Leland's Itinerary of England and Wales: Part VIII.

PART VIII

Colleges in Kent.

Kent.

WYNGHAM 4. miles and a halfe from Cantwarbyri playne est in the hic way betwixt Cantwarbyri and Sandwiche.

Ther is a provoste, vi. prebendaries, besydes othar ministers of the churche.

Pecham archebysshope made this college lyvingef at that tyme apon the spirituall mattars and visitations of his province. For the Kynge had reteynid the temporallyties of the bysshoprike for a tyme. Pecham cumminge with his bulles from the bishope of Rome, of whom he receyved by gyfte this promotion to Cantewarbyri, enterid the chapiter withe the monks, begininge his communication to them with thes words: Non vos me eligistis, sed ego vos elegi.

Pecham is buried by ...

Wengham standith on a ...

Doure river at st ...

Wye is a pratie market townelet, and standithe on Doure [a] ripa super, in orient. 7. miles from Cantorbyri.

There is yerely a grete fayre on Seint Grigori's Day at Wye.

Kempe a doctor of bothe lawes and also divinite, then byshope of Rochester, afterward of Chichester and London; thens translatyd to Yorke, where he was bysshope a xxv. yeres; thens translatyd to Cantewerbyri and made cardinall first diacon, and then bysshope.


[a] Great Stour.

38 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

Bis primas, ter praesul erat, bis cardine functus.

He was a pore husband-man's sonne of Wye, where upon for to pray for the sowles of them that set hym to schole, and them that otharwyse preferred hym, he made the paroche churche of Wye a college in the xxiiii. yere of his archbyshopricke of Yorke, whereof the governor is a prebendary, and the resydwe be ministers for devine service.

Asscheforde churche was in a meane to be collegiated by the reqwest of one Fogge, an gentilman dwellinge there about that was countrowlar to Edward the Fowrthe. But Edward dyed or Fog had finished this enterpris. So that nowe remaynethe to Ascheforde the only name of a prebend. And this place hathe lands, priests and chorsts, but remevable. For they have no comon-seale.

Courteney was fowndar of the college of Maydestone, where the master is a prebendarie. The residwe be ministars to synge devyne service. Courtney buildyd muche in the towne selfe of Maydestone, and also at the palace ther.

Noble men lying above the degres in the este ende of the cathedrale chyrch of Cantewarbyri.

King Henry the 4. and his wife under a piller on the northe isle. Edwarde the Blake Prince lyeth right agayne hym under a piller by south. He died in the bisshops palace at Cantewarbyri, and gave a greate chalice of gold and cruettes of gold, beside many other jocales, unto Christes Chirch. And sum say that King Richard is ... ery benificial to the ... and to the new building of the body of the cathedrale chyrch ...

Bisshops buried behynde the waul of the high altare betwixte it and the degrees of the est ende.

Elphege on the northe side. Dunstane on the southe side.

PART VIII 39

Kent.

Bisshoppes lying under the southe side of the pillers on the southe side of the high altare.

Simon Suthebyry lyith in a highe tumbe of coper and gilte. He was behedid at London by Jak Straw. He buildid the waulle of the toune with the towres from the west gate to the north gate.

Strateforde lyith yn a hygh tumbe and an image of stone.

Kempe lyith yn an high tumbe of marble, but no image engrossid on it.

On the north side of the high altar.

Tho. Bourcher Cardinal that coronid King Edward the 4., King Richard the 3., and Henry the vii.

Bisshop Chicheley.

Bisshoppes buried in the Chapel of S. Peter and Paule in a chapel on the south isle of the quier.

Anselme behynde the altare.

Mepham in a right goodly tumbe of blake marble.

In the crosse isle on the south side of the quire.

Bisshop Winchelsey in a right goodly tumbe of marble at the very but ende yn the waulle side.

In the lower part on ... straite isle ... of the quire.

Walterus Chauncelare. A ...

In the crosse isle northwarde on the quire lay in certein shrines the bones of thes bisshops of Cantorbyry.

In the crosse isle that standith bynethe the degrees of the quire southward ly buried yn S. Annes Chapelle,

Simon Langhtoun, for whom the schism bygun betwixt King John and the bisshop of Rome.

This Langton translatid Thomas Bekket, and made the exceding hygh, longe and broode haulle in the bisshopes

40 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

palace, and made, as I harde, the stately horologe in the south crossid isle of the chirche.

There liyith in this chapel also a nother bisshop of Cantewarbyri.

There lyith also John Counte of Somerset and a nother of them with a lady ... of Claraunce.

This chapel be likelihod in this isle was made new for the honor of Erle John of Somerset.

In the south wyndowes of the same goodly chapel be written yn the glasse wyndowes these 3. name, John Counte of Somerset, The Lorde Percy, The Lord Mortaine; and every one with the King armes.

In the crosse isle betwixt the body of the chirch and the quire northward ly buried,

Pecham.

And Wareham.

Also under flate stones of M ... deane afore prior of Lanti ... and a nother bisshop.

There lyith the olde prior ... was so wel letterid ...

These high tumbes of bisshops be in the body of the chirche.

Simon Iselepe.

Whitelesey borne at Whitelesey in Huntenduneshire, first Archdiacon of Huntendune, then bisshop of Rochester, and last of Cantewarbyri.

Arundel under a piller on the north side. King Henry the 4. and he helpid to build up a good part of the body of the chirch.

There lyeth x. more.

Bisshopes buried in cryptes.

Cutheberth.

Elphege after translatid up behind the high altare.

Thomas Beket translatid thens.

PART VIII 41

Kent.

Moreton made with Prior Goldestone the great lantern tour in the middle of the chirch.

A certeine of the? bisshops of Cantewarbyri He? buried in the abbay of ...

Prior Goldestone the first, 3. priors afore the secunde, buildid the stone tour yn the weste ende of the chyrch.

The belles that be in the pyramis ledid at the weste ende of the chirch have belles caullid Arundelles Ringe.

There was a mighty great ringe caullid Conradus Ring that after was broken & made into a smauller ring, and so hanggid up by likelihod in the low closche in the chirch yarde, now a late clene pullid doun.

Goldestone the secunde began the goodly south gate into the ministre, and Goldewelle the laste prior at the suppression performid it.

Prior Thomas Chillendene, alias Chislesdene, was the greatest builder of a prior that ever was in Christes Chirche. He was a great setter forth of the new building of the body of the chirch. He buildid of new the goodly cloistre, the chapitre house, the new conduit of water, the priors chaumbre, the priors chapelle, the great dormitorie, and the frater, the bake house, the brew house, the escheker, the faire ynne yn the High Streate of Cantorbyri. And also made the waulles of moste of al the circuite, beside the toune waulle of the enclosure of the abbaye.

This Chillendene was a doctor of bothe the lawes or he was made a monke: and bisshop Wareham saide that he wrote certen commentaries concerning the laws, and that clerkely.

Siberteswalde, now communely caullid Seperwelle, [a] is a village about a 4. miles from Dovar in the wood side on the lifte hand goyng to Dovar from Cantewarbyri.

In the paroche of Barehamdoune [b] a litle from the wood syde, and about a 6. from Dovar, appereth a dikid campe of men of warre. Sum say that it was Caesar's camp: sum thinke that it was a campe of the Danes. It hath 3. diches.

The chirch of Dale corruptely caullid Dele [c] was a


[a] Now Sibertswold.
[b] Barham.
[c] Deal.

42 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

prebende longging of auncient tyme to S. Marlines College in Dovor.

Theobalde Archebisshop of Cantewarbyri in Henry the first dayes was the greate causer of translating the colledge of S. Martine in Dovor in a ... there newly buildid the ... blake monkes fetchid from Cantwarjbyri.

There is good plentie of woodde in Weste Kente. The partes of Kente beyounde Cantewarbyri hath the name of Este Kent, wher yn diverse is sufficient woodde. But on the coste from Reculver to aboute Folkestane is but litle.

Thonge village is litle more than half a mile from Sidingburn. The diches and the kepe hille of Thonge Castle appere in a litle wood a 2. flites shotte by south from Thong chirche.

Thong is a mile from the mouth of Milton creke, and aboute half a mile from Milton toune if passage were thorough the marsches the nexte way.

Miltoun the market is aboute halfe a mile from Sidingburne, [a] the which, as Master Talbotef thinkith, is so caullid by reason of many springges that in the chalke hilles about it dooth seeth and boyle oute. The greateste streame of springges is in the chalke hilles on the west end of Sidingburne.

Wyllyam Tille, alias Celling by his monkes name, by cause he was borne at Celling [b] village about a 2. miles from Faversham. This Tylle was the best of al the priors yn good letters that was a late yn Christe Chirche yn Cantewurbiry. This man was familiar in Bonony with Politiane, [c] and was the setter forth of Linacre to Politiane.

The very lordeship and manor place, that berith yet the name of Badelesmere, ys a 3. miles from Ospring into the lande ward by southe. It is now in the Kinges handes.

The commune burial of the Sellingers hath bene cheiffely


[a] Sittingbourne.
[b] Selling.
[c] Bologna, Poliziano,

PART VIII 43

Kent.

at Ulcombe and at Otterdene. Antony Ager as I harde say comithe of an old Erle of Kent; indede there was afore the Conquest an Erle of Kent caullid Alcher.

Antony Agers forefathers cam to Otterdene by a division of landes of the Seinctligers emong certein doughters, of whom Ager maried one.

There ly buried at Leedes Priory 3. Crevicure, Robert, Robert, and Thomas, that be likelihod had the landes here in descent.

The name of Finiox thus cam ynto Kent about King Edward the 2. dayes. One Creaulle, a man of faire possessions yn Kent, was a prisoner in Boleyne in Fraunce, and much desiring to be at liberte made his keper to be his frend, promising him landes yn Kent if he wold help to deliver hym. Wherapon they booth toke secrete passage and cam to Kent, and Creal performid his promise: so that after his keper or porter apon the cause was namid Finiox. This name continuid in a certain stay of landes ontylle Finiox chief Juge of the Kinge's Bench cam that first had but 40. li. land. For he had 2. bretherne, and eche of them had a portion of lande, and after encresid it onto 200. poundes by the yere. Swinefeld [a] and therabout a 3. myles from Folkestane in the way betwixt Cantewarbyry and it, was a pece of the landes that Finiox had of Creal, and ther be 2. praty manor places of tymbre. The Juge buildid a fairer house by Heron [b] on purchasyd ground.

One of the younger brothers of Finiox the Juge died, and made the other younger brother his heire. So that now be too houses of the Finiox: the heyre of Finiox the Juge, and the heire of Justice Finiox brother.

Olde Finiox buildid his faire house on purchasid ground, for the commodite of preserving his helth. So that afore


[a] Swingfield.
[b] Herne.

44 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

the phisisians concludid that it was an exceding helthfulle quarter.

Creal was man of a very fayre land in Kent ontylle it felle to be devydid.

Sum say that Folchestane Parke was his, and thens cam to Clyntons. Ostinghaungre was Creals lordeship, of sum now corruptely caullid Westenanger. Poyninges a late hald it. The King hath it now.

Certen of the Crealles were honorably biried at S. Radegund.

Creaulles were greate benefactors to houses of religion in Est Kent, as appereth by their armes in many glase-windois.

Owte of a table in the chapel at the est end of the bridge entering the toune of Rofecestre from London.

Syr Robert Knolles founder of the Trinite Chapelle at Rochester Bridge. Constance wife to Knolles.

Syr John Cobham (Lorde) principale benefactor to the making of Rofecester Bridge.

Margaret wife to this Cobham.

Thomas Boucher Cardinal,

John Moreton Archebisshop.

Henry Chicheley Archebisshop.

Thomas Langeley Bisshop of Dirham.

John Langedon Bisshop of Rofecester.

Thomas Arundale Archebisshop.

Syr John Cornewale.

Lord Fanhap.

Richard Whitington.

William Crowmer.

Geffrey Boleyne Maire of London.

John Darby Draper, Alderman of London.

William Medelton mercer of London.

William Martine justice.

Syr William Notingham chiefe Baron of the Eskeker.

William Wangeford.

PART VIII 45

Kent.

Lord John Bukingham Bisshop of Lincoln.

John Kempe Bisshop of London.

Syr William Rich.

Syr John at Pool.

Ailesford a 4. miles be lande from Rochester, and there is a faire bridg of ston over the streme. [a]

Then be land a 3. miles to Maideston, and there is over the water a goodly bridge of stone. It ebbith and floueth to Maidestoun.

Great Farley [b] is a 2. miles above Maidestoun by land, and ther is a goodly bridge of stone.

At Farley is the greate quarre of hard stone: and in the quarters betwixt it and Maideston ...

There cummith a water into the great streame about a 2. miles beyound Farley caullid Lowse. [c] It is no very greate brooke. Louse village standeth a myle-warde into the land above the confluence of it with Medewege Ryver.

Tounebridge [d] is a 16. miles from Rofecester by lande.

Teston Bridg of stone a ... of.

Twiford Bridge of stone a mile dim. of. And at this stone bridg stonding on the mayne streame of Medewege, and at a mylle a litle above it, be confluence of 3. streames, as one cumming yn ripa citeriori, a nother ulteri., and Medewege running in the midle.

A quarter of a mile or more above Twiford Bridge of stone ys Yalling [e] a praty tounelet, and ther is a bridge.

Thens upward to Brambridge of stone.

From Brammebridge of stone ther is no very notable bridg on to Tounbridge.

The castelle of Rochester stondith at the bridge ende entering the toune.

Going oute of Rochester to Cantewarbyri remainith the most parte of a mervelus strong gate. Gates no mo appere there that be communely usid.

In the waulles yet remaine a vi. or vii. toures.

There be in the toune ... paroche chirches. The


[a] The Medway.
[b] Farleigh.
[c] Loose.
[d] Tonbridge.
[e] Yalding.

46 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

cathedral chirch and the palace with other buildings there occupiith half the space of the cumpace within the walles of Rofecestre.

From Fevarsham to Cantwarbyry 7. miles,

From Whitestaple to Cantorbery 3. miles.

From Heron to Cantwarbyry 4. miles.

From Assheford to Cantewerbyry u. miles.

From Wy to Cantewarbyry 7. miles.

From Chilham to Cantewerbyry 4. miles,

From Cantewerbyre to Forde a 5. miles.

From thens to Raculfe a mile.

From Cantewerbyry to Sandwiche 7. miles as they say comonly; but it is 8. miles.

From Cantwarbyry to Dover 12. miles.

From Cantewarbyre to Folkestane a 10. miles.

From Cantwarbyre to Hithe 12. myles.

From Cantwarbyre to Lynhil xi. miles.

From Cantwarbyre to Apledour xvi. miles.

From Cantwarbyry to Cranbroke xx. miles: that is xi. miles to Asshford, and ix. miles to Cranbroke.

From Sandewiche to Dover aboute a 7. miles.

From Dover to Folchestane v. miles.

From Folchestan to Hythe 4. litle myles.

From Hithe to Holde Hithe, alias West Hithe, about 2. myles. Mastar Twyne saythe that this was the towne that was burnid alonge on the shore, where the ruines of the churche yet remayne.

The castle selfe of Lymehille [a] is of some caullyd Belleanow.

The castle of Thorne, [b] now all clene ruine, apon a toppe of a hille a myle by este from Maydstone. It longethe now to yong Cutte.

Ailington, [c] sometyme the Graies Castle, as in Henry the


[a] Lympne or Lymne.
[b] Thornham.
[c] Allington.

PART VIII 47

Kent.

3. and Edward the third's dayes: sence the Savels and Wiats.

Harte hathe the plotte and site of a castel toward Craye Water.

Grenewich.

Wulwich.

Dertford.

Erith.

Gravesend.

Rochester.

Maideston (Mr. Talbot. Maidstone corruptely for Medwegetoun. Peraventur corruptely for Ailston, for yt stondeth on the river of Aile, and so doeth Ailsford) is a market town of one long streat wel builded and ful of ynnes. The ruler of the town ther is cawlled Port Rive. Ther is yn the town a fair college of prestes. The castel standeth abowt the myddes of the town, being well maynteynid by the Archebisshop of Cant. Ther is the commune gayle or prison of Kent, as yn the shire town.

Ailesford.

48 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent. Greveney.

Sandwic, on the farther side of the ryver of Sture, is meatly welle walled wher the town stondeth most in jeopardi of ennemies. The residew of the town is dichid and mudde waulled. Ther be yn the town iiii. principal gates, iii. paroche chyrches, of the which sum suppose that S. Marye's was sumtyme a nunnery. Ther is a place of Whit freres, and an hospital withowt the town fyrst ordened for maryners desesid and hurt. Ther is a place wher the monkes of Christ Chirch did resort when they were lordes of the towne.

The caryke that was sonke yn the haven yn Pope Paulus tyme did much hurt to the haven, and gether a great banke. The grounde self from Sandwiche to the haven, and inward to the land is caullid Sanded Bay.

Syr Eduard Ringesle. hath a tour, or pile, byyond the mouth of the haven on the shore.

Stonard [a] ys yn Thanet, fumtyme a prety town not far from Sandwich. Now appereth alonly the ruine of the chirch. Sum ignorant people cawle yt Old Sandwiche. Deale, half a myle fro the shore of the se, a fisscher village iii. myles or more above Sandwice, is apon a flat shore and very open to the se, wher is a fosse or a great bank artificial betwixt the towne and se, and beginneth aboute Deale, and rennith a great way up toward S. Margaret's Clyfe, yn so much . that sum suppose that this is the place where Caesar landed in aperto litore. Surely the fosse was made to kepe owte ennemyes there, or to defend the rage of the se; or I think rather the castinge up beche or pible.

Northburn ii. myles and more from the Se almost againe Deale. A ii. myles or more fro Sandwich, from Northburn cummeth a litle fresch water yn to Sandwich haven. At Northburn was the palayce, or maner, of Edbalde Ethelbert's Sunne. There but a few yeres syns yn breking a side of the walle yn the hawle were found ii. childerns bones that had bene mured up as yn burielle yn tyme of Paganite of the


[a] Stonar.

PART VIII 49

Kent.

Saxons. Among one of the childerns bones was found a styfife pynne of laten.

Walmer is about a mile from Dele shore, and looke, as from the farther syde of the mouth of Dovre the shore is low to Walmer, so is the shore al cliffy and hy from VValmere to the very point of Dovar Castel, and there the shore falleth flat, and a litle beyound the toune of Dovar the shore clyvith to Folkestane.

From Walmer to S. Margarete's ii., and 2. miles to Dovar.

One Thomas Laurence in Bisshop Morton's dayes made a pere or gitty at S. Margarete's.

Langdune a village ii. myles a this side Dovar, where as a late was suppressed a howse of channons regular.

The names of the v. portes.

Sandwich. Dovar. Hyve alias Hide. Rumeney. Hastinges. The chefe court of the lord of the v. portes ys kept at the est part of Lymme Hylle. By Lymme [a] is a place cawled Shipway or Shipeye, and of sum yt is cawlled the old rode.

From Dovar to Folkesten v. mile. From Folkestan to Hithe 3. mile. From Hithe to Lim hille 3. mile. From Limhille to Rumeney vii. miles. From Hithe to Rumeney vii. From Rumeney to Lidde [b] 2. miles. From Rumeney to Appledour vii. From Lidde to Appledour vii. Appledour is about a xii. miles of from Limene. [c] From Apledor to Rie v. miles. From Rumeney to Rye vii.

Dovar ys xii. myles fro Canterbury, and viii. myles fro Sandwich. There hath bene a haven yn tyme past, and yn token therof the ground that lyith up betwyxt the hilles is yet in digging fownd wosye. Ther hath be fownd also peces of cabelles and anchores, and Itinerarium Antonini cawleth hyt by the name of a havon. The towne on the front toward the se hath bene right strongly walled and embateled, and almost al the residew; but now yt is partly fawlen downe,


[a] Lympne.
[b] Lydd.
[c] ? Lyminge.

50 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

and broken downe. Cougate, Crosse gate, Bochery gate, stoode with toures toward the se. There is beside Betingate and Westegate. The residew of the town, as far as I can perceyve, was never waulled. (Howbeyt M. Tuine tol me a late that yt hath be walled abowt, but not dyked.) The towne is devided in to vi. paroches, whereof iii. be under one rofe at S. Marlines yn the hart of the town. The other iii. stand abrode, of the which one is cawled S. James of Rudby, or more likely Rodeby, a statiom navium. But this word is not sufficient to prove that Dovar showld be that place, the which the Romaynes cawlled portus Rutupi or Rutupinum. For I can not yet se the contrary but Ratesboro, otherwise cawled Richeboro by Sandwich, both ways corruptly, must neades be Rutupinum. The mayne, strong, and famose castel of Dovar stondeth on the toppe of a hille almost a quarter of a myle of fro the towne on the lyft side, and withyn the castel is a chapel, yn the sides wherof appere sum greate Briton brykes. In the town was a great priory of Blake monkes, late suppressed. Ther is also an hospitalle cawlled the Meason Dew. On the toppe of the hye clive betwene the towne and the peere remayneth yet, abowt a flyte shot up ynto the land fro the very brymme of the se clyffe, a ruine of a towr, the which hath bene as a pharos or a mark to shyppes on the se; and therby was a place of Templarys. As concernyng the river of Dovar it hath no long cowrse from no spring or hedde notable that descendith to that botom. The principal hed, as they say, is at a place cawlled Ewwelle, [a] and that is not past a iii. or iiii. myles fro Dovar. Ther be springes of frech waters also at a place cawled Rivers. Ther is also a great spring at a place cawlled ... and that ones in a vi. or vii. yeres brasteth owt so abundantly, that a great part of the water cummeth into Dovar streme, but els yt renneth yn to the se bytwyxt Dovar and Folchestan, but nerer to Folchestan, that is to say withyn a ii. myles of yt. Surely the hedde standeth so that it might


[a] Temple Ewell.

PART VIII 51

Kent.

with no great cost be brought to run alway into Dovar streame.

S. Radegundis [a] standeth on the toppe of a hille iii. litle myles by west and sumwhat by sowth fro Dovar. There be white chanons, and the quier of the chyrche is large and fayr. The monastery ys at this tyme metely mayntayned, but yt appereth that yn tymes past the buildinges have bene ther more ample then they be now. There is on the hille fayre wood, but fresch water laketh sumtyme.

Lucanus libra 8.

Aut vaga cum Thetis, Rutupinaque littora fervent, Unda Caledonios fallit turbata Britannos.

Juvenalis Satyra 4.

Cedamus patria, vivat Arturius isthie, Et Catulus ...

Juvenalis Satyra 5.

Regem aliquem capies, aut de temone Britanno Excidet Arviragus.

Eadem Satyra.

... Rutupinove edita fundo Ostrea callebant primo deprendere morsu.

Lucanus libro 2.

Territa quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis.

Julius Caesar libro 5. de bello Gallico.

Ex his omnibus longe sunt humanissimi, qui Cantium incolunt.

xv. miles be water from Rochester to Quinborow [b] that


[a] St. Radigund Abbey.
[b] Queenborough.

52 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

stondit on the very west point of Shepey, and it is yn Shepey.

Thre miles up thens by an arme of the Tamise to Milton.

xv. miles fro Rochestre to the point agayn Quinborow entering into the mayne Tamise. And thens to Grevesend by water xx. miles.

Ingreyne Isle [a] cumpacid at the floode one paroche chirch. It liyth west on Quinborow, ripa citeriori to Quinborow.

One John Warner, a marchant of Rochester, made the new coping of Rochestre Bridg, and Bisshop Warham the yren barres.

v. miles to Ailesford by land from Rochestre.

vi. miles from Rochester to Alington.

Maideston.

Cantorbyri.

Gul Thorne.

Marianus Anno. D. 776. Dorobernia igne consumpta est.

Augustinus primam habuit habitationem Doroberni in loco qui appellatur Stablegate.

Ethelbertus dedit Augustino palatium suum intra muros ut ibidem Christo eccles. erigeret.

