaid.

Al Aundernesse [c] for the most parte in time past hath beene ful of wood, and many of the moores replenishid with hy fyrre trees.

But now such part of Aundernesse as is toward the se is sore destitute of woodde.

From Garstane I passid partely by more ground, partely by pasture and sum corne, and so riding over Goker [d] river, that makith no great course or he cumme to the sandes by Cokerham village not a mile of, apon the which sandes I passid over Koker river ons or twis again not without sum feere of quikkesandes. At the ende of the sandes I saw divers salt cootes, wher were divers hepes of sandis taken of salt strondys, owt of the wich by often weting with water they pike owt the saltnes, and so the water is derivid into a pit, and after sodde.

Thens to Cokersand an abbay of Cistertienses about half a mile of, standing veri blekely and object to al wynddes.

One William of Lancastre was founder of that house about King Henri the 2. tyme.

From Kokersand Abbay I roode over the sandes, marking


[a] Winmarleigh.
[b] Greenhaigh.
[c] Amounderness.
[d] Cocker r.

PART VII 11

Lancashire.

the salt cotes, and a mile of over Condar riveret trillinge by the sands to the se.

So to a meane place cawllid Ascheton of the kinges lande, wher Mr. Leyburne knight usith to lye, and from thens a ii. or iii. miles to Lancastre.

Lancastre Castel on a hille strongly buildid and wel repaired. Ruines of an old place (as I remembre of the Catfelds) by the castel hille. The new toune (as thei ther say) buildid hard by yn the descent from the castel, having one paroch chirch wher sumtime the priori of monkes alienis was put doune by King Henry the v. and given to Syon Abbay.

The old waul of the circuite of the priory cummith almost to Lune bridge. Sum have therby supposid that it was a peace of a waul of the toune. But yn deade I espiyd in no place that the toune was ever waullid.

The old toune (as they say ther) was almost al burnid and stoode partely beyounde the Blak Freres.

In thos partes in the feeldes and fundations hath ben found much Romayne coyne.

The soile about Lancastre is veri fair, plentiful of wood, pasture, medow and corne.

If I had kept the hy shore way from Lancastre to Cumbreland I should have gone by Cartemaile [a] sand, wher a fresch water doth cum, a vii. miles; to Conyhed sande, whither a river resortith, a viii. miles; to Dudden sandes, wither a river resortith, a iiii. miles. Furnis Abbay up in the montaines a iiii. miles of.

Cartemaile and Conished priories of Blake Chanons.

I rode over Lune toward Warton a vi. miles of, wher Mr. Kitson was borne. A ii. mile from Lancastre the cunteri began to be stony, and a litle to wax montanius.

Half a mile from Warton I passid over Keri [b] river, cumming out of hilles not far of, and ther ebbing and flouing, and about Lunesandes going into the salt water.

Warton is a preati streat for a village.

The ground beyound Warton and about is veri hilly and mervelus rokky onto Bytham a v. miles of. In the rokkes I saw herdes of gotes.


[a] Cartmell.
[b] Keer r.

12 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Westmorland.

By Bitham [a] is a greate parke and a goodly place yn hit of the Erle of Darby. By Bytham rennith Byth [b] water a preaty river, and by likelihod shuld resort toward Kennet. [c]

Thens I roode over a great bek caullid Staunton Bekke, and so ridding a ii. miles farther cam to a soile lesse stony and more fruteful of corne, as sum whete, much ootes and barle, or bigge, and so to Kendale riding over Ken [c] river.

Ther be about Kendale divers fair wooddes, as Master Parris parke, and many other. Kendale is countid as baronry, wherof Mr. Par is possessor.

Yorkshire.

From Byland to Newborow a thoroughfare, wher is a priori of chanons, a mile much by woodde.

From New Gisborow to Crage Castel, [d] set on a hil, a ii. miles. Sum say that Crage was given to Cuthbert lyving.

To Sutton [e] a iii. miles.

To Yorke a vi. miles, iiii. of them lying totally as a great plaine commune, that servith both for feeding of bestes and for turves.

From York toward by the lenght of a iii. mile mervelus good come grounde, but no plenty of wood yn neere sight. In the midde way I saw hard on the right hond a veri fair large maner of the bisshops of Yorke caullid Bisshops Thorpe.

Beyound this iii. miles the ground waxith sumwhat wooddy, and about the iiii. mile I cam hard by Mr. Aclam's parke wherin is a preaty dwelling place.

And so making a iiii. miles more by the river of Use, [f] wher the grounde was fair of pasture, corne and wood, I went over Use, and entred Cawood, a very fair castel longging to the Archbishop of Yorke, and ther is a preati village.


[a] Beetham.
[b] Beetha r.
[c] Kent r.
[d] Craike Hall.
[e] Sutton-in-the-Forest.
[f] Ouse r.

PART VII 13

Yorkshire.

From thens to Shirburne, [a] a market town, wherin be many pinners, a v. miles. The way betwene wel wooddid, and almost stil riding by a riveret caullid Bisshop's water, that risith a litle a this side Shirburne and goith into Use.

In the way betwixt I rode hard by a parke (as I think) of the bisshops of Yorke.

From Shirburne to Milburne [b] village a mile, and passing from thens to Fere brydg [c] apon Aire river a iiii. miles of or more. The bridge is of an viii. arches of stone, and ther is a village.

The soile betwixt neere in sight plaine, wel cornid, but litle wood.

Along on the lift hond a iii. miles of betwixt Milburne and Feribridge I saw the wooddi and famose forest of Barnesdale, wher they say that Robyn Hudde lyvid like an owtlaw.

From Ferybridge to Pontfract a mile.

Pontfract is a fair, large market towne, and good occupiyng in hit.

Ther is a veri fair castel set on a rokke of stone.

