Leland's Itinerary of England and Wales: Part X.
PART X 69
REgnum Northumbrorum ab Humbro flu. antiquitus ad fanum S. Joannis in Scotia.
Regnum Northumbrorum divisum in duas paries, id est, in regnum Deirorum et regnum Berniciorum.
Regnum Deirorum ab Humbro ad Thesim Beverle olim dicebatur. 2. Deirewalde, id est, Silva Deirorum.
Nomina regum Deirorum.
Mol, qui et Ethelwoldus.
Ethelredus, qui et Ethebrightus dictus.
Osbricght et Ella conjuncti.
Aldene et Eonils juncti.
Guthefertus ult. regum.
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Nomina regum Bernisiorum.
Fradulphus, alias Freculphus.
Nomina comitum Northumbrian.
Osulphus comes; cui per Edgarum regem adjunctus Oslacus.
Morcharus, et postea Osulphus adjunctus et.
Copsius, alias Cospius.
Robertus de Mulbreio: quo capto cessavit comitatus administrari a comitibus; et ex tunc in manu regum, scil. Gul. Magni, Gulielmi Junioris, et Henrici mansit.
788. Elfwaldus rex Northumbrorum occisus a Sigga patritio apud Scyltecestrejuxta murum% anno Domini 788.
793. Lindisfarne, alias Haly Eland, depopulata a Danis anno Dom. 793.
875. Haldenus, unus ex principibus Danorum, totam Northumbriam sibi subjugavit anno Domini 875.
941. Anlaphus Damis incendit Tiningham anno Domini 941.
1080. Robertus Curtoys, filiits Gulielmi Conquestoris, condidit Castellum Novum super Tinam anno Domini 1080.
1093. Malcolinus rex Scottorum occisus prope Aile fluvium a quodam Morello milite anno 1093.
Malcolinus rex sepultus in Monasterio de Tinemuthe.
Rex Joannes fodiendo apud Corbrige thesauros sedfrustra quaesivit.
1296. Scotti prioratum Hagustaldensem cum tota villa incendio destruxerunt anno Domini 1296.
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Nomina episcoporum Hagustaldensis ecclesiae.
Joannes, qui et postea episcopus Ebor. post quern Wilfridus iterum Hagustal. episcopus.
Tidferdus, cujus Danis omnia late depopulantibus, cessavit episcopatus Hagustaldensis.
Thomas archiepiscopus Eboracensis induxit canonicos regulares in ecclesiam Hagustaldensem anno Dom. 1112. Henrici regis 13. Aschetillus primus Prior Hagustaldensis ecclesiae, Robertus Pisethe secundus.
Translatae fuerunt relliquiae Accae ex coemiterio in ecclesiam Hagustaldensem post ducentos et quinquaginta annos per Alfredum presbyterum Dunelmensem.
Richardus Macon fuit rector parochialis ecclesiae de Hexam ante inductos canonicos.
Cummynge to Henley I saw in the valley the priorie of Hurley, a celle to Westminster, standinge on the right ripe of the Thames.
The bridge at Henley is all of tymbre, as moste parte of the bridgs be ther about. It was of stone, as the foundation shewithe at a low watar.
The Hastings, now Erls of Huntendune, chefe lords of Henley. It was the Lorde Molines, then by decent Peverels, Hungerford, and so Hastyngs.
Plenty of wood and corne about Henley. The soyle chalky and hillinge.
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Rotherfeld about a mile from Henley. There is a parke. It is of moste men caulled Rotherfelde Gray, by cawse that one of the Gray of Ruthyne came to be owner of it. Sum put this addition onto it, Gray Murdach, sayynge that this Murdach was a bysshope, and in comprobation of it there be dyverse myters sene in the haule in Rotherfeld.
There appere enteringe into the maner place on the righte hand 3. or 4. very olde towers of stone, a manifest token that it was sume tyme a castle. Ther is a very large courte buildyd about with tymbar and spacyd withe brike; but this is of a latter worke. Men of Henley may yet remembar that it was the Lord Level's pocession. Sens by attainture it cam by gifte to Knolls.
Stoner [a] is a 3. miles out of Henley. Ther is a fayre parke, and a waren of connes, and fayre woods. The mansion place standithe clyminge on an hille, and hathe 2. courtes buyldyd withe tymbar, brike and flynte. Syr Waltar Stonar now pocessor of it hathe augmentyd and strengthed the howse. The Stoners hathe longe had it in possessyon. Syns one Fortescue invadyd it by mariage of an heire generall of the Stoners, but aftar dispocessyd.
From Oxford to Hinkesey fery a quartar of a myle or more. Ther is a cawsey of stone fro Oseney to the ferie, and in this cawsey be dyvers bridges of plankes. For there the streme of Isis breketh into many armelets. The fery selfe is over the principale arme or streame of Isis.
Bleselles Legh [b] a litle village is a 3. mile from Hinkesey fery in the highe way from Oxford to Ferendune, alias Farington. [c] At this Legh be very fayre pastures and woods. The Blesells hathe bene lords of it syns the tyme of Edwarde the First or afore, and there they dyd enhabite. The place is all of stone, and stondithe at the west end of the paroche churche. Blesells were lords also of Rodecote [d] apon the ryver of Isis by Ferendune, wher hathe bene a stronge pile, and now a mansion place. The Blesells cam out of Province in Fraunce, and were men of activitye in
[a] Stonor Park.
[b] Besils Leigh.
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feates of armes, as it apperithe in monuments at Legh how he fawght in listes with a strange knight that chalengyd hym, at the whiche deade the Kynge and Quene at that tyme of England were present. The Blesells were countyd to have pocessyons of 400. marks by the yere. The last heire male of them was a-lyve in hominum memoria. Legh and Rodecote cam by mariage of an heire generall of the Blesells onto Fetiplace.
From Legh I rode halfe a myle and cam to Towkey, [a] where had ben a village. The churche or chapell yet remayneth, and ther by in a wood was a manor place now clene downe. It longethe now as a ferme to Magdalen Colledge in Oxford.
I rode thens a 2. myles and halfe thorowghe fayre champayne ground, frutefull of corne, to Newbridge on Isis. The ground ther al about lyethe in low medowes often ovarflowne by rage of reyne. Ther is a longe cawsye of stone at eche end of the bridge. The bridge it selfe hathe vi. greate arches of stone. Thens I passyd by a fayre mylle a forow lengthe of, and ther semyd to cum downe a broke that joynithe with Isis about New Bridge.
Thens 4. myles or more to Whiteney, [b] where is a market and a fayre churche with a goodly piramis of stone.
Thens a myle to Crauley [c] Bridge of 2. arches of stone over Winruche [d] ryver that goithe by Whitney. Crauley village is hard by the bridge.
Thens about a myle to Mynster [c] village havynge the name of Lovell somtyme lorde of it. There is an auncient place of the Lovels harde by the churche. Mastar Vinton of Wadeley by Farington hathe it of the Kynge in ferme.
Thens I rode a 3. myles or 4. thrwghe the forest of Wichwood longinge to the Kynge, where is plentye of wood and fallow dere. This forest longed to the Bewchamps Erls of Warwike, and so dyd Burforde towne.
Then commynge out of the forest I enteryd into a soyle champayne on every syde, in the whiche, as in slypes, were some prety groves and woods.
[a] Tubney seems intended.
[e] Minster Lovell.
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Bekington [a] Maner Place at Bekington with a fayr mille. Bruerne watar renithe by it.
And thus passynge scant 2. mile, I cam to a place caulyd Borow [b] apon the top of a meane hill, where apperyd a greate ditche to the compace of a quartar of a myle, in the whiche dyd grow very good corne. First I toke it for a campe of men of warre. Aftar I marked in some placis of the toppe of the diche as there had bene a waull set on it. And I marked a place as where a gate had bene in to it toward the este. In dede it was nothinge but a campe of men of warre, and ther is a nothar on the same downes. So halfe a good myle to Cerceden [c] village.
Chirchehille village and lordshipe longginge to Mastar Barentyn is hard be Cerceden. Cerceden was first Golafer's maner, then, as I remembar, Browning's. Home of late made the faire howse there of sqwarid stone.
Bruern Abbey a mile of, hard on the right ripe of the river. [d] Good pasture, corne, woodde.
Stow in the Wolde is about a 3. myles of from it.
Burford is a market a 3. myles from Bruerne. Bewchamps Erles of Warwyke were lords of it, and also of the forest of Wichewood. Some say that the Spencers and the Lovels had some dominion in it. Ther is notable quarye of fine stone about Burford.