Fanum idolorum Ethelberti extra muros conversum in ecclesiolam S. Pancratii. Ethelbertus paulo post Petro et Paulo templum posuit.

E primo libro historiae Eadmeri patet Lanfrancum ecclesiam Christi cum officinis a Danis combustam restituisse, et praeterea in eadem urbe strenue aedificasse.

Loke for destruction of Cantorbyri in Rochester.

Simon Sudbyri restorid and set up againe a good peace of Canterbyri waulles, and if he livid lenger he had made up alle.

Raculfe alias Reculver. Gul. Thome. Brightwaldus abbas tempore Lotharii regis Raculfensis factus archiepiscopus Cantuar. Gervasius. Eadredus rex frater Edmundi Senioris dedit Raculf ecclesiae Christi.


[a] Isle of Grain.

PART VIII 53

Kent.

From Heron [a] that standith sumwhat pointing ynto the Kent. seward a sinus is to Reculver ward, and so up to Raculfe.

From Heron to Reculver is by the shore about a ii. myle non clivoso sed aperto littore.

From Reculver to Northmouthe the sinus continuith that beginneth from Heron, and thens to Gore ende it goith on again into a point of chalke clives.

Ecbrightus patruelis.

Domneva.

Gotcelinus.

Ecbertus rex dedit Domnevae in solatium fratrum suorum interemptorum (scilicet a Thunnor) Ethelredi et Etheberti apud Estrey octuag. aratijugera in Thanet.

Hengist and Hors had Thanet.

Eustachius le Moyne navarcha Franc, deduxit Ludovicum ad Thanet 600. navibus et 80. coggis.

S. Florentius jacet in cemiterio S. Mariae in Thanet.

Simeon Dunelmensis. Insula quae Saxonice dicitur Thenet, Britannice vocatur Inisruyn, peraventure Moilroyn of frequenting of selis.

Beda 25. cap. 1. libri. Thanatos insula 600. familiarurn, quam a continenti terra secernit flu. Wantsinu, [b] qui est latitudinis circiter trium stadiorum, et 2. tantum in locis est transmeabilis. Utrumque enim caput in mare protendit. In hac applicuit S. Augustinus cum sociis 40.

The Isle of Thanet, be likelihod Toliapis Ptolemaeo. Gul. Thorne. Dani tempore Cutheberti Cantuar. archiepiscopi singulis annis devastabant Thanet, et monachas de Minstre spoliabant.

Anno D. 1011. Suanus rex Danorum destruxit insulam Thanet et monaster. Domnenae funditus delevit.

Anno. D. 1027. Canutus rex dedit terras S. Mariae de Minstre monaster. Aug. Cantuar.

Alfredus Beverlacensis. Alcher comes cum Cantuariis et Wada cum Sudrois pugnavere in Thanat cum Danis, ubi Alcher et Wada occisi. Huntingdune libra quinto haec tribuit 18 anno AEtheluolphi.


[a] Herne.
[b] Wantsum r.

54 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

Richeburge. Gotcelinus adfirmat Augustinum venisse Richeburge ad Ethelbertum.

Scalae Chronicon. Eustache le Moyne, Admiral of France, was taken and behedid on the sandes by Huberte de Burgo constabul of Dovar Castelle with help of the v. portes. Eustache had a great navy, and Hubert had but 8. shipes.

Huntendun. libra 5. Anno 6. Edwardi 3. ante conquestum Lothen et Hirlinge principes Danorum depraedati sunt Sandwike.

Godewine Sandes. Hubert was made Erle of Kent, and chief Justice of England.

Huntingdun libro quinto. Athelstanus rex et dux Cant. Heather vicerunt Danos apud Sandwic navali praelio 16. Etheluuolphi regis West-Sax.

Portus Ritupis Anton. Rutupiae Ptolemaeo. Rutupinae Ammiano Marcellino.

Sandewiche. Ex donat. Ethelredi regis. An. 979. Ethelred dedit Sandwic et Estrey [a] eccles. Christi Cantuar. Gul. Malmesbiriensis cap. 55. Cnuto. Sandwicum appulit. Ibi humano et divino jure contempto obsides quos habebat, mag. nobilitatis et elegantiae pueros, manibus et auribus truncatos, quosdam eviravit. Sic in insontes grassatus patriam repetiit.

Gervasius. Cnuto dedit eccles. Christi portum de Sandwiche.

The Dele (and the Fosse).

Thomas Wikes Anno Dom. 1261. rex Henricus 3. recepit castellum de Dovar, quod Hugo Bigot occupaverat.

Ex Chronic. Tinemutensis Monaster. Franci Dovarum spoliant et incendunt, occiso sene monacho in prioratu.

Ex Supplement Histor. Gervasii. Ludovicus filius regis Franc, et ejus fautores obsidebant castr. de Dovar. et in fine confusus recessit.

Ptoleme speketh nothing of Dovar.

Dovar. Ex Chronicis Bibliothecae S. Petri de Cornehul


[a] Estree.

PART VIII 55

Kent.

Londini. Henricus rex filius Henr. 2. regis dedit totam Cantiam cum castellis de Dovar et Rochestre Philippo comiti Flandr. Leland. sed Philippus nunquam ea possedit.

Cantium promontorium Carion Diodoro Siculo libro 6. Bibliothecae.

Dovar with the Castel.

Ex Chronico Dovar monaster. Julius Caesar pugnavit cum Britannis et Cassivallano super Barendoune, ut patet per acervos, ubi corpora occisorum tumulata cumulatim non longe a villa de Bregge.

Arviragus rex finnavit castrum de Dovar contra Ro. et castrum de Richeburgh.

Lucius rex fecit ecclesiam in castro de Dovar.

Camera Guaenorae, Aula Arturii, et ossa Walwani interfectiper Mordredum sunt in castro de Dovar.

Eadbaldus Ethelberti mag. filius motore Laurentio archiepiscopo instituit canon, in eccles. castri de Dovar. Canonici remoti d castro in villam de Dovarprocurante Withredo rege, qui eccles. S. Martini in villa de Dovarpro eis construxit, ubi manserunt 400. annis et amplius. Henricus primus canon, colleg. in colleg. monachonim convertit novo in hos usus constructo monasterio.

Gul. Gemeticensis. Eustachius Boloniensis consilio quorundam Cantiorum transfretavit ut dolo castellum de Dover occuparet: sed milites Odonis Baiocani episcopi, et Hugo de Monte fortiprohibuerunt.

Folkestane. Her. Bradshaw. Eanswida filia Eadbaldi Folkestan. regis Cant, ex Emmafilia regis Franc.

Gervasius. Canutus villam de Folchestane Cantuariensi restituit ecclesiae cum appendiciis.

Sum say that the castelle of Rose in sum evidence is caullid Joseph's Castel.

Rose Castelle. Ex Chronico ecclesiae Christi Cantuar. Matildis, Henrici primi mater, restituit castellum de Rosa Cantuar. ecclesiae.

(Looke that this be not Chilham Castel that ons the Lorde Ros had.)

Chilham Castel is now almoste doune.

Saltwood. Ex Chronico eccles* Christi Cantaur. Halfden unus ex principibus Canuti dedit Saltwood eccles. Christi Cantuar.

56 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

Hithe.

Lyme.

Portus Lemanis [a] Antonino. Of this Haven Ptoleme makith no mention.

Portus. Limenarcha, the Lord Warden of the Portes.

S. Nerarius socius S. Augustini inventus estjuxta castrum Bellocariae.

Rumeney.

The name of the v. havens as they be now taken. Hastinges, Winchelsey, Rumeneye, Dovar, Sandwiche.

Appledour. Asserio Historicus. Exercitus Danorum apud Apuldran, et postea perrexit ad Scobrige et ripas Sabrinae. Hic exercitus veneraf ex orient, regno Francorum usque Bononiam, et inde anno D. 892. intravit 350. navibus in ostium Limenae flu. et non longe a flu. in loco qui Apuldran dicitur fecerunt castellum firmissimum.

Gervasius. Canutus dedit ecclesiae Christi Apuldour.

The Ryver of Limene. Asserio. Limene flu. currit de sylva mag. quae vocatur Andreadeswald.

Andredeswalde. Asserio. Sylva Andreadeswalde habet in longitudine ab oriente yn occidentem milliaria 120. et eo amplius, et in latitudine 30.

The Isle of Oxeney.

Remembre to conclude with promise to write a booke in Latine of the Kinges edifices, as Procopius did of Justinianes the Emperor.

The Vineyarde.

Beanflete. Ex historia Asserionis. Ethehed comes Merc. jussu Alfredi regis munitionem Danorum obsedit, fregit et innumera spolia ibidem accepit. Post autem Hastingus iterum veniens Beanfletam reparavit.

Hedelege. [b]


[a] Lympne.
[b] ? Hadlow,

PART VIII 57

Kent.

The commodites of Kent, as fertilite, wood, pasture, catel, fisch, foule, ryvers, havens with shippes emong the v. portes most famose, and royale castelles and tounes, and the faith of Christe there firste restorid.

Let this be the firste chapitre of the booke.

Caesar in 5. libro de bello Gallico praysith the humanite of the Kentisch men.

The King hymself was borne yn Kent.

Kent is the key of al Englande. (Key, i.e., quay.)

Gervasius monachus ecclesiae ChrisfI in sua historia. Cantiani primas ab antiquo obtinent in Anglicani exercitus expeditione.

Cowling.

Ptoleme makith no mention of Rochester, caulling it Durobrevum.

Rochester on Medewege Ryver. Roger Hovedene. Anno D. 884. Pagani obsederunt Rofecestre, sed resistentibus ambus Aluredus rex cum exercitu supervenit, et paganos ab obsidione ad naves compulit, relicta ibi arce quam exstruxerant ante portas urbis. Hovedene. Anno D. 946. Ethelredus civitatem Rofi obsedit, et visa capiendi difficultate iratus decessit et terras S. Andriae devastavit.

Hoveden. Anno D. 1006. classis Danorum Sandwicum subiit Cant. caede et incendio devastans. Hovedene. Anno D. 1011. Dani obsessam Cantuariam insidiis Edmeri archidiaconi capiunt igne et gladio omnia defoedantes decimatis toties monachis et capto Elphego archiepiscopo. Hovedune. Tempore Edmundi Irenside Danifugati ad Shepey, et inde ad Asshendun.

Ex historia addita Eulogio hisfor. Anno D. 1388. Robertus Knottys aedificavit et construifecitpontem Rofensem. Joannes Sever. Joannes rex cepit castrum Rofense, in quo Gul. de Albineto et alii barones. Ex Supplemento Histor. Gervasii. Anno D. 1264. Gilbertus de Clare tempore belli baron, obsedi una cum Joan, filio Joannis Rofam, et habuit cum eo

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Kent.

Joannem Hastinges, et Nicolaum Segrave. Rogerus Leyburn fuit capitalis constabularius castri pro Henr. 3. Joan, comes Waren, Joannes filius Alani comes Arundel, GuL de Breose. Leyburn ante feferat suburbium et bonam partem villae et prioratus comburi versus Cantuar. Simon de Monteforti ex altera parte apud Stroode bis repulsus fuit a civibus. Tertio tamen cum igne max. in navicula vi intravit in die Parasceues. Et cum castrum pene captum Simon consilio Londinensium Simon cum suis obsidionem reliquit. Pakington in his Frenche Chronike doth name Henry Dalemayn as one of the defenders of the Castel with Leyburne.

Cuningborow and Shepey, and Minster yn it. Also Grereney (alias Greyne) and Hertey. [a] Shepey by likelihod is caullid of Ptoleme Caunos.

Gotcelinus in vita S. Sexburgae. Schepey ab Occident, plaga Cantuar. sita 7. milliar. protrahit longit. 3. autem milliaribus in latum extenditur. Tamesia 2. flu. ex se divisa in oceanum porrigit, et eandem ins. hinc inde undis alluentibus cingit. Hic Sexburga monaster. condidit. Rogerus Hovedene. Anno D. 854. mag. paganorum exercitus hyetnavit in Shepege.

Ex chronico collegii regalis Oxonii. Anno 1364. Eduardus 3. castellum apud Shepey aedificavit de novo.

The Isle of Hemely [b] lying betuixt Shepeye and the mayne lande of Kente from above Kinge's Feri toward the shore of the arme up towards Feversham.

2. Ferys in to Shepey, one for them that cum from London to Sidenbourne, [d] and this is aboute a mile from Milton upwarde; the other is ...

Midleton (Mylton), Thong and Faversham. Gotcelinus Monachus in vita Sexburgae filiae Annae regis. A Cant, meditullio Midleton sortitur vocabulum, ad cujus eccles.portum


[a] Isle of Harty.
[b] Elmley Is.
[c] Faversham.
[d] Sittingbourne.

PART VIII 59

Kent.

confugit. Asserio. Anno D. 892. Hastengus ventit cum 80. navibus in ostium Tamensis flu. fecitque sibi firmiss. oppidum apud Mideltunam in australi ripa Tamesis. Gervasius. Kenulphus rex dedit Wilfrido archiepiscopo Mylton Huntendune libro 6. Quidam vero milites Godwini comitis jam exulantis propter offensum Eduardum regem exeuntes Midleton villam regis combusserunt.

The town of Cantorbyri ys waulled, and hath v. gates thus named: Westgate, Northgate, Burgate, now cawlled Mihelsgate; S. Georges Gate, Riders Gate, the which John Broker, mayr of the town, did so diminisch that now cartes can not for lownes passe thorough yt. Worthegate, the which leadeth to a streate cawlled Stone Streat, and so to Billirica, now Curtopstreat. In the towne be xiiii. paroche chirches, and the cathedral chyrch of blak monkes. Withowt the walles be iii. paroche chyrches. The monastery of S. Augustine, blak monkes: S. Gregoryes, blak chanons: Monasterium S. Sepulchri, ubi olim Templarii, postea sacrae virgines. The hospital of S. John of men and women of the fundation of the bisshops of Canterbury. The hospital of S. Laurence for women alone, of the fundation of the abbates or S. Augustine. An hospital within the town on the Kinges bridge for poore pylgrems, and way faring men. Zenodochium pauperum sacerdotum. Zenodochiolum cog. Minorum intra muros fundatoribus urbanis. Coenobia fratrum intra urbemy videlicet Dominicanorum, Augustinensium, Franciscanorum.

Heron is a chapel to Reculver.

Reculver ii. myles and more be water, and a mile dim. by land, beyownd Heron, ys fro Canterbury v. goode myles, and stondeth withyn a quarter of a myle or litle more of the se syde. The towne at this tyme is but village lyke. Sumtyme wher as the paroche chyrch is now was a fayre and a greate abbay, and Brightwald archbisshop of Cant, was of that howse. The old building of the chirch of the abbay remayneth having ii. goodly spiring steples. Yn the enteryng of the quyer ys one of the fayrest, and the most auncyent crosse that ever I saw, a ix. footes, as I ges, yn highte. It standeth lyke a fayr columne. The base greate stone ys not

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Kent.

wrought. The second stone being rownd hath curiusly wrought and paynted the images of Christ, Peter, Paule, John and James, as I remember. Christ sayeth, ego sum Alpha et w. Peter sayith, Tu es Christusfilius del vivi. The saing of the other iii. wher painted majusculis literis Ro. but now obliterated. The second stone is of the Passion. The iii. conteineth the xii. Apostles. The iiii. hath the image of Christ hanging and fastened with iiii. nayles, and sub pedibus sustentaculum. The hiest part of the pyller hath the figure of a crosse. In the chirch is a very auncient boke of the Evangelyes in majusculis literis Ro. and yn the bordes therof ys a christal stone thus inscribid: CLAVDIA. ATEPICCVS. Yn the north side of the chirch is the figure of a bisshop paynted under an arch. In digging abowte the chyrch yard they find old bokels of girdels and ring. The hole precint of the monastery appereth by the old walle, and the vicarage was made of ruines of the monastery. Ther is a neglect chapel owt of the chyrch yard wher sum say was a paroch chirch or the abbay was suppressed and given to the bisshop of Cant. Ther hath bene much Remain mony fownd abowt Reculver.

Reculver is now scarce half a mile from the shore. But it is to be supposid that yn tymes paste the se cam hard to it. Gore ende a 2. mile from Northmouth, and at Gore ende is a litle straire f caullid Broode Staires to go doune the clive: and about this shore is good taking of mullettes. The great raguseis ly for defence of wind at Gore ende. And thens againe is another sinus on to the Foreland.

Morton pretending in wynning his marisches to make a new haven in Thenet.

Thanet is yn lenghthe fro Nordmuth [a] to Sandwich yn strayt yorney vii. miles and more, and in brede from the river of Sture, that goith not far from Mynstre [b] to Mergat, that is to say from sowth to north, a iiii. myles, and so is yn circuit by estimation a xvii. or xviii. myles. At Northmuth


[a] Northmouth or Genlade, the mouth of the old river Wantsum, near Reculver.
[b] Minster.

PART VIII 61

Kent.

where the entery of the se was, the salt water swellith yet up at a creeke a myle and more toward a place cawled Sarre, which was the commune fery when Thanet was fulle iled.

Margate is about a mile a this side the ponte of Sandwich haven.

Ther hath bene a xi. paroche chyrches in Thanet, of the which iii. be decayed, the residew remayne.

In the isle is very litle wodde.

Ther cum at certen tymes sum paroches owt of Thanat to Reculver a myle of as to ther mother chyrche.

Sum paroches of the isle at certen tymes cummeth to Minstre, being in the isle, as to theyr mother and principal chyrch.

Margate lyith in S. John's paroche yn Thanet a v. myles upward fro Reculver, and there is a village and a peere for shyppes, but now sore decayed.

Ramesgate a iiii. myles upward in Thanet, wher as is a smaul peere for shyppis.

The shore of the Isle of Thenet, and also the inward part is ful of good quarres of chalke.

Ratesburgh, otherwyse Richeboro, [a]

was or ever the ryver of Sture dyd turn his botom or old canale withyn the Isle of Thanet, and by lykelyhod the mayn se cam to the very foote of the castel. The mayn se ys now oft of yt a myle by reason of wose, that hath there swollen up. The site of the old town or castel ys wonderful fair apon an hille. The walles the wich remayn ther yet be in cumpase almost as much as the Tower of London. They have bene very hye, thykke, stronge and wel embateled. The mater of them is flynt, mervelus and long brykes both white and redde after the Britons fascion. The sement was made of se sand and smaul pible. Ther is a great lykelyhod that the goodly hil abowte the castel, and especially to Sandwich ward hath bene wel inhabited. Corne groweth on the hille


[a] Richborough Castle.

62 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

yn mervelus plenty, and yn going to plowgh ther hath owt of mynde fownd and now is mo antiquites of Romayne mony then yn any place els of England. Surely reason speketh that this should be Rutupinum. For byside that the name sumwhat toucheth, the very nere passage fro Cales clyves or Gales was to Ratesburgh, and now is to Sandwich, the which is abowt a myle of; though now Sandwich be not celebrated by cawse of Goodwine Sandes, and the decay of the haven. Ther is, a good flyte shot of fro Ratesburgh toward Sandwich, a great dike caste yn a rownd cumpas, as yt had bene for fens of menne of warre. The cumpace of the grownd withyn is not much above an acre, and yt is very holo by casting up the yerth. They cawle the place there Lytleborough. Withyn the castel is a lytle paroche chirch of S. Augustine, and an heremitage. I had antiquites of the heremite the which is an industrius man. Not far fro the heremitage is a cave wher men have sowt and digged for treasure. I saw yt by candel withyn, and there were conys. Yt was so straite that I had no mynd to crepe far yn. In the north side of the castel ys a hedde yn the walle, now sore defaced with wether. They cawle yt Quene Bertha Hedde. Nere to that place hard by the wal was a pot of Romayne mony fownd.

Tenterden

is a market towne of Kent on the hither side of the river that cummeth to Appledor, and ther the river parteth Sowthsex and Kent.

Cranbroke yn the myddes of the Weld of Kent.

Assheford x. myles fro Cranbroke and a xii. myles fro Cantorbiri.

Assheford is a market towne yn the side or the border of the Weld of Kent. Yt is in quantite as much agayne as Sitingburne, and there yn is a fayr college of prestes.

Moreton made a great peace of the palace at Lambehith. He made and translatid a great peace of the house at Maidestone. He buildid at Alington Parke. He made great building at Charing. He made almost the hole house at Forde. He buildid also at the palice at Cantorbyri.

Sussex.

To Robertesbridge, to Bodiham [a] Castel on the farther


[a] Bodiam.

PART VIII 63

Sussex.

ripe towarde Rhie. There is a bridge over, and the water is a little brakkische. To Bredebridge in Southsex, (where is a bridge, (and hither it flouith) and a village on the farther ripe. Mr. Oxeney dwellith thereby. There is a crosse in the midle of Bredbridg that devidith Kent from Southsax. To Newendene on the farther ripe a 4. or 5. miles, and there is a bridge. To Meteham wher is a 3. houses on the farther ripe, and there is no bridge but a fery. To Smalhed village ripa citeriori in Kent, and there is a fery into Oxeney isle. To Reding (in Kent) a membre of theparoche of our Lady Chirch of Ebney in Oxeney (in Soutsax), yet is this peace in ripa citeriori.

Kent.

To Oxney feri over from Kent to it, and on the farther ripe in Oxeney is a village. Yet parte of Oxeney in Kent, and part in Southsax. Sum say that it is or hath bene al in Southsax. Sum caulle it Forsworen Kent, by cause that were the inhabitantes of it were of Southsax they revoltid to have the privileges of Kent. To Appledour from Reding [a] 2. miles. From Appledour to the very mouth of the water wher it resortith to the blak shore and the Chaumber a v. miles. In Appledour is a fayre chirch, and Reding on Kent syde, and our Lady of Ebbeney yn Oxeney be members to it. The very mouth of the entery of Limene or Appuldour Water [b] is about a mile fro Rye toune upward to Kent by southeste.

Gates in Dovar sumtime to the se side.

Cumming first from the Castel Crossegate, Segate, Tinkeresgate, Bocherygate, Snoregate, Boldersgate to the Wikeward.

On the other side of the toun.

Cougate, Waullegate, to entre into Dovar camming from London.


[a] Reading.
[b] Now the Royal Military Canal.

64 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

Fines a French man was gardian or capitain of Dover in King John dayes, or ever Hubertus de Burgo had it.

The knight service of Castellegarde in Dover Castelle was institutid about King John's tyme.

Mr. Finche the knight hath a rolle of this gere.

Hubertus de Burgo the first founder of the old chirche of the Maeson Dieu in Dovor.

Henry the 3. founder of the new chirch.

The cliffes from Dover welle toward Folkestene be al of chalk, and after up to Limme Hil of stone that is very hard, and sum be of a depe blew colour.

Folchestan ys a v. miles fro Dover, and be al gesse stondeth very directly apon Boleyn. The Lord Clynton is lorde of the town of Folkestane. There cummeth to the towne a prety smawl ryvelet that riseth yn Folchstan parche, longing to the Lord Clynton, or not far beyownd yt. The towne shore be al lykelihod is mervelusly sore wasted with the violens of the se; yn so much that there they say that one paroche chyrch of our Lady, and a nother of S. Paule ys clene destroyed and etin by the se. Hard apon the shore ys t a place cawled the Castel Yarde, the which on the one side ys dyked, and ther yn be great mines of a solenne old nunnery, yn the walles wherof yn divers places apere great and long Briton brikes; and on the right hond of the quier a grave trunce of squared stone. The castel yard hath bene a place of great burial; yn so much as wher the se hath woren on the banke bones apere half stykyng owt. The paroch chyrch ys therby, made also of sum newer worke of an abbay. Ther is S. Eanswide buried, and a late therby was a visage of a priory. Toward a quarter of a myle owt of the town is a chapel of S. Botulfe on a likelyhod of farther building sumtyme. Yn the towne ther is a maire; and this Lord Clynton's grantfather had there of a poore man a boote almost ful of antiquites of pure gold and sylver.