An abbay of Blake Monkes, a paroche chirche, a college of prestes, a place of Gray Freres, a faire chapel.

Withowt the town on the hil, wher the goode Duke of Lancastre was beheddid, ys a fair chirche.

From Pontfraict to St. Oswauls, [d] a veri fair and wel buildid howse of chanons, iii. mile be much woddy grounde. Atte St. Oswalds is a mervelus fair conduct of water and castelid hard againe the front of the howse.

The soile therabout riche of wood, pasture and corne.

A mile and more beyond St. Oswaldes I passid hard by Mr. Burton's, a knight lately decesid, park, and in hit is a fair mansion.

And so by wooddy and corne ground a iiii. mile to Howton, [e] or Haulston, wher is a minus maner, longging, as they saide, to the Tempestes.

A mile from that, or more, I cam by Breerle [f] Parke hard


[a] Sherburn.
[b] Milford.
[c] Ferrybridge.
[d] Nostel.
[e] Great Houghton.
[f] Brierley.

14 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Yorkshire.

on the right hond, wherin is a faire maner place longging to the Lord Montegle.

And so a ii. mile beyond I roode over a stone bridge, under the whiche ran Tarne, [a] a riveret that goith (as they said) into Dune [b] river betwixt Rotheram and Dunecastre.

From Tarne to Rotheram a iiii. miles.

I enterid into Rotheram by a fair stone bridge of iiii. arches, and on hit is a chapel of stone wel wrought.

Rotheram is a meately large market towne, and hath a large and fair collegiate chirch. The college was institutid by one Scotte, Archbisshop of Yorke, otherwise caullid Rotheram, even in the same place wher now is a very fair college sumptuusly buildid of brike for a provost, v. prestes, a schole-master in song, and vi. chorestes, a schole-master in grammer, and a nother in writinge.

Though betwixt Cawoode and Rotheram be good plenti of wood, yet the people burne much yerth cole, bycawse hit is plentifully found ther, and sold good chepe.

A mile from Rotheram be veri good pittes of cole.

In Rotheram be veri good smithes for all cutting tooles.

Halamshire beginnith a ii. mile from Rotheram. Sheffild iii. miles from Rotheram, wher the lord of Shreusbyris castel is, the chefe market towne of Halamshire. And Halamshire goith one way a vi. or vii. miles above Sheffilde by west, yet, as I here say, a nother way the next village to Sheffild is in Darbyshire.

Ther be many smithes and cuttelars in Halamshire.

Al Halamshire go to the sessions of York, and is countid as a membre of Yorkshire.

There is a goodly lodge or manor place on a hil top in Shefeld park.

Winfeld, or Wenfeld, in Darbyshire is but a maner place, but yt far passith Sheffild Castel.

AEgglesfild [c] and Bradefeld ii. townelettes or villages long


[a] Dearne r.
[b] Don r.
[c] Ecclesfield.

PART VII 15

Yorkshire.

to one paroche chirche. So by this meanes (as I was enstructid) ther be but iii. paroches in Halamshire that is of name, and a great chapelle.

Halamshire hath plenti of woodde, and yet ther is burnid much se cole. Reasonable good pasture but meate come.

The erle is now lord of Sheflfelde market in Yorkshire, and Werksope in Notinghamshire, and Rotheram that a late longgid to Rufford Abbay.

The erle hath a parke and a maner place or lodge yn it caullid Hardewike apon Line a four miles from Newstede Abbay.

In Snotinghamshire.

Nottinghamshire.

Blith a market town on Blith riveret iiii. mile beyound Wyrksop in the way to Dancastre.

Blith risith in a more a v. miles from Wirksop. So to Wirkesop, and to Blith the market toun, and thens into Dune river.

This riveret from the hedde is not alway caullid Blith, but as it were in the midde way betwixt Radeford, alias Wyrksop, and Blith market. Ther cummith a preaty brooke into Blith or he cum to Wyrksop.

Bautre a market a iii. miles beyound Blith market, and this towne is of the paroche of Blith. So that one paroche hath ii. market townes.

Tikil a market toun with a freres and a ruinus castel in Yorkshire a ii. miles beyond Bautre.

Not far beyound Bautre is the limes of Notinghamshire and Yorkeshire toward Dancastre.

As the evidence of Blith Abbay spekith there was a castel about King Wylliam Conquerors time at Blithe, the wich thei caullid in Latine Blida. I think that it stoode nere the abbay, or els the abbay was buildid wher the castel was.

Roger Buley a Norman was the foundder of Blith abowt King William Conqueror's time.

Maunsfeld a market town longing to the King in Notinghamshire (it is yn Shirwode) ... miles from Rotheram in the hy way to Nottingam.

16 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Nottinghamshire.

Notingam a great market town.

Newark apon Trent, a good market toun.

Ther is a goodly house or More Hall lately buildid in Redeford.

Wyrkesoppe made a market town more then xxx. yeres ago.

Retheford, of sum soundid Redford, a good market towne with a v. miles of Trent ripe. But ther be ii. Rethefords, one the lesse is caullpd Weste Retheford, the other is caullid Est Redford, and is the market towne as bigge as Rotheram, and hath a chirch almost as fair as hit. The onely bridge apon the river divideth the one towne from the other. Retford hath beene burnt but both be sins that reedified.

Notts.

Betwixt Rotheram and Worsope [a] x. long miles the soile partely woody, as specially within iii. miles of Worsop, partely pasture and partly corne.

Within a good mile or I cam to Worsop I rode thorough a parke of Mr. Townles a knight for the most abiding in Lancastreshire. And in this parke is a veri praty litle howse.

By Wyrksop is a parke of a vi. or vii. miles in cumpace, longging to the Erle of Sreusbiry.