There was a place in Burford caullyd the Priorie. Herman the Kyng's barbar hathe now the lands of it.
Langley is a myle from Burford. There remayne tokens of an olde maner place in the syde of the forest of Wichewood.
Fro Cerceden to Chepingnorton a 3. good myles. Croftes were the auncient lords of this Norton, syns Rodeney, and then Cometoun that bought it.
Hocnorton [e] a 3. myles all by champaine fro Chepingnorton. There is a fayre parke and an old manar place. It longed to Chaucer; then to the Poles Duks of Southefolke by mariage. Now from Brandon to the Kynge by exchange.
[a] ? Bledington and the Evenlode.
[d] Evenlode r.
[e] Hook Norton.
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Cold norton priory about a myle from Chepingnorton. This priory is now impropriate onto Brase-nose College in Oxford. Aboute a mile beyond the priory is Mastar Ascheles maner place.
To Tue [a] a 3. myles, where Mastar Reynesford dwellithe.
From Cerceden to Oxford a 15. miles.
From Oxford to Abbandune a 4. myles. This towne stondithe on the right rype of Isis in Barkeshire. The towne of very olde tyme was caullyd Seusham, [b] syns Abendune of one Aben a monke heremite that began a monasterye in those quartars, as they imagine right folishely. Tretwthe it is that one Eanus a noble Saxon began to builde a litle monasterye by the permissyon of Cissa his master, Kynge of the Saxons, at a place caullid Chisewel a 2. myles from Abbingdon northe northeste in the foote way to Oxford. The place after not thought convenient, it was translatid on to Seusham, wher apon the new monasterye beynge buyldyd, it was caullyd Abbandune, i.e., Abbatis oppidum.
And not longe aftar thys tyme was the nunnery buildyd at Abbandune on the lifte ripe of Oche, [c] alias Coche, ryver, as at the mowthe of it into Isis the great streme. This place of nunnes was dedicate unto Saincte Helene, the name wher of yet remaynithe.
Bothe the abbay and the nunnery were destroyed by the Danes. Whithar the nunnery were reedified or no I can not tell. The abbay rose agayne, but it was a pore thinge ontill suche tyme as Kynge Edgare by the counsel of Ethelwolde Byshope of Winchester dyd richely encrese it.
There was one Faritius a straunger and phisician made Abbate of Abbendune a certeyne tyme after the Conqweste.
[b] Or Seukesham.
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He remevyd the olde churche that stode then more northerlye where now the orchard is, and made the este parte and transepte of a-new, only adorninge it with diverse smaul marble pillers. Anon aftar cam an abbate, and seynge the howse not sufficiently served withe water, devised to turne the streme of Isis, and at the last brought it on to the very abbay syde, and partely thrwghe it. The chefe streme of Isis rane afore betwixt Andersey Isle and Culneham, [a] even where now the southe end is of Culneham.
The othar arme that brekethe oute of Isis aboute a quarter of a mile above Culneham, and then cummithe downe Culneham thoroughe Culneham bridge selfe, is now the lesse peace of the hole river. In greate flods and brakkes of water waulls Culneham Water goith partely to the old botom of Isis, and then ther be 3. stremes. There was of olde tyme a fortres or pile lyke a castle in Andersey by south west of Abbandune, sett as almoste in the mydle betwixte the olde and new botom of Isis. The ground that it stoode on is a medow agayne S. Helens of a qwartar of a myle ovar. Sum parte of this fortrese stode aftar the Conqwest, and there were kepte the Kyngs hauks and hownds.
There was an Abbate of Abbandune that perceyvyd welle how it had and shoulde noy the monasterie, and gave the Kinge Suttoun lordeshipe there by for it in exchaunge. It is a myle and halfe lower then Abbandune on the right ripe of Isis in Barkeshire.
There is now an olde barne where the castelet or fortresse stoode. The place of the common people is yet caullid the Castelle of the Rhae, a flu. praeterlabente. The weste parte of the churche of Abbandune monasterie was reedified by one William Asschendune, abbate there. S. Edward the Martir's reliques for the moste parte were kept in Abbingdon, where sum sayethe he was in his tendre age brought up. Ther were of the Blessells buried there.
All the lands almoste betwene Ainsham [b] and Dorcester
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longed unto Abbandune. The rents of the abbay were almoste 2000. li. by the yere.
Abbingdoun monasterye upon a pie for fraunchese was spoyled by men of Abbandun, of Newbiry, and of Oxforde; for the whiche great punishement was taken.
Ther was a parke at Radeley longinge onto Abbyndoun, which was disparkid by reason that the scollars of Oxford muche resortyd thethar to hunt.
The chefe paroche churche of Abbyngdon of old tyme was Saint Nicholas by thabbey. The abbat of Abendoun made the hospitall of S. John Baptiste agayne it. This hospitall hathe bene annexid to S. Nicolas. Ther be 12 men in this hospitall.
Seint Helens is now a paroche churche, and to it is the gretyst resorte of all the towne.
At suche tyme as the olde course of the streme of Isis was changyd there were found dyvers straunge thyngs., and amonge them a crosse with an inscription. The nunnrye stode in the very place where now the hospitall is at S. Helines.
Of auncient tyme there was no bridge to passe over Isis at Abbandune, but a ferie, and then was the way from Glocester to London not thorowgh Abbendune as it is now, and so to Dorchestar, but thorowg the notable towne of Wallingforde. Ther were dyvers mischauncis sene at this passage.
Ex tabula pensili.
Anno 4. Henrict 5, pontes de Bordforde et Culhamforde prope Abbandune incepti sunt autore rege anno Dom. 1416. (See Appendix to Part X.)
Dyvers persones drowned at the fery afore the bridge was made. The inhabitaunts of Abbandune askid at the Courte remedie for a bridge and obteyned.
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Pans inchoatus die S. Albani.
Geffray Barbar of Abbandune gave monie chefly toward makynge the bridge and procurynge lands for the maynteynaunce of it. Ther wrowght that somer 300 men on the bridge.
Hactenus ex tabula.
Sum say at Abbandune that Geffray Barbar was as the greatest foundar of the hospitall of S. Helene. Sum say that one Joannes de S. Helena aboute that tyme had 2 dowghters, and for lakke of issue of them it shoulde go to mayntaynaunce of the hospitall and the bridgs. The land devolvid to that use.
A bridge of stone over the broke of Oche [a] by S. Helene's Hospitale.
A goodly pyramis is the Market Place.
There were, and yet appere, 2. camps of men of warre by Abbandune.
The one is Serpenhil a quartar of a mile by este northe est oute of the toune in a fote way to ... Here, as it is sayde there comonly, was a battayle betwyxt the Danes and the Saxons. Parte of the trenches of the campe be yet scene.
The other is caullid Barow a litle by weste oute of Abbandune toward Ferendune. Here be also the trenches yet apperinge.
Sum say that thabbate of Abbandune sente a bande of men to one of thes camps, where by the Danes were vanquishid, and lands were gyven to the abbay for the victory.
From Oxforde to Hanney a 8. mils, a 5. mils by hilly ground well wooddid and frutefull of corne, and other 3. mils by low levelle ground in sum partes marschy.
Or ever I cam at Hanney by a mile I passid over a broke, and other this was Ocke Broke that goithe to Abbandune, risinge in the vale of White Horse, or ells it rennithe in to Ocke. It ran from northe west in to the southe.
Thens a 2. myles by low wooddy ground unto Wanetinge, [b] that standithe on the right ripe of a praty broke that goithe
[a] Ock r.
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downe to Abbandune, distante a 6. or 7. mils from Wantage.
Ther be 2. churches in this market toune in one chirche yarde, but the one is but a chapelle. The Lorde Fitzguarine is one of the chefiste lords of the towne, and of that name and lyne be 2. sepulchers in the paroche churche.
Thens a 6. myls to Chepinge Lanburne [a] a poore Friday market by hills well cornyd and some wodds; and passinge the better parte of the way I sawe a greate warren of conies longginge unto Mastar Estesex, who is lord of the towne by his mothar the sole dowghtar and heyre of Mastar Rogers, by whom he hathe bettar then 300. marks of lands by the yere.
Lamburne water risithe a litle by northe above the towne, levinge it on the righte ripe, and goinge thens a 10. myles to Dunington, [b] and a litle lower in to Kenet ryver.