A cony drawing his yerth betwyxt Folkestan and Hyve did cast up antique mony.

Hithe hath bene a very great towne yn lenght, and conteyned iiii. paroches that now be clene destroied, that is to say S. Nicolas paroche, our Lady paroch, S. Michael's

PART VIII 65

Kent.

paroche, and our Lady of Westhithe, the which is with yn lesse then half a rayle of Lymme Hille. And yt may be well supposed that after the haven of Lymme, and the great old town ther fayled, that Hithe strayte therby encresed and was yn price. Finally to cownt fro Westhyve to the place wher the substans of the towne ys now ys ii. good myles yn lenght, al along on the shore to the which the se cam ful sumtyme, but now by bankinge of woose and great casting up of shyngel the se ys sumtyme a quarter, sumtyme dim. a myle fro the old shore. In the tyme of King Edward the 2. there were burned by casuelte xviii. score howses and mo, and strayt folowed great pestilens, and thes ii. thinges minished the town. There remayne yet the ruines of the chyrches and chyrch yardes. It evidently apereth that wher the paroch chirch is now was sumtyme a fayr abbay. Yn the quire be fayre and many pylers of marble, and under the quier a very fair vaute, also a faire old dore of stone, by the which the religius folkes cam yn at mydnight. In the top of the chirch yard is a fayr spring, and therby ruines of howses of office of the abbey; and not far of was an hospital of a gentilman infected with lepre. The castel of Saltwood is not past halfe a myle of, and at this day Hithe is but a chapel perteining to Saltwood paroch. The havyn is a prety rode, and liith meatly strayt for passage owt of Boleyn. [a] Yt croketh yn so by the shore a long, and is so bakked fro the mayn se with casting of shinggil, that smaul shippes may cum up a larg myle toward Folkestan as yn a sure gut.

Lymme Hille or Lyme [b] was sumtyme a famose haven, and good for shyppes that myght cum to the foote of the hille. The old castel of Lyme longed to Richard Knight of Hyve [c] late decesid. The place ys yet cawled Shypwey [d] and Old Haven. Farther at this day the Lord of the v. Fortes kepeth his principal cowrt a lytle by est fro Lymmehil. Ther remayneth at this day the ruines of a stronge fortresse of the Britons hangging on the hil, and cummyng down to the very fote. The cumpase of the forteresse semeth to be a x. acres, and be lykelyhod yt had sum walle beside that strecchid up


[a] Boulogne in France.
[b] Lympne.
[c] Hythe.
[d] Shepway. Here was the old court of the Cinque Ports.

66 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

to the very top of the hille, wher now ys the paroch chirche and the archidiacon's howse of Canterbury. The old walles of the made of Britons brikes, very large and great flynt set togyther almost indissolubely with morters made of smaule pybble, The walles be very thikke, and yn the west end of the castel appereth the base of an old towre. Abowt this castel yn tyme of mind were fownd antiquites of mony of the Romaynes. Ther as the chirch is now was sumtyme withowt fayle an abbay. The graves yet appere yn the chirch, and of the lodging of the abbay be now converted ynto the archidiacon's howse, the wich ys made lyke a castelet embatelyd. Ther went fro Lymme to Canterbury a streate fayr paved, wherof at this day yt is cawled Stony Streat. [a] Yt is the straytest that ever I sawe, and toward Canterbury ward the pavement continually appereth a iiii. or v. myles. Ther cummeth at this day thorough Lymme castel a litle rylle, and other prety waters resort to the places abowt Lymmehil; but where the ryver Limene should be I can not tel, except yt should be that that cummeth above Appledor ... iii. ... myles of, and that ys cowrs ys now chaunged, and renneth a nerer way ynto the se by the encresing of Rumeney marsch that was sumtyme al se.

Bellirica, alias Belcaire, & Cowrt-up-strete.

Court-up-streate, [b] alias Billirica, longeth to one M. Coluyle knight.

Billirica is a bowte a myle fro Lymme Hille, and at this day yt is a membre of Lymme paroche. Howbeyt ther is a chaple for the howses ther that now remayne, and this is the chaple communely cawlled our Lady of Cowrt-up-streate, wher the nunne of Cantorbiry wrought al her fals miracles. Hard by this chapel apere the old ruines of a castelet, wherbi yt may be thowthe that the place and the towne ther was cawled Bellirica, as who should say yn Latyne Bellocastrum, and that the new name of Court-up-streate began by


[a] Stone Street.
[b] Court-at-Street.

PART VIII 67

Kent.

reason of the place, or court, that the lord of the soyle kept there. The commune voyce is ther that the town hath bene large, and they shoe now theyr signa praetoriana, that is to say a home garnished with brasse and a mace. But the likelyhod ys that they longed to Lymme, sumtyme a notable town and haven.

Rumeney a iiii. myles or more fro Lymmehil.

Rumeney is one of the v. portes, and hath bene a metely good haven, yn so much that withyn remembrance of men shyppes have cum hard up to the towne, and cast ancres yn one of the chyrch yardes. The se is now a ii. myles fro the towne, so sore therby now decayed that where ther wher iii. great paroches and chirches sumtyme is now scant one wel mayteined.

Rumeney marsch ys from Lymmehil upward a x. myles yn lenght, and where yt is most bowt a v. myles yn bredeth, and that as I suppose now is abowt the towne of Rumeney. The marsch of Rumney encresith dayly yn breede. But yt is not yn al places of lyke breede, for yn sum place yt is ii. myles, yn sum iii. myles, yn sum iiii. and v. myles over. It is a mervelus rank grownd for fedyng of catel, by the reason that the gresse groweth so plentefully apon the wose sumtyme cast up ther by the se.

The very towne of Rumeney, and a ii. myles abowt yt, was alway by lykelyhod dry land, and ons, as yt is supposed, the se cam abowte hyt, or at the lest abowt the greatest part of yt.

Lydde is countid as a parte of Rumeney, is a iii. myles beyond Rumeney town, and is a market. The town ys of a prety quantite, and the townesch men use botes to the se, the which at this tyme is a myle of. The hole town is conteyned yn one paroche, but that is very large. In the mydde way (or ther abowt) betwixt Rumney town and Lyd the marsch land beginneth to nesse and arme yn to the se, and contynueth a prety way beyond Lydde, and runnyng ynto a poynt yt standeth as an arme, a foreland, or a nesse.

Ther is a place beyond Lydde, wher as a great numbre of holme trees groueth apon a banke of baches throwen up by the se, and there they bat fowle, and kil many birdes.

68 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

Appledor (of sum is contid as a mernbre of Rumeney) ys yn Kent a market town, and hath a goodly chirch riding yn Kent, and our Lady of Ebny yn Oxeneye.

The fresch water, or ryver, that cummeth to Appledor risith abowt Bodiam yn the Welde of Sussex a vii. myles up yn to the land, and therby ys an old castel cawled Bodiam. From Bodiam to the paroch of Tenterden yn Kent a market towne, that is to sey bytwyxt the Isle Oxney and Tenterden paroch. Oxoney Isle is toward a x. myles yn cumpace, and ys cumpased abowt with salt water excepte where yt is devided by the fresch water fro the Continent. Fro Tenterden to Appeldor ii. good myles. Appledor stonddeth yn Kent in the west syde of Rumney marsch. Fro Appledor to the mayne se or pudle vi. myle.

Shepey.

Hertey.

Sitingburn, alias Sidingburne, is a prety thorowgh fare of one paroche, and by the chirch renneth a litle burne or rille, wherof peraventure the towne toke name. Yt is xii. myles fro Canterbury, vii. myles fro Faversham, viii. long myles fro Rochester.

Thong castel a long myle a side of Sitingburn was made, as sum say, of Hengist and the Saxons. The diches and ruines of this castel yet apere a ii. flyte shot fro the chirch of Thong.

Faversham is a market town franchised with a sanctuary, and hath a great abbey of blake monkes of the fundation of King Stephane. The towne is encluded yn one paroche, but that ys very large. Ther cummeth a creke to the towne that bereth vessels of xx. tunnes, and a myle fro thens north est is a great key cawled Thorn to disscharge bygge vessels. The creke is fedde with a bakke water that cummeth fro Ospring a thorowgh fare a myle and more of, wher was sumtyme a Meason de Dieu, that now longeth to S. John's yn Cambrige. Herteye joyning to Shepeye liyth agaynt Faversham

PART VIII 69

Kent.

and the Thorn. Witstaple [a] is upward ynto Kent a ii. myles, or more, beyond Feversham on the same shore a great fissher towne of one paroche longging to Playsze [b] college yn Essex, and yt stondeth on the se shore. Ther abowt they dragge for oysters. Heron [c] ys iii. myles fro thens wher men take good muscles cawled Stake Muscles. Yt stondeth dim. a myle fro the mayne shore, and ther is good pitching of nettes for mullettes.

(Stoone castle 3 miles a this sydd Gravesend, halfe a mile from the shore of Grenhith on the Thamise; this house longid a late to Champion an alderman.)

Cantorbiry for the most part of the towne stondeth on the farther side of the River of Sture, the which by a probable conjecture I suppose was cawlled in the Britans tyme Avona. For the Romayn cawlled Canterbury Duravennum, corruptely, for of Dor and Avona we shuld rather say Doravona, or Doravonum. The river yn one place runneth thorowgh the cite walle, the which is made there with ii. or iii. arches for the curse of the streme. Canterbury ys v myles fro the se flat north agaynst Heron. Lanfrance, and Sudbury, the which was hedded by Jakke Strawe, were great repayrers of the cite. Sudbury builded the west gate, and made new and repaired to gither fro thens to the north gate, and wolde have done lykewise abowt al the town yf he had lyved. The mayr of the town and the aldermen ons a yere cum solemply to his tumbe to pray for his sowle yn memory of his good deade. The most auncyent building of the towne appereth yn the castel, and at Ryders Gate, where appere long Briton brikes. Withowt the town at S. Pancrace's Chapel and at S. Martine's appere also Briton brikes.

Many yeres sins men soute for treasor at a place cauled


[a] Whitstable.
[b] Pleshey.
[c] Herne.

70 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

the Dungen, wher Barnhales house is now, and ther yn digging thei fownd a Corse closed yn leade.

Ther hath bene sum strong fortres by the castel, wher as now the eminent Dungen Hil risith.

The river of Canterbury, now cawled Sture, springeth at Kingges Snode, [a] the which standeth sowthe, and a lytle be west fro Canterbury, and ys distant of Cant, a xiiii. or xv. myles. Fro Kinges Snode to Assheford a market towne iii. myles of on the farther syde of Sture. Fro Assheford to Wye a market towne iiii. myles of on the farther side of Sture; to Chilham a villag iiii. myles; to Cantorbiry iii. myles; to Fordwic on the farther side wher as yet ys a poore mayr; to Sturemuthe [b] a faire village iiii. myles be water; to Richeboro on the farther side ii. myles or more; to Sandwic super, ripa a myle; and so withyn a dim. myle yn to the mayne se.

Cheyney the Lorde Warden hath now Chilham to hym and to his heires males of the Kinges gifte.

The water of Stur breketh a lytle above Cantorbiri into ii. armes, of the which one cummeth be west gate, and the other thorough the cyte under S. Thomas Hospitale, and meteth agayne yn one botom beneth the cyte a this side ... ford being half a ...

Ex veteri codice coenobii S. Salvatoris Cantuariae.

Hospitalia in Cantia: S. Gregorii, S. Laurentii, S. Jacobi, S. Nicolai, Thomae Dovor, S. Joannis in Blen Bakechild Roff.

Aquae dulces in Cantia: Medeway, Stura, Brooke, Drent, Aqua de Brigge, de Ospring, de Crey.

Aquae salsae: Tillebyri, Tremethe, Sesalter, as I gesse towarde Whitstaple, Serres.

Hospitalia in Southsaxia: S. Jacobi, Cicestre, leprosi.


[a] Snodland.
[b] Stourmouth,

PART VIII 71

Aquae dulces Southsax. Limene, Medewege, Ichene, Olne Kent, rue, aqua de Lewis, Apebroke.

Aquae salsae: Sirendea, aqua de Kneppe, aqua de Bradeham, Tarent Cire.

Hospitalia in Hamptonshire: Wintoniae S. Trinitatis, S. Joannis.

Aqua dulces: Ichene.

Hospitalia in Barkshire: S. Joannis Abindon, S. Joannis Walingford.

Aquae dulces in Dorsetshire: Sture, Frome.

Hospitalia in Somersetshire: Bradelege, S. Mar. Mag. leprosi.

Aquae dulces in Somersetshire: Pedret, Jenfle, Tau, Ile, Avene, Brin.

Aquae salsae in Devonshire: Fale, Mare, Taudre.

Aquae dulces Estsaxiae: Heagbridge, Hobredge, Stura dividit Essaxiam et Suthfoliciam.

Aquae salsae: Houlne.

Aquae dulces in Northfolk: Stokefery, Brundune.

Aquae dulces in Northamptonshir: Nene, Ise, Harpersbroke.

Hospitale S. Joannis de Northampton.

Hospitale de Bukingham S. Jo. Bapt.

Aquae dulces in Bukinghamshire: Lovent, Use.

In Glocestreshire aqua salsa, Southwik.

In Herfordshire, Temeth aqua dulcis.

Castellum Richardi in Herfordshire.

Aquae dulces in Shropshire: Tyrne, Melblodewel, Cunet.

Hospitalia in Shropshir: Berton, Salopsbyri, Bruges.

Aquae dulces in Chestreshire: Rille, Weyre.

Castella in Everwikshire: Selton, Fervelton, Cnaresburg.

Aqua dulcis in Yorkshir: Wenet, Wisca, Hiemwic.

Somerset.

The eldest manor place of the Paulettes in Somersetshire is now clene doune. But yet it berith the name of Paulette, and is a 3 miles from Bridge water.

Ther was one ... Denbaude in Somersetshire a knight of good estimation about Henry the V tyme, and this Denbaude gave this title in many of his writinges: Dominus de Poscuith in Guallia.

72 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Somerset.

One of the Paillettes marled the heire general of this Denbaude, and so was the Paulettes landes welle augmentid in Somersetshire. And Mr. Paulettes father that is now buildid stoutely at Henton in Somersetshire, the which longed in tyme paste to the Denbaudes.

Sanford Peverel in Devenshire cam to a bastard of the Peverels by sute to the King of alienation, and the bastarde after lakking issue the landes cam to the King by ordre of the law.

Paulet that is now bought Sandforde lordshipe of the Kynge.

Paullet hath a nother lordship hard joyning to Sandford caullid Hawberton, and is welle wooddid, but Shelford hath litle wood.

Mr. Paulet of Basing, now Lorde S. John, cummith oute of the house of Paulettes of Somersetshire: but this Paulettes father was in descent so many degrees in consanguinite from Paulet of Somersetshire, that he maried his sister; and Paulet of Basing maried likewise his. Paulet of Basing had issue by this woman. But Paulet of Somersetshire had none by his; but after marying a nother wife he had.

I think that Basing Castel was the Lorde S. John, and so descendid to Paulet.

Paulet of Somersetshire landes cummith thus togither by heyres generalles. By Boys cam Hawberton lordship. Boschus gave 3. okes yn his armes. Then did Arundel and Paulet devide a peace of landes of the Cantelupes. Then cam a peace of land by Rayne, and a nother be Beuchamp of the west countery, and after cam Henton Denbaudes lande.

Syr Giles Strangwais grandfather cam oute of the house of Strangways of Yorkshire, and servid the grandfather to the Lorde Marquis of Dorset that is now, and at that time lay at a place of his in ... shire caullid ...

Hooke Parke was of the division of this lande, and cam to the Lorde Brooke.

Humfrede Stafford of Hoke with the Silver Hand, that

PART VIII 73

Somerset.

maried the doughter and heire of Matraverse a knight, had 3. or 4. sunnes, wherof one was comes Devoniae a litle time, and died al without issue.

Humfrede with the Silver Hand had also a doughter caullid Alice by his wife Matravers heire. This Alice was maried first to Cheyni a knight, and had to doughters, Anne and Elisabeth, by hym. Anne was maried to Coleshil, and had no issue. Elisabet was maried to Willoughby Lorde Broke and? had issue Alice ... was ma ...

Eleanor a doughter by hym whom Stranguais ... maried, and so cam Humfre Staffordes landes to Willoughby and Stranguais.

The castel of Woddesford in Dorsetshire, standing a 3. or 4. miles lower then Dorcestre apon the ryver of Frome, was sumtyme longging to Guido Briente, and after to Stafford, and now to Stranguaise in partition.

Torre Brient in Devonshire was the Erle of Northumbrelandes, and boute of hym by Mr. Kitesun.

Coleshil landes be descendid to a gentilman of Devonshire.

Mr. Stranguaise told me that the Gurnays were lordes of the castel of Stoke [a] by yond Montegu, [b] and of Hamden hard by where the goodly quarre of stone is. The Duke of Southfolke is in possession by gifte of Northton lordship, wherof Hamden is parte.

I saw dyverse faire tumbes of noble men in the chirch hard by Stoke Castelle. Wherapon I now conject of very likelihod that there be buried the Gurnays. Mr. Strangways now a late began to builde richely at his commune dwelling house in Milbyri Parke, and caussid thre thoussand lode of fre-stone to be fetchid from Hamden quarre nyne myles of, thither. Milbyri cam to Stranguais by purchace.

In the ponde in Milbyri Parke risith an hedde of Ivel River.

The hedde of Shirburn Water riseth in Blakmore.


[a] Stoke sub Hamdon. See vol. i, 158, 159.
[b] Montacute.

74 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Somerset.

From water risith in a valley a 3. or 4. miles above Fromton.

There cummith also a streame to it out of the pond in Hoke Parke.

Devonshire.

Hemiok Castel [a] a 3. miles from Dunkeswelle. This castel is doune saving a 2. or 3. towers. It longid to the Bruers.

Much of the Lorde Souchis landes was gyven by Henry the vii. to these gentilmen: to Wiloughby Lord Brooke; to Dawbeney; to Lovele. To Salvage was also gyven a 300. markes by the yere.

Mountpensun [b] of Wileshire maried one of the Lord Zouchis Doughters that is now.

Fairfax of Yorkshire hathe the landes of the elder house of the Twaytes of Yorkshire.

Yong Gresseham of London maried the doughter and heire of the younger house of the Thwaites of Yorkshire.

As far as I can lerne the nobilest house of the Lucies were they of Cokermouth yn Cumbreland. And these Lucys were also lordes of Wresehil Castel about the mouth of Darwent Ryver yn Yorkshire.

Lucy of Kente that foundid Lesnes Abbay in Kent, and dwellid there, gyvyng much of his landes to it, and was there buryd; and also Catarine Lucy by likelihod his wife; cam oute of the house of Lucys of Cokermouth.

Lucy of Warwikeshire, that dwellith at Charcote by Avon, bytwixt Warwik and Stratford apon Avon, cam also owte of the house of Cokermouth.

Syr Edmunde Lucy that lately lyvid and dwellyd at ... yn Bedfordshire cam oute of the house of Lucy of Charcote.

There hath bene other Lucys, men of meane landes, that hath descendid oute of the aforesaide housis of Lucys,

Mr. Birkenheved told me that Redcastel was the very enheritance of the Twichetes, and that there is yet agentilman of that name yn those quarters that dwellith at Whitley Haulle in Chestre within a quarter of a mile of Button. So


[a] Hemyock or Hemmick.
[b] Montpeson or Mompesson,

PART VIII 75

that I think that the Lorde Audeley is one of the lordes of the libertes of Nantwiche by the name of Twichet by the enheritance of Twichet and not of Audeley.

There is a place in the towne of Wigan in Lancastreshire caullid shorteley Briket Haule for Birkenhed Haule. The landes of Brikenheved is cum a late to Tillesly by mariage of an heir generale.

Byrkenhed gave 3. bromes. Peraventure that the first of them made a gentilman was sum grome of a chambre.

Sum say that this house yn Wigan was the boldest house of gentilmen of that name.

Sum say that they cam of an auncienter house owte of the quarters of Kendale, for there yet be many of the Brikettes, but mene.

Pollard the Juge, father to Pollard the knight of Devonshire, cam as a younger brother out of the house of Pollard of ... in Devonshire, and had but a xx. markes of land by the yere: but he cam to 300. markes. The eldest house yet hath a 100. li. landes.

The house of Gower the poete, sumtyme chief juge of the commune place, yet remaynith at Stitenham yn Yorkshir, and diverse of them syns have beene knightes. Stitenham within a mile of Shirwood toun in the forest of Galtres. There be other of the Gowers there aboute, men of veri meane landes. There be also of the Gowers men of meane landes in Richemontshire.

There is also a gentilman of landes cawllid Gower in Wicestreshire.

Hereman, of Rendelesham, a man of meane landes, now hath smaul portions of landes thus descending to his aunceters by heires general from Payne: from Blakeshaul: from Naunton: from Rafe of Pevemarsch in Essax.

Naunton Haule in Rendelesham wher he dwellith was Naunton.

76 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Yorkshire.

Al the Rousis that be in Southfolk cum, as I can lerne, oute of the house of Rouse of Dinnington. Diverse of the Rouses of this eldest house ly in Dinington paroche chirche buried under flat stones. Antony Rouse, now the heire of Dinington Haule, hath much enlargid his possessions.

Oxfordshire.

Rainesford of Tew in Oxfordshire, a 3. miles from Cheping-Northton, cam owt of the house of Raynesfordes of Lancastre. Old Rainesforde of Tew now alive is the fourth in descent of these Rainesfordes. The first of them maried one of the 3. doughters of Wivelcote, alias Wilcote, a knight that was owner of the lordship of Tew, and dwellid in the maner place there, and is buried in a faire tumbe of marble in Tew Chirche; and yn the same chirch ly buried the 3. aunceters of old Rainesford now alive.

Old Rainesford that now livith hath a 60. pound land ther by yere. But his sunne hath purchacid a 50. It. more to it even there, and now is patrone of the chirch, wher afore it longid to Godestow.

One Aschefelde maried a nother of this Wivelcotes heires: And one of the descent of these Aschefeldes yet remainith in Oxfordeshire, and is a man of a 100. markes of landes by yere.

Raynesford of Estsax knight.

My Lorde Powis sayith that Hawise, wife to Chorleton Lorde of Powys, was the causer that the Gray Freres College in Shrobbesbyri, wher she lyith buried under a flate marble by Chorlestons tumbe, was buildid. And that she causid Chorleton to be buildid.

My Lorde of Powis told me also that one of the Chorletons was a man of a very great possessions, and that the landes of hym cam not to one, but were disparkelid by heyres generales, and that he descending of the Grays of the north had but a part of Chorletons landes of Powis: and that a peace by his saying cam to Tipetote and Dudeley.

The Lorde Powis grauntfather that is now, being in a contraversy for asawte made apon hym goyng to London by the Lorde Dudeley and by Dudeley Castelle, condescendid by entreaty that his sun and heire should mary the olde lorde of Dudeleis doughter, mother to the Lord Powis that is now,

PART VIII 77

Yorkshire.

Towten feld, where King Edwarde the 4. father was slayn, is a 3. miles from Shirburn yn Yorkshire, and thereby rennith Cokbek, and goith into Warfe ryver a this side Tadcastre. Yn Towten Feld self was a great multitude of men slayne and ther buried.

Mr. Hungate, Grauntfather of the Courte, gatherid a great number of the bones, and caussid them to be buried in Saxton chirch yarde.

Hungate Clerk of the Stable to the Quene is one of this Hungates younger sunnes that now dwellith at Saxton.

The Lorde Dacres slayne at Towten feld is buried in Saxton chirch yard, and hath a meane tumbe.

The Erle of Westmerland killid in the same feld is buried withyn Saxton chirch.

Saxton toune and lordship longgid to Mr. ... and there is his dwelling place.

Saxton is a mile and a half from Shirburne in Yorkshir.

