Leland's Itinerary of England and Wales: Part IX.

THE ITINERARY OF JOHN LELAND.

PART IX 1

Comentaria Anglia.

JOHN of Seint Helen's, so cawlyd becawse he dwelte in S. Helyn's paroche in Abyndon, was the firste beginner and makar of the great bridge of stone over Isis at Abbindon. Afore his tyme it was a fery.

The makynge of this bridge was a great hinderaunce to the towne of Walyngforde, whithar the trade was of them that came out of Glocestar-shire: but now they passe by Abingdon.

2 LELAND'S ITINERARY

This John de Seint Helen lyvyed about the begininge of the reigne of Henry the 6.

This John buildyd the faire hospitall by S. Helens in Abyngdon, and gave L. li. lands by yere to the maynteynaunce of it and the bridge.

The bridge of archid stone at Dorchestar is but a new thinge to speke of, and there was a ferrey at highe watars over Tames, and the bridge of Abingdon semithe to have bene the ...

Gul. de Romara, Erle of Lincolne, was lord and ownar of Bullingbroke Castle in Lincolneshire. Syns it was told me that there were 2. cantuaris in the paroche churche of Bullyngbroke of the Romares fundation latly supressyd. Nnvborowe. There is at Seint Salviors at Newborow in Yorkeshire a great paintynge or table in the prior or abbats chambar yet stondinge of all the whole desente and linage of the Moubrays. Mastar Dr. Bellaziz may send for a copy of it. Mastar Stapleton of London, brothar in law to Sir Thomas Wharton, tolde me that the comon opinion of the people aboute Perith is that Da Raby Erle of Westmerland made muche of the castle that now standith at Perith. [a]

He tolde me also that Darabies armes were and be in dyvers partes of the doungein in the castelle of Cairlues; where apon he conjectithe that it was reedified by hym.

The castle of Shrobbesbyry is set so that it is in the very place where the towne is not defendid with Severne, els the towne were totally environyd with watar.

Dartyngton, the fayre and goodly lordshipe by Totnes in Devonshire, was the Lorde of Audleys, sens by attayntur the Doke of Excester, namyd Holland, that cawsyd his hole howsholde there to drinke wyne browght out of Fraunce. He was Admirall of England, and Sir Baldwine Fulfirte a Knight of the Sepulchre was his undar admiralle.

Corteney Marquese of Excestar had a late this Dartington.

Est Horseley, a mile from Weste Horseley, in Suthrey,


[a] Penrith.

PART IX 3

longyd to the Bysshope of Excester, where is a praty lytle manar place. Lacy, Bysshope of Excestar in Henry the 5. and 6. dayes lay sometyme at this howse. This Lacey was dene of Henry the 5. chapell at the battayle of Agincorte. This Lacey made the haule of Excester Place in London.

Talbot Erle of Shrobbesbyri and his sonne Lord Lisle slayne in Fraunce. This erles bones were browght out of Normandy to Whitchurche in Shrobbeshire.

Talbot next erle to hym slayne at Northampton fild, takynge Kynge Henry the 6. parte.

This erle had 5. sonnes, John (that had to wyfe the dowghtar of the Duke of Bukyngham, slayn at Northampton) dyed Erle of Shrobbesbery passynge in jorney at Coventrie. James that dyed of strips taken at Northampton feelde; but he cam first to Shiffenol [a] in Shrobbshire a 2. miles from Tonge, where the erles of Shrobbesbyre had a manar place of tymbar and a parke.

George Erle of Shrobbesbyri was borne at Chifenolle.

Gilbert the 3. sonn Knyght of the Gartar and Depute of Calays in Henry the 7. dayes, and lyeth buried at Whitechurche, and there is a chauntery made by hym. He was embassador to Rome with Abbat Bere of Glesteinbyri for Kynge Henry the 7. This Gilbert was sore woundyd at Bosworthe, takynge Kynge Henry the 7. parte.

Syr Christopher, persone of Whitechurche was the 4.

Syr Humfrey Talbote Knyght was the 5. He usyd Calays.

Anne sistar to the aforesayde 5. britherne by the erle was maried to Ser Henry Verney of Thonge, where she is buried in the coledge with hir husbond.

Margaret dowghtar to the erle, and sistar to the aforesayde 5. brithern was wyfe to Chawort a gentleman of Darbyshire.

John Erle of Shrobbsbyry had 2. sonnes, George and Thomas.

Thomas dyed without ysswe.

George erle had to wyfe the dowghtar of the Lorde Hastings that was behedid in the Towre, and had dyvers men and wymen children.


[a] Shifnal.

4 LELAND'S ITINERARY

The late Erle of Comberland marled Margaret Georgys dowghtar.

And an othar was maried to the last Erle of Northumbarland. The Lord Dacres maried an othar.

Fraunces now Erle of Shrobbesbyri.

The old Lorde Hastings that was behedyd in the Towre had a sonne Lorde Hastings, that had to wife the dowghtar and heire of the Lorde Hungreforde.

The old Lord Hastings had also a sunne caulyd Richard, a knight that maried the Lady Savelle.

William also was sonn to the olde Lorde Hastyngs.

The olde Lorde Hastings had also a dowghtar that was wyfe to George Erle of Shrobbesbyri.

Hastings Lorde Hastinges, the old Lord Hastings sonne and heire, had by hir Lord Hastings now Erle of Huntyngdon.

He had also a dowghtar wyfe to the Erle of Darby mothar to the Erle of Darby now lyvynge.

Hastyngs Erle of Huntendune had to wife Anne dowghtar to the Duke of Buckyngham, behedyd at Saresbyri. The othar dowghtar of this Duke of Buckyngham was the first wyfe to the Lord Fitzgwalter.

Hastings sonne and heire to the Erle of Huntingdune maried the late Lorde Mountecutes dowghtar. The Lord Stafford maried the Lorde Mountecuts sistar.

The Duke of Yorke sunne caullyd Edward nevar tooke greatar name at the begininge of his warres agayne Kynge Henry the 6. but the name of the Erle of Marche; untyll that one Parre brought hym a 15. C. men to go with hym to ... felde, and proclaymed hym as he went for kynge. Mastar Feelde told me that there rennithe a mighty longe diche from ... toward Lichet Maletravers [a] in Dorseteshire.

I saw in a roulle of the highe lordshipes of the Duke of Yorke at Mastar Garters thes names folowing: Cunsborow [b] Castelle; Clifford Castle; the lordeshipe of the faire Maide of Kent. Mastar Gartar told me that Quinborow Castell in Kent was of this hold; but he shoid me not how, or who shuld be this faire Maide of Kent.


[a] Lychett Matravers.
[b] Conisbrough.

PART IX 5

There is a grete hill, or rigge, that stretchethe in lengthe from Glassenbyry on to within 2. miles of Bridgewatar, and is the very highe way to passe from the one from the othar of them.

This balke or hille is of breadthe to speke of, and of eche syde of it lyethe low marche ground.

Brent Merche goynge from Glassenbyri lyethe on the right hand, and ... marchis on the left hand.

The howses of the order cawlyd Sauiniacensis, otharwyse Fratres Grisei, were aftar reducyd on to the ordre caullyd Cistertiensis. Stratforde in Essex was of this ordre by the foundatyon of Montfichet. This howse first sett emonge the low marsches was aftar with sore fludes defacyd, and remevid to a celle, or graunge, longynge to it caullyd Burgestede [a] in Estsex, a mile or more from Billirica.

Thes monks remainid at Burgstede untyll entrete was made that they might have sum helpe otherwyse. Then one of the Richards, Kings of England, toke the ground and abbay of Strateforde in to his protection, and reedifienge it browght the foresayde monks agayne to Stratford, where amonge the marches they reinhabytyd.

One Agatha, dowghtar and heire to the Lorde Tresbur, had 2. husbonds. Gul. de Albeneio was the one. She was buried in the priory of Newstede by Stamford. The Lord Tresbor gave in his armes 3. bolts.

Stoke Dawbeney is in Northamptonshire hard by Rokyngham Forest a 2. miles from Pipwell Abbay.

Lincolnshire.

The northen men brent miche of Staunford towne. It was not synce fully reedified.

Staunford was privilegyd but in Kynge Edward's dayes for a borow, as concerninge a place in the Parliament Howse.

Yet it was a borow towne in Kynge Edgares dayes, and then and syns it hathe all way longyd to the Crowne.

There were 7. principall towers or wards in the waulls of Staunford, to eche of the whiche were certeyne freholders in the towne allottid to wache and warde in tyme of neadde.


[a] Burstead

6 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cornwall.

Where as I writte in the qwaires of Cornwalle that Fawey was caullyd in the olde Cornische, Cowwath, make it Fawathe.

Cheshire.

The chefe occasion, and the originale by likelihod, of the manifolde poolys and lakes in Chestershire, was by digginge of marie for fattynge the baren grownd there to beare good corne. To the whiche pitts the faulle of the waters thereabout and springs hathe resortyd, and bysyds the grownd there beynge so depely dikid there be many springs risynge naturally in them.

There be tokens in Chestershire of dyverse salt pitts besyde them that be commonly now usyd; as by Cumbermere in a wood, and at the Dyrte Wiche [a] a late a new pitte besyde the old decayed, and at Aldresey a poore village of a 6. howses a 4. mile from Malpace in the way almost to Chestar muche by weste hathe bene a salt pit, but now decayed, as almoste in tyme owt of mynde.

Suche firre trees overthrowne and coverid with bogge and merche as be in Chestershire, Lancastershire and Shrobbeshire be found in some places of the Isle of Oxolme. [b]

Terre Mone is about a 24. miles in lengthe and 21. in bredthe, yet the comon voice makethe it almoste egale in lengthe and bredthe.

Luggershaull sumtyme a castle in Wileshire 10. miles from Marleborow, and a 4. miles from Andover almoste in the waye betwixt. The castell stoode in a parke now clene downe.

There is of late tymes a pratie lodge made by the ruines of it, and longgithe to the kyng.

A cardinale (Drapar) and archepisshope of Cantorbyri gave a 1000. markes or li. to the erectynge of London Bridge.

Kynge John gave certeyne vacant places in London to builde on for buildinge and reparation of London Bridge.

A mason beinge master of the bridge howse buildyd a fundamentis the chapell on London Bridge a fundamentis propriis impensis.


[a] Droitwich.
[b] Axholme.

PART IX 7

Bucks.

Bukingham.

Ailesbyri 5 miles from Notele [a] is a good market toune havynge one paroche churche and a howse of gray friars, it stondithe on a lytle broke, and is a mile from Tame streme. Wikam.

Chilterne Hilles.

From Henle in Oxfordshire to Wikam [b] in Bukinghamshire an viii. myles. From Wikam to Dunstaple in Bedfordshire a xviii. miles. Al this way goeth Chilternhilles, wherof many be welle replenishid with wood, and partely with corne, al the soile being a chalke clay.

Ryvers in Bokinghamshire.

Use or Ise.

Another Use, or Ise, [c] as of one principal arme risith abowt Westewikam owt of one of the Chilterne hilles, and so cummith by Wikam the market towne.

The lesse arme is cawllid Higdenbrooke, and risith also in one of Chilterne hilles a mile above Wikam.

Bothe these streames meate at the west ende of Wikam, and thens the hole botom with one water goith to Hedon, so to Owburne, [d] wher the Bishop of Lincoln hath a fair howse, and thens a mile and more into the Tamise.

Bedfordshire.

Market Towns in Bedfordshire.

Bedford.

Bigelswade a 2. miles from Warden [e] Abbay, a good market and 2. faires.

Shefforde a 3. miles from Bedforde, and a mile from Chyksand Priory.

Luton a very good market town for barlye.

Hamptel. [f]

Oineys. [g]

Potton.

Owborne. [d]

Dunstaple.


[a] Notley Abbey.
[b] Wycombe.
[c] Wye r.
[d] Woburn.
[e] Old Warden.
[f] Ampthill.
[g] Olney, now in Buckinghamshire.

8 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Bedfordshire.

Castelles yn Bedfordshire,

The castel of Bedford hard by the towne, now clene down. There is a place caullid Falxherbar agayn the castel.

Betwixt Kinges Grose yn the midle way to Newenham and the castel were founde many bones of men buried.

The castle of Hamtel. [a] The Lorde Fanope, a man of greate fame in owtewarde warres, and very riche, buildid this house.

Odel [b] Castel, now nothing but straunge ruines, longging to the Lord Bray. Odel town ys by the castel, and ys as yt wer an viii. myles from Bedford, and by Harold nunnery about a mile of. This Odel was a barony.

Castel Parke a myle from Laundon [c] Abbay priory, and Landon is withyn a myle of Olney. This parke longgid to the Souches, but now lately sold to the Lord Mordant Peraventure this Launden Castel.

Risingho hard by Castel Mille on Use. It longgid to Warden Abbay, now to Mr. Gostewik.

Adingreves wher be tokens of diches, wher sum fortres hath bene by Use Ryver, a mile or 2. from Risingho.

Isis otherwise Use. [d]

Olneye Water.

Undal Water. [e]

Market townes in Wicestershire.

Wicestre on Severn.

Eovesham apon Avon Ryver xii. miles from Wicestre.

Brammisgrove [f] x. miles northe from Wicestar.

Persore [g] apon Avon vi. miles from Wicestar.

Kiddermister apon Stowre River xii. Mils toward northeast from Wicestre.


[a] Amphtill.
[b] Odell or Woodhill.
[c] Lavendon.
[d] Ouse r.
[e] ? Ouzel r.
[f] Bromsgrove.
[g] Pershore.

PART IX 9

Worcestershire.

Bewdele [a] the Sanctuary towne hath hard by it the Kyngs maner of Tikile [b] stonding on a hill.

Castles in Wicestreshire.

Wicester.

The ruines of Hanle [c] Castle vii. miles from Wiccester lower of the farthar rype of Severne.

Aberle, [d] otherwise Abbatisle, somtyme longinge to the Erle of Warwike.

Hartsbery Castle [e] longinge to the Bysshope of Wicestar, set on a stronge roke vii. miles from Wicester.

Helmelege, [f] where the college is longinge to the Kynge. There stondithe now but one tower, and that partly broken. As I went by I saw carts carienge stone thens to amend Persore Bridge about a ii. miles of. It is set on the tope of an hill full of wood, and a townelet hard by, and undar the roote of the hille is the Vale of Eovesham.

Rivers in Wicestershire.