From Lameburne on to Ramesbyry [c] towne about a 5. mills, firste by champayne grounde fruteful of corne, then by hills frutefull of woodd and corne. Kenet [d] towchithe the towne withe his lifte ripe suopinge in a low botom. There is a fayre and large olde churche in the towne. The Bysshope of Saresbyri hathe a faire old place halfe a mile upper apon the lifte ripe of Kenet, that a litle above the place in the medois makithe out an arme, and a litle benethe the place resortynge to the hed streme makithe the medois on the southe syde of the place a mediamnis or isle.
There is a right faire and large parke hangynge apon the clyffe of an highe hille welle woddyd over Kenet, hard on the southe syde of the place.
Litlecote the Darells chief house is a myle from Ramesbyri.
From Ramesbyri to Hungerford ... myls.
From Ramesbyri to Saresbyri good 20. mils.
From Ramesbyri on to Great Bedwine a 3. miles, moste parte thrwghe the forest of Sauernake.
The towne is prevelegyd with a burges at the Parliament; yet is it but a poore thinge to syght. There liethe in the churche in the southe isle one Adam Stoke a famose man, and a nothar of that lyne by hym under a flatte stone. The
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Stokes were lords of Stoke Haule ther by, the lands of whom descendyd on to the Lords Hungarfords; but whereas I harde ons that there was a castelle at Create Bedwine, I could there heere nothinge of it. Litle Bedwine a myle lower, whither cummith the streame that passinge by Great Bedwine levith it on the right ripe. This watar goithe toward Kenet. And Hungerford is a 3. mils from Create Bedwine.
From Bedwine a good mile to Chauburne [a] village, the trew name whereof, as I gesse, shuld be Chaulkeburne. For it risithe and rennythe in chalky ground.
The howse of the Choks was firste greatly avaunsyd by Choke chefe Juge of England, that attayned lands to the some of 600. marks by the yere, and kept his chefe howse at Longe Ascheton by Bristow, havynge great furniture of sylvar.
There risethe a litle above Chauburne village a broke that gyvethe name unto it, and levithe it on the right rype, and so goinge about a 2. miles lower resortithe to Bedwine watar, or els by it selfe goithe in to Kenet Ryver. Shauburne is a 3. mils from Hungerforde.
From Ramesbiry onto Marlebyri a 3. miles by hilly grounde, frewtfull of corne and wood. Abowt halfe a myle or I cam onto Marlebyri I passyd ovar a broke that cam downe northeweste from the hills, and so ran by sowthe est into the streme of Kenet about halfe a myle bynethe Marlebyri.
The towne of Marlebyri standithe in lengthe from the toppe of an hille flate este to a valley lyenge flat west.
There is a ruine of a great castell harde at the west ende of the towne, where of the doungeon towre partely yet stondithe. There lay Kynge Edward the ... at a Parliament tyme.
There is a chappell of S. Martyne at the este ende of the towne.
There is a paroche churche of owr Lady in the mydle of
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the towne. The body of this churche is an auncient peace of worke. Sum fable that it was a nunerye.
The chefe paroche churche of the towne standythe at the very weste end of it beynge dedicate onto Seint Peter.
There was a priorye of white chanons caullyd S. Margaret's a letle be southe the towne over Kenet, where now dwellythe one Mastar Daniell.
Ther was a howse of Friers in the southe syde of the towne.
Kenet ryver cummethe doune by the weste end of the towne from the northe, and so by the botom of the towne and vale lyenge sowthe, levinge it on the lefte rype, and so renethe thens by flatte este.
Kenet risithe northe northe west at Selberi [a] Hille botom, where by hathe be camps and sepultures of men of warre, as at Aibyri [b] a myle of, and in dyvers placis of the playne. This Selbyri Hille is about a 5. miles from Marlbyri.
From Marlebyri over Kenet, and so into Sauernake (the swete Oke) forest, and a 4. myles or more to Peusey [c] a good village, and there I passed ovar Avon ryver, and so by playne champine ground, frutfull of grasse and corne, especially good whete and barley, and so by a village caullyd Manifordes, [d] by the whiche Avon rennythe; and so to Newton [e] village 2. myles and more from Peusey, where also Avon rennythe levynge it on his lefte rype; and thens 2. myles of passyd by Uphavon, [f] a good village 2. myles lower. There comythe a litle broke into Avon from northe west at the est ende of Newton churche. The course of it is latly changyd to the great commoditie of the village lyinge lowe, and afore sore trowbled with water in wynter.
From Newton to Hilcote an hamlet of the same paroche halfe a myle.
Then a 7. myles to the Vyes [g] by champayne ground. I passyd or I cam nere the Vyes by a broke the whiche goythe in to Avon ryver by Uphavon vilage.
[b] Avebury or Abury.
[e] North Newnton.
[g] The Devizes.
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The towne of Vies standithe on a ground sumwhat clyvinge, and most occupied by clothiars.
The beawty of it is all in one strete.
The market is very celebrate.
Ther is a castell on the southe west syde of the towne stately avauncyd apon an highe ground, defendyd partly by nature, and partly withe dykes the yere where of is cast up a slope, and that of a greate height to defence of the waulle.
This castle was made in Henry the first dayes by one Rogar Bysshope of Salisbyrye, Chaunselar and Treaswrar to the Kynge. Suche a pece of castle worke so costly and strongly was nevar afore nor sence set up by any bysshope of England. The kepe or dungeon of it set upon an hille cast by hand is a peace of worke of an incredible coste. There appere in the gate of it 6. or 7. placis for porte colacis, and muche goodly buyldyng was in it. It is now in ruine, and parte of the front of the towres of the gate of the kepe and the chapell in it were caried full unprofitably onto the buyldynge of Mastar Bainton's place at Bromeham a scant 3. myles of.
There remayne dyvers goodly towres yet in the utter walle of the castle, but all goynge to ruine.
The principall gate that ledithe in to the towne is yet of a greate strengthe, and hathe placis for 7. or 8. porte colices.
Ther is a fayre parke by the castle.
The forest of Blakemore lyethe in a botom toward northe west, not far from the towne.
I saw as I went out of the towne Bromeham Haul lyenge in a botom about a 3. myles of.
From the Vies to Steple Assheton a 6. myles by champaine, but frutefull grownde and good wood plenty in some places. It is a praty litle market towne, and hathe praty buyldinge.
[a] Bromham. See vol. i, p. 133.
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It standithe muche by clothiars.
There is in it a very fayre churche, buyldyd in the mynd of men now lyvynge.
The spired steple of stone is very fayre and highe, and of that it is cawllyd Steple Asscheton. Robart Longe clothyar buyldyd the northe isle, Waltar Lucas clothiar buildyd the sowthe isle of theyr proper costes. The abbey of Ramesey [a] in Hamptonshire had bothe parsonage impropriate, and the hole lordshipe.
Syr Thomas Semar hathe it now of the Kyngs almoste withe the hole hundred of Horwelle, alias Wharwelldoun, [b] with muche fayre woods.
From Steple Asscheton to Brooke Haule a bout a 2. myle by woody ground. There was of very auncient tyme an olde maner place wher Brooke Hall is now, and parte of it yet appearithe, but the new buyldynge that is there is of the erectynge of the Lorde Steward unto Kynge Henry the vii. The wyndowes be full of rudders, peradventure it was his badge or token of the Amiraltye. There is a fayre parke, but no great large thynge. In it be a great nombar of very fayre and fyne greynyd okes apte to sele howses.
Westbyri a smale market towne is a myle of, and of it the hundred there berithe the name.
Wermister [c] a principall market for corne is 4. myles from Brookehaull, a myle to Westbyry, and so 3. myles forthe.
The broke that renithe by Brooke is properly caulyd Bisse, and risethe at a place namyd Bismouth a 2. myles above Brooke village, an hamlet longynge to Westbyry paroche. Thens it cummithe onto Brooke village; and so a myle lower onto Brooke Haule, levinge it hard on the right ripe, and about a 2. miles lower it goith to ...
Hedington [d] village and priorie a boute a 2. myles from Brooke Haul by ...
From Brooke Haulle onto Westbyri by low ground havinge wood, pasture and corne a mile and halfe. It is the hedd towne of the hundrede to whome it givethe name. In it is kept ones a weeke a smale market. Ther is a large churche. The towne stondithe moste by clothiers.
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Ther risythe 2. springs by Westbyri, one by sowthe, and an othar as by southe west, and sone metinge togethar go abowte Bradley vilage a mile and halfe lower into Bisse Broke that rennithe by Brooke Haule, and so to Trougbridge, [a] and then into Avon.
Bradestoke or Bradeford the praty clothinge towne on Avon is a 2. myles of.