There is a chapel or heremitage apon Towten feld in token of praier and memory of men slayne there.

Dawterey told me that there were 3. women, or sisters, that had division of the landes of the Honor of Peteworth: and that they were thus maried, to Percy, Dawterey and Aske. So that hereapon I gather that al these 3. cam owte of the north cuntre.

Aske of the north: Aske the traitor was a yongger brother of this house.

The first partition hath not continuid in al the aforesaide 3. names holy: but hath bene disperkelid.

Yet sum likelihod is that seing that so much remainid a late yn Percy hand that Dawterey and Aske had never like partes; and to have bene but as benefidarii to Percy.

78 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Sussex.

Percy, Dawtery and Aske gyve the mylle pykes, but with difference yn the felde.

Dikes, whos landes now be devolvid to Mr. Goring, and other gentilmen thereabout, were f benefidarii to the honor of Peteworth.

Dawtery the knight that dwellid in Hampton toune was brother to olde Mr. Dawtery, now living, of Petworth father. And this Dawtery of Hampton landes came al by purchase.

Lightster the Chefe Baron of the Escheker maried this Dawtery's wife, but he had a nother wif afore.

Goringe's father that now duellith at ... buildid that house. For he afore and his praedecessors dwellid at Baienet a mile or more of by Petworth ryver [a] side. And there yet appere the ruines of Dikes house that after descendid to the Goringes.

One Rivers was owner of Rivers Parke in the quarters by Petworth: but the maner place was sumwhat withoute the parke, as yet apperith, in the paroche of ... and yet the plot of the berith the name of Rivers chirch. One of the Rivers is buried yn that paroch.

Bolney a gentilman.

Arundel is a vii. mile from Petworth, and Chicestre a x.

Gloucestershire.

The elder house of the Tames is at Stowel by Northleche in Glouc. shire.

Mr. Horne of Oxfordshire dwelling by Langeley hath maried this Tame doughter and heir, and shal have by her a 80. li. lande by the yere.

Syr Edmunde Tame of Fairford up by Crekelade cam oute of the house of Tame of Stowel. Tame that is now at Fairford hath be maried a xii. yere, and hath no childe. Wherefore be likelihod Syr Humfre Stafford, sun to old Staford of Northamptonshire, is like to have the landes of Tame of Fairforde. For he maried his sister. And so the name of the Tames is like sore to decay.


[a] West Rother r.: Baienet unidentified, cf. p. 92.

PART VIII 79

Old Stafford of Northamptonshir, father to Syr Humfrey Stafford, was sunne to Stafford that bare such a route in Worcestershire in King Edward the 4. and Richard the 3. dayes; and at laste for fere of Henry the vn. flede to Cowle, [a] a certen obscure sanctuarie betwixt Oxford and Abingdon. This Staffordes landes were attaintid, and partely given away; but at the laste his heires found sum grace.

The eldest house of the Palmers of Warwikshire is at ... and the landes of it at this tyme is aboute a hunderith pound by the yere. The heire of this at this tyme dwellith in Herefordshire by reason of a wife that he maried. Palmer of Calays, one of the officers there, is brother to the aforesaid Palmer: and there is a nother brother of them, a very riche man, that dwellith at Kentischtoun [b] with out London.

Palmer of Lemington in the very egge of Glocetre a 3. miles from Rolleriche stones cummith oute of the aforesaid House of the Palmers of Warwikshire.

He began first with a very smaul portion of lande: and being a galant felow, and clothid yn migtie colowrs, got a riche widow in Lemington ton to wife, a 80. yeres or more hens; and sins there hath plantid themselfes, and buildid a faire house, and bought faire landes to it. He that now hath it maried one of the Gravilles dowghters of Milcot.

The veri auncient house of the Gravilles is at Draiton by Banbyri in Oxfordshire.

But there is an nother manor place of the chief stok of the Gravilles caullid Milcot yn Warwikshire, wher a late, as at a newer, fairer and more commodius house, theij usid to ly at.

Ther was one Thomas Gravile a knight, that about Edward the 4. tyme maried an heire of the Coukeseys, at whose desier he toke apon hym the name of Cowkesey. But this great land of Cowkeseys for lak of issue taried not in Gravilles name. I hard say that my lord of Norfolk hath


[a] Cowley.
[b] Kentish Town, North London.

80 LELAND'S ITINERARY

a peace of it. This Thomas was a ruffelar, and killid a bastard sunne, by force, of Stafford of Wicestreshir, for all the brag that Stafford bare in Wicestreshire.

There was a late a knight of this house of the Graviles that first was a marchaunt in Spaine, and that maried a riche wife in London: and bycause he could speke good Spainisch he was taken into the courte at the cumming yn of Ladi Catarine to mary Prince Arture; and after was officer of my Lady Marys Household yn the Marches of Wales when she was caullid Princes. He had sum lande, and that cam to a doughter, and now is sold, as I harde say.

He that is now the chief heir of the Gravilles hath a brother caullid Fulco Graville. He maried one of the doughters and heires of the Lord Brookes sun, but not be that wife that he got the doughters maried to the Lorde Montjoy and Mr. Paulett: and young Syr Francisce Dautery maried the other, but his wife a late died withoute issue, and so is al that faire land cum holy to Fulco Graville.

Fulco hath a brother that dwellid with my Lady Mary yn the Marchis of Wales.

The Lord Broke had 3. wives, and 2. of the first of them, as I hard, were heyres. This Lorde Broke had a sun an heire by one of his first wives; and this sunne had two doughters inheriters to their father. These doughters were maried to Fulco Gravile ... part of the Brookes landes conveid to the ...

Arden dwelling at ... by Alcestre in Wicestreshire is of a very auncient stok, and, as sum say, derivith his linage from Syr Gerarde of Arden that was yn Guy of Warwikes tyme.

Arden of the Courte is a yonger brother to Arden the heyre.

PART VIII 81

Oxfordshire.

Lapis limitaneus 4. provinciarum. There is a bigge stone a 3. miles west from Rolleriche stones; and standith yn a hethe, bering the name of Barton, a village therby longging to Mr. Palmer. This stone is a very marke or limes of Glocestre, Wicestre, Warwike and Oxfordeshires.

And Palmer's sun told me, that this stone of certente is the marke, and not Rolleriche stones.

The auncient house of the Ligans is at Mattesfeld in Lygan. Wicestreshire.

The heire of this Ligans now lyving maried one of the heires of Syr William Graville a juge and a man of law.

Vanpage of Wicestreshire maried a nother.

Wy of Glocestreshir maried the 3.

And these 3. doughters had yn division a 300. markes of landes.

Arle the faire house wh ...

Gloucestershire.

Godrike of Pyrtoun in Glocestreshire within 2 mile and a di. of Glocestre toune is of an auncient house, and hath at this tyme a 100. marke of land by yere.

Wyse.

Wy dwellith at Lipiate [a] beyond Cirencestre towarde Tetbyri.

Whiteney a gentilman of a 300. markes landes by the yere dwellith at Lecumbe in Glocestreshir a litle from Stow yn the Wold.

There is in those quarters a village caullid Wynderusch [b]: and so is the ryver of Whiteney [c] communely caullid.

Hunkes a gentilman of faire landes but partely by purchace.

Dorset.

Syr John Horesey of Dorsetshire hath almoste as much lande by thenheritaunce of his mother as he hath by his father.

The house that his father lay at as in his owne inheritance is caullid Clifton, and is in Dorsetshire 2. miles from


[a] Lipyeate.
[b] Windrush, and r.
[c] Witney.

82 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Shirburne. Syr John Horesey mother was doughter and heire to one Turgese; whose maner place and landes lay at ... betuixt Milton and Ceren, [a] alias Cernele.

Sussex.

The auncientest house of the Sachevilles that now livith is at Bukhurste yn Southesax by the Forest of Waterdoun, a 2. or 3. miles from Rotherfeld also in Southsax. This Sacheville is a man of a 300. It. land by the yere.

Sacheville of Bedforde that was grome-porter cam out of this house.

And so did Sacheville of Blechingle [b] in the quarters by Rigate, a man now of a 40. markes of landes by the yere. Also out of the house of Bukhurst descend the Sachevilles of Calays.

Quinborow is without doubte in Shepey.

Capelande [c] parte of Cumbrelande, may be elegantly caullid Cephalenia.

The wodde or forest in Staffordshire communely caullid Cank Wood yn olde writinges is caullid Cannok.

Herefordshire.

The eldest house of the Escuedamours [d] of Herefordeshire was at a place caullid Penchirche [e] in the egge of the dominion or countery caullid Ewis Harald. Skidmore of the court told me of these many of the howse of Penchirche. Jenkin was a stoute felow, and had al the rule of the countery there aboute. Jenkin had John to his sun and heire. John had James. James had Thomas, and Thomas had James, the which wastid parte of his landes. This James had 2. doughters, wherof one was maried into the name of one of the Escuedamors, that in longe tyme of descent had cum owt of the house of Penchirche.

There is yet one of the Escuedamors that hath a hunderith markes of land by the yere, and dwellith at ...

Escudamour of the courte cummith out of a yonger brother.

Clesby of Clesby in Richemontshire.


[a] Cerne.
[b] Bletchingley.
[c] Copeland, south west district.
[d] Scudamore, an ancient Herefordshire family.
[e] Penkridge.

PART VIII 83

Rafe the firste Erle of Stafforde maried ... doughter and heire, wherby he had that part of Clare the Erle of Glocestre landes that descendid to his wife one ... doughters of ...

Genealogia Strigulensium.

Monmouthshire.

Osbertus Dns de Toddenham (alias Tudenham) & Wolston.

Osbertus had William.

William had Richarde.

Richard had Walter Dm de Strogil alias Chepstow. And this Walter was founder of Tyntern Abbay by Wy River above Chepstow. This Water dyed Anno D. 1131.

Walter had Gilbert. This Gilbert was made Erle of Pembroke anno 4. Stephani.

Gilbert had Richard, communely caullid Strangboghe, alias Strangbow. Richard was also Erle of Pembroke, and I finde in olde writinges that he was also caullid Comes Striguliae: Andapon this I suppose that Gilbert his father and also Walter his grantfather had also the title of the Counte of Strogyl.

This Richard was a conqueror in Ireland and maried Eve doughter and heyre ...

This Richarde had no issue but a doughter caullid Isabel.

Isabel was maried to one William Dno de Hampstede.

William had but one sun caullid Ancelme, and Ancelme died without issue.

William de Hamstede had 4. doughters, whereof one was maried.

Thomas Brotherton had to wife one Margaret, a gentilwoman of Gascoyn, as I harde say.

Thomas had by Margaret a doughter only, caullid Margaret.

This doughter Margaret had to her first husband ... Erle of Pembroke; but she had no issue by hym.

This Margaret had by Segrave a knight her secunde husband a doughter caullid ...

This Margaret had by Syr Walter Maney her thirde husbonde

84 LELAND'S ITINERARY

a doughter caullid Anne marled to John Hastinges Erle of Penbroke.

Durham.

Mr. Doctor Bellazis tolde me that a dukke, markid after the fascion of dukkes of the bisshoprike of Duresme, was put in into one of the pooles caullid Hel Ketelles betwixt Darlington and Tese Bank, and after was found at ... bridge apon Tese therby, where Clervalx duellith; and that be it the people had a certein conjecture that there was specus subterr. betwixt thes ii. places.

Wales.

Salisbyri knight of Denbigh land told me that emong other thinges was a conestable of Dissart Castelle caullid Syr Robert Mounderlinge knight, a man of a great p ... there, and yn his Prince fa ... and of so valiaunt corage that ... there ordenid therby the ... a tylte for justes. And at this place yn a certen chalenge one Theodore, a gentilman of Wa ... did streeke out one of Mounderlinges yes: and after this Theodore cumming to the King of Englandes courte, and not thoroughly knowen, but seen to be a man of a right goodly stature, and be likelihod of strenkith: and to provoke him to? feates of armes they ... knowing that it was he that had streken owt Syr Robert Mounderlinges yee J brought the same Mounderling to chalenge hym at feates of armes; but when he saw Theodore he saide that he entendid that he should not strike out his other yee.

There is a castel in Wentllough caullid Castel Gough, longing to Vehan.

The elder house of the Morgans of South Wales is about the farther ripe of Elboith [a] ryver in Wentllugh, and is caullid Tredeger. It is nother castle nor pile, but a maner place, and is withyn a mile of Newport self.

Eboith ryver is bigger then Remny river that departith Wentllugh from Glamorganshire, and risith yn Hy Wentelande about the quarter of a hille there caullid Marter, and rennith by estimation a xx. miles yn lenght, and goith by it self ynto Severne se about a mile beyounde the mouthe of Wiske that cummith by Newporte.


[a] Ebbw r. As to Wentlugh, see " Leland in Wales," p. 12.

PART VIII 85

Morgan the knight of Low Wentlande dwelling at Pencoite a fair maner place a myle from Byst, alias Bisshopstoun, and 2. myles from the Severn sei. He is of a yongar brother's howse.

Surrey.

Kingeston apon Tamise. The olde monumentes of the toun of Kingeston be founde yn the declyuing doune from Come [a] parke toward the galoys; and there yn ploughyng and digging have very often beene founde fundation of waulles of houses, and diverse coynes of brasse, sylver and gold, with Romaine inscriptions, and paintid yerthen pottes; and yn one in the Cardinal Wolsey's tyme was found much Romayne mony of sylver, and plates of silver to coyne, and masses to bete into plates to coyne, and chaynes of sylver. And yn the old tyme the commune saying ys that the bridge, where the commune passage was over the Tamise at olde Kingston, was lower on the ryver then it is now. And when men began the new town yn the Saxons tymes they toke from ther very clive of Come parke side to builde on the Tamise side: and sette a new bridge hard by the same. The tounisch men of Kingston contend that wher their toun chirche is now was sumtyme an abbay. But I se no likelihod of it. For King Henry the second did appropriate their chirch as a paroche chirche, not as abbay, priory or celle, to Marten Abbay in Southerey. The tounisch men have certen knowlege of a few kinges crounid ther afore the Conqueste; and contende that 2. or 3. kinges were buried yn their paroche chirch; but they can not bring no profe nor likelihod of it. In the new toune by the Tamise side there is a house yet caullid the Bisshopes Haulle. But now it is turnid into a commune dwellinge house of a tounisch man. It was sumtyme the Bisshop of Winchester's house: and as far as I can conject sum bisshop, wery of it, did neglect this house, and began to build at Assher [b] nere the Tamise side 2. or 3. miles above Kingeston. Dyverse kinges have gyven great privileges to the town of Kingeston, as it is yn this tyme.


[a] Coombe hill.
[b] Esher.

86 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Surrey.

And Kingston is the beste market towne of all Southerey. Ther was and is a chapelle at Kingeston caullid Magdalenes, to the which is yoinid an hospitalle, wheryn was a master, 2. prestes, and certen poore men, and the maker of it was one Lofkin, mayre, as I hard, of London: and this man, as I harde, was borne in Kingston self, and dwellid in Tamise Streat about New Fisch Streate; and that he was founder of the college of the chirch of St. Michaelles by Crokid Lane. And, as I can gesse, this Lofkyn dwellid there in the house that Mr. Finkel dwellid yn, and was buried yn the body of S. Michael's chirch.

These 3. chapelles and hammes lying on the Tames side from Kingston toward London, that is Peter Ham, Richemont or Shene, and Kew, longe to Kingeston, and so up almost to Mortelake. And the privilege of Kingeston strechith upward almost to Cobham.

Yorkshire.

Knappey in Yorkshire now the chifest house of the Metecalfes was boute by one Thomas Metcalfe, sunne to James Metecalfe, of one of the Lordes Scropes of Bolton, and then it was a peace of ground of a iiii. poundes by the yere: and on it was but a cotage or litle better house, ontille this Thomas began ther to build, in the which building 2. toures be very fair, beside other logginges. Thomas had Jamis, and James had ... that now is heyre. The 3. firste were men of great age, and Thomas was yn those quarters a great officer, as steward, surveier or receyver of Richemont landes, wherby he waxid riche and able to builde and purchace. At this tyme many other smaul peaces of landes be adnexid to Knappey. And the uplandisch toune thereby caullid ... and other places there aboute be able to make a 300. men yn very knowen consanguinite of the Metecalfes.

Inon, corruptely caullid Baynon, and more corruptely Baynan, deryvith his house oute of a house in Canter Cely by Brekenok caullid ...

PART VIII 87

Yorkshire.

Now the beste of the Inons in landes dwellith at ... yn the forest of Dene, and is ruler of the forest of Dene under the King, but he descendith of a yongger brother of the house in Canter Cely: and Baynons grantfather that is now had landes by his wife that was heire to Walloun a gentilman of Herefordshire.

Wylliam Baynon dwelling at ... is of the elder brother of the house of Cantercely that now is clene out of his possession.

Essex.

One Robert Darcy clerke, as I hard, to a gentilman or lawier maried a riche marchauntes wife of Maldon that had parte of 3. or 4. shippes, and apon that purchasid landes.

Robert had Robert, and he was a knight.

Robert the knight had Thomas.

And he had Roger.

Roger had Syr Thomas Darcy that now lyvith.

The afore sayde Darcys ly buried at Maldon.

There is a nother house of the Darcys cummyng out of this at ... a ... miles beyond Maldon.

Kent.

The maner of Frogenhale, communely caullid Frogenolle, yoinith to the quarteres of Thong Castelle in Kent by Sidingburne, and is of a xlv. li. rent by yere. Of this very auncient house was a knight that did great feates in France, and is writen of.

Frogenhalle that is now was sunne to one of the Sainct Johns doughters the beste of that stokke: and this Sainct John of Bedforde, or Northamptonshir had vi. or vii. doughters that after were very welle maried. And Sainct John beyng deade the Duke of Somerset maried his wife, and begot only Margaret of her, that after was maried to Edmund Erle of Richemont father to King Henry the vii. And by this meanes were the S. Johns annexid by consanguinite to King Henry the vii. There was a nother of the Sainct Johns a blak and a big felow that died at Fonterabye in Spayne when the late Marquise of Dorset was there, and heire to this Sainct John was the yong Sainct John that maried Mr. Whetehilles doughter of the Marches of Calays. And this yong S. John is sun and heyre

88 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Kent.

to the doughtter and heyre of Sir John Eversby late knight of Suthsax.

This yong S. John's father caullid, as I remembre, Oliver, had gyven hym a peace of land by King Henry the vii. of the attaintid landes of the Erle of Lincoln caullid Sayes Crofte, [a] lying in the meades toward Grenewiche.

Mr. Sulmo hath welle the genealogy of S. John and Somersetes.

My lorde of Rutheland told me that about Henry the secondes tyme Ros maried the eldest of the 3. sisters of Espec, wherby Espec's landes cam partely to the Roses. Humfridus dux Glocestriae, comes Penbrochiae, et camerarius Angliae.

Ther cummith a preaty creke to Midleton [b] in Kent a ... miles from Sidingburne, and thither cum praty crayers and shippelettys.

At Bobbing a mile from Sidingborne is a fair maner, and a stronge dry place of flynte by it. This maner ons longid to the Molynes, then to the Salvages, and now to the Clifford. The elder brother of the Clifordes of Kent sold it to Syr Thomas Neville: and the yongger brother redemid it to hym and his heires. This elder Clifford hath yet a maner by Boxle in Kent caullid Sutton Valaunce [c] wher was a park.

Ther was a poore hospital a mile beyond Sidingburne caullid Pokeshaulle. King Henry the vii. gave it to Linche his phisisian, and Linche gave it to a sunne of his. I suppose that it is now quite doune.

Higheham [d] a poore priory of nunnes about a iiii. miles above Grevesende in Kent on the shore was suppressid by Fisshar Bisshop of Rochesters meanes, and given to S. John's College in Cantebridge. Sum say that King Stephan was founder of it, and that his systar was nunne ther.

Lincolnshire.

One Fleming a very riche man of the toune of Steneford in Lincolnshire was the first founder, as it is said, of the


[a] Manor of Sayes Court, or West Greenwich.
[b] Milton.
[c] Boxley, Sutton Valence.
[d] Higham.

PART VIII 89

Lincolnshire.

Augustine freres in Staunford in the west suburbe hard by Sainct Peter's gate. An archidiacon of Richemont was the performer of it.

Marke here that in this suburbe is a parcelle of grounde caullid Breede Croft, because that bakers sold there brede in that part of the suburbe; whither yet is recurse oute of Ruthelandshire; and ther their sessions be kept. So that the shire ground of Rutheland cummith to this suburbe of Staunford toune.

In the southe parte of Staunford tounne withyn the waulles and by the market place is an hospitale omnium Sanctorum, founded by one Broune of that toune, a marchant of a very wonderful richenesse, and he lyvid in hac aetate. So that sum men be alyve that have scene hym.

As much privilege is given to the toune of Staunford, saving privilege for treason, as hath be geven to any toune lightely in England.

The northen men in one of the iii. firste Kinge Edwardes dayes dyd ille rase the toune of Stanford, and brennid many writinges of their antiquites and privileges.

Albeniacus, Lord of Bever [a] Castel, that of surety standith in Leircestreshir in the vale of Bever, was Lorde of Uffington by Wiland ryver half a mile bynethe Standforde on the farther side of the ripe yn Lincolnshire, and there remainid greate tokens of a maner place embatelid of his; the which by the yere of Rutheland now lyving, and having it by Rosse heir generale, hath well bene repairid. And at such tyme as Albeneys lay communely at Uffington, one of them buildid Newsteede [b] a priory of chanons, and there was buried, as I hard, the 2, the 3, and the 4. of the Albeneys. This Newstede is withyn lesse then a mile beneth Stanford, but not hard apon the ryver. And bycause that a greate voice rennith that sumtyme readinges of liberalle sciences were at Staunford, the names of Peterborough Haulle, Semplingham and Vauldier yet remayn there as


[a] Belvoir.
[b] Newstead, Lincolnshire.

90 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Lincolnshire.

places for those houses of men of religion that sent their scholars thither to study: except a man wille say that these houses otherwise cumming to them kept theyr names.

There is a stone bridge a quarter of a mile beyond Staunforde towarde Newstede, and under it rennith a riveret caullid Wasche. [a] This water risith yn Leyrcestreshire, and cummith by Gritham [b] in Ruthelandshire, and by Master Harington's place caullid ... The hole course from the hedde of it a litle byneth Wasch Bridge where it goith into Welande River a litle beneth Staundford [c] toune is an xviii. or xx. miles.

The commune saying is there that Wasche and Wiland shaul droune al Holande.

There cummith many smale rilles into this river of Wasche. Wasche cummith by Casterton, sumtyme longging to the Lorde Husey... .

Rutland.

Chater ryver cummith into Weland about a 2. miles above Stanford in ripa super. It risith in Ruthelandshir or the egge of Leircestreshire a xvi. miles of by west, and cummith within a mile of Uppingham beying in Stanford of the hither ripe, and thens vi. miles to Okam a mile of on the farther ripe, and so to Ketton a v. miles in respect, being in Stanford on the hither ripe: and there is a stone bridge over Chater of a vi. arches of stone and half a mile lower in to Weland ryver.

There dwelle in Ketton 2. gentilmen of praty landes, Kingeston and ...

There be diverse springes conveyid yn leade to the Freres houses of Staunforde.

And one fair springe is conveiyd a quarter of a mile of ynto the hart of the toune: and that hath 2. or 3. castelles in the toun.

Mr. Garter contendith that Thomas Boyerton, sunne to Edward the first, maried a meane gentilwoman yn Fraunce at Burdeaux withoute his father's counsel, for his pleasure;


[a] Gwash r, [b] Greetham.
[c] Stamford.

PART VIII

and that he had but one doughter, and that she was maried to one Segrave: and that Segraves doughter was maried to Mowbray, and that Barkeley cam after to part land. But loke better for this.

Morgan tolde me that one of the laste Lorde Herebertes buildid al the beste logges of the castel of Ragelande.