Wyrkesop is cawllid in sum old writinges Radeford, and the water that goith to Blith market cummith by hit.

Wilhelmus Lovetofte was the first founder of hit in the tyme of Anselm Bishop of Canterbiri and Gerad [b] Bisshop of York, in Henri the firste dayes. His blode and inheritance cam to a dowghter that maried one Furnivalle. After Furnivalles inheritance cam to a doughter, the wich was maried to one Nevile, and he had a doughtter by hir, the wiche was maried to Talbot the first Erle of Salop.


[a] Warsop.
[b] Gerard, Archbp. of York, 1101-1108.

PART VII 17

Nottinghamshire.

And among other childern he had Talbot of hir, caullid Dns de Lile.

William Huntingdon first prior of Radeford or Wyrkesop.

Many of the Lovetoftes, Furnivalles, and Talbottes buried at Wyrkesoppe. (One of the Lovetoftes was Erle of Huntingdon and founder of Huntingdon Priory.)

Wirkesoppe is a market towne, and there is a place now invironyd with trees cawlyd the Castle Hille, wher the Lovetoftes had sumtime a castel.

The stones of the castel were fette, as sum say, to make the fair lodge in Wyrksoppe Parke not yet finisshid. This Erle of Shrewsbyris father was aboute to have finishid hit, as apperith by much hewyd stone lyyng there. But I am of the opinion that the chanons had the mines of the castel stones to make the closure of their large waulles.

Ther is at the south side of the priory cowrt a very fair great gate of hewyn stone.

The soyle, savyng a little by Wyrksop to Rethford [a] Market, is plentiful of corne in enclosid feeldes, but litle woodde.

From Wirkesop to Newhagge by very wooddi grownd about a mile. Newhagge is a park hard on the right hond as I went longging to the King. A mile beyond Newhag stil by wood I rode over Gerburton brooke. [b]

A mile thens passing al by plaine hethy ground I rode over Budby brooke.

And so passing a mile more by plaine hethe, and ii. miles by fair wooddes I rode over Rume water, wher in ulteriori ripa is a village caullid communely Ruford for Rumeford. [c]

A quarter of a mile beyond Rumeford village stoode a late Rumeford Abbay of White Monkes. The Erle of Shreusbyri hath hit now of the King for exchaung of land of his in Irland.

Rume [d] river risith by south of Maunsfeld a v. miles from Rumeford Abbay; and when the streame cummith nere the


[a] Retford.
[b] Carburton brook.
[c] Rufford.
[d] Rainworth r.

18 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Nottinghamshire.

abbay it makith ther in a botom a fair lake [a] of the same name, and so cumming againe into a narow course goith to Rumeford village, and, as I lernid, ther after receivith both Budby water [b] and Gerberton water, and after with a meately long curse goith to Bowtre, [c] of sum caullid Vowtre, a market town in Notingamshire a v. miles from Dancastre, and so, as I hard say, into Trent.

Looke ther about wyther Blith river goith.

From Rumeford Abbay by plaine corny and paster ground to a village a iiii. miles of, wher I passid over a brooke caullid (if I wel remembre) Girt. [d] (Almost a mile or I cam to this village I cam hard by Hexgreve Park on the right hond, and a litle beyond on the lift hond I saw nere at hond Mr. Newnams a knighttes parke and preati manor. It is in Ketelington [e] paroche.) This brooke goith to Sowthwel Milles, and so to Trent.

To Sowthwel from thens a ii. miles.

The ground betwixt very fruteful of corne.

Sowthewel stondith in Snotinghamshire. The town by hit is meately wel buildid, but ther is no market publike.

The minstre of our Lady is large, but of no pleasaunt building, but rather stronge.

There lyith in the quier an Arche-Bisshop of Yorke.

The Bisshop of York hath ther a preaty palace, and the ministers of the chirch be wel loddegid, especially the Prebendarys.

The Archebisshop hath iii. parkes, the litle park, alias New Park, Norwood Park, but Hexgre [f] is the chefest of them.

To Thurgoton [g] village and priory of Blak Chanons lately suppressid a ii. miles by corne ground.

And thens a good mile to Oringgam [h] feri, where my horsys passid over Trent per vadum, and I per cymbam. I never saw fairer medows then there a bothe ripes of Trent.


[a] Rufford lake.
[b] Meden r.
[c] Now Bawtry.
[d] Greet r.
[e] Kirklington.
[f] Hexgreave park.
[g] Thurgarton.
[h] Hoveringham.

PART VII 19

Notinghamshire.

on the right hond vi. miles from trajectus, and Newarke on the lifte hond a iiii. miles. Newark to us rip. citer. Trentae.

After that I cam a litle beyond Trent I saw al champaine grounde undecunque within sight, and very litle wood but infinita frugum copia.

To Langer [a] village a iiii. miles, wher hard by the chirch is a stone howse of the Lord Scropes embatelid like a castel.

A ii. miles beyond Langer I saw but far of the castel of Bever on a hy coppid hille.

Half a mile or I cam to Langer I cam by Sir John Chaworthe a knightes manor place, wherabowt I saw great and mervelus fair medows. Chaworth Place is caullid Warton [b] Haulle.

From Langer by veri fair medows and corne ground to Smithe, [c] a brokelet that ther devidith Notingghamshire from Leyrcestreshire a iiii. myles.

Leicestershire.

Nere beyond this brooke I passid thorough Clauson village in Leyrcestreshir.

Betwixt Trent ripe and Melton many benes and peson, as yt is communely thorough al Leyrcestreshir.

From Clauson to Melton a iii. good miles by good corne ground.

Melton, one fair paroche chirch, sumtime an hospital and celle to Lewes in Sussex.