From Trowghbridge onto Bathe by very hilly grownd a 7. miles levinge the wodds and Farley parke and castle on the lyfte hand. And by the way I rode ovar Freshe fore [b] bridge of 2. or 3. faire new arches of stone, and this was a 3. miles from Throughbridge, and a 2. myles beyonde that in the very piche of the botom of a very stepe hill I passyd a wylde brocket rennynge on stones. Thens a myle of in the way was a notable quarey, and thens a playne, and then by a stepe botom onto Bathe about a myle.
From Bathe by champain to Kelston a good village in a 3. milles, where Avon goithe somewhat a-lofe on the lifte hand in the botom.
From Kelston to Biton village in Glocestershire a 2. myles.
A litle above Bitton I passyd over a brooke that at hand semid to come from the northe and to go into Avon by southe.
Ther was a bridge of 3. arches of stone ovar this litle broke.
Thens to Hanham a bout 2. miles.
There be dyvers villages togethar caullyd Hanhams, but withe a difference. At this Hanham dwellythe one Ser John Newton in a fayre olde mannar place of stone ca'ullyd Barrescourte. [c]
Thyngs lernyd of Ser John Newton.
Newton's very propre name is Caradoc. [d] The name of Newton cam by this error and use, by cawse the graundfathar of Ser John Newton dwellyd, or was borne, at Trenewith in Poise Land. [e]
Gurney was lord of Stoke Hamden, and there he lyethe
[c] Barr's Court.
[d] Or Cradock.
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buryed in a Colegiate chapell by the ruyns of his castle. He was chefe foundar, as some say, of the howse of Gaunts at Bristow. He was foundar of the priorye of nunes in Somersetshire caullyd Baron Gurney. He was lord of Whitecombe, and of Richemonte Castle by Mendepe, 5. miles from Wells. All the buyldynge of this castle is clene downe. It cam aftar to Hampton, and then to Caradoc, alias Newton.
The forest of Kyngs Wodd cummythe just onto Barrescourte, Mastar Newton's howse.
Ther were of ancient tyme 4. comptyd as chefe lords of Mendepe. First the Kynge, and his parte cam to the bysshope of Bathe as by a fee ferme. Glastenbyre had a nothar parte. Bonvill Lord Bonvile, and now Graye Lord Marques of Dorset was the third owner. The fourthe was Gurney; now Caradoc, alias Newton.
The lengthe of Mendepe from este to weste by estimation a 20. myls, and wher it is brodeste a 6. myles, in many Hills. placis lesse.
There is apon the tope of one of Mendipe Hills a place encampyd caulyd Dolbyn, famous to the people, thus saynge:
If Dolbyri dyggyd ware, Of golde shuld be the share.
It is 2. mils from Banwelle.
Gurney usyd to ly muche at Richemonte Castle. It stondithe in the rote of Mendype este from Bristow in the paroche of Este Harptre by the paroche churche of it. There standithe yet a pece of the dungeon of it. Syr John Newton dyggyd up many olde foundations of it toward buyldynge of a new howse hard therby caullyd Estewood.
There is a nothar village by Est Harptre caulyd West Harptre Gurney; and there be the variete of armes that Gurney gave in the glasse wyndowes, and his cote armure.
At suche tyme as Gurney lyvyd the Lord Fitzwarine was mastar of Mendepe foreste by inheritaunce, and it was well furnishid withe dere; but anon aftar for riots and trespassys done in huntyrtge it was deforestyd, and so yet remaynethe.
Gurney's lands cam by this means onto Newton. One
86 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Newton a man of fayre lands inhabitynge at Wyke toward shire. Banwell had a yongar brothar that niaryed one of the dowghtars and heyres of Hampton, and wyfe afore to one of the Chokks that dyed without ysswe by hym. This was the yonggest dowghtar of the 3. that Hampton lefte; and yet she beinge maried onto Newton, fathar to Ser John Newton, fortunyd to have all the thre partes.
The very lands of Newton of Wyke be discendyd by heires generals onto Ser Henry Chapell, sonn to Syr Giles that dwellyd at Wike, and to Mastar Grifithe of Northamptonshire that hathe Braybroke Castle. So that Newton of Barcourte hathe no parts of Newton's lands of Wike.
From Barrescourte onto Bristow a 3. myles by hilly and stony ground withe feren ovar growne in dyvers placis.
The Site of Brightestow.
The castle and moste parte of the towne by northe stondithe apon a grownd metely eminent betwyxt the ryvers of Avon and Fraw, alias Frome.
There rysethe an hill of an notable highte [a] in respecte of the plote of the towne selfe from Frome bridge on, so goythe up alonge onto Seint Austin's, alias the Trinitie, the cathedrall churche, and there endithe.
Gates in the Waulls of Brightstow.
There be in sum partes of the towne doble waulls, a token that the towne hathe bene augmentyd.
Newgate (as me thinkythe) is in the utar waull by the castle, and a chapelle over it. It is the prison of the citie.
S. John Gate. A churche of eche syde of it. S. John Churche. It is hard on the northe syd of it, and there be cryptae.
S. Gils Gate be southe west of the key where Frome renithe.
S. Leonard's Gate and a paroche churche ovar it.
S. Nicholas Gate where is a churche cum cryptis,
[a] Brandon Hill.
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There be the inner gates of the old towne cis Sabrinam as the towne standithe in dextra ripa defluentis Avonae.
In the utter waullis. Pety Gate. From gate in the uttar waulls. Marsche Gate I regione Avonae. The third is callyd ...
In the waulle ultra pontem et Avonam be 2. gates: Raddeclif Gate and Temple Gate; and a greate towre caullyd Tower harrys, at the very ende of the waulle in ipsa ripa Avonae e regione pontis ad arcem supra Frai brachiolum.
The Castle of Brightestow.
The ryver of Frome ran sumetyme from the were by the castle, where now is a stone bridge doune by the este syde of it; and so doithe yet a litle armelet of it brekynge out, and almoste the hole streme goithe by the northe syde of the castle, and there goithe by New Gate under an arche.
In the castle be 2. cowrtes. In the utter courte, as in the northe west parte of it, is a greate dungeon tower, made, as it is sayde, of stone browght out of Cane in Normandye by the redde Erle of Glocestar.
A praty churche and muche longging in 2. area. On the southe syde of it a great gate, a stone bridge, and 3. bullewarks in laeva ripa ad ostium Frai.
There be many towres yet standynge in bothe the cowrtes; but all tendithe to ruine.
Paroche Churchis within the Waulls of Brightstowe cis Avonam.
S. Nicholas; S. Leonard; S. Lawrence; S. John Bapt. Christe Churche, alias Trinitie; S. Audoene; S. Werborow; Al Halowes; S. Marie Porte; S. Peters; S. Stephane infra secunda moenia.
S. Thomas apostolus.
Templum. Wher as now S. Lawrence Churche it was sumetyme a churche, as it is sayde, S. Sepulchri, where was a nunry. And thereby in the same lane dwellyd the Jewes,
88 LELAND'S ITINERARY
and theyr temple, or sinagoge, is yet sene there, and now is shire. a Ware howse.
Paroche Churches in the Suburbs.
S. Philippus within cis Avonam Ford's Gate, now procul ab Avona.
S. Jacobus by Brodemede Strete.
S. Nicholas northe from Frome Gate in supercilio montis.
S. Augustines a paroche churche on the grene by the cathedrale churche.
The paroche churche of Seint Marks in the Gaunts.
Redcliffe longe pulcherrina omnium ecclesia.
Howsys sumtyme of Religion in Bristow.
Fanum Augustini, nunc S. Trinitatis. Inscriptio in porta: Rex Henricus 2. et dominus Robertus filius ffardingi, filii regis Dectae, hujus Monasteriiprimifundatores.
Ther be 3. tombes of the Barkleyes in the southe isle agayne the quiere.
Fanum S. Jacobi.
It standithe by Brode Meade by northe from the castle on an hilly grownd, and the ruines of it standithe hard buttynge to the este ende of the paroche churche.
Robertus consull Cownte of Glocestarshire buryed in the quiere in the myddle of it, in a sepulchre of gray marble set up apon 6. pillers of a smaull hethe. [a] In his tumbe was found a writynge in parchement concernynge the tyme of his deathe, and what he was. A brewer in Bristow hathe this writynge.
This S. James was a celle to Tewkesberye.
Non longe a dextra ripa Frai.