Severne risithe in a hill cawlyd Plimlimmon. So to Cair Sews, famous in name, but in dede a pore thrwghe faire. From Mahenclift to Llanidlas a good village, to Newton, and so rinnith within a mile of Montgomeryke to the Walche Pole, and thens passithe within halfe a mile of Ponsbyri College to Shrobbesbyri, to Wrekcester alias Rokecestar, [g] to Bridgnorthe, to Wicester, to Twekesbyry, to Glocester, etc.

Avon.

Arow. [h]

Dowlesse [i] riveret risith, as I lernyd, in Cle Hill in Shropeshire, and cummithe by Clebiry a poore village, and cummithe not far above Bewdele into Severne.


[a] Bewdley.
[b] Tickenhil or Tickil.
[c] Hanley.
[d] Abberley.
[e] Hartlebury.
[f] Elmley.
[g] Wroxeter.
[h] Arrow r.
[i] Dowles r.

10 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Worcestershire.

Forests and Chases in Wecestershire.

Wire [a] Forest, where of summe part is sett in Wicestershire, but the moste parte in Shropshire, and stretchithe up from Holt apon Severne onto Bruge Northe. [b] Bewdley is set in the marchis of this forest, and stretchithe a 2. miles beyond to a watar cawlyd ... Wire is more then xx. mills compas.

Fekenham [c] Forest totally (as I here say) is set in Wicestershere, and is of lesse compase than Wire.

The Chase of Malvern is bigger then other Wire or Fekenham, and occupiethe a greate parte of Malverne Hills. Great Malverne and Litle also is set in the Chace of Malverne. Malverne Chase (as I here say) is in lengthe in some place a xx. miles, but Malverne Chace dothe not occupi all Malverne Hills.

Wiche [d] is a vi. miles by northe from Wicester. There be iii. salt springs, whereof 2. be nere togethar. the third is a qwartar of a mile of. At these be made the finest salt of England.

Withein a mile of Alcestre is a limes.

The Castell of Dudeley is in Stafordshire, but hard by is Wicestreshire.

Syr Gilbert Talbot knight hath a goodly howse by Bramsgrove market caullid Grafton.

Pakington hath a veri goodly new howse of brike caullid Hampton Court a vi. miles of from Wicestre somwhat northward.

Market townes in Warwikeshire.

Warwike.

Coventre.

Henle. I have it described.

Monke Kyrkby. [e] I know the site of this.

Alcestre.


[a] Wyre.
[b] Bridgenorth.
[c] Feckenham.
[d] Droitwich.
[e] Monks Kirby.

PART IX 11

Warwickshire.

Rugby.

Tameworth apon Anker. I have it describid.

Nunne Eton. [a] I have it described.

Atherstone. I have it described.

Bremischam [b] in the way to Chestre-ward, a xii. mills from Coventre. I have it described.

Southam a vi. mils from Warwike.

Castells in Warwikeshire.

Warwike.

Killingworthe. [c]

Braundon, [d] a v. mils be northe from Coventre, now desolatid; sometyme (as I hard say) longginge to the Lord Mortimer.

Brinkelo, a v. mils by east from Coventre, now desolatyd; longynge somtyme (as men say) to the Mortimers.

Bagginton Castell, now desolatyd. It longgid to the Baggetts, a 2. mils from Coventre.

Ascheley Castle.

Rivers.

Avon.

Anker.

Sow [e] risithe nere Hakesbiri [f] iii. myles from Coventre northeste. Fluit per Sow pagum, by White le, [g] et prope Stonle [h] village in Tamam labitur.

Leme [i] cumminge out of Northamptonshire. It comithe by Granborow, [k] Lemington, Marton, Offekirke [l] pagos, and at Edmund Coote Bridge into Avon.

Colle [m] flu. oritur in Yardle Wooddeprope Kinggs Northton, and aftar that by Colleshil he goithe into Tame.

Blithe risithe in Warwikshire nere Routon by Balshaul,[n] Hampton, Pakington, and then goinge betwixt Coleshill and Makstoke [o] nere Schustok [p] village into Tame.


[a] Nuneaton.
[b] Birmingham.
[c] Kenilworth.
[d] Brandon.
[e] Sowe r.
[f] Hawkesbury.
[g] Whitley.
[h] Stoneleigh.
[i] Leam r.
[k] Grandborough.
[l] Offchurch.
[m] Cole r.
[n] Temple Balsall.
[o] Maxstoke.
[p] Shustoke.

12 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Warwickshire.

The lenght of Warwikeshire be estimation from Rollerich Stones by Chipping Northton to Tamwort as to the limites of Oxfordeshir and Stafordshire, thus the lengthe is about xxxvi. mils.

Watelingstrete toward Rugby is a limes apon Leicestershire.

A mile above Bremicham is a limes apon Stafordshire. [a]

Market townes in Shropshire.

Shrewisbiry.

Bridgenorth a xiiii. miles from Shorbbesbyri.

Welington a vii. miles from Shrobbesbyri toward London way.

Drayton [b] apon Terne river a xii. miles from Shrewisbyri.

At Blorehethe, a mile above Drayton by north, was a feelde faught bytwene King Edwardes men and Henry the 6. The Erle of Saresbyri and northen men on King Edwardes parte overcam the Lordes Audeley (slain) and Dudeley (woundid) with Quene Margaret, wife to Henry the 6, and Chestershir men lost the feld. She cam Eccleshall thither. Hauls Bisshop of Chester her chapeleyn caussid the queene to ly ther.

Whitechirche a xiiii. or xv. miles from Shrewisbyri.

Newport apon a brooke a xii. or xiiii. miles from Shrewisbyri. With in a mile of Newport is a goodly large mere or poole.

Ludlo.

Peter Undergod, a gentilman longging to an Englisch Prince of Wales, did build St. John's Hospital withowt ... gate of Ludlo and aftar gave landes onto hit.


[a] Rollwright.
[b] Market Drayton.

PART IX 13

Shropshire.

Bisshops Castel a very celebrate market.

Castelles in Shropshire.

Shrewsbiri.

Brigenorth on Severn xiiii. myles from Shreusbiri lower on the river.

Caurse [a] Castel on a hil v. myles from Shreusbiri by sowth west longging to the Duke of Bokingham, now to the Lorde Staford.

Montgomeri the Kinges Castel (in the Shire, but not de) xii. myles from Shrewsbyri. It was ons a great wallid town caullid Cairovalduine.

Chirburi Hunderid was annexid to Montgomerike as a help to have men out of hit for defence.

Ludlo xx. myles from Shreusbiri.

Newport apon a brooke, or moore, xiiii. miles by east from Shreusbiri.

Whitchirch apon a broket a xvi. miles by west from Shreusbiry.

Draiton apon Terne river a xiiii. miles from Shreusbiri. Wigmore Castel a xx. myles from Shreusbiri standing on a brocket sumtime almost dry.

Whittington, a castel of the Lorde Fizwaren's, vi. miles from Shreusbiri upward almost on Severn, and by this goith Offa's diche.

Shrawardine iiii. miles from Shreusbiry, longging to the Erle of Arundel ii. miles from Whitington, bytwyxt Shreusbiri and hit.

Redde Castel by Whitchirch, a late the Lorde Audeles. viii. myles plaine northe from Shreusbiri, now al ruinus. It hath bene strong and hath decayid many a day.

Middle Castel longging to the Lord of Darbe iii. miles from Shrewsbyri, veri ruinus.


[a] Cause.

14 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Shropshire.

Morton Corbet in a marres, iiii. myles from Shreuisbiri by north, longging to the Corbettes.

Knoking [a] Castel in Shropshire now a ruinus thing longid to the Lorde Lestraunge, and now to the Erle of Darby,

Chorleton [b] Castel on Terne, longging to the Lord Poys, vi. miles from Shrewisbiri, and a myle from Tern village.

Terne is to say a lake or poole.

Cortham Castel apon Corfe riveret, (unde et Corvesdale,) xiiii. myles from Shreusbiri by south.

Acton Burnel was a goodly manor place, or castel, iiii. myles from Shreusbyri, wher a Parliament was kepte in a greate barne. It longgid ons to the Lord Lovel, then to the Duke of Northfolke, and now to Syr John Dudle.

Burnelles doughter was maried to the Lorde Lovel, and thereby the Lovelies landes encresid, and after was made Vicount Lovel. Lovel had Acton Burnel.

Sum of thes castelles though they be yn Shropshire, yet thei be not de. For they be privilegid, and use their owne lawes and courtes, except the last statute let them.

Oswestre Castel is now in Shropshire.

Kensham [c] Castel clene doun, it stoode within a ii. milis of Ludlo on a hille toppe.

Holgate [d] Castel (sumtime longing to the Lord Lovel) stondeth under the Cle hilles harde by Corvesdale a vi. miles from Ludlo. The Duke of Northfolk exchaungid it for other landes with Mr. Dudeley.


[a] Knockin.
[b] Charlton.
[c] Caynham.
[d] Holdgate.

PART IX 15

Shropshire.

Bramscrofte, a very goodly place like a castel, longging to the Erle of Shrewsbiri. It stondeth in Cle Hilles or abowt them a ... miles from Ludlo.

Stokesay longing sumtime to the Ludlos, now to the Vernuns, buildid like a castel v. miles owt of Ludlo.

Syr Richard Ludlo had ii. doughters. One was marled to Humfrey Vernoun, and the other to Thomas Vernoun, bretherne to the late Syr Henry Vernoun of the Peke. The 3. sun of Henry maried one of Montgomerye's heyres.

Shepeton Corbet Castel a vi. or vii. miles from Ludlo almost in the way bytwixt Ludlo and Bisshops Castel.

Hopton Corbet [a] half way bytwixt Bisshops Castel and Wigmoore, and a iii. miles from Shepeton.

Bisshops Castel well maintenid is set on a stronge rokke, but not veri hy.

Abbays and Priories in Shropshire.

The Abbay of Shrobbesbyri. [b]

Album Monasterium by Albertbyri, long syns suppressid.

Ombridge, [c] Blake Chanons, in the way to London, ii. miles beyonde Welington market, and a ii. miles beyond

Lincel [d] Abbay.

Lincel, or Lilleshull.

Brerewoodde, [e] a priory of white nunnes lately suppressid, in the very marche of Shropshire toward Darbyshire.

Billevoise. [f] Whit monkes.

Haghmon. [g] Blake Chanons.

Wenloch. Blak monkes.

Tunge, [h] a litle thorough-fare betwixte Ulnorhampton [i] and Newport, 7. mile from Ulnorhampton, 5. from Newporte. It is in Shropshire. There is college and wardon, with an almose house of the auncient foundation of the


[a] Hopton Castle.
[b] Shrewsbury.
[c] Wumbridge.
[d] Lilleshall.
[e] Brewood in Staffordshire. Shropshire does not touch Derbyshire.
[f] Buildwas Abbey.
[g] Haughmond.
[h] Tong.
[i] Wolverhampton; Leland distinctly writes n for u ( = v) in this name.

16 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Shropshire.

Vernouns of Haddon in the Peke. Many, or almost al, ly there that were famous of them sins the fundation.

Ther was an olde castel of stone caullid Tunge Castel. It standith half a mile from the toune on a banke, under the wich rinnith the broke that cummith from Weston to Tunge. Weston is 2. miles of, and is in Stafordshire. Syr Henry Vernoun a late daies made the castel new al of brike.

Rivers in Shropshire,

Severne.

Terne risith nere Mere [a] village in Stafordshire; it goeth by Draiton, Ternehil, Besteford and Slepe villages, and cummith into Severn at Acham village a ii. myles from Shrewsbyri. I hard otherwise that hit cam ynto Severn abowt Ternebridge.

Corfe rising in Corvesdale cummith into Teme at Ludlo.

Corvedale plentiful of corne strecchith from abowt Wenlock to Ludlo.

Ree [b] cummyng by Wenloche.

Roden risith in the lake of Cumbremere. [c] After hit it runneth by Whitchirch, a good market town, by Lee [d] village, and Shabiry [e] village, and at Walcote into Terne. Ther be very gret bremes and other good fischis in Cumbremere.

Oney [f] cummith into Teme abowt Eromefeld a celle to Glocestre.

Harmer Pole a mile from Shrobbesbyri.

Teme river enterith into the farther syde of Severne not far from Powik mile [g] a mile and a half beneth Wicester.

The site and commodites of the soile of Shropshire.

Ther be founde in morisch and mossy ground a vii. miles from Shrobbesbyri, and yn other places of the Shire, fyrwoodde rootes, and also the hole trees hewen downe in olde time; but of whom, or for what cause, no man there can


[a] Maer.
[b] Rea r. of Shropshire. It is a long way off Wenlock.
[c] The Roden seems to rise in Colemere (near Ellesmere), and does not run near Whitchurch; the rest of its course is rightly indicated.
[d] Lee Brockhurst.
[e] Shawbury.
[f] Onny.
[g] Powick mill.

PART IX 17

Shropshire.

telle. They finde them lying yn the grounde, sumtime a foote or ii. depe, sumtime a v. or vi. foote depe. Many of them be of a greate lengthe, and withowt twysxe. Yn brenning they smel welle.

Mortimers Clebyri [a] in Shropshire, a village and a parke by Wire forest, yn the way bytuixt Ludlo and Beudeley.

Cle [b] hilles be devided ynto 3. partes.

The hilles next to Wenlok be caullid the Broune Cle, and ther be dere.

Sainct Margeretes Cle toward Ludlo.

Theterston Cle [c] betwixt the forest of Wyre, where is fair timbre, and Ludlo.

Ledewik broke [d] springith in Cle hilles, and renning a vii. miles goith into Teme at Burforde, wher is the house of the barony of Burforde longing to Mr. Cornwale.

Cle hilles begin a iiii. miles from Tembyri, and strech within a iiii. miles of Wenlok. So that be gesse I cownt them in lenght an viii. or x. miles.

In these hilles risith Rhe [e] river, and at Newton Milles in Wicestreshire a iii. miles beneth Tembyri cummith into Tame.

The limites of Shropshire.

Blakemere, a very large parke nye to White-Chirche, ys (as I have harde say) yn sum parte a limes betwixte Shropshire and Chestreshire. In the parke is a fair maner place. Monkbridge, a mile beneth Tembyri, is (as I ther hard say) a limes to Wicestreshire, Shropshir, and Herfordshire.

Langfelde Dale.

Strettons Dale.

Syr Richarde Manoring, chefe of that name, dwellith a iii. miles be est from Price [f] village at a village caullid Hightfelde, [g] having a parke and greate plenty of wood about hym.