Kyrkby [d] a litle priori of Blake Chanons apon Wreke [e] river ii. miles beneth Melton Mowbray was a late suppressid. I hard say that one Bellar was foundder thereof.

From Melton to Burton Lazar [f] a veri fair hospital and collegiate chirch, scant a mile.

To Borow Hilles more than ii. miles.

The place that now is cawllid Borow Hilles [g] is duble dichid, and conteinith within the diche to my estimation a iiii. score acres. The soile of it berith very good corne.


[a] Langar.
[b] Whatton.
[c] Smite r.
[d] Kirby Bellars.
[e] Wreak r.
[f] Burton Lazars.
[g] Burrow Hill.

20 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Leicestershire.

First I tooke hit for a campe of menne of warre, but after I shire. plaine perceivid that hit had beene waullid about with stone, and to be sure pullid out sum stones at the entering of hit, wher hath bene a great gate, and ther found lyme betwixt the stones. But whither ther hath beene any mo gates there then one I am not yet sure, but I conject ye.

Very often hath be founde ther numismata Romano, of gold, sylver and brasse, and fragmentes of al fundations in plowyng.

This stondeth in the very hy way bytwixt Melton and London.

To thes Borow Hilles every yere on Monday after White- Sonday cum people of the contery therabowt, and shote, renne, wrastel, dawnce, and use like other feates of exercyse.

Borow village is within lesse then half a mile of hit, and ther dwellith one Mr. Borow the greatest owner there.

Borow Hilles be abowte a vii. miles from Leyrcestre.

Remembre that Croxton [a] Abbay Water rising at Croxton cummith into Eye water per ripam australem about a mile or more above Melton.

From Borow Hilles to Laund a v. mile.

The Chaworthis were and be founders of Laund Priory.

Almoste half a mile or I cam to Launde I passid by Master Smithes, made fresch by Mr. Radcliffe that married Smithes doughter.

The soile directo itinere betwyxt Trent south ripe and Launde is baren of wood, but plentiful of corne and pasture, especially abowt Launde quarters.

But the soyle abowt Launde is wooddy, and the forest of Ly, [b] of sum caullid Lyjfeld, joynifthe to Laufnde by este.

And the soile of Owsen Abbay [c] ii. miles by est north este from Launde is also veri wooddy.


[a] Croxton-Keyrial.
[b] Leighfield.
[c] Owston.

PART VII 21

The ground a litle beyound Launde toward Pipwel is not wooddy.

To Haleden [a] a preaty tounlet about a iiii. miles.

To Metburne [b] village a mile.

And almost a mile to a bridge, wher I passid over Wyland [c] river, ther no great streame.

Thens of to Pipwel Abbay abowt a iii. miles.

Northants.

The bridg and water of Weland ther devidith Leyrcestreshire from Northampton.

From Metburne to within a mile of Pipwel is mervelus goodly medow.

After that I passid over Weland abowt a mile I saw Rokingham Castel standing on the brow of a stony hille in the utter part of the side of Rokingham Forest, and it stood a ii. mile of on the lifte honde.

Almost a mile or I cam to Pipwel I enterid into the woode of Rokingham Forest. Pipwel Abbay [d] stondith in Rokingham Forest, and mo abbays is not, nor were, as I hard say, in the forest.

(Pipwel standeth in the veri ende of the forest of ...)

Butville, sumtime a knight of Northamptonshire, founder of Pippewell. Mowbray, the lord of Rutland, and the Lord Souch encresid hit.

The forest of Rokingham is in sum places a ii. miles, in sum places but a mile brode, and by estimation a xiiii. miles longe.

Rokingham Castel faullith to ruine.

No redde deere but falow in Rokingham Forest.

The fairest game of the forest is scene at a place in the forest caullid Launde, of Benefeild.

Divers gentilmen of veri faire landes dwelle in villages neere about Pipwelle.


[a] Hallaton.
[b] Medborne.
[c] Welland r.
[d] Pipewell Abbey.

22 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northamptonshire.

Ther dwellith for the most part a gentilman in every village of Northamptonshire.

From Pipwel to Ketering market iii. good miles by pasture and corne ground. A mile from Pipwelle at Barton village is the Tressehams manor place.

From Ketering to Hyham Ferres [a] vii. miles. Almost a quarter of a mile or I cam to Hyham Ferres I passid over Neene water. [b]

Ther is a collegiate chirch at Hyham Ferres, and a grammer schoole, and a castel now of late clene faullen and taken downe. Ther is a mair at Hyham Ferres.

Thinges notable in Bedfordshir.

Bedfordshire.

The castelle of Adinggreves is on the same side that the castelle mille is on, otherwise caullid Risingho, about a mile lower on the ryver toward S. Neotes, where is on a hille a diche and other tokins of buildinges there, not 2. balles castes from the ryver bank.

Castel Mille is a mile and a half byneth Bedford.

About a mile and a half beneth Adinggreves is a great stone bridge of an viii. arches of stone at Berford, and ther in utter, ripa is a good uplandisch towne.

From Berford to Eiton [c] a good village in utter, ripa about a 3. mile, wher be seene vestigia Castelli betwen the chirch and the ripe, and almost hard on the ripe: and at this Eiton is a litle poore bridge of ease over the ryver. The ruines of Eiton Castelle long to my Lord Vaulx.

Ther wer 2. hospitales in the suburbe of Bedford by south in riter. ripa Usae. the houses wherof and chapelles yet stande.

S. John's standeth on right hond first cumming in from south to Bedforde. And then on the same hand a litle aside is S. Leonards.

Thinges notable in the Gray Freres of Bedford.

The very original founderes of the Grey Freres of Bedford was Mabil Pateshull Lady of Blettesho, wher now Syr John


[a] Higham Ferrers.
[b] Nene r.
[c] Eaton.