S. Magdalene's a howse of nunes, suppressyd, on the northe syde of the towne. This howse was suppressyd of late tymes, when suche as were under 300. marks of rent
[a] I.e., "height."
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by the yere were putte downe. Mastar Wiks dwellythe in this howse.
One Henry Gawnt a knight sometyme dwellynge not far from Brandon Hill by Brightstow erectyd a college of pristes withe a mastar on the grene by Seint Augustines. And sone aftar he chaungyd the first foundation into a certeyne kynde of religion, and was governowr of the howse hymselfe, and lyethe buried in the vesturye undar a flate stone. This had at the desolucion of the howse 300. marks of land by the yere. This Henry had a brothar cawlyd Ser Mawryce Gawnte. He was foundar of the Blake Friers in Brightftow.
Hospitales in ru. [a]
Fanum 3. regum juxta Barptolomeanes extra Fromegate.
Aliud non procul in dextra ripa Frai qua itur ad fanum Jacobi in Lionsmede Strete. [b]
One in Temple Strete.
An othar withe out Temple Gate.
An othar by Seint Thomas Strete.
S. John's by Radeclife.
An hospitall S. Trinitatis hard within Lafford's Gate.
The Tukkers Hospitall in Temple.
The Wevers Hospitall in Temple Strete.
Ther was an hospitall of olde tyme where of late a nunrye was caullyd S. Margarets.
The Grey Friers howse was on the right ripe of From watar not far from Seint Barptolomes Hospitall.
The Blacke Friers stode a litle highar then the Gray on From in the right ripe of it. Ser Maurice Gaunt, elder brothar to Ser Henry Gaunt, fouhdar of the Gaunts, was foundar of this.
The White Friers stode on the right rype of Frome agayn the key.
[a] So without a point in the MS. Perhaps it should read ruin.
[b] Lewin's mead.
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The Augustine Friers howse was harde by the Temple shire. Gate withein it northe weste.
Chapels in and aboute Brightstow cis Avon.
The Bake Chapell by cawse it stoode by the Bake [a] by Avon. It longethe onto Seint Nicholas.
S. Georgis Chapell joyning to the towne howse.
A chapell ovar the new gate.
Owr Lady Chappell on Avon Bridge.
S. Sprites Chapell in Radclef churche yard; this ons a paroche afore the buyldinge of Radclyfe grete new churche.
S. Brandon's Chapell, now defacyd, on Brandon Hill a qwartar of a myle by west the Gaunts.
Bedemister [b] a mile out of the towne by est southe este is now mother churche to Radeclife, to S. Thomas within the towne, and Leighe without the towne.
Bridges in Bristow.
The greate bridge of 4. stone arches ovar Avon.
Were Bridge on From hard by the northe est parte of the Castle of Bristowe.
There brekythe an arme out of Frome a but shot above Were Bridge, and renithe thrwghe a stone bridge of one great arche, and there by at New Gate the othar parte of From reninge from Were Bridge cummithe undar a nothar stone, and serving the mille hard without New Gate metithe with the othar arme.
The Haven of Brightstow.
The Haven by Avon flowithe about a 2. miles above Brightstowe Bridge.
Seint Anns ferye is a bout a myle and halfe above the towne of Brightstowe.
Keinesham a 5. miles beyond Bristow in ripa sinistra Avonae.
The shipps of olde tyme cam only up by Avon to a place caullyd the Bak, [a] where was and is depthe enowghe of watar; but the botom is very stony and rughe sens by polecye they
[a] The Back, a riverside street.
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trenchid somwhat a-lofe by northe west of the old key on Avon anno 1247. and in continuance bringynge the cowrse of From ryver that way hathe made softe and whosy harborow for grete shipps.
Hunge Rode aboute a 3. miles lower in the haven then Brightstow. At this rode be some howsys in dextra Avon ripa.
About a myle lowere is Kyng's Rode, and there be also some howses in dextra ripa Avonae.
Ther is a place almoste agayne Hung Rode caulyd Portchestar, where Hardynge and Robert his sunne had a fayre howse, and a nothar in Brightstow towne.
Sum thinke that a great pece of the depenes of the haven from S. Vincents to Hung Rode hathe be made by hand. Sum say that shipps of very auncient tyme cam up to S. Stephanes Churche in Brightstow.
A Remembraunce of memorable Acts done in Brightstow, out of a litle Boke of the Antiquities of the Howse of Calendaries in Brightstow.
The antiquites of the Calendaries were for the moste parte brent by chaunce.
The Calendaries, otharwyse cawlyd the Gilde, or Fraternite of the Clergie and Comonaltye of Brightstow, and it was firste kepte in the Churche of the Trinitie, sene at Al Halows.
The originall of this fraternitie is out of mynd.
Ailarde Mean and Bitrick his sunne Lords of Brightestow afore the Conqueste.
Haymon Erle of Glocestar aftar the Conquest and Lorde of Brightstow.
Robertus consul, sunne to Hamon, was Erle of Glocestar, and Lorde of Brightstow, and foundar of the monasterye of Tewkesbyry.
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Robertus consull lorde of Brightstow Castle, and foundar of S. James Priorie in the northe suburbe of Brightstow.
Kynge Stephan toke the towne of Brightstow by force from Robert consull.
In the tyme of Kynge Henry the 2. Robert Erle of Glocestar (bastard sunne to Henry the First) and Robert Hardinge translatyd the Fraternitie of the Calendaries from the Trinitie onto the Churche of Al- Hallows. At this tyme were scholes ordeyned in Brightstow by them for the conversion of the Jewes, and put in the ordre of the Calenderis and the Maior.
Hardinge foundyd the monasterye of S. Augustine at Brightstow, and to it was appropriate the churche of Al- Hallows.
Gwalo Cardinale, a Romaine Legate, after the coranation of Henry the third at Glocester cam to Brightstow, and kept a synode there tempore Henrici Blesensis episcopi Wigorn.
William Erle of Glocestar, founder of the monasterye of Cainesham, gave the praefecture and mastarshipe of the schole in Brightstow to Cainesham, and tooke it from the Calenderies.
Conducts in Bristow cis pontem.
S. John's hard by S. John's Gate.
The Key Pipe, with a very fair castellet.
Al-Halow Pipe hard by the Calendaries without a castelle. S. Nicolas Pipe withe a castellet.
Redclif Pipe with a castlet hard by Redclife Churche withe out the gate.
An othar pipe withe owte Radclif Gate havinge no castelle.
Another by Porte Waulle withoute the waulle.
Porte Waulle is the fairest parte of the towne waulle. The sayinge is that certein bochers made a fair peace of this waull; and it is the highest and strongest peace of all the towne waulls.
PART X 93
" The yere of owr Lorde 1247. was the trenche made and cast of the ryver from the Gybbe Taylor to the Key, by the Comonlty as well of Redclyffe syde, as of the towne of Bristoll; and the same tyme thinhabitants of Redclyffe were combined and incorperatyd to the forsayde towne. And as for the grounde of Saynt Augustins syde of the rivar it was geven and grauntyd to the comonalty of the sayde towne by Ser William Bradstone then beinge abbot of the same monastiry for certeyne money therfore payed to hym by the comonaltye, as it apperithe by writynge therof made betwinge the mayor and comonalty, and the abbot and his bretherne." [a]
This yere came the frere prechers first into England. 1221.
This yere on Saynt Bercheus Day the Frere Mynors 1225. came first into the realme. Also a man of Adderlay fayned hymselfe Christ, whiche was brought to Oxford, and ther crucified.
This yere beganne firste the Order of the Augustine Friers in England.
The Jewe at Tewxbery.
This yere they made new statuts in this towne, and they 1309. called the senesters bayliffes of the Kings, and they purchased new ground to the towne, and had new prevylegis gyven them of Kinge Edward.
The almese howse without Temple Yate is called Rogers Magdalens of Nonney whiche was founder of it. And the almese howse by Seynt Thomas Churche is called Burton's Almes Howse. Burton maior of the towne and founder is buried in it.
Another hospitall hard by the greye fryers:
And in Temple Streate.
One Shepward a marchaunt of Bristow made the right highe and costly towre of S. Stephenes in Brightstow.
From Brightstowe to Stoke levinge it on the lifte hand a 3. mils or more by grownd wooddy and forest, as of Kinges- [a] Quoted from Ricart's Kalendar, p. 28, with a slight change in the last few words.
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wod. There is a manor place of the Barkeleys in ruine, and a parke waulle. Barkeley of the courte is now owner of it.