[a] Cleobury Mortimer.
[b] Clent Hills.
[c] Titerstone Clee.
[d] Ledwyche brook.
[e] Rea r.
[f] Prees.
[g] Ightfield.

18 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Shropshire.

Sandford dwellith at Sanforde, wher is onely his place and a parke, iii. miles be south from Whitechirch.

Newport dwellith at a place caullid Archaule. [a] It stondith betwixt Roden and Terne rivers toward their mouthes.

Syr John Talbot dwellith a xvi. miles from Shrewsbyri in the way to London toward Hampton village. His howse stondith in a parke called Pepper Hill.

The hedde howse of the Chorletons is now at Appley, half a mile from Welington market, a mile from the Wreken hilles. Howbeit Chorleton castel semith in time past to have bene the principal. Ther be divers of the Chorletons gentilmen of Shropshire.

Chorleton of Chorleton [b] Castel maried the heyre of the Lorde Powis, and Gray. Sins Lorde Poys maried Chorleton's heyre.

Arture Newton hath almost made away al his landes.

Yerne is made yn certen places of Shropshire, and especially yn the wooddes betwixte Belvoys [c] and Wenloke.

Colys be diggid hard by Ombridge, where the priory was.

Staffordshire.

Market townes in Staforshir.

Staford.

There is a fre schole for grammar in Stafford made by Syr Thomas Countre parsone of Ingestre by Heywodde, and Syr Randol a chauntre preste of Stafford.

Lichefeld.

Countre and Randol made S. Cedde steple, a fair square tour, and the belles in Stafford toun.

New Castel under Line. The paroche is at Stok on Trent a good mile of. The toune usith to cum to a


[a] Ercall.
[b] Charlton.
[c] Buildwas.

PART IX 19

Staffordshire.

chapel of S. Sonday by the castel. Al the castel is doune save one great toure. Ther was a house of Blak Freres yn the south side of the toune.

Burton apon Trent hath but one paroch chirch and a chapel at the bridge end. Trent cumpasith a great peace of the towne. Many marbelers working in alabaster.

Uttok Cestre [a] one paroche chirch. The menne of the towne usith grasing, for there be wonderful pastures apon Dove. It longgith to the erledom of Lancaster.

It is in the way to Derby from Stafford: and is 9. mile est north est from Stafforde.

A fre scole foundid bi a prist, Thomas Allen. He foundyd an otharat Stone in the reigne of Queen Mari.

Tutburi a smaul market.

Wulnerhampton a very good market town. In it is a fre schole made by Syr Stephane Jenning Maire of London.

Tamworth.

The college of Windesore give the prebendes of Wulnerhampton, and the dean of Wyndesor is deane there ...

Tetenhaul a village and a college about a myle from Wulnerhampton.

Castelles in Staffordshire.

Stafforde not far from Staford town on the river of Sow.

The castel or preaty pile of Careswel iiii. myles by north fro Stone a late a priori of chanons sumtyme belonging to the Montgomerikes, now to the Giffard.

Lichefeld in old tyme had a castel.

Ther is a causey thorough the pole to the castel, and dyvers bridges yn the causey: a water issuith by them through the causey. This castel standith yn low ground. And it standith as a mediamnis yn the poole, the water wherof is yn sum part a quarter of mile brode yn sum place, and yn sum lesse.


[a] Uttoxeter.

20 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Staffordshire.

New Castel under Line, so cawllid of a brooke renning therby, or of an hille or wodd therby, so cawllid. There cummith a broke owt of the pole aboute the castel. It longgid to the Duke of Lancaster. Brok renning oute of ... poole cummith by the toun.

Hely [a] a castel of the Lord Audeleys, and a 2. miles of is Audeley village, wherby sum think that it is cawllid Hely Castel for Audeley Castel. The tenauntes of Audeley cum to this castel.

Tutbiri Castel longging to the King now by the Duke of Lancastre. It was afore Ferrares Castel Erle of Darby.

Eccleshaul Castel longging to the Bisshop of Chester.

There be a v. greate poolys. a broke cummith thorough them, and thens issuing oute.

Sturseley, or Stourton, Castel withoute fayle is in Stafordshir, and I hard that there was a Lorde Storton a baron of this Storton. It is the Kinges. Pole lay at it by licens; and there Cardinal Pole was borne.

Tamworth Castel apon Anker river longging to one of the Ferrars. Parte of Tamworth toune stondith in Stafordshir, part yn Warwike. But the castel hole withowt fayle yn Warwikeshire.

Not veri far from Stone priori appereth the place wher King Woulphers castel or manor place was. This Byri hille stode on a rok by a broke side. Ther appere great dikes and squarid stones. It is a mile from Stone toward the more lande.

Duddeley Castel hard on the borders of Wyrcestreshire, but the castelle self standith yn Stafordshir.

Rivers in Stafordshire.

Sow ... and rennith by Staford, per coenobium S. Thomae a good mile of, by Shutborow, [b] and at Heywood bridge into Trent.


[a] Heyley Castle.
[b] Shugborough.

PART IX 21

Staffordshire.

Trent.

a) I have the cours of Treant to Newarke.

Dove.

Pen fluviolus per Penchrike, & prope Staford in Sow delabitur.

Churnet.

b) I have perfectly the course of Churnet.

Blithy flu. springith at Whetle moore. It rennith by Draicote village, Teyne [a] village, and about Yttokcester goith into Dove.

Tame risith ... per pontem Tamensem, Hamesworth [b] pagum, Aschton, Birmicham, per Crudworth [c] Bridge, Kinisbyri, Faresle [d] pagum, Tamesworth, et apud Wiknor Bridge in Trentam.

Kinisbyri is a fair manor place and a lordship of 140. li. One Brasebridge is lord of it. It is in Warwikshir.

Abbaies and prioris in Stafordshir.

Ther wer dyverse tumbes of the lordes of Stafford in Stone priory made of alabaster. The images that lay on them were after the suppression of the house caryed to the Freers Augustines in Forde bridg, [e] alias Stafford Grene, cis flumen. And yn this freres hong apetigre of the Staffordes.

S. Johns a fre chapelle on the grene at Staford hard by Sow ryver.

The Gray Freres were at the other ende of the toun, ultra flumen.

Mr. Stretey of Lichefeld told me that one Langton Bisshop of Lichefeld made the fair palace at Lichefeld, and the close waulle, and that he made Eckleshaul castel, [f] Shocborow [g] maner place, and the palace by Stroude. This Langton was tresorerto Edward the firste.

Ther is a chace grounde [h] yn Stafordeshir having deere


[a] Tean.
[b] Handsworth.
[c] Curdworth.
[d] Kingsbury, Fazeley.
[e] At Stafford.
[f] Eccleshall.
[g] Shugborough.
[h] Cannock Chace.

22 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Staffordshire.

caullid the vii. Hayes, lying betwixt Lichefeld and Wulnorhampton.

There is a praty chace by Pencriche [a] of the Kinges, where Littleton of Pillenhaul is foster by inheritaunce.

Forestes, parkes and chasis in Stafordshire.

The forest of Neede Wodde [b] by Tuttebryi, and betwixt Tuttebyri and Lichefelde; but the nerest part of it is a v. miles from Lichefeld. There long to Tutbyri Honor 4. parkes. The Castel Hay, Hanbyri, Barton, and the New Park. This forest is mervelusly plenishid with dere.

Cank [c] Foreste a great thing, merely longging to the Bisshoprik of Lichefeld. Ther is Bewdesert his place and parke (Bewdesert in Langedon paroch; and yn this paroch is a great peace of Cank Forest.) and Shucborough [d] his place (were is a park now of red dere) is yn the side of Cank Woode. Shukborow was ons Suchborows with the long berd, and he, as sum say, gave it to the mitre of Lichefeld. I know no certente of this gifte.

Sum caulle Shokesborow Heywood by cause it standith by it.

Ther is a fair poole betwixt Cank Wood and Shukesborow.

Ther ly a v. fayre pooles by the castel of Eccleshaul, and the park of Blore a 2. miles of in the same lordship is a v. or vi. miles abowte, and is the bisshops, and is ful of wonderful fair wood. The chase of Sutton v. miles owte of Lichefeld, wherof parte was yn Staford, and parte in Warwikeshir. It is now clene put downe. And this is the place wher Veysi Bisshop of Excestre hath plantid housis of stone and bryk, and many good dwellers yn them.

One Mountford a knight, atteyntid in Henry the vii.


[a] Penkridge, Teddesley Chace.
[b] Needwood.
[c] Cannock.
[d] Shugborough.

PART IX 23

Staffordshire.

tymes, had a manor place here caullid Sutton by Sutton toun. This Mountford had a house in Warwikshire caullid Colleshil Haul, and a park that was given to Syr Simon Dygby, Leutenaunt of the Toure of London.

The limites of Stafordshire.

The site of the shire and commodites of the soile.

Se coles at Weddesbyri [a] a village a 5. miles from Lichefelde by west south west.

Waulleshal [b] a litle market toune in Stafordshir a mile by north from Weddesbyri. Ther be many smithes and byttemakers yn the towne. It longgith now to the King, and there is a parke of that name scant half a mile from the towne yn the way to Woluerhampton.

At Walleshaul be pittes of se coles, pittes of lyme that serve also South Toun [c] 4. miles of. There is also yren owre.

Cheshire.

Market townes in Chestershire.

Chestre apon Dee.

Nantwich apon Wiver, [d] xiiii. miles be west from Chester. The paroche chirch is impropriatid to Cumbremer. [e] Sum say that Acton is the mother chirch. It is no market.

Northwich apon Wyver, xii. myles from Chestre. It hath but a chapel. The paroch chirch is a mile of at Budworth impropriatid to Norton.

Maxwelle [f] hard on the egge under Maxwel forest, and yet oute of the foreste: xxiiii. myles northwest from Chestre toward Darbishire.

Congleton apon Dane a xx. myles from Chester; plaine easte oute of Chester, and vi. miles owte of Northwike.


[a] Wednesbury.
[b] Walsall.
[c] Sutton Coldfield.
[d] Weaver.
[e] Combermere.
[f] Macclesfield.

24 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cheshire.

Knottesforde [a] market xviii. miles by north est. It hath but a chapel. The paroch chirch is at Aspebyri a mile of.

Stoppord [b] apon Mersey a vi. miles from Manchestre. The paroch chirch is yn the toune.

Mr. Warine is caullid there Baron of Stoppord. For one of the Warines of Chestershire maried one Stoppord baron of Stopporde doughter and heyre aboute Henry the 4. dayes. The auncienter house longging to Warines was Poynton, wher he lyith now, for Stoppord maner place is dekayid. At Poynton is a parke. Pointon ys yn the mydle way betuixt Stoppord and Maxwel toune, 4. mile from eche. It is in Prestebyri paroch, yn the wich paroche be divers places of auncient gentilmen.

Castelles in Chestershire.

Chester.

Biston [c] Castel buildid or reasdifiyd by Ranulf Erle of Chestre.

Haulton [d] Castel buildid by Randol Erle of Chestre. It standeth abowt the side of Mersey, within a myle of his banke, and within a mile of Runcorn, now a poore townlet by a salt creke.

Shotte Wike [e] yn Wyral.

Looke whither Charteley Castel, buildid by Ranulph Erle of Chestre, be in Chestershire.

Staffordshire.

Charteley is yn Stafordeshire an viii. miles from Deuleucrese [f] Abbay, and a v. myles from Uttokcestre Market. Ther is a mighty large parke. The olde castel is now yn ruine; but olde Yerle Randol, as sum say, lay in it, when he buildid Deuleucres Abbay. This Castel stondith a good flite shot from the building and goodly manor place that


[a] Knutsford.
[b] Stockport.
[c] Beeston.
[d] Halton.
[e] Shotwick.
[f] Dieulacresse Abbey.

PART IX 25

now is ther, as the principal house of the Ferrars, and cam to them be similitude by maryage.

Cheshire.

There was a place of the Lorde Audeleys in Chestreshire betuixt Cumbremere and Nantwiche caullid Newhaule Tower. It is now doune. There be motes and fair water.

Rivers in Chestreshire.

Deva. [a] I have his course.

Wyver. [b] I have his course.

Above Frodesham, Wyver by himself goith to the se.

Daven, alias Dane, [c] risith in the hundered of Maxfeld wher the forest ys. The hedde off Dane is in the very bordre of Darbyshire and Maxwel Forest. And as yt is saide, abowt the hedde of this River be the limites of Chestreshire, Stafordshir and Darbishir.

After that Dane cummith a 3. miles beneth the hedde, if rayne cum fast it ragith on stones, thoug after it cummith from Congleton it runnith on ground sumwhat morisch.

Abbais and prioris in Chestreshire.

Right agayne Lyrpoole [d] ii. miles over Mersey was a priory of canons cawllid Northtton, [e] now suppressid.

Forests and chacys and parkes in Chestershire.

The faire and large forest of Delamare, beside the wich I remembre none, and there is plenty of redde deere and falow.

The hole Foreste of Maxwel except it be a smaul spek is yn Chestre.

Notable places of Gentilmen in Chestershir.


[a] The Dee r.
[b] Weaver r.
[c] Dane r.
[d] Liverpool.
[e] Norton Priory.

26 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cheshire.

In the southe side of the Forest of Delamere.

Syr John Downe, alias Dane, dwellith at Utkenton [a] within iii. miles of Gunbyri, a mile from Torperle, [b] a long pavid village, or thoroug fare, and iiii. miles from Vale Royal.

The firste house of the Egertons is at Egerton in Malpas paroche. He hath also the Manor of Oldeton.

The auncientis of the Egertons dwellith now at Oldeton, [c] and Egerton buildeth ther now.

The second of the howse of the Starkeis is at Darle [d] abowte a v. miles from Northwiche, a scant mile from Oldeton, and a 3. miles from Vale Royal.

The frutefulnesse of the soile of Chestreshire.

Bunbyri a gentilman not in, but hard by, Wyraul. Iriene Breton maried William Hanford of Handforde, [e] heyre. But she had a sun afore by Syr John Standely, bastard to Standely, Bisshop of Helye.

Syr Richard Brereton, a younger sun to Syr Randol of Brereton, maried the onle doughter of Wylken Standeley, and heyre to Syr Geffrey Massey of Tatton Manor and Parke.

Mere of the Mere 2. mile from Knotesford, a man of a C. marke land.

Le of Hyle, [f] the auncientest of the Lees of this contery, a mile from Knotesford.

Le of Bouth [e] half a mile from Knotesford, and hath a park.

Le of Adelington a mile from Prestby, a man of 3. C. mark lande.