PART VII 23

Bedfordshire.

S. John dwellith, and of Stoke, as sum say, in Lincolnshire a 4. miles a this side Granteham in Lincolnshir, and this Stoke longith now to Master S. John.

This Mabil was byried at the south side of the high altare under an arche.

Epitaph; Hicjacet Da Mabilla Pateshulle, Dna de Blettesho, ia fundatrix hujus loci. She was biried under a flat stone.

Ther was also buried on the northe side of the high altare, under a plain stone, one of the Lord Mowbrays.

And one Quene Elenor was buried right afore the high altare under a flat stone of marble with an image of plaine plate of brasse encrounid.

Richard Hastinges, an esquier, chaumberlayn to Edward the 3., was buried on the north side of the quier in a low tumbe.

Syr Richard Irencester was biried in the midle of the body of the chirch: and this Irencester, as it is said, made the body of the chirch of the Graye Freres. Blake S. John of late tyme was buried of the quier by Hastinges.

The Freres stand flat in the north end of the towne.

Ex libro Folcardi Monachi Eccl. Cantuar. quem scripsit rogante Aldredo Archiepiscopo Ebor.

Abbas de Swina invitatus ad anniversarium diem S. Joannis de Beverlaco a Brithuno Abbate Beverlacensi.

Monialis quaedam de Esch.

Gulielmus, qui et Ketellus dictus, Clericus S. Joannis Beverlacencis, scripsit libellum de miraculis S. Joannis, et consecravit opusculum Th. praeposito ejusdem, e cujus libello Folchardus multa desumpsit.

Ketellus scripsit stylo, ut ea ferebant tempora, ornato.

Destructa urbe Ebor. et agris vicinis a Gul. Bastard et ejus exercitu, multi confugerunt Beverlacum tanquam ad asylum. Sed Gul. rex et ejus exercitus miraculo cujusdam militis Normanni deterriti Beverlacenses intactos reliquerunt.

Aethelstanus rex asylum Beverlaci instituit. Deira clauditur Derwenta flu. Humbro flu. et mare l. mari orient.

24 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Robertus de Stutevilla dominus de Cotingham temp. Steph.

Adsutus erat libro Folcardi liber incerti auctoris, sed viri, ut videtur, Ebor. de rebus ab Ethelstano Beverlaci gestis, et de miraculis D. Joannis a tempore Gut. Conquestoris.

Taken out of a rolle at Master Garters.

Clarence.

Duke de Clarence, Counte de Richemont, Signior des Isles de Gernesey et Garsey, et Graunt Chaumbrelaine de Angleterre.

Glocestre.

Duk de Glocestre, Conestable et Admiral de Angleterre, et Gardein de Weste Marches devers Escossce.

Norfolk.

Duke de Norfolk, Counte Mareschal de Warein, Surrey et de Notingham, Graund Marchal d'Angleterre, Signior de Moubray, de Segrave, et Gower.

Bukingham.

Duke de Bukingham, Counte de Stafforde, Herford, Northampton et de Perche, Signior de Brekenok, de Kembalton et de Tunbridg.

Rivers.

Counte Rivers Signior de Scales et de Nucles, et Governor de Isle de Wight.

Nicolaus Upton Legulejus, Canonicus Sarum et Wellensis Ecclesiae, dedicavit Huminfrido duci Glocestriae volumen de re militari divisum in quatuor libros seu partes ... ultimo autem libro tractabat de armis sive insignibus illustrium virorum Angliae.

Stilus Humfridi Ducis ibidem.

Filius, frater, patruus Regum, Dux Glocestriae, Comes Penbrochiae, Mag. Camerarius Angliae.

Yorkshire.

Richemont is pavid. Richemont towne is waullid, and

PART VII 25

Yorkshire.

the castel on the river side of Swale is as the knot of the cumpace of the waulle. In the waul be iii. gates. Frenchegate yn the north parte of the towne, and is the most occupied gate of the towne; Finkel-streate gate, Bargate, al iii. be downe; vestigia yet remayne. In the market place is a large chapel of the Trinite, the cumpace of the ruinus waulles is not half a mile abowt. So that the towne waulle cumpasith litle but the market place, the howses about hit and gardens behind them. There is a suburbe withowt Frenche gate. Finkelstreat suburbe strayt west from the market place and Bargate suburbe. But Frenchgate suburbe is almost as bygge as bothe the other suburbes. In Frenchgate suburbe is the paroch chirch of al the hole towne. A litle beyonde the ende of Frenchegate-streate is, or was, a late a chapel of a woman anachorete. Bargate suburbe cummith down to the bridge ende of Swale, the wich bridge is sumtime chaynid. A this side the bridge is no building. In this suburbe is a chapel of S. James. At the bakke of the Frenchgate is the Grey Freres, a litle withowte the waullis. Their howse, medow, orchard, and a litle wood is waullid yn. Men go from the market place to hit by a posterne gate. There is a conducte of water at the Grey Freres, els there is none in Richemont. Not far from the Freres waul is a chapel of S. Antony. Al the towne and suburbes be on the farther side of Swale.

The castel is nere hand as much yn cumpace as the circuite of the town walle. But now it is in mere ruine.

The celle of S. Martine is on the hither side of Swale litle more then a thowsand fotte from the Frenche-gate suburbe.

Midleham apon Ure river ripa citeriori is a market tounne, and is kept on Twesday. The toune it self is smawle, and hath but one paroche chirch. It hath beene, as sum wene, a collegiate chirch. The parson is yet caullid the Deane of Midleham. (Midleham longgid to the Erle of Warwike. Richard the iii. lay at it, and collegiatid the chirch there. But Henry the vii. toke the new college land awaye.) The toun is set on a hille side. The greate hil

26 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Yorkshire.

above hit more then a mile of is cawllid Penhil, [a] and is countid the hiest hille of Richemontshire. Midleham Castel joynith hard to the toun side, and is the fairest castel of Richemontshire next Bolton, and the castel hath a parke by hit caullid Sonskue, and a nother cawllid Westpark, and the third cawllid Gaunelesse half a mile of. Westparke and Gaunlesse be wel woddid.