After the dethe of Herebert Erle of Penbroke one Syr Walter Herebert was heyre in apparance, and he being in displeasure made his sister as heire to the lande: ande she was maried to Syr Charles Somerset.

There is a castel in Wentlough caullid Castelle goughe.

Yorkshire.

The landes of the Mallettes of Yorkshire by sales and heires generates be sore disparkelid, and of them ys now but one that hath landes, and it is but a xxx. li. by the yere.

His best house is at Normantoun, a 3. myle from Wakefeld yn Yorkshire, lower then Wakefeld but a mile from the hither ripe of Calder.

He hath lande also a 3. miles above Wakefeld toward the hither ripe of Calder yn the paroche of Altofte. Ther hath bene, as mines show, a maner place. It is now caullid Malleting for Malletes ...

Northants.

Syr Davy Philippes, that lyith buried in a paroche chirch by the bridge gate of Stanford on the Hille, had a praty manor place, as I hard, at Thorne a 2. or 3. miles from Stanford, and ther lay dyverse tymes with hym certen wardes and gentilmen longing to my Lady Margarete the kinges grandedame that now is.

The house of Coly Westeton, as sum say, was first begon by a gentilman that gave 3. sylver belles in a felde of sables to his armes, and that he was first a paroche clerk, as it is said, of Coly Weston self or thereaboute: and that the Lord Crumwelle augmentid it: and that the Lady Margaret, King Henry the vii. mother, augmentid it.

I hard that Edmunde of Langeley, King Edwardes sun,

92 LELAND'S ITINERARY

did great coste of Fodringey Castel, and that his sunne augmentid the college there begon by hym.

Sussex.

The market towne of Petteworth yn the Wald of Southsax is right welle encreasid syns the yerles of Northumbreland usid litle to ly there. For now the men there make good clothe.

The parsone of the toune hath muche pryvilege there, and concerning certen tenauntes that he hath there kepith his courte and leete.

One parson Acon buildid the spire of the faire steple there in the toune, and also made the fayre bridge of stone caullid Rotherbridge scant a mile from Peteworth apon the water [a] that cummith doune from Cowdrey.

Parson Edmundes of late dayes perceyving the great lak of water at Petworth caussid chiefly a great spring, the hedde wherof is about a mile from the toune, to be brought in lede to Petworth, parte of the water cumming to the manor place, part to the personage, the residew to ii. or iii. places yn the streate of the toune.

In the chyrche of Petworth ly buried sum of Percy's childern, but none of the lordes.

Ther lyith one Syr William Redmille a knight that dwellid, as I hard, in a log of the great parke there.

Ther lyith also one or ii. of the Scropes: and as I harde there be buried summe of the Scropes at Bosgrove Priory by Stalveacre a late the Lord Delawar house.

There be buried also yn Petworth Chyrch certein of the Dautereis, whos names in Latine there wryten de alta ripa.

The chefest house of these Dautereis is in Petworth paroche caullid the More, half a mile from Petworth toune. There is a nother house longing to them in Petworth by the chirch.

About a mile lower then Rother Bridge by Petworth apon the hither ripe appere vestigia and a mote of an auncient manor place caullid Baienet, wher, as I lernid, ons Dikes, a gentilman of fair landes, sumtime lay. On the farther side of the ripe is a waren of conys adjacent to it.


[a] West Rother r.

PART VIII 93

Sussex.

The Dykes landes by heyres generalles is devolvid now to Mr. Goring and to Mr. Deringe. Sum say that ther was a 3. sister that was maryed to Shirley (Coferer of the Kinges House), and that part came to the other ii. And as I remember Rivers Park thereby longgid to the Dikes.

At the mouth of Arundel streame [a] as apon the se lyith ii. tounelettes a 4. miles from Arundel. The hither is caullid Cudlo, and of it the haven is caullid Cudlo Haven. The farther is caullid Litle Hampton.

There is a faire wod longging to the bisshop of Cantorbyri, and a park, and an auncient place in it cawlyd Slindon J on the right hond in the way almoste betwixt Arundle and Chichester.

There is a tounelet a 2. or 3. miles lower then Chicester on the farther side of the creke, caullid Fischeburne, wherof of sum the haven is caullid Fischeburne Haven. And to this creke resortith the litle broke that cummith by Chichester.

Pers de Langetofte, chanon of Bridlington in Yorkshire, translatid into Frenche ryme Herebertus de Boseham booke of the lyfe of Thomas Beket.

Ex Chronico incerti Auctoris qui Epitomen Galfredi scripsit, et de Regibus Saxo: et Normannorum ad tempora Henrici.

Osmundus Epus Sarum, Cancellarius Regis.

Henricus 2. dictus Curtemantel. Nam iste primo transvexit curia mantella ab Andegavis in Angliam.

Edvardus 1i. de 2n. ux. genuit Thomam Dominum de Brotherton.

Joannes Holand, dux Excestriae, capitur a communitate apud Pritewelle in quodam molendino, et deductus ad castellum de Plasshey, et ibidem decollatur.

Ano. 9. Henrici 5. Edmundus Holland, comes Cant. factus Admirallus Angliae.


[a] Arun r.

94 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Henricus quintus natus apud Monemuth in Wallia 20. die Mart, in Festo S. Cutheberti.

A Frenche chronike from the tyme of Richard the firste to the tyme of Eduarde the firste in a bullatike or bastard Romaine hand.

Northumberland.

Ex historia incerti auctoris de paucis Northumbr. regibus et episcopis Transhumbranis.

Ferunt quidam S. regem Oswinum natum in quodam castro Burgh antiquitus nuncupate, cujus fundamentapro parte adhuc manent ex australi parte aquae de Tina prope Southesheles [a] in territorio quod nuncest Prioris Dunelmi. Ecfridus rex Northumbr. anno D. 785. dedit Cuthberto episcopo villam de Creke et tria in circuitu ejus milliaria.

Synodus a Theodora Arch, celebrata apud Twiford juxta Alne flu.

Ex tabula Donationis Ecfridi regis Cuthberto 15. anno ejus regni.

Pro salute animae meae et successorum meorum donavi civitatem quae vocatur Lugubalia, et in circuitu ejus quindecim milliaria.

Ecfridus rex occisus a Pictis apud Nectansmere, sepultus est in Hi insula Columbae.

Eadfridus episcopus Lindisfarnensis fervens amore praedecessoris sui Cuthberti oratorium in suae anachoreticae conversationis insula, jam vetustate dissolutum, a fundamentis restauravit, Felgildo tune ibidem in vita solitaria post Ethelwoldum conversante.

Ethelwoldus primo presbyter in Ripun.

Ethelwoldus 12. annis vixit in Fame insula, ibidem obiit, at sepultus in Lindisfarne juxta praedictorum episcoporum corpora.

Ethelwoldus abbas Mailrosensis, etolim Cuthberti minister, successit Eadfrido in episcopatu Lindisfarnensi. Hic Ethelwoldus fecerat crucem artifici opere expoliri, etin suimemoriam suum in eo nomen exarare: cujus summitatem multo post


[a] South Shields.

PART VIII 95

Northumberland.

tempore, dum ipsam ecclesiam Lindisfarnensem pagani devastarent, fregerunt; sed post artificis ingenio reliquae parti infuso plumbo ipsa fractura est adjuncta, semperque deinceps cum corpore S. Cuthberti crux ipsa circumferri solebat. Quae etiam usque hodie in Dunelmensis ecclesiae cimiterio stans sublimis utrorumque pontificum intuentibus exhibet monimentum.

Ceolwulphus intravit Lindisfarne coenobium, S. Cuthberto secum conferens thesauros regios et terras, id est, Brigesne et Werceword cum suis appendiciis, simul et ecclesiam quam ibidem aedificaveraf: alias quoque 4. villas, Wudecestre, Hwitingham, Eadulfingham, et Egivulfingham. Hi sunt termini praedictae donationis, ab aqua quae vocatur Luia usque ad Cocwnda, et inde usque ad civitatem quae vocatur Brincewelle, et a Cocwnda usque ad Hafodscelfe versus orientem, et ab Alna usque ad dimidiam viam inter Cocwnda et Alna.

Corpus Ceolwulphi regis translatum a Lindisfarnensi ecclesia ad Norham per Ecfridum, ejusdem loci antistitem. Post multos autem annos caput ejus Dunelmum translatum est.

Ex Annalibus incerti auctoris.

Wilhelmus comes Waren obiit 5. Idus Maii, Anno D. 1138. Anno Di 1145. Ebrardus episcopus a Norwico Fontenei Norfolk. recessit, et ibidem vitam finivit.

Gul. de Rale ex episcopo Norwic. consecratus in episcopum Winton.

Anno Di 1258. Fratres Minores occupaverunt locum in villa S. Edmundi contra libertates et privilegia ejusdem ecclesiae.

Anno D. 1263. Fratres Minores expulsi sunt de villa S. Edmundi, et datur eis locus extra quatuor cnices: et monachi domum eorum fregerunt et deleverunt.

Anno Di 1269. Di Simon de Milham abbas de Langeley obiit. Successit Richerus de Massingham quintus abbas illius loci.

Philip Tilney of Northfolk had much of the Thorps landes, and emong other was the goodly maner of Aschewelle Thorp by Wyndam [a] in Northfolk.


[a] Wymondham.

96 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Norfolk.

He had also Thetford in the Isle of Ely, the wich I think was Thorpes land also.

There were 2. brethern of the Thorps, one, as I hard, Cancellar of England, and the other chefe juge. Philip had iii. sunnes, Frederik, Robert and Hughe, and xii. doughters.

He lefte to Frederik 700. markes by the yere of landes.

And Philip or he died was prist and prebendari of Lincolne, and is buried in the minster of Lincoln afore the west dore of the chirch.

Massingham in Northfolk longid to Philip Tilney, and he had much lande in Lincolnshire. Wherapon I gesse that partely the Tilneys name rose in Lincolnshire.

Mr. Framelingham that a late maried Sir Philip Tilney's wife told me that the Tilneis had a house hard by Boston toun, and that one of the Tilneys lyith in Boston chirch by the stepille, and that he was a greate maker of the stepil.

Frederik had only a doughter, the which was maried to the Lorde Barnes, father to the laste Lord Barnes. So that the last Lorde Barnes was her sunne and heyre of the Tylneis landes.

Thomas Duke of Northfolk after the death of the old lorde Barnes maried her, and had his 3. notable sunnes by her.

The laste lorde Barnes solde almost the substance of al his landes.

Knevet the servient porter to the King maried the Lorde Barnes doughter, and thereby he had sum landes, and also his childerne now have by the Lord Barnes, and chefely Asschewel Thorp by Windeham.

Robert secunde sunne to Philip Tilney had gyven hym by his father a hunderith poundes by yere of lande in Cambridgeshire, and there Robertes heir yet duellith.

Hugh the third sun had a hunderith pound lande at Boston and in the partes of Lincolnshire. Sir Philip Tilney of Southfolk was sun to hym, and the Duches of Northfolk his doughter.

The old Philip also bestowid his xii. doughters so welle

PART VIII 97

that the lest of them was maried to a man of xl. pound landes.

The greate graunt-father of Alington now in Cambridgshire was the firste of that name that enhabitid there.

Derbyshire.

Olde Thomas of Darby, as Mr. Haul told me, was the 3. of the Standeleys that had the name of a lorde. This Thomas was after made Erle of Darby.

Sum say that Thomas was first of the Standeley that was made lorde and after erle.

Much of the Standeleys landes cam by Latham of Latham afore that Thomas was made erle. The attaintid landes of Pilkington, Broughton and Wotton were after gyven hym.

And Standeley Lord Montegle hath the Lord Harington's landes.

Sum say that there is a manor place in Glocestreshire lately caullid Tresham Haule, or a like name, and that by likelyhod that should be the auncientest house of the Treshams.

Northants.

At this tyme ther be 2. houses of the Treshams in Northamptonshire. The elder brothers house is now communely at Ruschton by Catering. [a] But he caullith hymself communely Tresham of Leveden a 2. myles from Undale [b] in Northamptonshire, where yet standithe parte of auncient maner place and godely medows about it; and there hath Tresham a 300. markes by the yere. This Tresham hath also a manor and place at Siwel [c] a 3. or 4. milys from Northampton by north.

In tymes paste one Willyam Tresham, owner of these landes, cumming from Northampton toward Siwelle, and saying his matens, was cruelly slayne by one Salisbyri and Glin of Wales, servantes to the Lorde Gray of Ruthyne, with their route. This William had a route of servantes cumming by chaunce half a myle behynd him, and they hering the scry cam and cut of eche end of the spere yn hym, bringging hym bak to Northampton, where after the truncheon was pullid out he dyed.

Tresham of Neuton 2. miles from Ruschton cummith of a yongger brother caullid Henry, that maryid Mulshos heir.


[a] Rushton near Kettering.
[b] Oundle.
[c] Sywell.

98 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northants.

This Henry was graunt-father or great-graunt-father to Tresham of Neuton now alyve, and to Doctor Tresham of Oxford. Tresham of Newtons landes ys about a 100. poundes.

Herts.

Firste S. Alban's (Redburne) water [a] cummithe downe. Then cummith Colney [b] streame, and these mete a 3. miles Colun above the More Place on the farther ripe caullid Mereden, and there both waters be but smaul, but Sainct Alban's water is the bigger. And a mile beneth Mereden is Watforde, a praty thorough fare on the farther ripe of the hole arme after the confluence.

Then cummeth Hempstede water [c] doune into the More streame a quarter of a mile or more a this side Rikemansworth. Bercamstede broke [d] metith with Hempstede water at Tway waters mille. Hempstede is a ix. milys from the More by northe: and a 3. miles above that at greate Gatesdene [e] by northe is the hedde of this streame. And yn Richemansworth self is a division of the great streame cumming to his course agayne. Lowde water [f] cummith into the great streame of More water a flite shot lower on the farther ripe then Gatesden water or ever the great cum to Richemansworthe.

Richemansworth is no market toun, but it is in Hertfordeshire. The More is also in Hertfordshire.

Then cummith in Hamersham water a this side Uxbridge.

Hamersham water [g] is communely taken for the limes betwixt Hertford and Bukinghamshires.

Hamersham [h] a market in Bukinghamshir.

Peter Delamar, a man of about a xii. c. markes of lande by the yere, dyed without issue male in Edwarde the 3. dayes: but he had 3. doughters maryed to these gentilmen; S. John, S. Amande, and William de la Roche, the which 3. devidid the landes of Delamare. The castelle of Nunny [i] Delamar in Somersetshire, and the lordship of Fischarton yn Wyleshire cam to S. John in partition.


[a] More, or Ver r.
[b] Coln r.
[c] Gade r.
[d] Bulbourne r.
[e] Gaddesden.
[f] Chess r.
[g] Misbourne r.
[h] Amersham.
[i] Nunney.

PART VIII 99

S. Amande had ...

William de la Roche had ...

But Mr. Bainton told me that there were but 2. that devidid Delamares landes. And that S. Amand had by heire general of Gul. de la Roche such landes as the said Roche had by Delamare: and that lande is now cum to Mr. Bainton.

Syr Edward Baynton's father had to wife the last Lord S. Amande sister and heire because he had no legitime childe.

There was a yonger brother of this house of the Delamares: he by praeferrement of mariage had about the tyme of Edwarde the 3. the doughtter and heyre of one Achard a man of faire landes in Barkeshire.

Berks.

The firste of the Achardes was praeferried to vii. lordshipes in Barkeshire by Henry the first gifte, wher of 2. of the principal were thus namid, Sparshold and Aldermanton.

At Sparshold lyith one of the Achards honorably byried in a chapel annexid hard to the side of the paroche chirche having a chauntery: and on eche side of hym lyith a wife of his. There is a commune saying that the one of them was a duches, and the other a countes. But this saying hath litle apparaunce of truthe.

Syr Thomas Delamare, Knight of the Sepulchre, the last of this house had a sun caullid John, and he diyng afore Thomas his father left 2. doughters: wherof one was maried to Humfre Foster, father to Syr Humfre that now lyvith: the other to Morton of Dorsetshir, kinesman to Cardinal Morton; but she had no childern, and so the landes of this Delamer cam totally to Foster.

Delamare dying withoute issue male lefte a doughter that was maried to ... Foster: and so v. of the vii. lordshipes of Acharde above spoken be yet in Sir Humfrede Foster's handes that now most duellith at Aldermanton.

The house of Syr Humfrede Foster in Barkeshire cam oute of the house of Fosters of Northumbreland, of whom one of late tyme was caullid Syr Thomas Foster, and was mareschal of Barwike.

100 LELAND'S ITINERARY

This youngger brother of the Fosters of Northumbreland were first plantid in Edwarde the 3. tyme, and by his advauncement to faire landes in Somersetshire by the partes where a late the priory of Early was. And after one of the Fosters for a notable murder doone cam to sanctuary, and thens fledde beyond the se: and leving doughters byhinde hym part of his landes confiscate was gyven to them that maried his doughters. (One of the Wadhams maried one of these doughters.) And after that Foster had his pardon, and gatherid sum landes again in Somersetshir that yet remayne to Sir Humfrey Foster.

Hants.

Then Popham a gentilman of very faire landes in Southamptonshir dyid withoute issue male aboute Henry the vi. dayes: and leving iiii. doughters they were thus maryed, to Foster, to Barentine, to Wadham, to Hamdene.

Humfrede Foster, grandfather to Syr Humfrey Foster now lyving, maried this Popham's doughter.

And I hard say that Wadham had not alonly equal parte in division of Popham's landes, but also bycause his wife was doughter to the second wife of Popham that was an inheritor he had also the hole lande that movid by his mother, beside the partion of the landes of Popham.

There be diverse lordshipes that bere the name of Popham.

And as I lernid Popham Dene 3. miles from Clarington, and 3. miles from Mottisham as in the midle way betwene, was sumtyme the chefe lordship or manor place of the Pophams.

Hangging Langforde in Wileshire was Popham's, and cam in partition to Fostar.

There was one of the Pophams that had this stile by offices: Chauncelar of Normandy, Capitaine of Vernoile, [a] of Perche, of Susan [b] and Bayon: Tresorer of the Kinges Housold [c]. He lyith at the Charter House chirch in London.

The firste nobilitating of the Pophams, as it is saide, was by Matilde Emperes, doughter to Henry the firste, and by Henry the 2. her sunne.


[a] Verneuil.
[b] St. Susanne.
[c] Appointed 1437.

PART VIII 101

Loke for Popham's epitaph yn versis in a table.

Loke apon Popham's image over the south dore of S. Sepulchres chirch at London. He buildid a peace of the chirch. Popham left very great treasor in straunge coynes.

Oxfordshire.

Popham gave the bukkes hed in cognisauns.

The faire lordeship of Harpeden and fair auncient and large manor place with dobil courtes standing in Oxfordshir within half a mile of Henle apon Tamise longgid to the Harpedenes gentilmen of fame, and cam to the Foster of Barkeshire.

Syr Humfre Foster's father had 21 childerne.

Suffolk.

One Henry Framelingham, communely caullid by office Henry Surveyar, was a stout felow and had faire lande in and about Framelingham toune.

And after cam one Jenkin Framelingham, and purchacid a faire lordship and manor place about Debenham market a mile from Some [a] in Southfolk. This maner place stondith on a praty hille and a wood aboute it a litle withoute Debenham market toune, and is caullid Crowis Haulle. [b] For one Crow a gentilman was owner of it, or ever Jenkin Framelingham bought it. This Jenkin lyith yn Debenham chirche: and sins the Framelinghams hath bene lordes of the toune of Debenham. The Framelinghams of late exchaungid with the lordes of Northfolk and Wingefeld for their landes in Framelingham self, and in sum other partes very nere to it.

Ther be no mo of the Framelinghams that be men of landes there but the onely Framelingham of Debenham. Framelingham servient at armes is ...

Ex libra Donationum Monaster. de Kingeswod.

Gloucestershire.

Gul. de Barkeley dedit Abbatiae de Tinterne Kinggeswood ad fundandam ibi Abbatiam.

Illi de Kingeswood emerunt Haseldene a Dno de S. Joanne, cui rex hanc terram tempore hostilitatis nam erat Reginalds de S. Walerico.


[a] Soham.
[b] Crow's Hall.

102 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

Reginaldus de S. Walerico suis restitutus terris abegit monachos de Haseldene. Postea autem recepit eos, et pars major conventus de Kinggeswood translata est ad Haselden.

Postea propter aquae penuriam Reg. de S. Walerico transtulit eos ab Haselden ad Tettebyri.

Rogerus Barkeley filius Gul. Berkeley conabatur aut reducere monachos de Tettebyri ad Kingeswood, aut Kingeswood eis auferre tanquam suum fundum.

Barnardus de S. Walerico fundator ecclesiae de Tettebyri emit Mireford prope Kingeswod a Rogero Barkeley, et eo quia Tettebyri ligni copia carebat, monachos transtulit.

Reg. Berkeley dedit manerium suum de Acholte monaster. S. Mariae de Kingeswod.

Henricus Lovel testis.

Robertus de Berkeley filius Roberti de Berkeley.

Philippus et Olivarius fratres Roberti junioris.

Testis Rogerus Comes Herford.

Hawisia uxor Dni de Veel.

Nicolaus Kingeston miles.

Charta Matildis de Veel uxoris Gaufridi de Veel.

Robertus de Veel filius Gaufridi.

Gaufride de Wrokeshal miles.

Joannes Chansy miles.

Petrus de Veel miles.

Joannes de Welington miles.

Thomas de Veel miles filius Petri.

Gul. de Bradelega.

Hugo de Bradaelega.

Duddelegh pratum.

Manerium de Hakesbyri.

Manerium de Acholt, alias Kingeswood.

Thomas de S. Walerico Bernardifilius.

Robertus de la Mare.

Charta abbatis de Bitnesden de terra in villa Chirington.

PART VIII 103

Gloucestershire.

Joannes de Warimunde.

Isabella de Longo-campo, uxor Gaufredi de Longo-campo, filia Henricide Mineriis.

Reginaldus de Breuse.

Gul. Butevilayne.

Humfredus de Bohun comes Herford, et constabularius Angl.

Elizabeth de Gamages.

Walterus de Esselega.

Humfridus le Barre.

Humfredus Bohun comes Herford et Essex.

Gul. de Breuse.

Gul. de Breuse junior.

Richardus de Breuse filius Gul.

Petrus de Bruse filius Gul.

Aldulphus de Tettebyri.

Rogerus Hereuard.

Henricus le Moyne.

Richardus Passelew.

Joannes de Breuse.

Thomas de Planca.

Petrus de Iwelege.

Rogerus filius Philippi de Berkeley.

Robertus filius Nigelli.

Calicote villa.

Simon de Olpenne.

Henricus Berkeley Dns de Dursley.

Manasserus de Hastinges.

Delabere.

Robertus de Rochefort.

Genealogia Berchelegorum.

Hardingus ex regia prosapia regni Daciae oriundus fuit in tempore Gul. Conquestoris, et Bristolliam inhabitavit ao. Dni 1069. postea Dns de Berkeley.

Ano. D. 1135. tempore Stephani regis Robertus filius Hardingi genuit ex Eva sponsa sua quatuor filios, videlicet Mauritium de Barkeley, Robertum de Wer, Nicolaum de Tikenham, et Thomam archidiaconum Wigorniensem Ano. D. 1135.

Ano. D. 1148. 3. Idus Apr. die videlicet Paschae, fundatio

104 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

monaster. S. Augustini Brisloll, et congregatio fratrum ejus dem per Dnm Robertum filium Hardingi praedicti.

Ano. D. 1170. die S. Agathae virginis obiit Ds. Robertus filius Harding, miles, et canonicus, ac fundator monaster. S. Augustini Bristolliae.

Mauritius primogenitus Roberti filii Hardingi ex Alicia sponsa, filia Rogeri de Durslegh genuit Robertum, Thomam, et Mauritium.