Leyrcester of Tabeley betwixt Northwich and Knottesford a 3. miles from eche.

Leyrcester of ... yonger brother of ... Toste his manor place, a man of a C. marke lande.


[a] Utkinton.
[b] Tarporley.
[c] Oulton.
[d] Darley.
[e] Handforth.
[f] High Leigh.
[e] Booth.

PART IX 27

Cheshire.

Daniel of Table, [a] a mile from Leyrcestre.

Bouth of Dunham dwellith at Dunham a 3. miles from Knottesford. It hath a fair parke, and is a myle from Altringham a pore thing, wher is a mayre.

Bouth of Barton in Lancastreshire is the auncienteste.

Bouth Bisshop of Hereforde was of yonger brother of Bouth of Barton in Lancastreshire.

Davenport of Bromehaule [b] 2 miles from Stopporde by West dwellith at Bromehaule. He hath a 2. markes landes.

Davenport of Woodeforde a 2. myles from Bromhaule. The best and firste house of the Davenportes is at Davenport a great old house coverid with leade on the ripe of Daven, 3. miles above Congleton.

Davenport of Henbyri cummith oute of this house.

Henbyri [c] place is a 2. miles playne north from Maxfeld. At Henbyri is a greate poole. This Davenport hath a peace of Bechetons landes. Fitton of Goseworth had a nother peace. Fitton dwellith at Goseworth [d] now, but not part of Becheton landes.

Syr Perce of Dutton chefest hovvse is in Dutton a viii. miles from Chestre.

Hatton a fair place longging to Syr Perse of Dutton, abowte a 4. litle miles from Chestre.

Bostok of Bostok in Henry the 7. tyme had a doughter and heyre maryed to Syr John Salvage. Bostok was of a very auncientnes yn Chestershire, and yn Daneham paroche; and both Bulkles of this paroche, and Lestwike also.

The last Bulkle of Eton [e] was nepos. Venables doughter was his wife, yet alive.

Bulcle of Whatcroft a 2. mile from the Northwich now dwelling yn Wales. William of Bulkle, [f] chefe Justice of Chester, was setter up of Eiton. Bulkle of Eyton had sum land afore he was Justice. These 2. Bulkles contend either


[a] Tabley.
[b] Bramhall.
[c] Henbury Hall (due west).
[d] ? Gawsworth.
[e] Eaton.
[f] Bulkeley.

28 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cheshire.

to be the elder house of that name. The name rose by a lawyer. Bulkle of Wales ys a man of far greater land then the other. Bulkle of Elton's stok cam to a doughter, and Lestewich had her; but Syr Gul. of Breton bought Eyton.

AEgerton, one of the yongger brethern of Egerton of Egerton, dwellith at Ridle within a halfe mile of Bukle Hille wher the hedde of Wyver river is, and neere is a poole of a mile and more in lenghthe, and owte of it issuith an arme, that sone after goith into Wyver, and straite moche encresith hit. This Ridle Hawlle [a] made of a poore hold place the fairest gentleman's howse of al Chestreshire by Syr William Stondeley, helper to King Henry the vii., and he was atteinted, and Ridle was given to Rafe Egerton. There is a very large p ...

Ridle longid to Danyel, that was servant to Syr W ... Standle. and few men know what becam of this D ...

Spurstow hath a place [b] a mile of ... and a poole by hit cawllid Newpoole.

Bunbyri College half a mile of. Syr Hugh Calveley made the college of Bunbyri about Henry the 5. dayes.

Syr Hugh Calveley and Syr Robert Knolles were companions and great menne of warre.

Biston dwellith at Biston half a mile from Biston Castel.

Davenport dwellith a iii. dim. miles from Biston by easte at a place cawllid Calveley, havyng certen very hy trees abowte his house that men may se very far of. This Davenport is of lesse landes then the residew.

Prestland dwellith at Wordele [c] in Bunbery paroche. It is a mile from Calveley. A mile and a half thens is Barbridge and ther rennith Bar riveret, after cumming into Wyver.

Syr Randol Manoring dwellith at Badele [d] a 3. miles


[a] Ridley Hall.
[b] Spurstow Hall.
[c] Wardle.
[d] Baddiley.

PART IX 29

Cheshire.

from Nant Wiche by south west, and hath a parke and a Cheshire, mere caulyd Badlemere. Starkey the auncients of that stokke dwellith at Wenbyri [a] a mile and a half from Cumbremere. There is a parke ful of mervelus faire wood, but no dere. Abowte these ii. places is plenty of woodde.

Nedam a knight dwellith at Shenton a iiii. miles from Cumbremere by est. He hath buildid a faire house. It is motid. Shenton ys yn Shropshire, and Syr John Nedam was chefe Justice of Chestre, much set up this name.

Cranage manor and place yn Chestershir 3. miles from Midlewich longith to Nedam of Shenton. The manors of Badington, Bromold and Austason cam to Syr Robert Nedam that now livith by his mother, one of 3. heyres of Syr John Braundeley. The 2d. doughter was maried to Geralde of Brin in Lancastershire, and he had Braundele [b] the hedde house, and Wynnington, both in Staffordshir, and other lordshipes beside. Harper of Ruschaule [c] had the 3. and with her the lordship of Cholmeston [d] 2. miles from Nantwich.

Braundeley the hedde house of Braundeley the knight in Stafordshir in the greate large paroch of Eccleshaul, wher the Bisshop of Chester castel is.

Syr John Oldford of Oldford a mile from the Northwich.

Fowleciste a iiii. miles from Nantwiche sowth est hath a faire place, and a man of fair landes. He is a knight.

John Ascheley of Ascheley 2. myle out of Knotesford.

Syr Henry Delves dwellith a iii. miles est from Nantwiche, and hath a fayr house.

Richard Letewich of Letewich [e] ... mile from Northwiche ... on Dane ... ik a mile ... then Northwice.


[a] Wrenbury.
[b] Bromley, Staff.
[c] Rushall.
[d] Cholmondeston.
[e] Leftwich.

30 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cheshire.

Malpas.

... arbyri of ... rbyri, wher ... great Poole ... e from ... Northwik.

... rse Wer ... hath is ... cient house ... Werbreton ... Mersey and dwellith ... reley. He ... the Winington ... Winningtons Lands 2. C. markes ... ere. In al he hath 5. C. markes by yere.

Calveley dwellith at a maner place cawllid Le, [a] v. miles from Biston [b] by south west.

The seconde howse of the Breertons wher Syr Randol a late dwellid, ys at Malpas, a litle Sonday market having iii. streates al pavid. His fair place is at the very ende of the south streate. Syr Randol erected a gramer schole ther, and an hospital.

Cholmeley dwellith at Cholmeley Haul, a fair howse, having a litle mere by hit, a fair woode, and a mosse of fyrwod. It is yn the middes of the way betwixt Malpas and Bunbyri iii. miles from eche.

The eldest howse of the Breertons is Bruerton hawle [c] by the Middle Wiche, possessid now of Syr Wylliam Breerton. Mynshul dwellith at Mynshul a v. miles west from the Midle Wiche.

Venables borne of Kindreton dwellith at Kindreton by the Midle Wiche. Venables be auncient gentilmen.

In Wyrale.

Standeley a knight.

Pole a knighte.

Massey at Puddington.

... ravenor ... dwellith clene ...


[a] Leigh.
[b] Beeston, Cheshire.
[c] Brereton Hall.

PART IX 31

Derbyshire.

Market townes in Darbyshire.

Darby.

Oresworth. [a]

Bakewelle.

Ascheburn in the Peke.

Chestrefeld in the Peke.

Maunsefeld.

Castelles in Darbishire.

Duffeld had a Castel.

Horeston.

Codnore, sumtyme longging to the Lorde Greys, v. mylis bi east from Horeston. It is now al ruinose.

Castel of the hy Peke longging to the King.

Rivers in Derbishire.

Darwent risith plaine west a litle above Blakwel [b] a market town. To Darle in the Peke, to Wennesle [c] village, to Mattelok village, to Crumford village, and thorough Crumford bridge, to Watstonde Wel [d] Bridge, to ... Darle, Darby, Sawla [e] feri, v. miles be land from Darby, wher it goith into Trente.

Trent.

Manifold.

Ambre [f] risith east of Chestrefeld, and leveth ii. myles on the lift hand onto us, to Winfeld [g] village an viii. myles, to Ambrebridge ii. myles, to Chriche [h] Chase a wood, fast by wher hit runneth into Darwent.

Wye river good for troutes risith in Darbishire nere S. Anne of Bukstanes [i] Welle, so to Bakewel a market town, to Haddon, and therabowt Wye cummith into Darwent.

AEglesburn [k] risith in a roche in the paroche of Oreworthe, [l]


[a] Probably Wirksworth.
[b] Leland confuses this place with Bakewell on the Wye.
[c] Wensley.
[d] Whatstandwell.
[e] Sawley.
[f] Amber r.
[g] Wingfield.
[h] Crich.
[i] Buxton.
[k] Ecclesbourn r.
[l] Wirksworth.

32 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Derbyshire.

thens to Iderse [a] a iii. myles, to Dofeld b chirch a iii. myles. A litle beyound Dovefeld [b] chirch at a place Eglesburn muthe goith ynto Darwent.

Abbais and Priories in Darbishire.

The Limites of Darby.

The Frutefulnes of the Shire.

Forestes and Chasis in the Shire.

Notable Places of Gentilmen.

The Limites of Lincolnshire.

Market Townes in Kesten. [c]

Staneforde.

Bourne.

Deping Market chirche is dedicate to S. Gudelake.

The chyrch of the other Deping is dedicate to S. James.

A mile from Deping Market is the ruine of a castel, caullid Maxeye, wherof sum parte stondith yet. It was be al likelyhod the Lorde Wakes house. Of late dayes it apparteynid to the Countes of Richemont, King Henry the 7. mother by the right of the ...

Lincolnshire.

Sleforde toune nor market is of no price. The ornamentes of it is the Bisshop of Lincoln's castel, and the late Lorde Husey's house.

Kyme the goodly house and parke is a 3. miles from Sleford.

Grantham.


[a] Idridgehay.
[b] Duffield.
[c] Kesteven.

PART IX 33

Lincolnshire.

From Stanford to Granteham al yn Kesten, and by meatly good plenty of woode, xviii. myles. shire.

From Stanforde, to Bechefeld, [a] a meane thorough fare, xii. mile, much playne grounde, savinge in the partes aboute Bichefeld self.

From Bichefeld to Ankester, a poore thorough fare, al by playne and much hethy grounde.

From Ankestre to Lincolne xvi. miles, al by like playne grounde in Kestene.

Here marke that al this hethe or playne from Bichefeld to Lincolne berith the name of Ankester.

From Burne in Kesten to go thorough hy Holland to Boston xx. miles al by low grounde and much marsch, and no woode in maner.

Low Holande.

Croylande.

Quappelode, vulgo Hoplode. [b]

Hye Holand.

Boptolpstoune [c] stondith harde on the river of Lindis. The greate and chifiest parte of the toune is on the este side of the ryver, where is a faire market place and a crosse with a square toure. The chife paroche chirche was at S. John's, where yet is a chirch for the toune. S. Botolph's was but a chapel to it. But now it is so risen and adournid that it is the chifiest of the toune, and for a paroche chirche the beste and fayrest of al Lincolnshire, and servid so with singging, and that of cunning men, as no paroche is in al England. The society and bretherhodde longging to this chirch hath caussid this, and now much lande longgith to this society.

The stepil being quadrata turris, and a lanterne on it, is both very hy and faire, and a marke bothe by se and lande for all the quarters thereaboute. There is a


[a] Bitchfield.
[b] Now Whaplode.
[c] Boston, on the Witham r.

34 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Lincolnshire.

goodly fonte, wherof part is of white marble, or of stone very like to it.

There be 3. colleges of Freres, Gray, Blake and Augustines. There ys also an hospital for poore men, and yn the towne, or nere to it the late Lorde Huse had a place with a stone toure. Al the building of this side of the toune is fayre, and marchauntes duelle yn it; and a staple of wulle is usid there. There is a bridg of wood to cum over Lindis ynto this part of the toune, and a pile of stone set yn the myddle of the ryver. The streame wherof is sumtymes as suifte as it were an arow.

On the west syde of Lindis is one long strete, and on the same side is the White Freres.

The mayne se ys vi. miles of Boston. Dyverse good shipps and othar vessells ryde there.

The Lord Wyllougby had a house at Heresby, [a] and a parke of blak dere a 2. miles from Spilesby, wher, as I heere say, he entendith to build sumptuusly.

Spilesby, a mene market toune having houses most parte thakkid, and sum redid. In it is one meately faire place, longging to one Hastinges, a gentilman which cam from Southfolk, where he hath lande. This toune is v. miles est from Home Castel, and about as much from the se side as in the midle way: and it standith on the egge of the midle marsche of Lowe Lyndesey.

Rivulus praeterlabitur, and many springes be about it, and the soile sandy.

Alford xvi. miles from Boston. Alforde, a meane market toune in Low Lindesey Marsche a ... myle from the maine se. The toune is al thakkid and redid, and a brooke cummith by it.

There is goode whete and benes in moste paroches of the low marsche yn Lindesey, but litle barle as yn stiffe clay grounde.

No woode yn the low marsche of Lindesey.


[a] Eresby.

PART IX 35

Lincolnshire.

At Hutetost [a] Marsch 4. miles of cum shippes yn from divers places and discharge.

Wayneflete a praty market stonding on a creke nere to the se. To this toune long smaul vessels.

The schole, that Wainflete Bisshop of Winchestre made ther and endowid with x. li. lande, is the most notable thing of that toune.

Waynflete vii. myle from Alford toward Boston.

Louthe.

Raisun market. [b]

Castre standith on a clive side half a mile of from Ankeholme ryver, and a iiii. myles from Langford Bridge, and toward a vi. miles est from Spitel. There is a Satarday market. The toune almoste al thakkid, and in hominum memoria often hurte with fyer. There is speking of a fortres that hath sumtyme bene ther. There cummith springes from the hilles by Castre.

Launford. Forsan Langforde.

Grimesby.

Tatershaule apon Bane [c] ryver; and the Aye or Rhe, [d] a greate river, is aboute a mile of. It is preati smaul market. It is a v. miles from Hornecastel, and 3. from Bardeney.

Horne Castelle, as far as I can lerne, is now moste buildid withyn the circuite of an old waullid toune, or sum hughe castel, as apperith from divers mines of a waulle. It hath one faire paroche chirch. Alluitur Bano et Verino qui paulo infra op. Banum.