There is at the est ende of Midleham a litle hospital with a chapel of Jesus.

Vensela [b] is a litle poore market in ripa superiore Uri. It standith not far from the Westparke end of Midleham.

Grenton [c] is a litle market towne ripa citer. Sualae, a vi miles west above Richemont. The houses of these two tounes be partly slatid, partly thakkid.

The market is of come and linyn cloth for men of Suadale, the wich be much usid in digging leade owre.

On eche side of Suadale be greate hilles where they digge.

Litle corne growith in Suadale.

Katerik Bridge self hath but one house as an yn.

Katerik [d] towne is a mile lower in citer. ripa Swalae; it is now a very poore towne, and is half a quarter of a mile from the river side. At Keterik is now no market. Ther is a place cawllid Keterik Swart or Sandes hard by Keterik Chirch, and ther about be quaedam indicia of olde buildinges, and digginge of olde squarid stones.

Richemont Castel.

Killarby Castel ruine in ripa citer. Sualae, about a iii. miles beneth Keterik Bridge. It longid to the Conyeux.

Horneby Castel (chiefest house of the Lord Corners) a iii. miles from Suale, and a ii. miles south from Keterik, and iii. miles north west from Bedale.

Midleham apon Ure.

Snape a goodly castel in a valley longing to the Lorde Latimer, and ii. or iii. parkes welle woddid abowt hit. It is his chefe howse, and stondith a ii. mile from Great Tanfeld.


[a] Penhill Beacon.
[b] Wensley.
[c] Grinton.
[d] Catterick.

PART VII 27

Yorkshire.

In the parkes by Snape be pooles.

Great Tanfelde, wher is a castel on a banke longging to the Lorde Parre, and stondith on Ure.

Tanfelde Castel longgid to the Lord Marmion, and so cam to the Fizhugh.

Bolton a very fair castel in Suadale [a] stonding on a balk, and underneth is a litle broke. It is within a mile of the farther side of Ure Water, and (as I lernid) a iiii. miles from Suale. It is the chefest howse of the Lorde Scrope. Ther is no toune hard by hit. Wensla litle market is a ii. miles of by est.

Ravenswathe [b] Castel in a mares grounde and a parke on a litle hilling ground by hit. It is a iii. miles by north west from Richemont, and therby is a praty village. The Lord Parre is owner therof, and by hit cummith a bekke caullid Ravenswath Bekke. [c]

There appere great ruines in a valley of a howse or a litle castel at Albruch [d] village, and thereby rennith a bekke. It standith a ii. miles south from Perse Bridg [e] on Tese.

There appere ruines of like buildinges at Cawdewelle village a ii. miles west from Alburcge.

Cawdewel is so caullid of a little font, or spring, by the ruines of the olde place, and so rennith into a bekke half a quarter of a mile of. This bekke rennith thens to Alburcg, and a v. miles of into Tese, ripa citer. This bek risith in a marisk about a ii. myle southe west above Caldwell.

And betwixt thes to villages appere diverse hillettes cast up by hand, and many diches, wherof sum be fillid with water, and sum of these dikes appere abowte S. John's, that is paroch chirch to both the aforsaid villages. Thes dikes and hilles were a campe of men of warre, except menne might think they were of ruines of sum old towne. The more likelyhood is that it was a campe of men of warre.

Syr James Metcalf hath a very goodly howse caullid Nappe [f] in Wensedale. Wensedale [g] and the soile about is


[a] Swaledale, but Bolton is in Wensleydale.
[b] Ravensworth.
[c] Now Gillingbeck.
[d] Aldbrough.
[e] Piecebridge.
[f] Nappa Hall.
[g] Wensleydale.

28 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Yorkshire.

very hilly, and berith litle come, but norisith many bestes. Wensedale, as sum say, taketh name of Wensela market. For Wensele standith on the hither side of Ure, and straite on the farther side beginnith Wensedale.

(Vennones men of Wensedale.)

Nappe is abowt a vii. miles west from Vensela Market, but communely it is caullid No Castel.

Bisshops Dale lying by Ure in ripa citer. and conteining a sorte of greate felles with dere liyth south west within a quarter of a mile of Nappe. So that this dale lieth upward weste betwixt the upper partes of Uredale and Sualedale.

Bisshops Dale longith to the king, and yn the hilles about hit be redde deer. In faire winters the deere kepe there, in shrap (? sharp) winters they forsake the extreme colde and barennes of them.

Mr. Bowis hath a litle howse a iiii. miles northward from Keterik.

Mr. Cunniers of Maske [a] hath a faire place at Maske village within a quarter of a mile of Swale ripa ulter. ii. miles be west from Richemont.

S. Henry Gascoyne dwellith at a prety place caullyd Sedbyri having a prety parke, and a litle lake in hit. It is a iii. miles be north from Richemont.

Mr. Pudsey hath a place at Barforde [b] an arow shot from Tese in ripa citer. and is a vi. miles beneth Barnardes Castel.

Master Rokeby hath a place caullid Mortham [c] a litle beneth Grentey Bridge almost on the mouth of Grentey. [d]

M. Frank of Knightton hath a preti place caullid Knigtton [e] v. miles north from Richemont.

Wiclif a meane gentilman dwellith at a litle village caullid Wiclif.

They sey that John Wiclif Haereticus was borne at Ipreswel [f] a poore village a good myle from Richemont.