Robertus primog. Mauritii habuit duas uxores, videlicet Luciam et Lucianam, et obiit sine herede de se exeunte, et sic descendit hereditas Thomae fratri suo.

Thomas accepit in ux. Isabellam consanguineam regis Joannis, et ex ea genuit Mauritium, Thomam et Robertum.

Iste rex Joannes habuit fratrem juniorem, scilicet Richardum comitem Cornubiae, regem Hierusalem ac regem Alemanniae, qui fuit pater Isabellae praedictae, qui fundavit 4. Abbatias, scilicet Ascheruge, Hailes, et 2. alias.

Mauritius primogenitus occisus erat apud Killingeworth.

Thomas frater ejus successit ei, et accepit in ux. Joannam filiam comitis de Ferreres, et genuit ex ea Mauritium, Thomam, Joannem et Jacobum.

Mauritius primogenitus Thomae accepit in ux.filiam Ivonis Dni. de la Zouche, et genuit ex ea Thomam, Mauritium, Joannem, Yvonem et Petrum.

Thomas primogenitus Mauritii accepit in ux. Margaretam, filiam Rogeri de Mortimer, comitis de la Marche, et genuit ex ea Mauritium, Thomam, et Robertum. Mortua vero Marga.

Thomas praedictus accepit in ux. Dominam quae quondam uxor Petri le Veel.

Mauritius de Berkeley primogenitus Thomae accepit in ux. Elizabeth, filiam Hugonis de Spenser, et genuit ex ea Thomam, Jacobum et Joannem. Obiit. 6. Idus Jun. ao. D. 1359.

Thomas primogenitus Mauritii accepit in ux. Margaretam, filiam Wareni le Lisle, et genuit ex ea filiam unam nomine Elisabeth, quam Richardus filius comitis de Warwik accepit in uxorem.

Jacobus filius Jacobi, filii Mauritii, successit Thomae, et

PART VIII 105

Gloucestershire.

accepit in uxorem Isabellam, filiam ducis Northfolciae, et habuit ex ea quatuorfilios, Gulielmum, Jacobum, Mauritium et Thomam.

Ano. D. 1347 die Martis 3. Cal. Jun. D. Thomas de Berkeley disponsavit dna. Catarinam, nuper consortem Di Petri le Veele, filiam Di Joannis de Clifdon apud Charfeld.

Ano. Dni. 1348. 7. die Jun. in Festo Tran. S. Wolstani episcopi natus est Thomas filius praedicti Di. Thomae ac Catarinae apud Berkeley, quem Wolstanus episcopus Wigorn. 4. a Nativitate die baptizavit.

Ano. D. 1349. 27. die Maii natus est Mauritius praedicti Thomae et Catarinae filius apud Berkeley.

An. D. 1350. 10. die mensis Julii natus est Edmundus ejusdem Thomae et Catarinae filius.

Ano. D. 1351. 21o. Januar. natus est Joannes praedicti Thomae et Catarinae filius apud Wotton Under Egge.

Ther was great harte burning betwixt the Lorde Berkeley and the Lorde Lisle for the maner of Wotton Under Egge, in so much that they pointid to fight, and meting yn a medow at a place caullid Nebley, [a] Berkeley's archers sodainly shotte sore, and the Lord Lisle lifteting up the visar of his helme was by an archer of the forest of Dene shotte in at the mouth and oute of the nek: and a few beside beyng slayn Lisle menne fled: and Berkeley with his menne straite spoilid the maner place of Wotton, and kepte the house. Berkeley favorid Henry the 6. parte. Lisle favorid Edwarde the 4.

Berkeley to wyn after Kinge Eduarde's good wylle promisid to make the Marquise of Dorset his heire: bat that succedid not.

Berkeley was ons a sure frende to King Richard the 3.

Thus partid Berkeley from his landes. First he was rather winkid at then forgyven of the death of the Lord Lisle. And he beyng withoute heires his brother solde and dyd bargen for his owne sunne, heire apparent to the landes. Wherapon Lord Berkeley in a rage made King Henry the 7. his heire for moste of his lands, and after was made a marquise, and lyeth buried in the Augustine Freres in London.


[a] Nibley.

106 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Wiltshire.

Ex libro quodam Edindonensis monasterii.

Quinto Non. Jul. primo jactatum fuit fundamentum domus sive monasterii de Edindone, ao. D. 1352.

Decimo sexto Cal. Octobr. fuit prima tonsura fratrum monasterii praedicti, ano. Di. 1358.

Ecclesia conventualis de Edyndon dedicata fuit a Roberto Weyvile episcopo Sarum in honore Jacobi Apostoli, S. Catarinae, et omnium Sanctorum ao. Di. 1361o.

Octavo Id. Octobr. Gul. de Edyndone Wintoniensis episcopus fundator monaster. praedicti obiit ao. D. 1366.

Inscript. portae de Thornbyri.

This gate was begon in the yere of our Lord God 1511. the 2. yere of the reigne of King Henry the 8. by me Edwarde Duke of Bukkingham, Erle of Hereford, Stafforde, and Northampton.

The Dukes Worde:

Dorene savant.

Ex Charta de limitibus Forestae de Blakemore in comitatu Dorsete.

Dorset.

Extendit se versus boream ad Westebridg pontem prope Shirburne: et ab eodem ponte versus occidentem et austrum ad villam de Yatminstre, et ab ea versus austrum ad villam de Evershitte, et ab ea versus orientem ad villam de Cerne, et ab ea versus orientem ad villam de Midleton, et ab ea versus boream ad villam de Stourminster Castelle, et ab ea versus occidentem ad villam de Caundelpurs, et ab ea usque ad villam de Heydon versus occidentem usque ad praedictum pontem de Weste-Bridge.

Henrici 2i. tempore foresta de Blakemore pro majori parte deforestata.

Sequenti tempore tota deforestata.

Perambulatio Forestae de Blakemore per hos Nobiles facta ao. Edwardi regis 28.

Gilbertus Knoille. Joannes Gilberte.

Humfredus de Walden. Joannes Mawba.

PART VIII 107

Dorset.

Feodati in Foresta:

Walterus de la Linde. Richardus le Gau. Richardus Brutte. Walterus Thornhull. Rogerus Plumber.

Ex libello de Inquisitione Forestae de Gillingham ao. 6. Edwardi Secundi.

Nomina nobilium juratorum. Richardus de Manneston. Jacobus de Trow. Ingelramus Waleys. Joannes de Perham. Gul. de Godemeston, milites. Walterus de Wilton. Rogerus Plumber. Gu. de Weston. Joannes de Fifflude. Mattheus Buffe. Gul. de Camera. Thomas de Haddon. Joannes Marcelle. Rogerus Aunketil. Gul.filius Pagani. Gul. de S. Quintino.

The foreste of Gillingham, as it is now, is a 4. miles in lenghth, and a mile or ther aboute yn bredthe.

Gilbertus Knoile dwellyd at Samford [a] village by Shirburne, and the name yet ther possessith the lande.

Gilbertes dwellyd by Camallate, [b] and yet doth.

Mawbankes dwellyd at Clifton 3. miles from Shirburne, wher now Syr John Horsey heire to them in descent dwellithe.

De la Linde dwellyd at Herteley 2. miles from Ceren [c] Abbay, and yet it is yn theyr name.

Richardus Brut dwellyd at Folke 2. miles from Shirburne, and yet do.

Thornehul dwellid at Thornehul yn Staplebridg, [d] and yet dothe.

Plumbers landes be cum unto the Bonehomes of Hasilbyri. They dwellyd at Plumbers in Lidlinche [e] a mile from Thorehul.

Manneston, alias Manston, dwellid at Manneston 2. miles byneth Stourminster on the lifte ripe of Stowre. Liate hath now that lande. It is almost a 100. li. by yere.

Westons dwellid at Westesun in the paroche of Staplebridge, and yet do.

Haddons dwellyd at Bisshops Caundel. Caines of Devonshire hath it.


[a] Sanford.
[b] Queen's Camel.
[c] Cerne Abbas, [d] Stalbridge.
[e] Lydlinch.

108 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Dorset.

Anketilles dwellid hard by Shaftesbyri under the hille. they possess it yet.

Antioche dwellyd or had lande yn Staple Bridge paroche: and there is Antioch Wood. His landes cam to Chidioke, and from hym onto greate Arundel of Cornehul and the Stourtons, lordes by partition.

Nobiles in Dorsetania tempore Henrici 2. regis Angl.

Humfredus Staford chevalier. Joannes Chidiok chevalier. Thomas Beauchamp chevalier. Joannes Latimer armiger. Radulphus Bussche armiger. Joannes Hering. Joannes Newburge. Joannes de la Linde.

Ex libello de feodis nobilium in Dorsetania.

Edward Broke. Thomas Carew. Guil. Bonville. More. Andrew Peverel. Stephane Popham. Walter Cheverel. John Roger. Jacobus Ormonde miles. Gul. Browning de Melbyri. Richard Lemington. Henry Percy. Tame. Filolle. Guil. Bowelle. Fitzhugh. Beynton. Camwelle. Hungreforde.

Chidiok dwellid by Byrporte [a] at Chidiok, [b] and there is a castelle or a fair house that from Chidiok cam to great Arundelle in partition. And the Chidiokes dwelt sumtyme at Cawndel. This maner place is now the Lorde Stourtons by partition of landes bytwixte Arundale and hym of Chidiokes heires.

Manneston and Melcombe 2. of the fairest lordes in Dorsetshir that hath beene yn meane mennes handes.

Melcombe [c] is aboute a hunderith li. by the yere. It is a 2. miles from Cerne. It was the olde inheritaunce of the Turgesis. The laste Turgese of Milcombe doughtter and heire was mother onto Syr John Horesey, and he hath it by her. There is an olde maner place of the Turgesis at Milcombe. This lordship was a 3. descentes in Turges name.


[a] Bridport.
[b] Chideock.
[c] Melcomb Horsey.

PART VIII 109

Dorset.

Bruning and Cerne wher the aunciente lordes of Melcombe. Bruning had a doughter and heire caullid Dionysia. Cerne having no issue sold his parte to Turgeis that maried Dionyse.

Akforde [a] Fitzpayne a goodly lordeship a 2. miles from Stourminstre, and a mile from Stoure ryver. There is a saying that one of the Fitzpaynes for a trespass committid loste it. Syns it cam to the Percys erles of Northumberland, of whom Kitsun the marchaunte bought it.

(The Lord Fitzpayne. Percy Erle of Northumbreland was heire to Fitzpayne. Kitsun boute of hym the chief landes of that name.)

Tarente [b] nunnery of late dayes stoode aboute Crayforde Bridge over Stoure ryver lower then Blanforde.

Versus Nechami Cirencestris ad Philippum Repingdunum Leircestr. Abbatem.

Phi nota foetoris, lippus malus omnibus horis: Phifoetor, lippus, totus malus ergo Philippus. Philippi responsio.

Es niger et nequam dictus cognomine Necham:

Nigrior esse potes, nequior esse nequis.

Milbyri water risith yn Milbyry [c] Parke much south 3. miles from Clifton Mr. Horeseys house, and a quarter of a mile from Clifton beneth it as the streame goyth down it cummith into Ivel [d] or Clifton water per sinistram ripam that cummith from Shirburne.

From Shirburne to Clifton 3. miles.

From Shirburne on Ivel 3. From Ivel onto Ilchester 3. good miles.

Bridges on Ivel [d] ryver.

Bradeford Bridge of stone a litle above Bradeforde about a mile from Clifton in the high-way to Shirbourne.


[a] Okeford.
[b] Tarrant Crawford.
[c] Melbury.
[d] Yeo r.

110 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Dorsetshire.

Ivel Bridge of 3. fair stone arches not far from Ivel [a] market. (Ivel Bridge the high-way from London to Excester.) Then Ilchester Bridge of stone.

Stofforde a stone bridge on Milbyri water aboute half a mile above the confluence of it withe Iveil.

Hampshire.

The toune self of Silchester withyn the shire of Hampton, and yn the very egge of it, as dividith the brooke, is a vi. miles or more from Radinge, [b] and conteynith 3. feeldes, beside the grounde about the manor place self and the chirche: so that the hole withyn the waulle conteynith a 80. acres. f There is one straung thing seen ther that in certen partes of the ground withyn the waulles the corne is mervelus faire to the yee, and ready to shew perfecture it decayith. The lordship yn hole with that that liyth withowt the waulles is a 37. li. by the yere. This lande after the Conquest cam to one Blueth: and then, one of the Bloethes levyng no sunnes, the lande not entaylid to the heyre generale cam by manage to one Peter de Cusance knight: and after to one Edmunde Baynard cummyng owt of the house of the Baynardes of Estsax whos name is now there obscurid.

The landes of the Baynardes of Estsax be now cum to heyres generates, and the name almost ...

The landes of the Bluethes entaylid to heyre male of that name yet remaynyng yn Devonshire ... Leccham longgid to Blueth ... arde as his principale how ...

There remainith yet the name of a manor place in Glocestershir caullid Felton, and the owner of it bare the same name and was a noble man of warre, and one of the band of Chaundoys. I think that this is the Felton that the French booke caullid Scala Chronicha spekith of whom a


[a] Yeovil.
[b] Reading.

PART VIII 111

lady, heyre to the Clares erles of Glocestre, toke to her secunde husband per amours.

Mr. Sulmo told me that Maccolm soundith in Latine filius Columbani; Columguile Columbani insula; Obrin filius Birini; Neele Nigellus.

Mr. John Pointz or Pontz told me that the hedde of Rigate (ryver) and Becheworth water is yn the forest of Worth. And that about Becheworth there is a confluentia by a nother ryveret.

Gloucestershire.

The first nobilitating of the Barkeleis of Heron was about the tyme of Henry the firste or secunde. And then bare they not the name of Barkeley, but Fitz Harding, wherof one namid Robert was a noble-man. And in processe the Fitzhardinges maried with the heyres generates of Barkeley of Douresley: [a] and so the name of Barkeleys was taken of them and continuid.

The name of Pointz, otherwise of sum written Pontz, is very auncient, and supposid to be one of them that cam yn with William Conqueror, or straite apon the Conqueste. The name of Pontz is spoken of emong the names of certen noble-men that denied in Edwarde the first dayes in open parlament the request of a bisshop of Rome, that saide that though the King wold they wold not graunt no such request.

The eldest of the Pontz that I can here of dwellid in Dorsetshire at a place caullid Sutton. Dyvers of them lay in a monasterie thereby. The last, as I here, of thes Pontz of Sutton was caullid Nicolas, and he dying without issue male the landes by heyres generales cam to Newborow and Fitzjames, western men, ii. partes to Newborow and one to Fitzjames.

Henry Lord Marney maried the doughter and heyre of Newborow. Henry sunne died leving ii. doughtters. Radclif yonger sunne to the Erle of Southsax mariid the one, and shortely died withowte issue, and then the Lorde Thomas Howard maried her.

Poyninges maried the other.

Pontz of Glocestre cam owte of a house of a youngger brother of Sutton Pontz: and they had by heire general of


[a] Dursley.

112 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

one Fitz Nicol or Nicolas a yongger sunne of one of the Barkeleys a goodly lordship caullid Hulle, and communely Hille, [a] standing on the hither ripe of Severne. This lordeship was gyven owte of the Berkeleys landes.

And they had after by heyres generales of Acton the Actoune. lordeship of Acton. Acton of Wicestreshire cummith of ...

Hertfordshire.

The ryver of Luye [b] cummith by north from Wormeley toun 3. miles above Waultham, and rennith almost flat south to the Tamise agayne Wolwiche.

The first arme that breketh owt by west of the mayne streame ys a mile lower then Wormeley, but in that paroch, and is caullid Wormeley Lokke, and rennith by Cheston [c] nunnery and paroche stonding on the west side of this arme. [d]

And oute of this arme breketh a litle beneth Cheston Nunnery an arme caullid the Shere Lake, because that there it devidith Estsax and Hertfordshire: and in the lenght of one medow caullid Frithey this lake or arme rennith not but at great fluddes, and meathith again with a socour of diche water at a place caullith Hokesdiche half a mile from his first breking oute; and half a mile farther at North Marsche Point meath againe with tharme that it cam out of. Thens cummith the first arme to Smawley Bridge on Waultham Causey the first brid westwarde, and half a mile lower at the corner of Ramey mede metith with the kinges streame and principal of Luye.

The secunde principal arme westward brekith owte of kinges streame at a hammelet caullid Halifeld [e] half a mile lower than Chestun Nunnery, and so to the fulling mylle, and thens to the 2. bridg by west of the kinges streame, and a stone caste lower at a place caullid Malkins Schelf into the Kinges streame. [f]

Here marke that Cheston men and Hartfordshire men say that the kinges streame at Waultham partith


[a] ? Hill Court, Glouc.
[d] Small river Lea.
[b] Lea r.
[e] Holyfield.
[c] Cheshunt.
[f] I.e., the Lea.

PART VIII 113

Hertfordshire.

Herthfordshir and Estsax. But Estsax men by forest charter claime grounde of Estsax to Smaulley Bridge.

There be a 7. or viii. bridges in the toune of Waltham. For there be divers socours of streamelettes breking out of the thre principalle partes of Luye ryver.

On the este side of the Kinges streame brekith oute but one principal arme at Halifeld 3. quarters of a mile above Waultham, and so goith to the corne mille in Waltham, and then to the Kinges streame agayne a coyte or stone cast beneth the Kinges bridge.

Sussex.

The olde toune of Winchelesey of a vi. or 7. yeres together felle to a very soore and manifest ruine, be reason of olde rages of the se, and totally in the tyme of the aforesayde vi. or 7. yeres.

In the space of these aforesayde yeres the people of Winchelesey made sute to Kyng Edward the first for remedy and a new plot to set them a toun on.

Whereapon the king sent thither John Kirkeby Bisshop of Ely and Treasorer of England, and vewid a plot to make the new toune of Winchelesey on, the wich was at that tyme a ground wher conies partely did resorte. Syr John Tregose a knight was the chief owner of it, and one Maurice and Bataille Abbay. The king compoundid with them: and so was there vii. score and tenne acres limited to the new toune, whereof part is in the king mede withoute the toune, and part in hangging of the hille.

Then in the tyme of the yere aforesayde the king set to his help in beginning and waulling New Winchelesey: and the inhabitantes of Olde Winchelesey tooke by a litle and a litle and buildid at the new towne. So that withyn the vi. or vii. yere afore expressid the new towne was metely welle furnishid, and dayly after for a few yeres encreasid.

But or xx. yeres were expired from the beginning of the building of New Winchelesey it twas twise enterid by enemies, first by Frenchemen, that did much hurt in the toune, and secundarily by the Spaniards, that enterid by night at Fareley aboute the midle way betwixt Winchelesey and Hastinges. (Fareley [a] wher the Hygh Steple is, 3. miles


[a] ? Fairlight.

114 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Sussex.

from Winchelesey.) At this invasion the towne of Winchelesey was sore spoyled, and scant syns cam ynto the pristine state of welth. For the commune voyce is that at that tyme wer xx. aldremen yn the toune marchauntes of good substaunce.

In the toune as withyn the walles be 2. paroche chirches, and there were 2. colleges of freres.

There is a litle withowt the toune a paroche chirch: but that longith to the liberte of Hastinges.

The name of the Finches hath beene of auncient tyme in estimation in Southsax about Winchelesey, and be al likelyhod rose by sum notable marchaunte of Winchelesey. For it is writen that Alarde and Finche Hereberte were capitaines in the Batel of Trade, and that Finche was sore woundid there.

The Finches that be now say that theire propre name is Hereberte: and that with mariage of the Finche heyre they tooke Finches name and were caullid Finche Herebert, joining booth names. One Vincent Finch in Henry the 4. dayes recoverid of the king by a sute the manor of ... by Winchelesey quarters.

Alarde of Winchelesey was a man of estimation, and lyith buried yn Winchelesey.

Oxenbridge of Southsax is heire by descente to this Alarde, and berith his armes.

Lincolnshire.

Mr. Paynel a gentilman of Boston tolde me that syns that shire. Boston of old tyme at the great famose fair there kept was brent that scant syns it ever cam to the old glory and riches that it had: yet sins hath it beene manyfold richer then it is now.

The staple and the stiliard houses yet there remayne: but the stiliard is litle or nothing at alle occupied.

There were iiii. colleges of Freres Marchauntes of the Stiliard cumming by all partes by est were wont greatly to haunt Boston: and the gray freres toke them yn a manor for founders of their house, and many Esterlinges were buried there.

In the Blake Freres lay one of the noble Huntingfeldes, and was a late taken up hole, and a leaden bulle of Innocentius Bisshop of Rome about his nek.

Ther lay also in the Gray Freres of the Mountevilles

PART VIII 115

Lincolnshire.

gentilmen, and a vi. or vii. of the Withams gentilmen also.

There remainith at Boston a manor place of the Tilneys by their name: and one of them began the great steple in Boston.

It is from Boston to the sands of the Wasche a 6. miles: and then by the sandes and the salt gutte a xii. and thens agayne vi. to Lynne.

The haven of Waynflet enterith into the lande by a creeke a ... miles, and after that it hath enterid a pratye way it castith out crosse of eche side of the creeke, but not farre, an armelet into the fennes, and makith a litle morisch lake at the but hed of it.

Paynel sayeth that the Lord Crumwelle buildid a peace of Maxey Castelle by Deping.

There is a certen feode paid at Boston caullid Crumwelles Fee.

One of the Cromwelles buildid a preaty turret caullid the Tour of the Moore. And thereby he made a faire great ponde or lake brikid about. The lake is communely caullid the Synkker.

Kirton berith the name of the ... or a wapentake of Low Holand.

Painel told me that his name is written in Latine Paganellus, and that the chief of his auncetors in tymes paste were Lordes of Tikhille Castelle and Bullingbrooke and Newport Painelle, with divers other lordshippes bering their names.

Oldbeche in Holand otherwise caullid Oldbek.

Mr. Bridges of Barkeshire told me that Syr John of Bridges of Glocestre hath a right goodly lordship by descent of issue generalle that sumtime was Chaundois the noble warrior. It is caullid Lugwarde [a] apon Lug Ryver not far from Hereford West.

Brigges, one of the Officers of the Kinges Housesold, told me that Master Poole of Staffordshir hath a lordship bering


[a] Lugwardine.

116 LELAND'S ITINERARY

the name of Chandoys: and that he gevith his armes. Much of Chaundois land lay in Fraunce.

Mr. John Pointz told me that Frossart saieth that Chaundoys died leving no childern.

Remembre that where I writ that Ponsbyri [a] stoode apon Severne ryver, that it be set a 3. miles of of it. [b]

Recitatio quorundam Opinabilium sine assertione compilata per Fratrem Richardumde Winkele. Justum volumen. He was a questioniste both yn philosophic and divinite.

Ther is a place in Dorsetshire caullid Pidel Trent [c]: wherby it is yet easy to perceyve that the name of Trent river that Marianus Scotus spekith of yet remainith, but is communely caullid Pideltrent.

One of the Pomereis of Devonshire long syns lost the most part of his enheritance by killing a messanger or herald sent from the King of England onto hym. At that tyme Pomerey was Lord of Tremington, alias Tremerton [d] Castelle in Cornewale, and of the castelle of the Monte of S. Michael yn Cornewale, and of the lordship of Tamarton.

Pomery of ... told me that Pomereis were ons lordes of Bever Castel that the Lord Rose hath now.

A ii. descentes from Pomery now Lord of Byri there were 3. Pomereis of Byry, [e] brothers, and the 2. yongger of them was providid for and indewed with landes.

Norfolk.

Sopham [f] is but a toune of one paroche; but it is one of the quikkest markettes of al Northfolk. It longith to the Richemont Feode, and is but 3. miles from Castel-Acre. It stondith much by handy crafte men, and byers of grayne.

The toune lakkith ryver water. For Castel Acre river is next onto it. In the toune be many welles, and that of a great depe.

Pyknam, Wade and Licheham, [g] and many villages therby be of the privilege and liberte of Sopham fee.