From thens by muche forest and parteley bareinge grownd a 2. mils to Magngots [a] Filde village be lyke ground. Here I saw an olde maner place sumtyme longginge to the Blunts. Syns Husey had it be bying for his sune the heire generale. Then it came to the Barkeleys, by purchace or exchaunge.
A mile farther by very champaine, frutefull of corne and grasse, but somewhat scarce of woode, to Coderington, levingef it by halfe a mile on the lyfte hand. There dwellyd a late at Coderington a gentleman of that name.
From Coderington to Derham [b] a mile and halfe of, where Mastar Dionise dwellithe, havinge a faire howse of achelei stones and a parke.
Thens a 2. mils and a halfe to Dodington, where Mastar Wykes dwellythe and hathe welle restorid his howse withe fayre buildings. This maner place and land longyd onto Barkels. It was purchasyd, and now remaynithe to Wiks.
Mastar Walche dwellithe at Litle Sobbyrye a ... mils from Dodington. Thereby is a faire and large campe with a doble dyke.
It apperithe by record in Malmesbyri that Malmesbyry was rewardyd for service done in battayle afore the conquest at Sodbyry hill.
An othar campe at Horton by lesse.
The third by Derham Mastar Dionise house, and all towchinge on one hilly creaste.
The 4. at Beketbyri a mile and halfe frome Alderley.
Walche is lord of Litle Sodbyri, and hathe a fayr place there in the syde of Sodbyry highe hill and a parke.
Olde Sodbyri is a mile from it, and there appere ruines of an olde maner place longynge as the towne dyd to the Erle of Warwike, now to the Kynge. To the Erles of Warwike longgid alias Chepinge Sodbyry, apraty litle market towne
PART X 95
and thrwghe fayre to Brightstow. There is a parke of the Kyngs by this towne, sumtyme the Warwiks. Litle wood in full light nigh the sowthe partes of the campaine soile aboute Sodbyry. Ther is great plentye by Southe Sodbyri of wood in a large valey sumtyme thens clerely to Severn, lyinge in the forest of Kyngs-Wood. The crests of the hilles that ly by Sobbyri crokith one way to Glocester.
From Chepinge Sobbyry onto Aldersley a clothing village, where Mastar John Poynts dwellith, beying lord of it. The Chanseys were sumtyme lords of it, as in Edward the third dayes.
Kingeswodd stondithe low a good myle from Aldersley.
The ground betwixt enclosyd and metely welle woddyd. Some clothyars in it, els a litle and a bare village.
Stones clerly fascioned lyke cokills, and myghty shells of great oysters turned in to stones founde in parte of the hills este southe est off of Alderley.
The Course of Acton River.
This brooke of sum is caullid Loden, [a] but communely Laden, and risith above Dodington, where Mastar Wiks howse is, and so to Acton [b] Mastar Poyntez house a 4. myles of, and then toward Brightstow takynge the name of Frome.
There meate 2. waters halfe a myle by nethe Acton at a mylle.
Sobbyri water cummithe from the hills therby & re [c]
The water by Alderley is in evidence caullyd Avon, [d] and goithe to Barkeley.
From Kyngs Woode to Wotton [e] a praty market towne, welle ocupyed withe clothiars havynge one faire longe strete and welle buyldyd in it: and it stondithe clyvinge toward the rotes of an hill.
There be ruines of an olde maner place at Wotton by the
[a] Laden r., lower down the Frome.
[b] Iron Acton.
[c] This sentence was probably unfinished in Leland's original.
[d] Little Avon r.
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paroche churche. It longgyd ons to the Berkeleys, and shire. aftar onto the Lords Lisles. Syns forceable recoveryd of the Lord Berkeley ther by sleinge the Lorde Lisle.
Thens a 2. myles and more by very hilly and woddy ground to Doursley, [a] where is a praty clothinge towne stondinge on a pece of the clyvinge of a hill, privilegid a 9. yers sens with a market. There is in the towne selfe a goodly springe, and is as the principall hedd of the broke servynge the tukkyng miles about the towne. This watar resortythe into Severne that is a boute a 4. myles of towchinge by the way sume other vilagis. This towne had a castle in it sumtyme longinge to the Berkeleys, syns to the Wiks, sens fell to decay, and is cleane taken downe. It had a metly good dyche about it, and was for the moste parte made of towfe stone full of pores and holes lyke a pumice. There is a quary of this stone about Dursley. Yt will last very longe.
From Doursley to Torteworthe [b] vyllage, wher be some good clothiars. There rennithe a broke. I take it to be the brooke that cummythe from Dursley, and that thens it goithe to Berkley a 3. miles lower. There is by the paroche churche of Tortworth a maner place, where Mastar Throgmerton dwellythe.
From Torteworthe to Wike Water [c] a pratye clothinge tounlet 2. myles. The Lorde Delaware is chefe lorde of it.
Thens moste by champaine ground a 4. myles on to Sodbery market [d] that longyd withe the village and the maner place of Olde Sodbyrye onto the Erles of Warwike.
From Sodbery to Tormerton [e] village where Ser Edward Wadeham dwellythe.
Thens about a 4. myles by playne grownde onto Maschefeld.
[f] This lordshipe longyd to the canons of Cainesham.
Thens a 4. myles farthar I passyd by hilly grownde, and went ovar a stone bridge, under the whiche ran a broke [g] that a litle lower went in sight into Avon ryver by the right ripe of it.
Thens by hilly, stony and wooddy ground a 3. miles onto Bradeford [h] on the right ripe of Avon.
[d] Chipping Sodbury.
[g] Box brook.
PART X 97
Thens on to Throughbridge [a] a market towne 2. miles.
Thens on to Broke by woody grownde 2. myles.
From Brooke onto Frome Celwod [b] in Somersetshire a 4. miles, muche by woody ground and pasture on tyll I cam shirewithin a myle of it where is champaine.
The towne hathe a metly good market, and is set on the clefe of a stony hille.
There is a goodly large paroche churche in it, and a ryght fayre springe in the churche yarde that by pipes and trenches is conveyde to dyvers partes of the towne.
There be dyvers fayre stone howsys in the towne that standythe moste by clothinge.
In the botom of the towne rennithe From ryver levinge the towne on the lyfte rype, and there is a stone bridge of fyve arches, and a myle by it where by cummythe an armelet thorowghe a bridge of 2. arches. Ther cummithe one arme downe from Mayden Bradley v. myles of, and an othar from Hindon, and mete aboute a myle above the towne of From.
Bruerne [c] 8. myles from Frome.
From Frome onto Nunney Delamare [d] a good village a 2. myles, al by champayne grounde frutefull of corne.
Ther is a praty castle at the weste end of the paroche churche, havynge at eche end by northe and southe 2. praty rownd towres gatheryd by compace to joyne in to one.
The waulls be very stronge and thykke, the stayres narow, the lodginge with in some what darke. It standithe on the lefte ripe of the ryver, devidithe it from the churche yarde. The castell is motyd about, and this mote is servid by watar conveyed into it owte of the ryver. There is a stronge waulle withe owt the mote rounde about, savinge at the est parte of the castell where it is defendyd by the brooke.
Delamare and his wyfe, makers of the castle, ly buryed in the northe syde of the paroche churche at Nunney.
[c] ? Brewham or Bruton.
98 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Nunney broke cummythe downe, as I markyd, from southe southe weste, and a 3. miles lower it goithe into Frome ryver. This castell longed to Delamare, syns to Powllet Lord S. John.
I rode bake from Nunneye to Frome market.
Thens a bout a 2. myles of I cam to a botome, where an othar broke [a] ran in to Frome. And in this botome dwell certayne good clothiars havynge fayre howsys and tukkynge myles.
Thens a 2. good myles onto Philipps Northetoune, [b] where is a meane market kepte in a smaull towne, moste maynteynyd by clothing.
From Northeton to Ferley [c] Castle a 2. myles.
Thens to Bradeforde 2. mils. The lordeshipe was gyven with the personage by Kynge AEthelred onto the nunry of Shaftesbyry for a recompence of the mortherynge of S. Edward his brothar. One De la Sale, alias Hawle, a auncient gentilman syns the tyme of Edwarde the firste, dwellithe at the ... ende of Bradeforde.
From Bradeforde to Bathe a 5. myles.
A 2. myles and more by the right ripe of Avon, and woody and hilly grownde, I passyd firste ovar by Frescheforde bridge of stone on Frome.
And a myle and more beyond that at a new stone bridge I passyd ovar a litle broke that aftar a litle lower goythe in to Avon per sinistram ripam.