Dr. Thybleby of the Quenes College hath landes about the olde waulles of Home Castel. Waring risith of divers springis aliquot passuum millibus ab oppido.

... petit. Pons ibi est super Verinum flu.

The market is very good and quik, occupiers in the toun ... wood hard... .

Bullingbroke hath ons a yere a faire, but it hath no


[a] Huttoft.
[b] Market Rasen.
[c] Bain r.
[d] Lindis, now Witham r.

36 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Lincolnshire.

wekely market. The castel is meately welle mayntaynid, and motid abowte, having a draw bridge.

Rivers and Brokes yn Lindcolnshire.

At Kellesthorp, [a] or there abowt, as it were a iii. myles west from Louthe, risith a great brooke ther cawlled Bane, so to Baumburge, peraventure for Baneburg, [b] a village a iiii. myles of, thens to Home Castel a market town iiii. myles of. Al this way yt runneth most by sowth. After to Tatershaul, alias Tateshaul, [c] flat west yt runneth.

Tatershaul ys a market town v. myles of Horn Castel, and so to Dogdyke Fery abowt a myle, where yt renneth ynto the Ree, alias Lindis, [d] the which devideth Lindesey fro Kesteney. [e]

Lindis. It ebbith and flouith withyn a litle of Dogdike Fery.

Lyndesey lieth by est and Kesteney by west.

The bek or brooke that runneth by the north side of the Abbay of Bardeney, and within a half quarter of a myle lower runneth into the great Rhe of Lindis, is cawllid Panton bek. Thys bek riseth yn Hy Lindesey, as Master West thynkketh not very far fro the quarters wher as the Bane doth rise. Then to Hilles, a maner place of Master Hansard, so to Panton, a village a v. myles of; thens to Wragby village abowt a ii. myles, wherof yt is sumtyme cawlled Wragby bekk; so to Bardeney Abbay a iiii. myles, and then ynto the Ree. The monkes hold opinion that the old Abbay of Bardeney was not in the very same place wher the new ys, but at a graunge or dayre of theyrs a myle of.

Lude ryver. To Ludebroke village, to Lude alias Louth, the fayre market toun, a 4. miles by Lude Parke. Thens to Grymbleby [f] village a mile, and to Salflete [g] Creke a 4. miles of, and so to the see. Salt Creke is a havenet, and as the shore lyith it is a vi. miles above Huttoste Creke.

Meately good plenty of wood about Bardeney and Barlinges, Reseby, [h] and Kirstede Abbays.


[a] Calcethorpe.
[b] Burgh on Bane.
[c] Tattershall.
[d] Witham r.
[e] Kesteven.
[f] Grimoldby.
[g] Saltfleet.
[h] Risby.

PART IX 37

Lincolnshire.

Dymmok dwellith at Sckrellesby [a] 2. miles from Home Castel.

Sir Christopher Willoughby's sun and heyre dwellith now at Tupholme Priory, and beside enheritith part of the Lorde Wylloughby's landes.

Copledike dwellith at Harington 2. Miles from Spilesby market.

Asschecue dwellith about Thorton Curtois. [b]

Wimbische hath Nokton Parke Priory, and ys beside a man of great possessions and auncient. He maried the Lord Taylbois sister.

Litlebyri at Stanesby [c] in Haghworthingham.

The Lord Borow dwellith at Gaynesborow.

Gaynesborow ys his, and much lande ys about Sheffield in Axholme.

Dalisun a litle a this side Axholme.

Henege at Haynton, [d] where he is lorde and patrone.

The olde Henege landes passid not a fyvety poundes by the yere. Haynton is withyn a 3. miles of Raysun market, and a vii. miles from Home Castel.

Syr Thomas Hennage hath doone much cost ther, yn translating and new building with brike and abbay stone.

Sandon dwellith at Ascheby half a mile from Spilesby.

Porter by Grauntham.

Harington beside Ankestre. [e]

Billesby dwellith by Billesby, [f] withyn a mile of Markeby Priory.

Fitzwilliams a Maplethorp [g] by Sutton on the se side.

Hastinges ... Wlkseby a 3 ...

Langton at Langton a litle from Wlkesby. [h]

Asterby in Billesby a man of mene land.

Totheby of Thotheby [i] by Alford.

Gedeney of Mavis Enderby a mene gentilman.

Quathering by Waynflete.


[a] Scrivelsby.
[b] Thornton Curtis.
[c] Stainsby.
[d] Hainton.
[e] Ancaster.
[f] Bilsby.
[g] Mablethorpe.
[h] Wilksby.
[i] ? Thoresby.

38 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Lincolnshire.

S. Paulle.

Misselden about Castre. [a]

Luddington.

Turwithe about Barton apon Humbre.

Turner.

Sutton at Lincoln.

Dymmok of Carleton by Lincoln.

Massingberde beside Waynflet.

Haul by Grauntham.

Welleby at Hanstede a litle from Stickeswald Priory, a man of fair landes.

Yorkshire,

Dancastre.

Wakefeld.

Wakefeld apon Calder ys a very quik market toune, and meately large; wel servid of flesch and fische both from the se and by ryvers, wherof dyvers be theraboute at hande. So that al vitaile is very good chepe there. A right honest man shal fare wel for 2. pens a meale. In the toune is but one chefe chirch. There is a chapel beside where was wont to be Anachoreta in media urbe, unde et aliquando inventa faecunda. Ther is also a chapel of our Lady on Calder Bridge wont to be celebratid a peregrinis. A forow lenght, or more, oute of the toune be scene dikes and bulwarkes, and monticulus egestae terrae, indicium turris spectilaris. Wherby apperith that ther hath bene a castel. The Guarines Erles of Surrey, as I reede, were ons lordes of this toune. It standith now al by clothyng. The Duke of York, father to Edwarde the 4. was slayne by Wakefeld in bataile.

Bradeforde a praty quik market toune, dimidio, aut eo amplius, minus Wachefelda. It hath one paroche chirche, and a chapel of S. Sitha. It standith much by clothing, and is distant vi. miles from Halifax, and 4. miles from Christestal Abbay. [b] Ther is a confluens in this toune of 3. brokes. One risith above Bouline [c] Haul, so that the hed is a mile dim. from the toune, and this at the toune hath a bridge of


[a] Caistor.
[b] Kirkstall.
[c] Bowling.

PART IX 39

Yorkshire.

one arche. A nother risethe a 2. mile of, having a mille and a bridge of ... The 3. risith 4. miles of havinge ...

Bouline Haul sumtyme the Boulines. Now it longith to Tempeste. It stondith a mile ... Bradeforde.

Beverle.

Beverle is a very larg town; but I cowld not perceyve that ever hit was waulled, though ther be certen gates of stone portcolesed for defence. In the town be a iii. paroche chyrches; the mynstre wher S. John sumtime Bisshop of York lieth, and one chapel. Ther is also a howse of grey freres, and an other of blak, and an howse as a commawndery of S. John's. Ther is a great gut cut from the town to the ripe of Hulle Ryver, wherby preaty vesseles cum thyther. Ther cummeth owt of the Bisshopes parke, Westwoode, therby a litle fresch broke to the town.

To this toune long many great and auncient pryvileges as to a sanctuary.

The towne hath yn theyr commune seale the figure of a bever.

Bede cawlleth the place where Beverle is now Sylva Deirorum, Anglice Deirewauld.

In steede of the mynstre there was in old tyme an abbay of munkkes, and nunnes, destroied almost by the Danes.

Brithung, S. John's decon was sumtyme abbate there, and ys buried ther.

Ther is also buried S. Winwaldus.

Ledis, [a] 2. miles lower then Christal Abbay on Aire Ryver, is a praty market, having one paroche chirch reasonably welle buildid, and as large as Bradeford, but not so quik as it. The toun stondith most by clothing.

Hulle.

Pikering.


[a] Leeds.

40 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Yorkshire.

Tadcaster.

Borowbridg. Alboro.

York.

Keterik. [a]

Ripon.

Richemont.

In Darbyshire. [b]

Lancashire.

Bruscow [c] (Briscot) a priory of blake chanons of the fundation of the Erles of Darby a mile from Latham. [d] It standith not very far from Duggils. [e] Many of the line of the Erles of Darby lyith there.

Holand a priory of blake monkes a ii. myles from Wigan. The Wottons were founders there.

Sawley stondith on Calder Ryver.

Lancastreshire conteinith v. litle shires.

Westarbyshire, alias Darbyshire.

Lyrpole, alias Lyverpoole, a pavid towne, hath but a chapel. Walton, a iiii. miles of nat far from the se, is paroche chirch. The King hath a castelet there, and the Erle of Darbe hath a stone howse there. Irisch marchauntes cum


[a] Catterick.
[b] I.e. the hundred of Darby. Briscot is certainly misnamed for Burscough, there being such a priory about a mile from Latham.
[c] Burscough.
[d] Lathom.
[e] Duggils.

PART IX 41

Lancashire.

much thither, as to a good haven. After that Mersey Water cumming toward Runcorne in Chesshire lisith amonge the commune people the name, and to Lyrpole, a v. mile on the other side in Lancastreshire, is cawllid Runcorne Water.

At Lyrpole is smaule custume payid that causith marchantes to resorte. Good marchandis at Lyrpole, and moch Yrisch yarn that Manchester men do by ther.

Warington, apon Mersey in Chestreshire, a pavid town, one chirch, a freres Augustine at the bridge ende. The town is of a prety bygnes, the paroche chirch is at the tayle of al the tounne. It is a better market then Manchestre.

Thelewaul sumtime a havenet and litle cite, as it apperith by the Kinges Recordes. Now fische garthes marre the haven, and the old toune now a poore village. It stondith a ii. myles upward from Warington.

Thelewaulle so caullid bycawse it was wallid abowt with greate ... lis that is to ... de Logges or timber postes.

Wigan pavid, as bigge as Warington and better buildid. There is one paroch chirch amidde the towne: summe marchauntes, sum artificers, sum fermers.

Mr. Bradeshau hath a place caullid Hawe a myle from Wigan. He hath founde moche canel like se coole in his grounde very profitable to hym, and Gerade of Ynse [a] dwellith in that paroch. Winwike a good benefice a v. mile of and a iii. from Warington.

Ormekirk a iiii. miles or v. myles from Lyrpole, and about a ii. miles from Latham. A paroch chirche in the towne. No river by yt but mosses of eche side. Latheham [b] most parte of stone, the chefest howse of the Erles of Darby, ii. miles from Ormeskirk.

Newton [c] on a brooke cawllid Golforden, a litle poore market, wherof Mr. Langton hath the name of his baronry.


[a] Ince, near Wigan.
[b] Lathom.
[c] Newton, near Warrington.

42 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Lancashire.

Syr Perse Lee of Bradley hath his place at Bradley in a parke a ii. miles from Newton.

Newton is a iiii. miles from Morley Haulle.

Prestcod [a] a litle market having no notable water abowt hit a iiii. mile from Mersey up toward Lyrpole. Mr. Molineux a knight of great landes a ii. myles from Prestcode dwellith at a place caullid Crostoffe. [b] Tokstaffe [c] a parke of the Kinges harde by his howse. Knollesley [d] a parke having a praty house of the Erles of Darby within a mile of Prestcod.

Syr William Norys dwellith at a howse caullid Speyke [e] a ii. or iii. miles from Prestcod and thereabowt from Flor.eskir ... Thomas Ireland dwellith at ... Rumcorne on Mersey river.

Mr. Leland rekenith Preston in Andernes to be a litle shire, and so ther be vi. shires or hunderes in Lancastreshire.

Westerbyshire.

Chateley More [f] in Darbyshire is a iii. or iiii. miles in bredthe.

Glasbroke [g] River cummith within lesse then a mile of Morley Hawle.

There be xii. paroche chirchis in Darbyshir, but they be large.

Winwike personage hath a parke, and is a ii. or iii. miles from Werington.

Flete and a nother broke or ii. cummith into Glasbrooke. and Glasebrooke goith into Mersey.

Dugles [h] Ryver cumming by Wigan Market goith into the se by hit self toward Latham.

Chateley More a vi. miles yn lenght sum way brast up within a mile of Morley Haul, and dejstroied much grounde with mosse therabout, and destroid much fresch water fische


[a] Prescot.
[b] ? Croxeth.
[c] Toxteth.
[d] Knowsley.
[e] Speke Hall.
[f] Chat Moss.
[g] Glazebrook.
[h] Douglas r.

PART IX 43

Lancashire.

therabowt, first corrupting with stinking water Glasebrooke, and so Glasebrook carried stinking water and mosse into Mersey Water, and Marsey corruptid caried the roulling mosse part to the shores of Wales, part to the Isle of Man, and sum into Ireland. In the very toppe of Chate moore where the mosse was hyest and brake, is now a faire plaine valley, as was in tymes paste, and a rille runnith in hit, and peaces of smaul trees be founde in the botom.

Canale and cole pittes in divers partes of Darbyshire. The great myne of canale is at Hawe 2. miles from Wigan. One Bradshaw dwellith at Hawe. [a]

Martine Meare [b] towarde Latham is the greatest meare of Lancastreshire, a iiii. miles in lengthe and a iii. in bredthe.

Saltfordeshire.

Manchestre.

Byri on Irwel Water, 4. or v. miles from Manchestre, but a poore market. There is a ruine of a castel by the paroch chirch yn the towne. It longgid with the towne sumtime to the Pilkentons, now to the Erles of Darby. Pilkenton had a place hard by Pilkenton Parke [c] 3. mile from Manchester.

Bolton apon Moore market stondith most by cottons and cowrse yarne. Divers villages in the mores abowt Bolton do make cottons. Nother the site nor ground aboute Bolton is so good as it is aboute Byri. They burne at Bolton sum canale, but more se cole of the wich the pittes be not far of. They burne turfe also.

Yerne in tymes paste made at Orwike [d] a ... miles from Manchestre.

Yerne sumtime made abowte Byri a market towne on Irwel.

Now for lakke of woodde the blow-shoppes decay there.

Wild bores, bulles, and falcons bredde in times paste at Blakele. [e]


[a] Haigh.
[b] Martin mere.
[c] Pilkinton.
[d] Horwich.
[e] Blackley.

44 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Lancashire.

Market tonnes in Lelandshire.

Chorle a wonderful poore or rather no market.

Croston a iii. miles from Chorle toward Latham a vi. miles from Chorle, a poore or no market.

There be abowt a vii. or viii. large paroches yn Lelandshire.