[a] Pontesbury, Shropshire.
[b] Read, off of it.
[c] Piddletrenthide.
[d] Trematon.
[e] Berry Pomeroy, Devon.
[f] Swaffham.
[g] Pickenham, Litcham.

PART VIII 117

The ruines of a few peaces of the waulles of Storford Castel [a] in Hertfordshire, and the Dungeon Hille yet appere in the very farther ende of Storforde towne hard apon the ryver. The Bisshopes Prison there, as I here say, is no part of the castelle.

The bisshopes of London of auncient tyme lay sumtyme at a maner of theirs by Bedenhaule Grene, [b] caullid Bisshops Haule, the old dyning haul wherof Bisshop Fitzjames pullid doune.

Doctor Day told me that the poete that gave mony for making of versis to an imperour gave it to Julius Caesar and not to Augustus. If it be so I must amend my epigramme of it.

Mr. Ferrares told me that Gower the Juge could not be the man that write the bookes yn Englisch. For he said that Gower the juge was about Edward the Secundes tyme.

Northumberland.

The waulles of Newcastel wer performid tempore Edwardi 3.

S. Nicolas the chief paroch chirche of Newcastelle standith on the very Picte waulle.

The Gray Freres in Newcastel of the Cairluelles foundation, originally marchauntes of the same toun and after men of land. The Thirgilles of the wold of Yorkshir have now by heyre generalles Cairluelles landes.

The Blake Freres of the foundation of Syr Peter and Syr Nicolas Scottes, father and sun, knightes boothe. But the site of the howse was gyven by 3. sisters.

The landes of Scotte of Newcastelle cam by doughters to Heron of Ford, to Denton and to ... Asschet Castelle now almost doune, by Felton, was Scottes.

The beginning of these Scottes was be marchaundice.

The White Freres of the foundation of Thorton, first a


[a] Bishop Stortford.
[b] Bethnal Green.

118 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northumberland.

marchante and then a landid man. The landes of Thorton be discendid to the Lord Lumeley. So that almost al the faire landes that Lomeley cam by this Thorton. Witton in Northumbreland, and the Isle in the bisshoprik, and also Lulworth were Thortons.

The advancement of Lumeley to be lord was by mariage of a bastard doughter of Kinge Edwarde 4.

Thomas Lumeley after Lorde Lumeley slew in the diche of Windesore Castelle ... Thornton bastard to riche Thorneton.

Thornton mayre of Newcastel borne yn Witton. He purchacid 800. marke land, and died wonderful riche. Sum say by prices of sylver owre taken on the se.

The Augustines foundid by the Lord Rose. In this house be 3. or 4. faire toures.

The Crosse Freres alias Walknolle [a] of the foundation of Laurence Acton sum tyme mayre of Newcastelle.

The Actons landes cam joyntely with the Thorntons to Lomely.

Surrey.

The college of Lingefeld in Sotherey egge, aboute a myle from Sterborow Castelle. It is in a paroche chirche and of the foundation of one of the Cobhams.

Sum of the Cobhams ly buried there.

Edmunde Grime, crosse-berer to Thomas Beket, did write the life of hym. Mr. Sulmo hath the booke.

There appere certen dikis at Newport Panelle in Bokinghamshtre by the chirche, as there had bene a castelle.

There appere likewyse ruines of a castelle, or a notable place, in the Lorde Souches park yn Northamptonshir.

There appere certen diches at Rugby, the market towne in Warwikeshire where the Rugbys, gentilmen of fame, dwellid; emong whom one Syr Henry Rugby was much spoken of. The place thus dichid is yet caullid the Hawle Place. The Duke of Bukingham a late was lorde of Rugby towne.


[a] The Wall-Knoll,

PART VIII 119

Norfolk.

The chefe howses of Albeneys of Northfolk was at Bukkenham Castelle and Wimundesham [a] yn Northfolk, and they held theyr landes by the service of the name of Pincerna Regis; the which service yet remainith yn the heire generale of the Albaneys.

Thre of the laste of the Albaneis were this namid, Guliam, William and Hughe. This Hugh had 4. doughtters, wherof, as I remembre, one was maried to Dunevet, now communely caullid Knevet, a nother to Tatershaule, a nother to Monhaute, and a nother to Fizalen of Southsax.

(Syns I hard that Tatershaul had in division of Albanies landes Bukenham Castelle; Monthaut, Rising Castelle; [b] Somery, Barow Castelle; Fizalan, Arundale.)

Cornwall.

The name of the Dunevetes, now caullid Knevetes, cam be al likelihod owt of Cornewale. For ther is a town caullid Dunevet almost on the farther ripe of Tamar ryver, and is the chiefe towne of Cornewale. I think the trew name to be Duneheved, i.e. Montanum caput.

Mr. Sulmo told me that Ebroicius or Ebroicensis is the name that we yn Englisch communely caulle De Eureux. Wherfore I must emende the place where I writ Eburovix. for Eburovices ii sunt qui nunc Leodienses dicuntur et eorum accolae (a).

Mr. Sulmo told me that the very trew name of the olde Erles of Devonshire was Reddeues, the which soundith yn Latine Rigidus. Reddeur is rigiditas, redde is rigidus (a). And he is of an opinion that the latter usid name de Fortibus of the erles is but a barbarus Latine worde expressing the French name of Reddeues. Bicause he hath readd in the first boke of Gervasius in the Lif of King Stephan that one Baldwinus Redurse or Reddeur Erle of Devon was the first that rebelled agenst Stephan, and he thinketh the first (b) ...

Mr. Sulmo told me that the house of S. Cleres is called of


[a] Wymondham.
[b] Castle Rising.

120 LELAND'S ITINERARY

a litel place where there is a chapel of Sainct Cler (b) and standith super Heptam flu. in Normandie, whiche ryver is one of the bondes of the dukdom and Cosnius another (b).

There be mines of an old castel caullid ... about Mr. Peches house yn Kente.

The parkes and maner places of Wischum and Shoute [a] abowt Axminstre in Devonshire wer the Lorde Bonevilles, and after a knightes of that name, or ever they cam to the Marquise of Dorsetes hand.

Syr John Dicons told me that yn digging of a balke or mere yn a felde longging to the paroche of Keninghaul in Northfolk ther were founde a great many yerthen pottes yn order cum cineribus mortuorum.

There apperith at Keninghaule not far from the Duke of Northfolkes new place a grete mote, withyn the cumpace whereof there was sumtyme a fair place, [b] and there the saying is that there lay a Quene or sum grete lady, and there dyed:

The chiefest house of the Villars at this tyme is at Brokesby in Leyrcestreshire lower by 4. miles then Melton on the hither ripe of Wreke [c] or Eye ryver. There lye buried in the chirch diverse of the Villars. This Villars is lorde of Houbye [d] hard by, sumtime parcelle of the Bellars landes. Where also is a meane maner place.

This Villars is also lord of Coneham [e] in Lindecolneshire toward the partes of Trent, and there he hath a maner place.

This Villars at this tyme is a man but of a 200. markes of land by the yere.

There is a mene gentilman of the Villars about Stamford.


[a] Wiscombe and Shute.
[b] Kenninghall Place.
[c] Wreak r.
[d] Hoby.
[e] ? Covenham.

PART VIII 121

Surrey.

Crompton of London hath a close by Codington in Southerey where the King buildith. In this close is a vaine of fine yerth to make moldes for goldesmithes and casters of metale that a loode of it is sold for 2 crounes of golde. Like yerth to this is not found yet in al Englande.

One told me that muche of the waulles of Plaschey Castelle in Estsax is made and fascionid of yerthe.

Audeley told me that one of the Stafordes had 700. marke land by mariage of a doughter of Hugh Audeley.

Falemuthe is a mere Englische worde: and hathe the name of many mouthes of crekes that be withyn the haven.

Arnulphus, idest, Aquilinus.

The castelle of Assheby on Avon a few miles lower then Northampton longgid a late to the Lord Gray of Ruthin Erle of Kente, syns to Cumpton.

Thorp Watervile Castelle apon Avon sumwhat lower then Wndale. [a]

Rokingham Castelle a late shrodly pillid by Mr. Radclif. It longgith to the King. The toune of accustume to the prince ... of the be- ...

The Lord Wennelok left an heire general that was maried to a kinnesman of Thomas Scotte, otherwise caullid Rotherham, Bisshop of York. He had by her yn mariage Luton in Bedfordshire, and 3. hunderith markes of landes thereaboute, and a faire place within the paroche of Luton caullyd Somerys, the which howse was sumptuusly begon by the Lord Wennelok, but not finischid. The gate howse of brike is very large and faire. Parte of the residew of the new foundations be yet scene, and part of the olde place standith yet. It is set on a hill not far from S. Annes hille, wher the abbate of S. Albanes had a litle praty place.

The Lorde Wenlok had much other landes that went other wayes for lak of heyres males.


[a] Oundle.

122 LELAND'S ITINERARY

One Seotte, alias Rotherham, hath yet the lordship of Somerrise.

The toune of Undale in Northamptonshire is almost cumpacid with Avon [a] Ryver: and there be 2. briddeges.

There is a greate round hille as a bullewark of warre yn the medes by Northampton toune, and berith the name of Clifford.

Lancashire.

The Haringtons had of auncient tyme a faire manor place Tateham. within a myle of Home Castelle caullid Tateham, [b] now in a manor desolatid.

The auncient castelle or manor place of stone of the Tunstalles is a mile from Home Castelle in Lancastershire at Fyrrelande.

The ryver of Wenning rennith thorough the towne of Home Castelle, and thens resortith into Lane Ryver, and in sum place is limes betwixt Yorkshir and Lancastre, as I harde.

The castelle of Horne Castelle standith on a hille toward the midle of the towne.

Norfolk.

The ryver that cummith from Coxford a xxv. miles from Norwiche risith weste north weste. Coxford a house of blake canons.

There is, as I hard, a nother arme rysing by south that resortith to this arme.

The olde donations of Christes-Chirch in Norwiche caulle the ryver that rennith thoroug Norwich towne Wensun.

There be tabelles at Norwiche, Yarnemuth, and Linne, that testifie of great pestilence that hath bene yn those townes.

The hole cumpace of the minstre of Christes-Chirche was the area to Bigotes Castelle in Norwiche.

Pederton a market towne not far from the castel of Hamdene or Stoke by Monteacute.

The Bewchamps clayme title of fundation to the collegiate chapel of Hamdene.

Hamden [c] hille is a specula ther to vewe a great peace of the (contrye) therabout.


[a] Nene r.
[b] Hornby Castle, Tatham, N. Lancashire.
[c] Hamdon.

PART VIII 123

Northumberland.

As I lernid of Doctor Davelle the mouthes of Blithe and Wansbek be litle above 3. miles distant one from the other.

And the grounde betwixt them is of sum caullid Bedelingtonshir. For Bedelington is the paroch chirch there, and sum hammelettes or villages long onto it.

The isle of Coquet standith apon a very good vayne of se coles, and at the ebbe men digge in the shore by the clives, and finde very good.

There ly certen isles adjoning to Fame Isleland bigger then Fame it self. But in them is no habitation. Certen bigge foules, caullid S. Cuthebertes Byrdes, brede in them, and Puffins, birdes less then dukkes having grey fethers like dukkes, but withoute paintid fethers, and a ring about the nek, be found breding ther in the cliffy rokkes.

The doughter and heyre of Delaland was weddid to one Barkeley a knight of Leyrcestershire.

The principal house of the Delalandes was at Northe Witham in Lincolnshir apon or by Witham water.

The place is auncient, fair, and stronge, and hath goodly commoditees aboute it.

One of the Barkeleys diyng without issue male lefte his owneenheritaunceto an heire male descending from a younger brother of his name, and so it is stil in the name. (Barkeley of Wimundeham in Leicestershire in the egge of Ruthelande.) And the Delalandes lande went to a doughter of Barkeleys, as entalid to the heire generale.

Benifeld Castel (Northamptonshire) is clene faullen downe to the grounde. It was never of any great cumpace. It longgid, as I hard, to the Bassingburnes, and after cam to one of the Souches.

Souche of Derbyshire. This Souche hath also Codnor Castel sumtyme the chefest howse of the Grayes, wher he now doith muche coste. This Souche is a man of faire landes.

The gentilmen communely caullid Busseys (De Busseto sive Buxceto) cam with the Conqueror owt of Normandi.

Bussey [a] that was so greate in King Richard the 2. dayes,


[a] Sir John Bussy, Speaker of Parliament, killed 1399.

124 LELAND'S ITINERARY

and was behedid at Brightstow, had his principal howse and manor place at Hougheham a 3. myles from Granteham.

Busses wife that was behedid at Brightstow lyith at Howheham, and divers of the Busses in the same paroche chirch.

Bussey now alive is the v. or vi. in descent from great Bussey that was behedid, and is the laste heir male of this house.

This Busses doughter and heire is mariede on the sunne and heire of Brightenel of Northamptonshir.

The Parres cam owte of the north of late dayes, and were enrichid in Northamptonshir by mariage of one of the heires general of the Grenes. But afore they cam out of the marches of Wales.

The Boleynes had a portion of the Grenes landes.

Vaulx and Parre had the residew ...

The commune fame is in Ruthelandeshire that there was one Rutter, a man of great favor with his prince, that desirid to have of rewarde of hym as much land as he could ryde over in a day apon a horse of woodde, and that he ridde over as much as now is in Ruthelandshire by arte magike, and that he was after swalowid into the yerthe.

Leyland. This is very like a lye, and more lykelihod it is that for Rotherland, or Rutherland, it is shortely caullid Rutlande.

The Erle of Rutheland that is now descendith, as I lernid, by the mother side from the laste Duke of Excester that Sainctliger maried.

Lean Minster [a] in Herefordshire, so caullid peraventure of nunnes in the Walsch speche, and not of a lion.

Mr. Griffithe of Terre Mone told me that Owen ap Meridith, that maried Henry the V. wife, was taken at a skirmouch abowte Wigmore, and brought by Syr Richard Vehan, grauntfather to great Vehan the servient at armes, to Hereforde, and there behedid and biried.

He told me also that Caspar, sunne to Owen, lay much


[a] Leominster. See vol. ii, p. 74.

PART VIII 125

hovering on the Severne See, and durste not welle land for escryes that were made when he proferid to the shore. Yet at the last he cam sodenly and toke Syr Richard Vehan in his howse, or, as sum say, in Chepstow Castelle; and when Vehan desired hym to be good to hym, he answerid that he should have such favor as he shewid to Owene his father, and so caussid his hedde to be smitten of.

Whereas in the genealogie of the Erles of Warwike mention is made of Hanslape lorde, [a] my chart of Northamptonshire spekith of that name not far from Stony ...

Owte of a chronique of the gestes of England, written yn Frenche.

King Ethelstane, sunne to Edwarde the firste afore the Conquest by a berkers doughter.

In the yere of our Lorde 1137. Rofecestre with the chirch was burnid by mischaunce of fier.

In the yere of our Lord 1219. William the olde marescal died.

Ano. D. 1229. Reinauld de Brayuse dyed, and William his sun succedid hym. The which William was taken prisoner, and after cam out agayn.

Ano. D. 1231. William de Brayuse was betrayed by Lewelin.

Ano. D. 1233. Richard le Marescal and Lewelin besegid the castelle of Breknok.

Ano. D. 1246. Humfrede de Boun receyvid the land of Brekenok by his wife.

This same yere Herebert Fitz Peter died.

Ano. D. 1252. Elianor Lady of Breknok died.

Ano. D. 1260. The castelle of Buelth was betrayed.

Brekenok and Excester celles to Bataille Abbay.

Ano. D. 1262. The castel of Keventles [b] was taken on S. Andreas Day. But Roger Mortimer got it agayne.


[a] Hanslap, co. Bucks, a manor or lordship.
[b] Cefnllys, Radnor.

126 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Ano. 1263. Roger Clifford toke the Bisshop of Hereforde.

The barons bette doune Radenor the same yere.

Edward toke Huntingdone and the Haye the morow after Sainct David.

Ano. D. 1266. Humfray Lorde of Breknok died at Beston yn the prison of Syr Edwarde, prince.

The Counte of Glocester toke garde of Humfray the trew heir of Humfray Lord of Breknok.

And not long after Lewelin had the land of Breknok grauntid hym.

Ano. D. 1271. Young Humfray fastnid on his land of Brekenok after the fest of S. Marke.

Ano. D. 1296. William Valence, Erle of Pembroke, and other were slayne by the French men at Bayon. Edmunde Erle of Lancaster and Leyrcester was capitaine there to the Englisch menne.

There were 3. of the Bellemontes Erles of Warwike in order. The thirde lakking issue male had a doughtter. This doughter was maried onto a noble man caullid ... and he had by her a doughtter, the which maried onto the Lorde Bechamps sunne and heyre of Helmeley Castel [a] by the roote of Bredon Hille in Wicestershire, and thus was the Bellemontes and the Beauchaumps kinred joined. The meane that Beauchaump cam to the praeferrement of the heire of Bellemontes was this. The olde Lord Beauchampe of Helmeley sent 3. or 4. of his sunnes to the batel of Eovesham to help King Henrye the 3. and Prince Edwarde againe Simon Monteforte and the barons: and these brether with their band did a greate feate in vanquischsing the host of Montefort. Wherapon the eldest had Bellemontes heire, and the residew where highly praeferrid. The Beauchamps afterwarde kepte the name of the Erle ofWarwik to King Edwarde the 4. time.

There was syns the Bellemontes Erles of Warwike a baron of great landes of that name, and the last of them in King Henry the vii. time was a man of simple witte. His wife was after maried to the Erle of Oxforde.

The chiefest house of this Lorde Beaumonte, as I lernid, was at Beaumaner [b] yn Leyrcestre or Lincolnshire. The Duke


[a] Elmley Castle.
[b] Beaumanor, Leicestershire.

PART VIII 127

of Northfolk hath fair landes that longid to this Beaumont in Lincolnshire. This Beaumont had faire possession in the north cunterey.

Syr Nicolas Caro had of the landes of this Beaumont that the olde Countes of Oxford had yn jointer.

Birling in Kent wher the late Lorde of Burgeyney lay longid to this Beaumonte.

Mr. Blage tolde me that an olde man tolde hym that Birling toke the name of Cunies.

Lewins of Cantewarbyri told me that Syr Nicolas Caro and other 3. gentilmen claymid the landes of this Beaumontes by heires general.

Beaumont of Devonshir. There was one Beaumont at Yaunton by Barstaple not long sins, a man of very faire landes, part wherof be now the Basset landes.

Bedfordshire.

The old toune of Dunestaple and the thoroughfare was a mile from the new toune, wher now is the village cawllid Dunestaple Houghtoun. There is one paroche chirch in Dunestaple.

Ther was a Priory of Blak Chanons of Henry the firste fundation.

In the priory were buried the reliques of Sainct Fremunde a noble Saxon, the which were brought from ... towarde Cantewarbyri there to have beene lefte. But the commune fame goith that by miracle they could be caried no farther then Dunestaple.

There lay buried also in this priory one Nigellus Loring a noble man of Bedfordshire, and a great benefactor to the priory.

This Nigellus made 3. cantuaries in the paroch chirch of Tuddington in Bedfordshire a 2. miles from Dunestaple, and there, as I here say, ly buried sum of that stokke.

There lyith also a noble man caullid Fitzneele, a benefactor to the priory.

There was a place of Blake Freres that of late toke an esquier of Devonshire for their founder.

In the yere of our Lord a 1420. James Steward King of Scottelande made homage to King Henry the vi. at Wyndelesore.

128 LELAND'S ITINERARY

In the yere of our Lord 1423. James Steward King of Scottes toke to wife Jane the doughter of John Duke of Somerset at S. Mary Over Eys [a] in the suburbes of London.

There dwellid an auncient man of the stok of the Fizt-Williams at Aldewark apon the north ripe of Dun ryver, fyve miles above Dancaster, and ii. miles from Rotherham.

The heire of this house and also a brother of his were slayn at the felde of Floddoun of the Scottes. The Erle of Hampton was brother to these men.

The eldest brother lefte 2. doughters, that syns were marled onto ii. sunnes of Syr Godefrey Fulgeham. So that the heire of Syr Godefrey Fulgeham a late dying lefte heires male be one of the doughters of Fitzwilliams. The other doughter hath yet no issue by the younger Fulgeham.

There ly 3. of the Tancrevilles, the father, the sunne, and his sun within the chapitre house of the priory of Kenelworthe, that after ...

I lernid that Darelles of Ceyssa [b] by Newborow in Yorkshire were the eldest house, or one of the eldest of that name that were yn England. The heires males of this house fayllid in King Henry the vii. tyme, and then one Guie Dawney of Yorkshire maried the heyre general, a woman of a manly corage, and John her sun his now the heyre.

Darel of Kent cummith owt of Ceyssa.

Dalaunson, corruptely caullid Dalisoun.

The name and house remaynith yet yn Lincolnshire at Laughton by Axholme.

There were 2. of the latter Lordes Barnesses buried in the Abbay of Ceorteseye. [c] The last was buried at Calays. (Bernieres: so caullid of a tounelet in Normandie.)

The principal hedde of Fowey ryver ys yn Fowey Moore. The place is communely caullid Codde Fowey. It is a xvi. miles be land from Fowey toun, and withyn a 2. miles from Camelford, and a 4. miles from the North Severn se. It risith as by north, and enterith the se by southe.


[a] St. Mary Overy, Southwark.
[b] Sessay, near Thirsk.
[c] Chertsey, Surrey.

PART VIII 129

Staffordshire.

Harecourt of Oxfordshire hath a barony caullid Elnol not far from Rauntoun Priory [a] in Staffordshire.

The Lord Fitzguarine hath a 3. part of the lordship of Heley [b] in Stafordshire.

There be at this 4. notable housis of the Giffardes: one in Devonshire, a nother yn Hamptonshire, the thirde yn Staffordshire, the fourth yn Bukinghamshire.

Giffard of Stafordshire cam to landes by this meanes.

The Lord Corpessun that was founder of Studley Abbay in Warwikeshire, and that had a faire maner place half a myle thens gave a lordship of his yn Stafordshire, caullid Chillingtoun, in frank mariage with the one of his doughtier to one of the Giffardes. After one of the doughters and heires of Whitston of Whightston a knight in Staffordshire was maried to one of the Giffardes; and of late tyme one of the doughters of Montegomery of Careswel, alias Caverswel, [c] was maried to young Giffard heire of Chilling ... one ... unge ... other of the bro ... nother but the ... doughters that he had be her: and she also be now: and Giffard and Vernoun having the other 2. doughters and heyres be them shaul parte the ole landes of Montegomerike.

Marke here that immediately after the death of Syr Wyllyam of Careswelle, that boute and buildid Careswelle Castel now sumwhat in decay, he left a doughter that was maried onto Marschintoun, shortely caullid Marstoun: and Marshingtoun after left a doughter that was maryed to Mountgomerik.


[a] Ranton Abbey.
[b] Healy Castle.
[c] Caverswall.

130 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Shropshire.

Archaul, alias Arcalu, [a] in Shropshire, and this lordship cam syns be bying onto the Newportes of Shropshire.

There was one of the Giffardes of Shropeshire companion to Syr Robert Knolles in the batelles of Fraunce that was a waster of his lande.

Billeswik alias les Gauntes in Bristow ...

Wiltshire.

Goyng oute of Chauburne [b] village 3. miles from Hungreforde I passid over a litle streme caullyd Chauburne water, and it goith other ynto Bedwyne streme, or els by it self ynto Kenet ryver. Thens a 2. miles by woddy ground to Litle Bedwyne, wherby I passid over Great Bedwine broke. Hungreforde is a 2. miles or more from it. Thens a 2. miles to Ramesbiry by meately woddy grounde.