[a] Marske.
[b] Barforth.
[c] Mortham Tower.
[d] Greta r.
[e] Kneeton.
[f] Hipswell.

PART VII 29

Abbayes and Priories on Suale.

Yorkshire.

Marik [a] a priory of blake nunnes of the foundation of the Askes. It stondith ripa ulter., v. mile above Richemont. Grenton is a mile above Marik.

Syr Rafe Bowmer hath a place at Marik towne stonding on a hille side half a mile from the priori stonding in a botom.

Ellerton, ab alnis dictum, a priori of white clothid nunnes (Monachae Cistertienses) stonding in a valle in ripa citer., a mile beneth Marik Priory.

S. Marlines Priori a celle to S. Mari Abbay of Yorke in ripa citer., a litle beneth Richemont.

S. Agathes an abbay of white chanons ripa ulter., a litle beneth S. Martines. The Lord Scrope was founder there.

Apon Ure.

Gervalx (Urivallis) [b] Abbay of white monkes ripa citeriori, a ii. miles beneth Midleham.

Lord Marmion was the firste founder, whose landes cam to the Fitzhughes, and so to the Parres.

Apon Cover.

Coverham a howse of white chanons in ripa ulter., scante ii. miles from Middleham by west.

There was good singing in Coverham.

Apon Skel.

Fontaines Abbay of white monkes yn Richemontshir.

Apon Tese. [c]

AEgleston, [d] citer. ripa, a priory of white chanons, a mile beneth Barnardes Castel that is on the farther ripe. About a quarter of a mile beneth AEgleston is a faire quarre of blak marble spottid with white, in the very ripe of Tese.

Ther is no collegiate chirch in Richemontshire.


[a] Marrick.
[b] Jervaulx.
[c] Tees r.
[d] Eggleston.

30 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Yorkshire.

Ther be ii. deaneris, Keterik and Richemont.

The archidiaconry of Richemont hath goodly revenews, and hath a peculiar jurisdiction in Richemontshire as exempte from the bisshop.

Yorevalx Abbay of white inonkes.

Munnemonketon [a] on Nidde.

Rivers of name in Richemontshire.

Gretey [b] cummith by a village cawllid Barningam in citer. ripa, wher dwellith a meane gentilman manne cawllid Barningam. The Barningams in times past had great landes. Thens to Gretey Bridg about ii. miles, where be aliquot diversoria. Thens to Mortham, Mr. Rokesby place, in ripa citer., scant a quarter of a mile from Gretey Bridge, and not a quarter of a mile beneth into Tese.

By Gretey Bridge is a park of the Lord Scropes caullid Brignel Parke, Latine bellus Mons.

Wiske River cummith thorowg Wisk Bridg, wher is no howsing, to Danby in citer. ripa, a prati tounlet in Richemontshire a iiii. mile, and of the river is caullid Danby Wiske, then to Northalreton abowt a ii. miles of in ulter. ripa, so downe to Kirkby village a ... miles, and after into Swale.

Ther is a broke hereabowt caullid Leminges Bek cumming from Bedal in citer. ripa, a fair market toune, and next to Richemont self in the sheere. Thens to Leming [c] village.

Leming to us ward is a v. mile a this side Keterik Bridg, yn the way betwixt Richemont and Yorke.

Swale above Grenton kepith one botom a ... myles, and above that is encresid of many springes resorting to Swaledale.

In the egge of Swaledale is a preaty water cumming thoroug Applegarthdale.

The broket of Applegarthdale cummith into Suale per ripam ulteriorem a litle beneth Marske, Mr. Coniers place.

There is no vale, as I here, in Richmontshir that is caullid Uresdale, but the dale that Ure first rennith to is caullid Wensedale.


[a] Nunmonkton.
[b] Greta r.
[c] Leeming.

PART VII 31

Yorkshire.

Ther be sum that say Ure risith at Mossmore yn Richemontshire. Ure cummith thoroug Wensedale longing to Richemontshir. Thens to Midleham. So to Yorevalx [a] Abbay a ii. miles. To Tanfeld village a vi. miles of in ulter. ripa, wher is a castel of the Lorde Parrs, and a greate wooddy parke. So to Litle Tanfeld a mile on the same ripe, where Werkecop the herald dwellith. Hither, as I here, both sides of Ure be in Richemontshire. From Litle Tanfeld to Ripon aboute a iii. myles. So to Borow Bridge.

Skel cummith on the one side of Ripon, and Ure on the other.

Cover River risith, as I here say, in Craven side, neere Skale Parke and so cumming down a 2. or 3. miles keepeth above a place caullid Cover-dale, and so cometh by St. Si ... Chapel to Coverham, and soe into Ure.

Mr. Place dwellith at a place caullid Haunoby [b] a vii. mile north est from Richemont.

Mr. Lasselles dwellith at a faire place by Danby on Wiske, a tounlet.

Mr. Keterik dwellith at Stanewiche having a preaty place. It is half a mile est from Cawdewelle village, wher is scene the campe of men of warre.

Tese pene a fontibus, and so cumming downe by gesse a xviii. miles ripa citeriori devidith Richemontshire from the bisshoprike (the limes be north).

Wiske Bridge, a iii. miles a ripa citer. of Tese, devidith Richemontshire from Cliveland.

Richemontshire liith harde apon the borders of Cravenland. Part of Yorkshire and Craven liyth south weste from Richemontshire.

There is a place an viii. mile plaine west from Bowis, [d] (Bowis is viii. miles almost ful west from Richemont toun) a thorough-fare in Richemontshire, cawllid Maiden Castel, where is a greate rounde hepe a 60. foote in cumpace of


[a] Jervaulx.
[b] ? Hornby Grange.
[c] Stanwick Park.
[d] Bowes.