Darwent River cummith thorowgh a pece of Lelandshire.

Darwent cummith by Mr. Langton's place Baron of Newton by Warington a mile above Preston.

Ribil risith in Ribilsdale above Salley Abbay, and so to Sawlley. A iiii. miles beneth Sawley it reseyvith Calder that cummith by Walley; and after receyvith a nother water cawllid Oder. [a]

Waulley [b] a x. miles from Preston; Sawlley a ... miles or more.

Blakeburnshire.

Owt of a charte of Merton-College.

The next river by se movith by Cairluel bakward on the same shore. There is a water made cumming from Chiswik [c] to the se.

The next to that cumming to the se is there cawllid Eske.

Next to that Doden, [d] and betwixt them is set Millum.

Next upward into Lancastreshire is set the mowth of the river of Leven.

Then Kent [e] River cumming to the se.

After is sett Ribyl.

And then Mersey Water.

Dorset.

In a nother Carte of Merton-College.

Bridport is set as midde way betwixt Waymouth and Lime.


[a] Hodder r.
[b] Whalley.
[c] Keswick, and the Derwent r.
[d] Dudden r.
[e] Kennet r.

PART IX 45

Lelandus.

At Bridporth be made good daggers.

Lancastreshire.

Lancashire.

The hedde of Lune River by al aestimation must be yn Coterine Hille, or not far fro the root of it. Owt of this hille risith Ure, Sawle, and Edon. [a]

Howbeit M. Moore of S. Caterines Haul in Cambridge thus enstructed me of Lune Ryver. Yt risith yn a hil cawlled Crosho, the which is yn the Egge of Richemontshire, and issueth owt of iii. or iiii. heddes. He woold it should be first cawlled Lune in Dentdale, though the name of Dent seme to shew otherwise. North fro Uentdale ys Garsedale, and thorough that rynneth a water that after cummeth into Sebbar Vale, and ther is also a water meeting with Garsedale Water, and a lytle lower yn one streame they go ynto Dentdale Water, which he supposeth to be the streame that afterward is cawlled Lune. Beside the waters afore it receyveth at the foote of Sebbar Vale a great brook, the which cummeth owt of the north betwixt Westmereland and Richemundshire.

This ryver runneth a vii. miles or it cum to Dentdale Foote, and hath receyved into his botom the waters aforesaide. Fro Dentdale Foote yt entereth into Landesdale, [b] peraventure so corruptely cawlled for Lunesdale, and runneth yn it a viii. or ix. myles sowthwarde; and yn this dale is Kyrkby, a very great and famose paroch a iiii. myles fro the foote of Dentdale. Fro Lunesdale yn whos foote ys Hornby Castel longing to the Lord Montegle half a myle fro the Lune. Fro thens it runneth to Lancastre, (set on the sowth side of Lune) corruptely spoken for Lunecastre viii. miles of, wither it ebbeth and floueth.

Sum say that the north arme upward is principal streame of Lune, the which is not of estimation til yt cum ynto Lunesdale.

The ruines of old walles about the bridg were onely of the suppressid priory.


[a] Swale and Eden rivers.
[b] Lonsdale.
[c] Kirkby Lonsdale.

46 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Lancashire.

Borow [a] now a vyllage, set in Lunesdale a vi. myles beneth the foote of Dentdale, hath beene by likelyhod sum notable town. The plough menne find there yn ering lapides quadrafos, and many other straung thinges: and this place is much spoken of, of the inhabitans there.

Westmorland.

In Westermerland is but one good market town cawlled Kendale, otherwise, as I wene, Kirkby Kendale. Yt hath the name of the river cawlled Kent, unde et Kendale, sed Emporium lands pannis celeberrimum. In the towne is but one chirch. The circuite of the paroch by the cuntery adjacent hath many chapels, and divers yn the town self. Abowt half a myle of on the east side of the towne is on a hil a parke longging to yowng M. Par, the chyfest of that name, and ther is a place as it were a castel.

Kent ryver is of a good depthe, not wel to be occupied with botes for rowllyng stones and other moles. Yt risith of very many heddes, be lykelyhod springging withyn the same Shire. (A vii. or viii. myles fro Kentdale, wher is a mere communely caullid Kenmore. [b]) A ii. myles abowt Kendale they cum to one good botom, and so to Kentdale towne that standeth on the west side of yt.

The Hed of Kenne Rever.

It risethe at Kenmore [b] in a poole somwhat large about a myle in compase and muche fishe in it. The place of the heade and all the Baronye of Kendale is in Westmorland, and kepithe Sher Courts at Apleby, and bysyde thethar cummythe all Westmerland.

Kenne nuage and more is a 8 myles flat nothe from Kendall on the way to Perithe, [c] and ther is a chapell longynge as a parte onto Kendale paroche. Kentmore Haul, Gilpins howse. The first parte of the river descendithe in betwyxt 2 hilles. New bridge 2 miles lower of tymber. Then


[a] Burrow on the Lune.
[b] Kentmere.
[c] Penrith.

PART IX 47

Westmorland.

to Barley a smaule bridge of stone in Staueley hamlet, a myle lower. Thens 2 myles to Bowstone bridge of stone, then to Burnes syde a myle, wher the Bellenghams dwell and is of stone. Then to Kendall a myle and halfe lower, and rennythe thrwghe Stramangate bridge of stone havynge 8 or 9 arches, and the paroche churche by est is towchid with this ryver; and thens a quartar and more of a myle it goythe to Nether-bridge of stone of 3 or 4 arches standynge playne este toward Yorke, and then 4 or 5 miles to Leuenbridge [a] of stone and then to ... Kendale Gates notable as wayes but not defensible. Stricland Gate to Stricland village north-ward. Stramangate named of the bridge. Kyrkegate, the greatyst stret lyethe northe and southe. Pronte river goithe into Ken ryver a myle above Stramangate bridge. Ther longithe about a 30 chapells and hamlets to the hedd chirche of Kendale. The parsonage was inpropriate to S. Mari of Yorke. The castle is by est halfe a quarter of a myle from the towne.

Appleby is the Shire towne, but now yt is but a poore village, having a ruinus castel wherin the prisoners be kept.

Ther is an old castel on the ... side of Edon Water cawlled Burgh. [b]

Abowt a dim. fro the castel is a village cawlled Burgham, [c] and ther is a great pilgremage to owr lady.

At Burgham is an old castel that the commune people ther sayeth doth synke.

Abowt this Burgham plowghmen fynd in the feldes many square stones tokens of old buildinges. The castel is set in a stronge place by reasons of ryvers enclosing the cuntery thereabowt.

There is a very greate lake, or mere, wherof part is under the egge of Furnes Felles, cawlled Wynermerewath, [d] wherin a straung fisch cawlled a chare, not sene els there in the cuntery as they say.


[a] Levensbridge.
[b] Brough.
[c] Brougham.
[d] Windermere.

48 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Westmorland.

Abowt the borders of Westmerelandshire and Lancastreland. shire be many dales. And in every one of them a brooke givyng name to the dale.

Ther is in Westmerland, as it is said, a famose stone as a limes of old time, inscribed.

Withyn a myle of Perith, [a] but in Westmerland, is a mine, as sum suppose, of a castel withyn a flite shotte of Loder [b] and as much of Emot Water, [c] stonding almost as a mediamnis betwixt them; the ruine is of sum caulled the Round Table, and of summe Arture's Castel. A myle lower metithe Loder and Emot at Burgham Castel.

Durham.

Market Townes in Dirhamshire.

Duneholm. [d]

Akeland. [e]

Wichingam. [f]

The quikke market of Darlington standing betwixt Teese and Were. [g]

Stoketon apon Tese.

Wulsingam apon Were almost in the midde way betwixt Stanhop and Akeland.

Hertilpole. [h]

Castelles in Dirhamshire.

Duneholm.

Akeland.

Prudho apon Tine.

Stoketon apon Tese.

Barnardes Castel.

Lomeley [i] Castel not far from Chestre. [k]

Abbais and Priories in Dirhamshire.

Duneholme apon Were river.


[a] Penrith.
[b] Lowther r.
[c] Eamont r.
[d] Durham.
[e] Auckland.
[f] Whickham.
[g] Wear r.
[h] Hartlepool.
[i] Lumley.
[k] Chester-le-Street.

PART IX 49

Durham.

Finkelo [a] apon Were, a celle of xiii. monkes longging to Dirham.

Weremouth.

Garaw. [b]

There was a priori not farre from Darington, as I remember aboute Teis ryver.

The Limites of Dirhamshire.

Tese river.

Tine river on til he receyve Darwent water.

Erle of Northumbr. Lord of the Honors of Cokermuth et Petworth. Lorde Percy, Lucy. Lorde Poyninges, Fizpaine, Brian.

Cokermuth cam by Lucy. Petworth by gift of a king Hen. I.

Fizpaine and Brian's landes cam to Poyninges, and by Poyning heyre general al iii. to Percy.

The Erle of Northumbr. Castelles and Manors.

Cokermuth in Cumbreland, a 700. li. by yere.

Northumberland.

Alnewik, Werkworth castel, Langeley and Prudehow in Northumbreland, Rothebyri lordeship on Koket a vii. miles above Anewik, wher is such a toun as Corbridge. Corbridg lordship, wher appere greate tokens of buildinges by square stones. Chatton lordship apon Tille a mile from Chillingham.

In Yorkshire.

Semar, [d] Hundemanby [e] nere Semar. Poklington market a 2. miles from Semar. Lekingfeld [f] ii. miles from Beverle. Wresil [g] Castel ii. miles from Howden market, where the Bisshop of Dirham hath -a faire palace. Catton wher is a parke as is almoste of the lordshipes afore rehersid. Spofford [h]


[a] Finchale.
[b] Jarrow.
[c] Darlington.
[d] Seamer.
[e] Hunmanby.
[f] Leconfield.
[g] Wressell Castle.
[h] Spofforth.

50 LELAND'S ITINERARY

a greate village a 2. miles from Oteley apon Eyre [a] river. Topclif on Suale a goodly maner house yn a parke. Tadcastre, and Hele, Lyndeley by Spofford wher Syr Thomas Johnson now is heyre.

He had yn Kent a 500. mark of Poyninges landes.

In Southsax Poyninges lordship. Petworth.

Torre Brian in Somersetshire that Master Kitson boute.

The Lorde Marquis of Excester had much of hys londes yn Devonshire.

He had castelles yn Wales, and was there a greate lorde marcher. Peraventure Paine Castel by Wy was his. For he bare the name of the Lorde Fizpaine.

He had sum lande yn Southfolke and Cambridgeshire.

He had Taulaughar [b] a castel about the mouth of Teuy cumming from Cairmerdine.

Cumberland.

From Cairluel to Burge on the sandes vi. myles.

From Burg to Workington xii. myles.

From Workington to S. Bees xiiii.

From S. Bees to Fumes by the se cost xiiii. myles.

Lancashire.

From Fumes to Lancastre xii. myles.

From Lancastre to Preston xx. miles,

Eske flu. limes est Scotiae et Angliae.

Cumberland.

Lithel flu. defluit in Eskam. Lither defluit in Eskam at Motel Lithel. [c]

At Motel Lithel was a moted place of a gentilman cawled Syr Water Seleby, the which was killyd there, and the place destroyed yn King Edward the thyrde, when the Scottes whent to Dyrham, and theyr king was take by Copland at Dyrham on a hil therby wher was many Scottes buried.

Bolnes [d] ys at the poynt or playne of the ryver of Edon, [e] wher ys a lytle poore steple as a fortelet for a brunt, and yt ys on the hyther syde of the ryver of Edon, abowt a viii. myles from Cair Luel. [f] Abowt this Bolnesse ys part of the


[a] Aire r., but Otley is on the Wharfe.
[b] Tal Llacharne, or Laugharne.
[c] Liddel Strength, Cumberland.
[d] Bowness.
[e] Eden r.
[f] Carlisle.

PART IX 51

Cumberland.

Pict wal evidently remayning, and yt may be supposed that yt is cawled Bolnes, as who showld say the Wal yee, or poynt, or end.

Burgh yn the sand stondeth a myle of fro the hyther banke of Edon. Yt is a village by the which remayne the ruines of a greate place, now clene desolated, wher King Edward the fyrst dyed. Burgh stondeth from Bolnes iii. myles, and iiii. myles or v. fro Cair Luel.

Burgh longid sumtime to the Morvilles.

Here was a xv. yeres ago the Lord Maxwel sore woundid, many slaine, and drounid in Edon. Strife ther ... tuaine. ... ge ... Scotland ... and took hym prisoner.

At Drumbuygh [a] the Lord Dakers father builded apon old ruines a prety pyle for defens of the contery. Drumbuygh ys almost yn the mydde way bytwyxt Bolnes and Burgh. The stones of the Pict wal wer pulled down to build Dumbuygh. For the wal ys very nere yt.

Netherby is a vii. myles north fro Cairluel, and Eske ryver rynneth on the north side of yt. Ther hath bene mervelus buyldinges, as appere by ruinus walles, and men alyve have sene rynges and staples yn the walles, as yt had bene stayes or holdes for shyppes. On the one side of yt is the Eatable ground; so that it is as a limes Angliae et Scotiae. The ruines be now a iii. myles at the lest from the flowyng water of Sulway sandes. The gresse groweth now on the ruines of the walles.

Rokclif a preaty pile or castel of the Lord Dakers over Edon on the farther ripe, about a iiii. mile from Cairluel.

The towne of Cokermuth stondeth on the ryver of Coker, the which thwartheth over the town, and Coker runneth yn Darwent hard at the point of the castel of Cokermuth.


[a] Drumburgh.

52 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cumberland.

The ryver of Dargwent after that he cummeth to a strayte curse, casteth owt an arme of his abundant water that maketh a poole, or lough, cawlled Use, and afterward strayteth, and at the last cummeth ynto Dargwent, and so maketh an isle.

Forestes.

The great forest of Englewood (Engylwood).

The forest of Nicol longing to the Duke of Lancastre.

The forest of Einerdale.

A xxx. yeres ago not far fro the chapel of the Moore, the which is in Come Whitton [a] paroch in Gillesland, and stondeth a vi. myles est from Cairluel, was fownd a grave, and theryn bonys inusitatae magnitudinis.

Wythyn a quarter of a myle of Cairluel a xx. yerejs ago was take up pypes of an old conduyte, whos hedde by lykelyhod ... wiled Typping Castel ...

This conduct semed to be the conduit of ... d not ...

The cyte of Cairluel is yn cumpace scant a myle, and ys walled with a right fayre and stronge wal ex lapide quadrato subrufo.