A mile a this syde Bathe by southe est I saw 2. parks enclosyd withe a ruinus stone waulle, now withe out dere.
One longyd to the bysshope, an othar to the prior of Bathe.
From Bathe to Tormerton 8. mils all moste all by champain ground.
Tormerton was the De la Rivers lands, sins it descendid to S. Loes. Olde Wadeham hath it by mariage of one of the ladyes S. Clo for his lyfe tyme, the whiche was the last De la Rivers doughtar.
There lyeth buryed in the body of the paroche churche of
[a] Wheel brook.
[b] Norton St. Philip.
PART X 99
Thormerton one Petrine De la Ryvers with a Frenche epitaphie. He was owner of the lordshype of Tormerton.
From Thormerton to Sudbyry 2. myles.
Frome thens to Acton 3. myles by woddy grounde.
Dereham village is a 2. mils from Tormerton. There is a fayre maner place longginge to Mastar Dionyse. The lordeshipe of auncient tyme longyd to the Russels. One John Russell and Elizabethe his wyfe lyethe there buryed in the paroche churche; but they had but a meane howse there. From them it cam by heyre generall onto the Dionisies, of whom one Gilbert Dionise was countyd as one of first that there possessyd. Then cam Maurice, and he there buildyd fo. 74 h. a new courte. And Ser Guliam Dionise buildyd a nother courte of late yeres.
The Dionysies hathe here a fayre parke, and also a fayre lordshipe and a praty howse a 2. myles from Dereham at Siseton, [a] and a nothar maner and place cawlyd Aluestone [b] a 2. myles from Thornebyry.
Alverstone at the deforestinge of the old foreste of Kyngeswood was the kyngs.
From Tormerton onto Acton [c] 5. myles, 2. myles by champaine, and 3. by enclosyd ground.
Acton mannor place standithe about a quartar of a myle from the village and paroche churche in a playne grounde on a redde sandy soyle. Ther is a goodly howse and 2. parks by the howse, one of redd dere, an othar of fallow.
The Erles of Heriford were once lords of Acton lordshipe.
From Acton to Thome a 3. myles or more by enclosyd ground and well wooddyd.
The towne selfe of Thornebyry is set almoste apon an eqwalle grounde, beinge large to the proporcion of the letter Y, havinge first one longe strete and two homes goynge owt of it. The lengthe of the strete lyethe almoste from northe to sowthe. The right home of it lyethe towards the weste, the othar towarde the southe. There is a market kepte wekely in the towne. And there is a mayre and privileges.
The paroche churche is in the northe end of the towne, a
[c] Iron Acton.
100 LELAND'S ITINERARY
fayre pece of worke. Whereof the hole savinge the chaunsell hathe be buildyd in hominum memorta.
There hathe bene good clothing in Thornebyry, but now idelnes muche reynithe there.
There was of aunciente tyme a maner place, but of no great estimacion, hard by the northe syde of the paroche churche.
Edward late Duke of Bukkyngeham likynge the soyle aboute, and the site of the howse, pullyd downe a greate parte of the olde howse, and sette up magnificently in good squared stone the southe syde of it, and accomplishyd the west parte also withe a right comely gate-howse to the first soyle; and so it stondithe yet withe a rofe forced for a tyme.
This inscription on the fronte of the gate-howse: This gate was begon in the yere of owr Lorde God 1511. the 2. yere of the reigne of Kynge Henry the viii. by me Edward Duke of Bukkyngham, Erle of Hereford, Staforde and Northampton.
The Dukes worde: Dorenesavant.
The foundation of a very spacious base courte was there begon, and certeyne gates, and towres in it castelle lyke. It is of a iiii. or v. yardes highe, and so remaynithe a token of a noble peace of worke purposid.
There was a galery of tymbre in the bake syde of the house joyning to the northe syde of the paroche churche.
Edward Duke of Bukkyngham made a fayre parke hard by the castle, and tooke muche faire grownd in it very frutefull of corne, now fayr launds, for coursynge. The inhabytaunts cursyd the duke for thes lands so inclosyd.
There cummithe an armelet of Severne ebbynge and flowyng into this parke. Duke Edward had thowght to have trenchyd there, and to have browght it up to the castle.
There was a parke by the maner of Thornebyry afore, and yet is caullyd Morlewodde. [a]
There was also afore Duke Edward's tyme a parke at
PART X 101
Estewood a myle or more of: but Duke Edward at 2. tymes enlargyd it to the compace of 6. myles, not without many curses of the poore tenaunts.
The Severne Se lyethe a myle and more from Thornebyrie, the marches lyenge betwene.
From Thornebyry to Brightstow a 10. myles.
From Thornebyry to Glocester 18. myles. Sume caull it 20.
From Thornebyry to Berkeley a market towne, havynge a maior and privelegis, a 4. myles. A myle or more or I came by the towne I lefte the new parke withe a fayre loge on the hill in it longinge on to Berkeley on the lifte hand. And by a flyte shote or ever I cam on to the very towne, standynge on a clive, I passyd over a bridge, and there ran Torteworthe ryver downe on the lifte hond to Severne marches. And at the very enteringe of the towne I passyd over a nothar bridge where ran a broke commynge from the springs of dyvers hills not far of; and this broke in the salte meades a litle benethe the towne meatithe the othar broke of Torteworthe Watar, and goo bothe withe in a myle, or there aboute, by the salte marsche and New Porte havenet in to Severne.
The towne of Berkeley is no great thynge, but it standythe well, and in a very good soyle. It hathe very muche occupied, and yet some what dothe, clothinge.
The churche stondithe as on an hille at the southe ende of the towne.
And the castle stondithe at the southe west end of the churche. It is no great thinge. Dyvers towres be in the compase of it. The warde of the first gate is metely stronge, and a bridge ovar a dyche to it. There is a sqware dongeon towre in the castle, sed non stat in mole egestae terrac.
Ther be dyvers lordships there about longynge to Berkley to the some of 1000. marks by the yere, whereof Swynborne is one of the best. There longe to Berkeley 4. parks and 2. chaces.
Okeley Parke hard by.
Miche Wood Chace.
102 LELAND'S ITINERARY
From Berkley to Acton muche by woody ground a 7. miles.
Thens to Cheping Sodbyri, and a myle from thens to Lytle Sodbyri.
The doble dichyd campe there by on the hill conteynithe a 2. acres. Kynge Edward the Fowrthe's men kepte this campe here goinge to Twekesbyry Filde. Old Sodbyri and Chepinge Sodbyry were the Erles of Glocester's lands, and syns Bewchamps Erles of Warwyke. Gilbert de Clare pocessyd them,
The maner place stode harde by the west end of the churche, now clene downe.
From Litle Sodbyri onto Pulklechurche in Glosestarshire a 4. myles; one and a halfe by enclosyd ground, the resydwe by champaine, but frutefull. Here is a parke and a goodly lordshipe longynge unto the Bysshope of Bathe.
Edmonde the Elder King of England was slayn at Pulclechirch, and byried at Glasteinbyri.
Savaricus Bisshop of Bathe, and Abbate of Glasteinbyri, alienatid Pucklechirch from Glesteinbyri to Bathe.
The personage of Pucklechirch impropriate to the cathedrale chirche of Welles.
From Pucklechirch to Cainesham, [a] sumtyme a good, now a poore, market town, and ruinus, in Somersetshir.
There be 2. bridges of stone at Kainesham, wherof one of 6. greate arches, now al yn ruine, standith holely in Glocestreshir. The other hard therby stondith with 3. great
PART X 103
arches of stone over Avon ryver that ther partith Glocestershire and Somersetshir.
There is a park of the Kinges waullid with stone hard withoute Kainesham in Somersetshire.
Stones figurid like serpentes wounde into circles found in the quarreis of stone about Cainsham.
From Cainesham to Pensforde a 3. miles, part by champayn, part by enclosure.
It is a praty market townlet occupied with clothing.
Browne of London yn Limestrete is owner of it. It longid afore onto ...
The towne stondith much by clothinge.
There cummith downe a streame that servith dyvers tukking milles.
From Pensforde to Southetoun [a] village. Here hath Syr John Saincte Lo an olde maner place, 2. long miles by hilly and enclosid grounde, meately wel woddid.
Syr John Saincte Lo descendit of a younger brother of the Lordes Saincte Lo, and hath litle of his landes. For the laste Lorde Saincte Lo lakking heyres male, the landes descendid by heyres generate onto the Lorde Hungreforde, and the Lorde Botreaux.
A good peace of Syr John Saincte Lo landes cummith to hym by De la Rivers doughter and heyre, his father's wife or mother.