32 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Yorkshire.

rude stones, sum smaul, sum bygge, and be set in formam pyramidis; and yn the toppe of them al ys set one stone in conum, beyng a yard and a half in lenghth. So that the hole may be countid an xviii. foote hy, and ys set on a hille in the very egge of Stanemore. [a] And this is a limes betwixt Richemontshire and Westmerlande.

A quarter of a mile north from Maiden Castel is a bek that goith into Tese.

Arkengarth dale liith most up north, and bereth sum bygge and otys, litle or no woodde, and is devidid from Sualedale by a bekk callid after the dale.

Sualedale litle corne and much gresse, no wodd, but linge and sum nutte trees. The woodde that they brenne their leade is brought owte of the parte of the shire, and owt of Dirhamshir.

Uredale veri litle corne except bygg or otes, but plentiful of gresse in communes.

Coverdale is worse then Sualedale or Uresdale for corne, and hath no woodde but about Coveram Abbay.

Bisshops Dale liyth right west at the hedde of Coverdale more up into Westmerland, having no corn, but deere. In these dales and the greate hilles aboute them is very litle or no woodde.

There is a praty car or pole in Bisshops Dale.

The hole cuntery of Richemontshire by este from the hylles and dales ys plentiful of whete, rye and meately good medowes and wooddes.

The beste wooddes liyth be est of Suale and Ure rivers.

In the dales of Richemontshire they burne linge, petes and turffes.

In places where they cutte downe linge good grasse springith for the catel for a yere or ii. ontil the ling overgrow hit.

There is plenty of good stone to be squarid in very many places of Richemontshire.

There be no cole pittes in Richemont; yet the eastarly partes of Richemontshire burne much se coles brought owt of Dyrhamshire.


[a] Stainmore.

PART VII 33

The shire hath had plenty of tyllage.

The Lorde Conyes hathe a Castell in Richemontshire caullyd Horneby, and ther is his usuall dwellynge.

The Lord Latimer hathe a goodly place at Sinnington in Blakemore, not far from Ripon.

The Striklands hathe a fayre maner place at Thornton Bridge a 2. myles from Ripon. Stanford Bridge a 5. myles or 6. by est to Yorke toward Kyrkham Priorie, where the Danes faught.

Wreshil [a] a very fayre and mynion castle of the Pereis sum tyme set on Darwent.

Mowgreue [b] Castle not far from Whitby somtyme longynge to Bygot. Mountferrant Castle not far from Geterington, Mast: Bigots place.

The hedde howse of the Metcalfes is cawlyd Knapper [c] Castle in Richemountshire.

Myllam Castle in Richemountshire hathe many great comodities of redde dere and fallow.

The very figure of horsshois appere in stones nere the Pictes waulle.

A marchaunt man of Norwyche made halfe the wall of Norwiche.

Bedfordshire.

From Higham ferres to Bedford by pasture and corne grownd a 10 myles. shire.

The lymes betwixt Northamptonshire and Bedford was in the way a 4. myles from Higham Ferrars in the way toward Bedforde.

Newenham a howse of chanons a myle benethe Bedford apon the ryver.

Ther be many holmes, otharwyfe litle isles, in the river betwixt Bedforde and Newham.

Newenham Abbey was translatyd from S. Paules in Bedford.


[a] Wressell Castle.
[b] Mulgrave.
[c] Nappa.

34 LELAND'S ITINERARY

S. Paules was a howse of prebendaries afore the conquest. One Symon de Bello-campo chaungyd them by a new foundation to chanons reguler the whiche in the second priors tyme were translatyd to Newenham.

In Bedford be 7 paroche chirchis 3 in the southe parte of use, and 4 in the northe syde, with a place of Grey Friers.

Bedford 20 myles from Bukyngham and 10 myles from Huntingdon.

From Bedford to Luton a market towne in Bedfordshire 12 myles, moste by corne ground, somwhat hillye and chalkey soyle.

In the hye way I saw hard on eche syde 3 longe trenches, as they had bene for men of warre.

Herts.

From Luton to S. Albons 8 miles by woody and enclosyd ground; to Barnet 10 myles and other 10 to London, lyke soyle. By Barnet is a cornar of Henfeld Chase. [a]

Syr Thomas Kiriell was prisoner in Fraunce, and that longe aftar that he cam home to libertye he maried one Chicheleys Chamberlaine of London's doughtar caulyd Elizabethe. This Chicheley dwellid in Hartelane in a syde of Towre Strete, where now is the Bakers Hawle. Chicheley was brothar to Chycheley Archbyshope of Cauntorbery. Aftar Kyryell had this howse by the right of Elizabethe his wyfe. Kyryell had no children by hir; aftar his deathe she was maried unto Ser Rafe Ascheton, Knyght Marciale, and he beinge deade she was thirdly maryed to Ser John Bourcher uncle to the last Erle of the Bouchers of Essex, she had nevar childe. Edward Poynings made pacte with Boucher and Elezabethe to have Ostanger aftar theyr deathe and to enter into it they lyuynge, paiet then ... Checheleyne of London had 24 children. Werewike [b] village wherby is Werewicke bridg nuly mad apon 4 old arches, apon Eidon [c] by the costes of Mastar Richemont marchant of London. It stondithe on Eidon river 3 miles above Carluel.

There be 3 partes in Tame towne.


[a] Enfield Chase.
[b] Warwick, near Carlisle.
[c] Eden r.

PART VII 35

Oxfordshire.

Old Tame in the way from the churche, toward but not full to the Market Stede.

The Market Stede and the fayrest parte of the towne toward London way is cawlyd new Tame.

The 3 is Prestes ende toward the churche and bridge toward Haseley.

There be 2 bayles in Tame and 4 conestables, 2 in the new towne, one in the old towne, another in Presteine.

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