In the wal be iii. gates, Bocher gate (south), Caldew gate (west), and Richard gate (north).

The castel being withyn the towne is yn sum part as a closer of the walle.

Leyland. The Irisch men cawle bale a town, and so peraventure did the old Scottes. Thus might be said that Lugubalia [b] soundeth Luele towne.

In the cyte be ii. paroche chyrches, of the which the one is yn the body of the cathedral chyrch, yn the which be Canons Regulars as els be yn no cathedral chyrch of Englande. The other is of S. Cuthebert.

Ther is yn the towne a chapel of S. Albane, and also withyn the walles ii. howses of freres, Blake and Gray.


[a] Cumwhitton.
[b] Now Carlisle. Bal, a Celtic word corresponding to old English ton.

PART IX 53

Cumberland.

In diggyng to make new building yn the towne often tymes hath bene, and now a late, fownd diverse fundations of the old cite, as pavimentes of streates, old arches of dores, coyne, stones squared, paynted pottes, rhony hid yn pottes so hold and muldid that when yt was stronly towchid yt went almost to mowlder: as yn M ... glalbys howse yn diggyng for the squaryng of his gardin and orchard the which stondeth much sowth.

The hole site of the towne is sore chaungid. For wher as the stretes were and great edifices, now be vacant and garden plottes.

The cite of Cairluel stondeth in the forest of Ynglewood.

The body of the cathedral chyrch is of an older building then the quyer. And yt ys as a filial deriveid from S. Oswald's fast by Pontfreyt.

In the feldes abowt Cairluel yn plowghing hath be fownd diverse cornelines and other stonys wel entaylid for seales, and yn other places of Cumbarland in plowinge hath be found brickes conteyninge the prints of antique workes.

The lenght of Cumbreland by the shore is from a water cawled Dudden, [a] the which devideth Furnesland [b] fro Cumbreland, onto a lytle water or mere cawlled Poll Rosse, [c] the which devideth the cownte of Northumberland on the est side from Cumbreland.

The bredeth of Cumbreland is from a water cawled Emot [d] that divideth on the sowth side on the one part Cumberland from Westmerland ontyl he enter ynto the ryver of Edon ii. myles fro Pereth [e] by est, and so on the est side of Edon up to a broke cawled ... the which divideth lykewise Cumbreland fro Westmerland, onto the ryver of Eske on the north side, the which devideth Cumbreland fro the batable grownd ontil yt cum to the arme of the se, the which divideth England fro Scotland.


[a] Duddon r.
[b] Furness, part of Lancashire.
[c] Tipalt burn.
[d] Kamont r.
[e] Penrith.

54 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cumberland.

Market townes yn the Shyre.

Cairluel.

Pereth a market towne by sowthe, xvi. myles fro Carluel, where as a strong castel of the kinges, and stondeth on a lytle water by force cut owt of Peterel. [a] But Pereth stondeth notable dim. a myle fro the river of Emot, and a myle fro the towne or castel of Burgham, [b] that longeth to the Erle of Cumbreland.

In Perith ys one paroche chirch, and a gray freres.

Cokermuth a market towne stondyng on the westsyde of Darwent river iiii. or v. myles fro the se shore, and xx. myles fro Carluel.

Also on the west syde of Darwent is a prety creke wher as shyppes cum to, wher as ys a lytle prety fyssher town cawled Wyrkenton, [c] and ther is the chefe howse of Sir Thomas Culwyn.

On the est side of the ysle, where as the water of Darguent risith, is a lytle poore market town cawled Keswike, and yt is a myle fro S. Herebertes isle [d] that Bede speketh of. Divers springes cummeth owt of Borodale, and so make a great lowgh that we cawle a poole; [e] and ther yn be iii. isles. Yn the one [f] ys the hedd places of M. Radclyf, [g] an other is cawled S. Hereberts isle, wher is a chapel, the iii. ys Vycar isle, ful of trees lyke a wyldernes.

Abbays or priores yn Cumbreland.

The Chanons of Cairluel.

Wetherhaul, [h] a selle of S. Mary Abbay, iii. myles sowth est above Cairluel apon the ryver of Edon, on the same side of the ryver of Edon that Cairluel doth.

Lenercost an abbay of Blake Chanons viii. myles fro Cairluel, apon the north side of the ryver of Yrthyng.


[a] Petterill r., see after, p. 56.
[b] Brougham.
[c] Workington.
[d] S. Herbert's I.
[e] Derwentwater.
[f] Lord's Island.
[g] Ratcliffe, Lord Derwentwater.
[h] Wetheral.

PART IX 55

Cumberland.

Holme Cultrayne [a] Abbay of white monkes.

S. Beges [b] yn Caupland hard on the west se, a selle longing to S. Mary Abbay of Yorke, abowt xxvi. myles or more playne west.

Caldher [c] Abbay of whyte monkes yn Capeland [d] not very far from S. Beges, and nere to Egremont Castel.

At Kiley [e] primis annis Henrici 8i. not far from Norham yn the lordship of the Bisshop of Dyrham, was fownd, bet wixt ii. stonys, bokels of an arming girdel, typpes and barres of the same of pure gold, a pomel and a crosse for a sword of golde, bokels and typps of gold for spurres. D. Ruthall had some of them.

Egermont ... myles by sowth from Cokermuth. Yt longith to the Lord Fizgualter. Yt stondeth by the market towne of Egremont.

At Cokermuth, a good market towne, a castel of the Erl of Northumbreland, the wich joyneth hard to the towne.

Bowe Castel longging to the King x. myles est fro Cairluel.

Nere abowt Bou Castel alias Belcastel be fownd Briton brikes, with entayled worke and portretures, yn the old fundations.

Fro Bowe Castel to Naward a fair castel [f] of the Lord Dacers iiii. myles sowt fro Naward, viii. myles fro Cairluel.

Millum a castel longing to Ser John Hudelstan stonding on the river of Dudden or Dudden Sandes. (Apon a creke by the se side) a XL. yere ago fisch was fownd ther of an infinite greatnes.

Hyghhed Castel a vi. or vii. myles from Cairluel by sowth. Yt stondeth on Yve Bek.

Kirke Oswald Castel sowth sowth f est, xii. myles fro Cairluel, and sowth fro Naward. Yt stondeth almost on Edon.


[a] Holme Cultran.
[b] St. Bees.
[c] Calder Abbey.
[d] Coupland barony.
[e] ? Kyloe in Northumberland.
[f] Naworth Castle.

56 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cumberland.

Perith [a] a castel of the kinges by the towne of Pereth xvi. myles sowth fro Cairluel, and v. myles sowth west from Kirkoswald.

Ther cummeth at Ingmer Medow owt of Peterel a gut to Penrith, and at Carlton half a myle of yt runneth ynto Emot, alias AEymont. Strikland Bisshop of Cairluel [b] did the cost to dig it.

Graystok Castel [c] of the Lorde Dacors, xiiii. myles fro Cairluel sowth, and iii. myles west fro Perith.

Rose a castel of the Bisshops of Cairluel vi. myles fro Cairleul by sowth west. Bisshop Kight [d] made hit very fresh.

Ruines of castels desolated and townes.

Remember to aske by the Itineray how the old townes stoode.

In the forest of Ynglewood a vi. myles fro Cairluel appere ruines of a castel cawled Castel Luen.

These thinges folowing I lernid of the Vicar or person of Corbridge at Newcastel.

Northumberland.

Corbridg about a xi. miles from Newcastelle: But to go to it the next way from Duresme it is not past a 16. or 18. miles.

Corbridge is on the same ripe of Tine that New Castelle is.

The chirch of Corbridge is dedicate onto S. Andre.

The personage was ons impropriate to the Priory of Tinmouth, sins by exchaunge to Cairluel.

The toune at this tyme is ful meanely buildid.

The names of diverse stretes that hath beene there yet hath names, as old people there testifie, and great tokens


[a] Penrith.
[b] William Strickland, bp. of Carlisle, 1400.
[c] Greystoke castle.
[d] John Kite, bp. of Carlisle, 1513-21.

PART IX 57

Northumberland.

of old foundations be yet founde there, and also Numismata Ro.

The stone bridge that now is at Corbridge over Tine is larg, but it is set sumwhat lower apon Tine then the olde bridg was.

Ther be evident tokens yet seene where the olde bridg was, and theraboute cummith downe a praty broke on the same side that that the toun is on, and hard by it, and goit into Tine. I thing verely that this broke is caullid Corve, though the name be not welle knowen there, and that the toune berith the name of it (Colus flu.).

By this broke as emong the ruines of the olde town is a place caullid Colecester, wher hath beene a forteres or castelle. The peple there say that ther dwellid yn it one Yoton, whom they fable to have beene a gygant.

There is no bridge on Tyne, as I remembre, bytwixt Newcastelle and Corbridge.

As far as I can perceyve by the boke of the life of S. Oswin the martyr, Colebrige is alway put ther for Corbridge.

There appere ruines of arches of a stone bridge over Tyne river, at ... Castelle longging to the Erle of Westmerland a 3. miles lower on the ryver then Corbridge.

Chipchace bridg of ... on Tyne.

Mounbowcher was a man of fair landes in Northumbrelande: and Doctor Davelle told me that the hospitale yn Newcastel hath yet landes of his gifte.

The Rudhams were men of fair landes in Northumbrelande about Tille ryver, ontyl one of them having to wife one of the Humframville doughters killid a man of name, and thereby lost the principale of 600. marke landes by yere. So that at this tyme Rudham of Northumbreland is but a man of mene landes.

Hasilrig of Northamptonshir hath about a 50. li. lande

58 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northumberland.

in Northumbreland and Esselington, wher is a pratie pile is Hasilrigges, and one of the Colinwooddes dwellith now in it, and hath the over site of his landes.

The ryver of Tame [a] risith a 10. miles by south west within the land, and cummith into Tyne aboute a mile above Getished, [b] and not far bynethe Ravensworth Castelle.

Tarset Castelle ruines in Northumbreland hard by north Tyne long now to the Lord Borow.

There was one of the Grays of Northumbrelande a man of greate brute in the tyme of Edwarde the 4., that was suspect with the Quene of Scottes of adulterie. Wherapon he beying accusid of a gentilman of Scotteland cam with a band, as it is saide, of a 1000. men to Edingborow, and there caste down his glove to fight in the listes with his accuser: but he departid withowte fighteting; yet was it supposid, that Gray was not accusid therof withoute a cawse.

The Herbotelles landes in Northumbreland, that was a 300. markes by the yere, cam of late dayes to 2. doughters, wherof the one was maried to Syr Thomas Percy, that was for treason hangid at Tiburne. The other was maried to Fitton of Chestershir. Mr. Doctor Davel told me that the limes of the Bisshoprike of Duresmegoith beyond the mouth on Darwent up apon Trente even to the paroch of Rytoun. [c]

A pile or castelet at Bowes on Watheling Streate.

The Davelles cam owte of Normandie, and sins they have be men of greate possessions yn the north partes of England. But they cam in Edwarde the 2. tyme to decay and ruine. For the chief of the Davelles, that was Syr Loson Davelle and Syr Hugh Davelle, both barons (as Mr. Doctor Davelle sayith, but sufficiently to me provid not,) toke Thomas Duke of Lancaster and the barons part agayne Edwarde the 2. and Peter Gaveston, wherapon Davelles landes were attaintid and sparkelid.

Yet remanid of the name 4. or 5. younger brethern, that after got meane landes: and one of them after in descent


[a] Teame.
[b] Gateshead.
[c] Ryton.

PART IX 59

Northumberland.

consumid a 100. li. landes by the yere in Notinghamshire in mere hauking and hunting.

There yet remayne meene gentilmen of the name.

The principal land and habitation of the Davelles was about Pontefracte in Yorkeshire.

Much of the Gascoynes lande and the landes of Truewhit, alias Turwit, of Lincolnshir, longid to the Davelles.

The name of the originale house of the Davelles yet remainith yn Normandie aboute the partes, as I have heard, of Alaunsun.

Roger Thorton the great riche marchaunte of Newcastelle in Edwarde the 4. dayes, by whom the Lomeleys landes were greatly augmentid, as by mariage of his doughter and heyre, buildid S. Katerines chapelle, the towne haulle, and a place for pore almose menne by Sand Hille gate a litle lower then Newcastelle bridge on the very ripe of Tyne within the toun of Newcastelle. The isle, and almost al the landes that the Lorde Lomeley hath in Yorkshir and Northumbreland, was this Thorntons.

This Roger Thorton was the richest marchaunt that ever was dwelling in Newcastelle.

One John Warde a riche marchant of Newcastelle made a maisun dieu for xii. poore men and xii. poore women by the Augustine Freres in Newcastelle.

One Christopher Brigham, a marchant of Newcastelle, made of late a litle hospital by the Gray Freres in Newcastelle.

The waulles of Newcastelle were begon, as I have harde, in King Edwarde the firste day, as I harde, by this occasion. A great riche man of Newcastelle was taken prisoner by the Scottes owt of the town self as it is reportid. Wherapon he was raunsomid for a greate sum: and returning fo. 104. home he began to make a waulle on the ripe of Tyne

60 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northumberland.

ryver from Sandehille to Pandon gate and beyound that to berland. the towre agayne the Augustine Freres.

The residew of the marchauntes of the toune seying this towardnes of one man, sette to their helping handes, and continuid ontylle the hole toun was strongely about waullid, and this worke was finishid in Edwarde the 3. dayes, as I have harde.

The strenghth and magnificens of the waulling of this towne far passith al the waulles of the cities of England and of most of the townes of Europa.

Prior Castel of Dyrham, the last save one, buildid the toure in Fame Isleland for defence owt of the grounde. Ther was a chapel and a poore house afore.

Ther was a house of chanons at Ovingeham apon Tyne agayne Prudehow [a] on the other side of Tyne, a master and 3. chanons, celle to Hexham. Humfranville gave the personage of Ovingeham to Hexham that they should find certen chanons ther.

Morley of Morpath [b] was ons Lord of Wercworth Castel on Coket [c] mouth.

Dr. Davel told me, that Antony de Bek buildid or renewid Kensington, as he hath hard, and gave it to king or prince. ... He buildid Duresme Place in London.

... thens yt goith withyn a myle and lesse of Newcastel, and so croketh upward toward Tinemuth.

Doctor Davel told me that S. Nicolas chirch in Newcastel stondith on the Picth waulle.