From Ramesbyri [c] to Marlebyri 3. myle by hilly ground, good corne and woodde. It standith on an hille from est doune to a vale by weste. S. Martines chapell at the entre in the est. S. Maries paroch chirch by the market place. A market house new made. Sum say that S. Maries was a nunry withoute autorite. S. Peter's at the botom of the towne by west. The castelle hard weste by it. The dongeon half standith. S. Margaretes Priory of White Chanons half a quarter of a mile by south oute of the towne. It is over Kenet on the right hand. A broke rennith ynto Kenet half a mile of Marlebyri as I cam. It ran from northe to south. A mylle on Kenet withoute Marlebyri.

Gloucestershire.

Harding had Robert. Robert had Maurice.

Rogerus Berkeley de Drisilega sunne maried with the doughter of Maurice.

Drisilega, alias Dereslega. [d] It was ons in the foreste.

Part of Drisilege Castel brought to make the new house of Dodington. [e] A quarre of tophe stone by Driselege, wherof much of the castelle was buildid.

The olde place of Dodington withyn the mote by the new.

Ailwardus Blundus.


[a] Arcoll.
[b] Shalbourne.
[c] Ramsbury.
[d] Dursley.
[e] Dodington House.

PART VIII 131

Gloucestershire.

Joannes de Buxeto.

A glasse with bones yn a sepulchre found by Dodington chirch yn the high way. Pottes exceding finely nelyd and florishid in the Romanes tymes diggid out of the groundes in the feldes of Dodington.

A yerthen pott with Romayne coynes found in Dodington felde.

Dodington longgid to the Barkeleys.

Antiqui limitesforestae de Kinggeswod.

Furcae de Bristolle. Hunteforde prope Kinggeswood monaster. Aqua de Severna. Le Rugwey [a] super cilium montis de Sobbery sicut se extendit de Lantedone usque ad aquam de Alreleg.

Testes deforestationis.

Gilbertus comes Glocester et Hertforde.

Al the wodde in the great valley bytwene Sobbyri [b] and Kingeswood was caullid Horwoodde.

Magatesfelde, [c] alias Magnusfelde, a smaul lordeship. It was ons withowte fayle a nunnery. Parte of the cloyster standithe yet. It is now the Lorde Barkeleys.

Sum say that there was a nunnery at Berkeley.

Tebbyri [d] was of later tymes the Moulbrays lande.

The Lorde Maurice Berkeley lately lyving had fair landes in Northampton and Notinghamshire that descendid from the Lorde Segrave by heires general to Berkeley and Moulbray.

Mr. Bridges auncient house is Cowberley. [e]

His house caullid ... longid onto one Ferrares attainctid for cumming with King Richard the 3. onto the felde of Bosworth, and so it was gyven to Bridges.

Somerset.

The castelle of Gary in Selwood was sumtyme the Lorde S. Maure. Syns it longid onto the De la Zouches by heires generalles of S. Maure. It was gyven onto Wilougby Lord Brooke and his heyres male at the attayndure of De la Zouche at King Richarde the 3. dethe.


[a] The Ridge Way.
[b] Sodbury.
[c] Mangotsfield.
[d] Tetbury.
[e] Cubberley.

132 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Somerset.

The castelle of Mountjoy in Spayne gave name to the Lorde Montjoies in England.

The old Lorde Wyndesore or his father had the doughter and heyre of the Lorde Montjoye in mariage, by whom he had 500. markes of lande by the yere. The resydew went to the heire male.

Gloucestershire.

Beverstone Castelle. A castellet buildid by one of the Barkeleys of spoyle that he wan yn Fraunce. It standith aboute a myle from Tettebyri.

Badmanton [a] village a good mile from Litle Sodbyri, wher in remembraunce 3. of the Botelars of the house of Boteler Lord Sudeley. Boteler a man of an 180 li. landes. Ther is meane maner place and a parke.

Gilberte by Camallat [b] maried one of Mr. Walsches doughters.

Caines heire of Devonshire, a man of aboute 300. markes of lande, maried a nother.

Clifordes sun and heire maried a nother.

There hath been a very greate campe of menne of warre on an hille now caullyd Nebley [c] over growen with wodde aboute the mydle way betwixt Wotton Underege and Dersley [d] but nerer to Wotton. The Lord Lisle was slayn with an arow by one James Hiatte of the forest of Deene yn Nebley paroch.

Cow Berkeley, shortely caullyd Cowberley, wher Mr. Bridges dwellith.

Syr Wylliam Berkeley a very olde Knighte and lorde of Beverstane Castelle, welle motid, hath also a nother maner place caullid Over a 4. miles from Brightstow [e] sumwhat on the right hond by the way from Brightstow to ...

Syr Giles Capelle and Syr Grifith of Braybroke Castelle in Northamptonshire maried the doughters and heyres of Newton of Wike [f] in Somersetshir.

The landes of the Lorde Saincte Lou cam to 2. heires general. One of them was maried onto Hungreford, the other onto Botreaux. Hastinges Erle of Huntingdon hath


[a] Badminton.
[b] Queen's Camel.
[c] Nibley.
[d] Dursley.
[e] Bristol.
[f] Wick,

PART VIII 133

Gloucestershire.

Newton Saincte Lo, [a] a maner place of a castel building a 2. miles byneth Bath toward Avon.

Hubley and Wike [b] the Lorde Chedders landes.

Thomas Lorde Barkeley, as old Syr William Barkeley of Over and Beverstane told me, was taken prisoner in Fraunce, and after recovering his losses with Frenche prisoners and at the Batail of Poyters buildid after the castell of Beverstane thoroughly, a pile at that tyme very preaty.

Mr. Wikes of Dodington contendith by sum reasons that the Berkeley's of Dureslege wher of as olde an house or older then the Barkeleys of Berkeley. But the name of Berkeley town and lordship of whom the Berkeleys wher caullid soundith to the contrary.

Bremisfeld stondith in the paroche of Estenhaul [c] aboute a 2. mile from Ledebyri. Here is in the clyving of an hille a castelle having fair towrres. It was the Beauchaumpes, lordes of Bodington 4. miles from Glocester. It was buildid by the Beauchaumps. Syr John Talbot of Grafton by Bromesgreve bowte it.

Ther is at Bodington 4. miles north from Glocester a fair maner place and a parke. It cam to one Rede, servante to the Lorde Beauchamp, that maried his lordes doughter the eldeste of 3., and the Redes have it stille.

Ther were nunnes at Minchin Hampton in Glocestershir towarde Tettebyri.

There were nunnes at Boxwel 2. miles by est from Wotton Underege, destroied, as sum say, by the Danes. It longid now to the abbay of Glocester.

Deirhurste [d] in Glocestershir.

It standith as Severne river cummith doune in laeva ripa a mile beneth Theokesbyri. [e]

The site of the towne, as it is now, is in a maner of a medow. So that when Severne much risith the water cummith almoste aboute the towne.

It is to be supposid that it was of olde tyme lesse subjecte


[a] Newton St. Loe.
[b] ? Abson and Wick.
[c] ? Eastnor.
[d] Deerhurst.
[e] Tewkesbury.

134 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

to waters, and that the botom of Severne, then deper withoute shire. choking of sandes, dyd at flouddes leste hurte.

It is now but a poore village, and the lordship longgid of late partely to the Abbate of Theokesbyri. Suche parte as Westminstre had was longging to Persore Abbay tyl William Conqueror gave it away. Derehurst Abbay had the residew afore that the house of Derehurste was alienatid from the monasterie of S. Dionise by Parise, to the which it was a celle; and one Hugo Magason a monke of S. Dionise was the laste prior aliene there yn King Edwarde the 4. dayes, and aboute that tyme it was dissolvid, and moste of the landes of it given to Foderingey; and Eton College, as it is said, had sum title. After sute betwixte the colleges and the Abbay of Theokesbyri debatinges was, and after long tracte a final ende made in Henry the 7. days that the priory of Goldeclife, longging then newly to Teokesbyri, should go with the landes to Foderingey College, and Dehorhurst onto Theokesbyri.

Bede makith mention that yn his tyme there was a notable abbay at Derehurste. It was destroyed by the Danes. Werstanus fledde thens, as it is sayde, to Malverne. The Frenche order was an erection syns the Conquest. The olde priory stode est from Severn a bow shotte, and north of the town. There remayne yet dyverse names of streates, as Fisschar streate, and other. But the buildinges of them begone. Ther be yet 2. fayres kept, one at eche day in inventione et exaltatione Cruets. There is a parke bytwixt the old plotte of Holme Castelle and it, but it longgid to Holme the erles of Glocesters house, and not to it. There is a fair maner place of tymbre and stone yn this Theokesbyri Parke wher the Lord Edward Spenjsar lay, and late my Lady Mary.

Prestebyri [a] is a praty townelet standing a mile este south este from Chiltenham yn Glocestershire. There is a quarre of fine stone aboute Prestebyri, of the whiche parte of the fine stone workes of Theokesbyri were buildyd. Sum say that it was of old tyme a market towne, and had fraunchesis. It is now made a market toune agayne a 20. yeres syns. The town hath beene larger then it is now, and hath be sumwhat defacid with chaunce of fier. The Erles of Glocester were


[a] Prestbury.

PART VIII 135

Gloucestershire.

lordes of it. And Gilberte de Clare the secunde Erle of Glocester gave it to the bisshoprike of Herforde for emendes of wronges to Cantulupe Bisshop of Hereforde and to his chirch. One Simon a freholder, servante to the redde erle, having a 10. li. by yere in the lordship was bounde to wayte on the Bisshop of Hereforde if he wente ynto Scottelande. There is now a fair house on that grounde caullid Overton. It is now one Wylliam Bagers, and is a mile dim. oute of Prestbyri, but in the paroche of it. The Bisshope of Herforde is lorde of the towne, and hath a faire place there at the northe west parte of the town toward Theokesbyri. The place is ... welle motid, and standith withyn a quarter of a mile of Southam. Master ...

Hanley (Worcersterss.) Is from Upton a mile in dextra ripa Sabrinae, a mile above Upton, and a flite shotte from Severne. It is an uplandisch towne. The castelle standith in a park at the weste parte of the towne. Syr John Savage and his father and grauntfather lay muche aboute Hanley and Theokesbyri as kepers of Hanley. The erles of Gloucester were owners of this castel, and lay much there. Mr. Cometon clene defacid it yn his tyme, beying keper of it after Savage.

Tetbyri castelle is a 2 miles from Theokesbyri above it in ripa laeva Sabrinae apon a clive with doble diches, in the paroche of Twyning. It is now overgrowne with trees and busshes of juniper. It longgid to Winchelcumbe Abbay. [a] Peraventure it was King Offa, or King Kenulphus, house.

Worcestershire.

Upton [b] (Wicesterss) standith in ripa dextra Sabrinae apon a cluster 4 miles above Theokesbyri, and here is a bridge of wood on Sabrine, and here is a greate stable of the Kinges a late occupied for great horses, and a nother at Theokesbyri.

Areley (Staffs.) [c] is a good uplandische toune in laeva ripa Sabrinae aboute a v miles above Bewdeley.


[a] Winchcomb.
[b] Upton-on-Severn.
[c] Arley, in Worcestershire.

136 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Worcestershire.

Gloucestershire.

Alveley. [a] There was a faire place of the Mortimers aboute Teme ryver side. Mr. Cometon now hath it.

Worcestershire.

Bredon in Worcestershir a great sparkelid uplandisch toune stondithe on the lifte ripe of severne aboute the midle way betwixte Persore and Theokesbyri, and a greate hille caullid Bredon lyith by the town flat este, and almost yn the botom of it lyith Elmeley castelle as clyving on the hille a 2 miles from Bredon towne: and under lyith the vale of Eovesham. Doctor Guente was persone of Bredon. Peraventure here was the noble monasterie of Bredon that Bede spekith of.

The soile of Bredon self is not woddy.

Bredon longgith and also Clive [b] to the Bishop of Worcester.

Maner places longging to the Abbate of Theokesbyri.

Stanwey was almost reedified and augmentid by Abbate Cheltenham tempore Henrici 7.

Fordehampton [c] a faire place apon Severne in dextra ripa a mile beneth Theokesbyri and agayn the parke of Theokesbyri standing in laeva ripa.

The maner place in Theokesbyri park with the parke was lette by Henry the 7. to thabbot of Theokesbyri yn fee ferme with the holme wher the castel was.

Theokesbyri.

It standith in laeva ripa Avonae a good flite shot above the confluence of Avon and Severne.

Ther is a greate bridge of stone at the northe ende of the towne, and ther a litle above the bridge Avon brekith into 2. armes. Yet the bridge is so large that both cum under it. The right arme cummith into Severne with yn a flite shot of the bridge, and at the pointe of this arme is the towne key for shippes caullid picardes.


[a] This seems to be Alveley in Shropshire, but not on the Teme.
[b] Cleeve in Gloucestershire.
[c] Forthampton.

PART VIII 137

Gloucestershire.

The other arme cummith downe by the side of the towne and the abbay, leving it on the este, and so passing harde shire, ther by Holme castelle goith into Severne.

Bredon a very celebrate chirche and paroche, having many villages and hammelettes longging onto it; but it is now no market town. It stondith on the lifte ripe of Avon 2. miles dim. above Theokesbyri. Ther is a litle broke caullid Suliet [a] cumming downe from Clive, and enterith into Avon at Holme castelle by the lifte ripe of it. This at sodayn raynes is a very wylde brooke, and is fedde with water faulling from the hilles therby.

Ther be 3. streates yn the towne meating at the market crosse, wherof the chifiest is caullid the High Strete. Ther was no other paroche chirch yn the town but the weste ende of the abbay chirche.

King John beyng Erle of Glocester by his wife caussid the bridge of Twekesbyri to be made of stone. He that was put in truste to do it first made a stone bridge over the gret poure of booth the armes by north and weste: and after to spede and spare mony he made at the northe ende a wodde bridge of a greate lenght for sodeyne lande waters, putting the residew of the mony to making of the castel of Hanley [b] on the inheritaunce of the Erledom of Glocester.

The redde Erle lay much at this Hanley a v. miles from Twekesbyri and a mile from Upton.

King John gave to the mayntenaunce of this bridge the hole tolle of the Wensday and Saturday marketes in the towne, the which they yet possesse, turnyng it rather holely to their owne profite then reparation of the bridge.

Ther was at the south west ende of the abbay a castel caullid Holme. The tyme of the building of it is oncerteyne. It is certeyne that the Clares Erles of Glocester, and especially the redde Erle, lay much at Holme.

The redde Erle much trobelid S. Thomas of Hereforde. There hath beene yn tyme of mynd sum partes of the castel standing. Now sum ruines of the botoms of waulles appere. Now it is caullid Holme hylle.


[a] Swilgate r.
[b] Hanley Castle, Worcestershire.

138 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

George Duke of Glocester (Clarence) brother to King Edward had thought to have brought Avon aboute the toune and to have enlargid the town.

There was litle or no habitation at Twekesbyri at such tyme as Odo and Dodo, Dukes of Merches [a] and brothers dyd erecte there a prior of Blak Monkes Benedictines, a celle or filial to Craneburne in Dorsetshir. Odo and Dodo gave to Theokesbyri Staneway cum membris, videlicet Tadington, [b] Prestecote et Didcote. Thracy now dwellith at Staneway. After, in the later reyne of the Danes and Edwarde the Confessor, was AEilwerdus Meaw Erle of Glocester, and he was countid as founder of Craneburne.

Ailwerdus had a sunne caullid Brictrice Erle of Gloceter aboute the tyme of the cumming of Duke Wylliam of Normandie ynto England. Matildis wife to Wylliam Conqueror askid Bictrice yn gifte of her husband, and having hym put hym yn the castelle of Hanley beside Saresbyri, and there he dyed. Sum say that Matildis wold have had hym afore Duke William to her husband, but he refusing it had after hard favor at her handes.

King William gave the praeferrement of the counte of Glocester onto his wif Matilde. After it cam to Roberte Fitz Haymo of the blode of Duke Rollo nephew onto King William Conqueror.

This Robert Fitz Haymo made the priorie of Theokesbyri an abbay, making Cranburne but a celle onto it, and translating the chief landes of Cranburne to his monasterie.

Robert Fitz Haymo was buried at Twekesbyry, firste in the Chapitre House, after translatid into the north syde of the quier yn a chapelle.

Epit. in camera Sacelli.

Hic jacet Robertus filius Haymonis hujus loci fundator.

This Robertus newly made the buildinges of the monasterie and chirch with the towre.

Robertus Consul ejus gener aedificavit pyramidem super turrim.


[a] Mercia.
[b] Teddington, Worcestershire.

PART VIII 139

Gloucestershire.

Sibylla filia comitis Artmtinae vallis, et soror comitis Salapiat, uxorfuit Robertifilii Haimonis.

Hawisia uxor Roberti Consul.

Robertus Fitz Haymo left 3. doughters, wherof the 2. elder wher nunnes, one at Sheaftesbyri, the other at Wileton. King Henry the firste kepte the 3. and she was after maried to Robertus Consul, bastarde onto Henry the firste, and was Erle Glocester. He buildid the castelle of Bristow or the most parte of it. Every man sayith that he buildid the great square stone dungeon, and that the stones therof cam oute of Cane in Normandie, and like wise the stones of the toure of Theuksbyri chirche.

Robertus Consul was buried at S. James priory in Brightstow.

Robertus Consul had a sunne caullid Wylliam that was erle after hym.

Wylliam had 2. sunnes, Roberte and Roger. Roberte dyed young. Roger was a preste and bisshop. Wylliam causid his sunne Roberte to be buried at Cainsham [a] then a smaule priory, and after he newly repayred and endowed it, making it an abbay of canons regular.

Wyllyam dyed yn Brightestow Castel, and wyllid to be buried by his father at S. James: but he was prively conveyid by night onto Cainsham, and had gyven the hole lordeship of Marschefel [b] onto Cainsham, and impropriate the benefice therof onto S. James priory, and the benefice consequently cam to Teokesbyri.

There was, as it is sayde, a nunnery at Marschefelde.

Wylliam had 3. doughters, wherof one was maried to Almerike a Britaine, and he was the Erle of Glocester for a 6. yeres.

John brother to Richard the fyrst maried a nother, and by her he was Erle of Glocestre. King John had no issue by her, and kept her but a yere, and so repudiating her toke to wife the Erle of Herefordes doughter, and reteynid yn his handes the toun and the castelle of Brightestow within the hundrede of Berton [c] lying in Glocestershir hard


[a] Keynsham.
[b] Marshfield.
[c] Barton.

140 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Gloucestershire.

by Brightstow as byttwixt the forest of Kingeswod and it: shire. and so it hath syns stil remaynid yn the Kinges handes.

King John's wife repudiated was after maried to the Erle of ...

Clare maried a nother of the doughters of Wylliam Erle of Glocester, and was Erle of Glocestre.

Gilbertus Is. sun to Richarde the first was Erle of Glocester.

This Gilberte was buried in the quier at Theokesbyri.

Gilbertus the firste had Richard the 2. Erle of Glocester, and was buried in the quier of Tewkesbyri on the right hond of his father, and there lay his image yn sylver.

Richard the 2. had Gilberte the secunde, communely caullyd the Redde yerle by cause his body was of a very ruddy and blody color. He delte hardely with the monkes of Twekesbyri, and tooke away the giftes of Gilberte the firste his grand-father. He was buried on the lifte hand of Gilbert the first his grand-father.

Gilbert the 2. had Gilbert the 3. and he was Erle of Glocester, and restorid to the monasterie of Tweukesbyri such things as his father had taken away. He was slayne at the batail of Striveline [a] yn Scottelande, and was buried on the lifte hand of his father.

Gilberte the 3. had John that died yn his infancie, and was buried in a Chapel of our Lady at Tewkesbyry.

This Gilberte the 3. dyed in the 23. yeres of his age muche lamentid, by cause he was a good manne. He had 3. sisters, doughtters onto the Redde Erle. Wherof Eleanore the eldeste was maried onto Hugh Spencer, the 2. sun to Hugh Spencer Erle of Winchester, and by her was Erle of Glocester, and was beheddid and quarterid at Hereford est- ... and one of the quarters of hym was buried by the lavatory of the high altare in Twekesbyry. A nother was maried to Da ... ley, and by that line in processe one of the Audeleys was Erle of Glocester.

Edwarde sun to Hugh Spensar the 3. had Thomas, and


[a] Stirling.

PART VIII 141

Gloucestershire.

he was made Erle of Glocester by Richarde the 2.; wich Thomas had to wife Constance the doughter of Edmunde Langeley Duke of Yorke.

After this the landes beyng disperkelid Thomas of Wodestoke the v. sunne of Edwarde the 3. was made Duke of Glocester.

Then was after Humfrey sunne to Henry the 4. Duke of Glocester.

After this was Richard brother to Edwarde the 4. Duke of Glocester.

Over now longing to old Sr. William Barkeley was of the olde landes of the Lorde Barkeley.

Okington Park longing onto Sr. William Berkeley not far from Over.

The lordeship of Beverstane was firste the Barkeleys.

Maurice de Gaunte was lorde of Beverstane Castelle by Tettebyri. One of the Barkeleys boughte it.

Loke wither Maurice wher not first caullyd Barkeley, and thenne Gaunte a loco tantum natalium.

There is a quarre of good stone at Beverstane, unde nomen ex conjectura.

John Lorde Barkeley was wondid and taken, as sum say, at the batelle of Poiters. After he was redemed, and wel recoverid his losses of the French men.

Hampshire.

One of the Barkeleys, that is to say the greate graundfader of Syr William Berkeley, had yn mariage the hole lordship of Betistre [a] in Hampshir, mariyng the doughter and heir of Betistre. Syns it cam to one callid Brierton, that maried the doughter and heire general of Barkeley in Hampsire, and had by her a doughter and heyre, mother to yong Comet ... possessor of Betehistre.

Such land as Syr William Barkeley had of the Betistres wer lefte by surementes as onto the male, and the maner place is caullid Avon, distant 3. miles from Christes-Chirch Twinham ...


[a] Bisterne.

142 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Hampshire.

Of auncient tyme Balduine Reduers was Erle of Wigchte, and Devonshire, and also lorde of the towne of Christes- Chirche Twinham, and the landes there aboute as of the Hundrede of Ringwod.

Syns of later tymes the Monteacutes Erles of Saresbyri were lordes of Christes-Chirch Twinham and the Hundrede of Ringewod.

Christes-Chirch Twinham and the Hundrede of Ringewodde cam after to one of the later Beauchamps Erles of Warwike by manage of a doughter of the blode of the Monteacutes.

The new foreste in Hampshire.

There be yn it 9. waulkes.

It is by estimation in cumpace ...

Ther be 9. kepers, to raungers, a bowberer, and the Lord Wardein, which is the Erle of Arundale by enheritaunce.

There was sum foreste grounde there, as sum suppose, afore Kyng Wylliam Conqueror's tyme.

The place wher it is sayde that Tyrelle kyllyd King William Rufus ys caullid Thorougham, [a] and there standith yet a chapelle.

Dorset.

Blakemore yn Dorseteshire was a forest. It streachid from Ivelle onto the quarters of Shaftesbyri, and touchid with Gillingham foreste that is nere Shaftesbyri.

Blakemore was deforestid in King William Conqueror's tyme.

At the which tyme and long afore were the Thornehulles of Thornehul, [b] and the Leustons of Lewston with De la Line in estimation aboute Blakemore. (Hul was that worde to the Saxons that now in Englisch is haule.)

Blandeford toune in Dorsetshire longgid to the erledom of Lancaster.


[a] Truham.
[b] Thornhill.

PART VIII 143

Dorset.

Ryve [a] a great riche heyne in Blandeford.

Chiddour [b] a good husband tounelet to Axbrige in Somersetshire. It lyith on the rootes of Mendupe Hilles.

Marlines old gentilmen in Dorsetshire.


[a] Ryves, he was probably forebear to Sir Thomas Ryves and Dr. Bruno Ryves, notable men of Blandford in the sixteenth century. Heyne, a saving, niggardly man.
[b] Cheddar.

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