Bytwyxt Thyrwal [d] and North Tine yn the wast ground stondeth yet notable peaces of the wall, the which was made ex lapide quadrato, as yt there appereth yet. Looke wher as the grownd ys best enhabited thorowg the walle, so there yt


[a] Prudhoe.
[b] Morpeth.
[c] Coquet r.
[d] Thirlwall.

PART IX 61

Northumberland.

lest appereth by reason of buildinges made of the stones of the waule. The walle on the farther side toward the Pictes was strongly dichyd. Beside the stone wall, ther appere yet yn very many places vestigia muri cespititii, that was an arow shot a this side the stone wal; but that it was thoroughly made as the stone wal was yt doth not wel appere there.

Cumberland.

Fro Bolnes [a] to Burgh [b] abowt a iiii. myles, fro thens yt goeth within half a myle of Cairluel, [c] and lesse on the north side, and crosseth over Edon a iii. quarters of a myle benethe Cairluel, and so to Terreby [d] a litel villag a myle fro Cairluel, then thorowgh the barony of Linstok; and thorowgh Gillesland on the north side of the river of Arding [e] a quarter of a myle of the abbay of Lenarcost, and then a iii. myles above Lenarcost yt crosseth over Arding, then over the litle brooke of Polt rosse, [f] the which devideth Gillesland in Cumberland from Sowth Tyndale yn Northumbreland,

Northumberland.

then to a castel caulled Thirlewal, stondyng on the same, thens directly est thorowgh Sowth Tyndale not far fro the great ruijnes of the castel of Cairvorein, [g] the which be nere Thyrlewal, and so over North Tyne, then directly est thorowgh the hedd of Northumbreland.

There is a fame that Oswald wan the batelle at Halydene [h] a 2. myles est from S. Oswaldes Asche. [i] And that Haliden is it that Bede caullith Hevenfeld. And men there aboute yet finde smaule wod crossis in the grounde.

{Here ends Leland's vol. vii.}

Northomberland.

In Sowthe Tynedale, as in that is be syd Hexhamshire except and yet as a parte of Sowthe or Sowthest Tyndale, is but one paroche churche, and that is caullyd Haultewesel. [k]


[a] Bowness.
[b] Burgh by Sands.
[c] Carlisle.
[d] Tarraby.
[e] Irthing r.
[f] Tipalt burn.
[g] Carvoran.
[h] Hazeldean.
[i] ? St. Oswald's chapel.
[k] Haltwhistle.

62 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northumberland.

There be bisyde aliquot sacella, where of one is not far from Willington, and it is caulyd White Chapell. There lyethe one of the holy Aydans, and othar holy men in the churche yarde by the chapel.

In Northe Tynedale is but one paroche churche cawlyd Simons burne. [a] In it is aliquot sacella. Sens I hard that Simons burne is in Sowth Tynedale, and that in North Tindale is onely Belingeham chaple longinge to Simons burne.

In Ridesdale be but 3. paroche churchus, the cheffest is Ellesdene. then Halistene, and Corsansid. [b] To thes parochis resorte the witriding men othar wyse theues of that Englishe marche.

Rede risethe within 3. miles of the Scottyshe marche. It risethe in the northe, and cummithe sowthwest thrwghe Ridesdale, and so into North Tyne arme, a litle lowgher then Belingham, that stondithe somewhat of of Northe Tyne, and is a x. mils above Hexam.

North Tyne risithe playne northe, and rennith almoste playne northe til he metith with Southe Tyne.

Some hold opinion that at Halistene, [c] or in the river of Coquet, thereabout wer 3000. christenyd in one day in primitiva ecclesia Sax.

Coquet ryver for a certen space of miles devidith Cuquedale from Ridesdale.

Coquet cummithe by Herbotell, [d] a goodly castle, and thens to Linne Briggs, sumtyme of stone, now fallen. Ther about was great buyldinge, but now desolation.

New Castle a market towne.

Hexham a market towne.

Morpet a market towne is xii. longe miles from New Castle. Wansbeke a praty ryver rynnithe thrwghe the syde


[a] Simondburn.
[b] Corsenside.
[c] Holystone.
[d] Harbottle.

PART IX 63

Northumberland.

of the towne. On the hethar syde of the river is the principall churche of the towne. On the same syde is the fayre castle stondinge apon a hill, longinge with the towne to the Lord Dacres of Gilsland.

The towne is longe and metely well buyldyd with low howsys, the stretes pavyd. It is far fayrar towne then Alenwike. [a]

A qwartar of a mile owt of the towne on the hithere syde of Wanspeke [b] was Newe Minster abbay of White Monks, plesaunt with watar and very fayre wood about it.

Alnewike market towne.

Banborowgh now no market towne.

Berwike a merket towne.

Castles in Northumbarland.

New Castle.

Chipchace a praty towne and castle, hard on the easte parte of the arme of Northe Tyne, the whiche devidethe Tyndale frome Northehumbarland. For Tyndall thowghe it be as a parte of Northumberland, yet it is as a parte privilegyd within it selfe.

Tynmouth abbay sumtym usyd for a castle.

Dalawele Castle 4. miles from Tynemouthe, and within a mile of the shore.

Otterburne Castle stondinge on Otter in Ridesdale, the whiche joynethe hard apon North Tyndall.

There be ruines of a castle longynge to the Lorde Borow at Mydforde [c] on the sowthe syde of Wansbeke, iiii. miles above Morpeth. It was beten downe by the Kynge. For one Ser Gilbert Midleton robbyd a cardinall cominge out of Scotland, and fled to his castle of Midford.

Morpeth Castle stondythe by Morpith towne. It is set on a highe hill, and about the hill is moche wood. The towne and castle belongeth to the Lord Dacors. It is well mayntayned. Witherington Castle longinge to the Wytheringtons stondethe


[a] Alnwick.
[b] Wansbeck r.
[c] Mitford.

64 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northumberland.

with in halfe a myle of the shore, somewhat as towchinge agains Coket isleland. By it runnithe a title broke on the northe syde, and there is a title village of the same name. The broke renneth into the se by it selfe.

Werkworthe Castell stondythe on the southe syde of Coquet watar. It is well maynteyned and is large. It longed to the Erle of Northomberland. It stondithe on a highe hille, the whiche for the more parte is includyd with the ryver, and is about a mile from the se. Ther is a plety towne, and at the towne ende is a stone bridge withe a towre on it. Beyond the bridge is Banborowshire.

Alnewik Castle.

Howwike [a] a title pile longinge to the ... a mile from the shore.

Dunstaneborowgh [b] a 2. miles beyond Howwik harde on the se shore. It stondethe on a hy stone rok. The castle is more then halfe a mile in compace, and there hathe bene great building in it. Therby is a strong ...

Betwixt Dunstanborow and Banborow is Embleton, a mile fro the shore, and a mile from Dunstanboro.

Bamborow, sometyme a huge and great castle, one of the strongest in thos partes.

Agerston [c] a towre apon the south syde of Lindis ryver. Chillingham Castle longinge to Ser Edward Grey, whos wyfe was maried to Ser Robert Heldercar.

Foord Castle in Glyndale apon the east syd of Tille. [d] It is metly stronge, but in decay.

Etel Castel [e] stondinge on playne grownde, hard on the este syde of Tylle, longynge to the Erle of Rutland.

Eyton Castle longing to Ser Edward Graye 2. miles lower on Tyle then Etel. It stondithe on the west syd of Tylle. The Scotts at Floden Fild bet it sore.

Werke Castle [f] on the southe syd of Twede, a praty towne there.

Norham Castle on the same syde.

Berwike on the northe syd.


[a] Howick.
[b] Dunstanburgh.
[c] Haggerston.
[d] Till r.
[e] Etal Castle.
[f] Wark Castle.

PART IX 65

Northumberland.

Howsys of Relygion in Northumbarland.

Bolton of chanons in Cokedale, whiche they call comonly Glinedale. The Lord Rose was foundar there.

Halistane nunre in Ridsdale, [a] bytwyxt Aidan-bridge and Hexham.

Hexham.

Lamle [b] a nunrye on Sowthe Tyne.

Brinkborne priorye on Coquet. Blake Chanons by moste likelyhods of the Lisles foundation, or the Feltons before the Lisles.

Haly Eyland [c] monks.

Bambrughe a cell to S. Oswald.

New Minstar.

Farne.

Coquet a cell to Tynemowthe.

Tinemouth.

Durham.

Blancheland, Whit Chanons, in Northumbarlandshire. For it stondithe in the farthar syde of Darwent. From Darwent mouthe to Wyre [d] mouthe the low contry betwixt is cawlyd Wyralshire. Parte, or moste parte of Chester, [e] is in Wyrale. [f]

Northumberland.

Where as the hospital is now of Saynt Edmond at Geteshed in Wyrale was sometyme a monastary, as I have hard, and be lykelyhod the same that Bede spekythe of.

Castles.

Huttun [g] a faire castle in the midste of Northombarland, as in the bredthe of it. It is a iiii. or v. miles northe from Fenwike pile, and this is the oldist howse of the Swynburnes.

Wallington Castle 2. miles est from Hutten. It is the chefist howse of the Fenwiks. Ser John Fenwike is now lorde of it.

Darwent.


[a] Holystone nunnery in Redesdale.
[b] Lambley.
[c] Holy Island.
[d] Wear r.
[e] Chester-le-Street.
[f] ? Weardale.
[g] ? Swinburne Castle.

66 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northumberland.

Thenis [a] a litle river cummithe in to Tyne on the southe syde a mile above New Castle.

Tyne.

Cone ryver [b] comithe by Lanchestre or it come to Chester in the Strete. Lanchester a vi. miles west from Chestre.

Hedle broke metithe at Chestre, or there about, with Cone water.

Pont.

Wansbege. [c]

Coket [d] risethe in Ridesdale in a ground beringe ling, and some what fenny.

Alne.

Rye. [e]

Bremische [f] is the very water of Tille; but at the heade and a certayne cowrse it is caullyd Bremiche, and aftar lesethe the name; and is cawllyd Tylle.

Conke, alias Coquet.

Low.

Glyne [g] risethe in Chivet hills, and so into Glyndale on to Newton village, where is a towr. Ther is a litle broke cawlyd Boubent [h] cumminge owt of Scotland rennithe into Glyn to Langton village 9. miles of, where is a ruine of a towre a myle of. So to Copland [i] village a mile, where the watar brekethe into armes makynge islets; but sone aftar metynge, and so a 2. mills a this syde Forde Castle in to Tylle.

Tyle risethe in the hills of Chivet, [k] and so cummithe into Glindale unto a castle caullyd Chillingham Castle a vi. miles from the Chyvet hylls, so to Forde Castle an viii. miles of, to Ethell [l] Castle on the bridge of stone downe on the est syde a mile, to Hetton [m] Castle on the west syde of the Tylle a 3. miles and halfe of, so to Twislebridge [n] of stone one bow, but greate and stronge, where is a townlet and a towre a 2. miles of; so to Hornecleue a litle village on the east syde not halfe a mile of, and there in to Tweede. Hornecleue [o] is halfe a myle above Norham.


[a] Team r.
[b] Cong burn.
[c] Wansbeck r.
[d] Coquet r.
[e] Wreigh r.
[f] Breamish r., afterwards Till.
[g] Glen r.
[h] Bowmont Water.
[i] Coupland.
[k] Cheviot.
[l] Etal.
[m] Heaton.
[n] Twizel.
[o] Horncliffe.

PART IX 67

Northumberland.

Twede risythe in Twydedale in Scotland at a towne (as I here say) cawllyd Pybbell, [a] and so comithe thrwghe the forest of Eterik in Scotland, and so thorwghe Tynedale in Scotland, the people where of robbe sore and continually in Glyndale and Bamborowshire; and at a litle broke, cawlyd Ryden burne, [b] the whiche partithe England and Scotland by este and west, and comithe in to Twede, the greate streame of Twede towchithe on the Englyshe grownde as a limes betwene Scotland and it. So to Carham a good mile of, a litle village, where is a cell of 2. chanons of Kyrkham [c] in Yorkeshire. At this Carham is a litle towre of defence agayne the Scotts. So to Werke [d] Castle a mile of and more, a meatly stronge fortrese, to Cornehil a litle pile 2. miles of, agaynst the whiche on the farthar rype in Scotland is Cauldstreame [e] a place of nunes. So to Norham Castle where is also a meatly good toune about a 3. miles of. So to Berwike a vi. mils stondinge on the northe syde of Twede a litle. There by at the bridge on the sowthe syde of the watar is Twemowthe [f] as a suburbe to the towne, and thens ...

In Northumbarland, as I heare say, be no forests excepte Chivet hills, where is muche brushe wood, and some okke, grownd ovar growne with linge, and some with mosse. I have hard say that Chivet hilles stretchethe xx. miles. There is greate plenty of redd dere and 100 bukkes.

The forest of Loughes is in Tindale on the west syde of Northe Tyne, even betwyxt the Tynnes armes.

Betwixt New Castle and Tyne Mouthe litle wood.

Bytwixte New Castle and Morpethe litle wood grownd.

Bytwyxt Morpethe and Alenewik good plenty of wood in certayne places and many parks; xii. miles betwixt New Castle and Morpethe, xii. longe miles betwene Morpethe and Alnwike, xx. to Berwike. So from New Castle to Berwike. Betwixt Alenwike and Berwike litle plenty of wood.

From New Castle to Hexham a xiiii. miles, and that way litle wood excepte at few places.


[a] Peebles.
[b] Redden village about two miles west of Carham, the burn falls into the Tweed not far from the present boundary line.
[c] Stow has Kynkham.
[d] Wark.
[e] Coldstream.
[f] Tweedmouth.

68 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Northumberland.

There they reken not Hexham in Tindale, but as a liberty by it selfe It is the market of Southe Tindale.

The libertye of Hexham stretchithe a x. miles southe west one way.

In Bamborowshire, parte of Northumbarland, is litle or no wood.

In Ridsedale no plenty of wood.

In Glindale here and there wood, and Chiveot servithe them well; but the great wood of Chiveot is spoylyd now, and crokyd old trees and schrubs remayne.

From Riddenborn a longe Twed to Barwike almoste no wood. They burne se cole that be dyggyd at Morton a litle village in Glyndal a 2. mile from Berwike.

Glindall [a] goethe a longe on Twede fro Rodenburn to Twede Mouth standinge in Glendale.

Haly Eylandshire [b] conteyneth all alonge the shore from Agorston [c] to Beele, [d] and so alonge to Bamborow.


[a] Glendale.
[b] Holy Island.
[c] Haggerston.
[d] Beal.

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