There is a faire maner place like a castelle building at Newtoun Sainct Lo, [b] 2. miles from Bath by Avon, sumtyme one of the chief houses of the Lordes Sainct Lo. The Lorde Hastinges Erle of Huntingdon hath it now.
From Southetoune onto Chute c a mile dim. by fayre enclosid ground. It is a praty clothing towne, and hath a faire chirch.
And at the southe side of the chirch is a faire manor place of the Bisshop of Bathe.
There be dyvers paroche chirches there aboute that ons a yere do homage onto Chute theyr mother chyrche.
There hath beene good makyng of cloth yn the towne.
Syr John Saincte Lo graundfader lyyth in a goodly tumbe of marble on the northe syde of the chyrch.
[b] Newton St. Lo.
[c] Chew Magna.
104 LELAND'S ITINERARY
Hubley [a] is a 3. miles by southe from Southetoun. There is an old meane maner place. The gate house of it is castelle like. There is a parke by it. It longgid to the Lorde Chedder, whos greate landes descendid by heyres generales onto the Lorde Lisle, Dawbeney, and Newton.
From Southetoun onto Wike [b] 8. long miles.
There is a large maner place, wherof most parte was buildyd by Newton chief Juge of Englande. This lordship was the Lorde Chedders, and then Newton's, whos ii. doughters were maried the one onto Griffith of Braybroke, the other onto Syr Giles Capel, and so dooth Hubley and Wike and dyverse other lordeshippes remayne in partition onto them.
Banwelle is a 2. or 3. miles from Wike, and there hath the Bisshop of Bathe a goodly lordship.
There was at Banwelle in the tyme of Alfride King of the Westsaxons a notable monasterie of ...
Banwelle standith not very holsomly, and Wike worse. The fennes be almost at hande. Woode meately good aboute them.
Kenne village is aboute a mile from Wike. There dwellith Mr. Kenne, a man of a 200. markes of lande by the yere.
Wrekeshale [c] is a 3. miles from Wike towarde Brightestow. Here hath Syr Wylliam Gorge a meane old maner place in a valley, and on eche side of it on the hilles is a fayre parke.
Barow Gurney a 2. miles from it nerer Brightstow, that is 4. miles distante of Barow. Here was of late a nunnery, now made a fair dwelling place by Drue of Brightestow.
Southetowne is 7. miles from Brightstow.
From Southetowne onto Estewoode 3. miles by hilly grounde. It is yn the rootes of Mendepe Hilles. There was a goodly castelle at this Estwoode caullyd Richemonte, wher noble Gurney lay much. Yt is now defacid to the hard ground, and Syr John Newton now lorde of it hath made his house harde by it of the ruines thereof yn the
[b] ? Wick St. Lawrence.
PART X 105
very place wher the graunge of Richemont Castelle was yn Gurneys tyme.
From Estewoode onto Welles v. miles.
From Southetoun onto Midsomer Northtoun by sumwhat hilly and enclosid ground a 5. miles.
I passid over a praty broke a 2. miles or I cam onto Northeton. It ran downe on the lifte hand as I rode.
From Midsomer Northeton to Philippes Northton a v. miles.
From Midsomer Norton onto Melles [a] by chaumpayne grounde 5. miles.
Melles stondith sumwhat clyving, and hath bene a praty townelet of clothing. It longgid onto Glessenbyri.
Selwood Abbate of Glessenbyri seing the welthines there of the people had thought to have reedified the townelet with mene houses of square stones to the figure of an Antonie Crosse; wherof yn deade he made but one streatelet.
The chirch is faire and buildid yn tyme of mynde ex lapide quadrato by the hole paroche.
One Garlande a draper of London gave frely to the building of the vestiarie, a fine and curiose pece of worke.
One ... a gentilman dwelling there yn the paroche made a fair chapelle in the north side of the chirch. There is a praty maner place of stone harde at the west ende of the chirche. This be likelihod was partely buildid by Abbate Selwodde of Glasteinbyri. Syns it servid the fermer of the lordeship. Now Mr. Horner hath boute the lordship of the king. There cummith a broke from the cole-pittes in Mendepe, and strikith by south in the botom of Melles, and thens rennith into Frome ryver, and so to Frome Selwood a market p. 7. towne, that is 3. miles from Melles.
The foreste of Selwood ys in one parte a 3. miles from Melles. In this forest is a chapelle, and theryn be buryed the bones of S. Algar, of late tymes superstitiusly soute of the folisch commune people.
The foreste of Selwood as it is nowe is a 30. miles yn cumpace, and streachith one way almoste onto Werminstre, and a nother way onto the quarters of Shaftesbyri by estimation a 10. miles.
106 LELAND'S ITINERARY
From Melles onto Nunney Delamere a 2. miles partely by hilly and enclosid grounde.
Thens aboute a mile by like soyle onto Tut ... a longe village, wher the paroche chirche is onto Nunney Delamere.
Thens half a mile farther, and so into the mayne foreste of Selwood. And so passing half a mile farther I lefte on the righte hand Witham the late Priorie of Cartusians not in the foreste, but yoining harde on the egge of it.
Thens partely by forest grounde and partlye by champaine a 4. myles onto Stourton.
The village of Stourtoun stondith yn the botom of an hille in laeva ripa Sturi.
The Lorde Stourton's place stondith on a meane hille, the soyle therof beyng stony. This maner place hathe 2. courtes; the fronte of the ynner courte is magnificent, and high embatelid castelle lyke.
There is a parke emonge hilles yoining on the maner place.
The ryver of Stoure risith ther of 6. fountaines or springes, wherof 3. be on the northe side of the parke harde withyn the pale. The other 3. be north also, but witheoute the parke. The Lorde Stourton gyvith these 6. fountaynes yn his armes.
The name of the Stourtons be very aunciente yn those parties.
There be 4. campes that servid menne of warre aboute Stourton, one towarde the northe weste parte withyn the parke doble dichid. I conjecte that heere stode a maner place or castelle. My Lorde Stourton sayith nay.
There is a nother campe a mile dim. of Stoureton doble dichid in the toppe of an high hille. This is caullyd communely Whiteshete Hille.
The other 2. campes be a brode yn the lordship.
There is on an hille a litle withoute Stourton a grove, and yn it is a very praty place caullyd Bonhomes, buildid of late by my Lorde Stourton. Bonhome of Wileshire, of the auncienter house of the Bonehomes there, is lorde of it.
From Stoureton onto ... a 4. miles muche by woddy grounde. Heere I passid over Cale water at a greate forde,
PART X 107
and so rydde scant a mile over Moreland, and a mile beyonde I lefte ... Master Carentes house and parke on the lifte hande; and thens a mile farther I cam onto
Stapleford [a] a praty uplandisch toune of one streate meately welle buildyd, where at the northe ende of the town is a churche and there one Thornehul of Thorn hulle lyith buried on the southe syde of the quier in a fayre chapele of his owne buyldynge.
The lordeship and townelet of Stapleforde in Blakemore hath longgid of aunciente tyme onto the abbay of Shirburne.
Cale ryver cummith downe from Morelande onto Stapleforde, leving it on the righte ripe.
Stapleforde is by estimation a 7. miles north from Wikehampton, [b] from whens Calebrooke cummith.
From Stapleforde onto Thornehul [c] a mile by good grounde enclosid. Here dwellith Master Thornehul an auncient gentilman.
From Thurnehul onto Stourminster a 2. miles by enclosid and woddy grounde; and yn the mydle way I passid over a stone bridge of 5. archis under the whiche rennith a brooke caullyd Liddon Bridge,
Then I passid over a wodde bridge on Stoure a litle above the town.
The townelet of Stourminstre standith in a valley, and is no greate thing, and the building of it is mene. There is a very good market. It stondith in ripa sinistra of Stoure. There is a very fair bridge of 6. arches at the towne ende made of later tymes chiefly by the Vicare of Stourminstre and the persone of Shinington [d] agayne Eyford Bridge in ripa dextra Sturi yn the way to Blanforde. (Eyford Bridge 2. miles beneth Stourminstre.)
At the ... ende of the bridge in ripa dextera Sturi flu. is a faire maner place of an hille made stepe rounde by mannes hand caullid yn olde writinges Newton Castelle. King ... gave this Stourminster and Newton onto thabbay of Glessenbyri. The castelle syns clerely decayed, and the abbates of Glessenbyri made ther a fair maner place, and usid to resorte onto yt.
[a] Stalbridge. See Part VIII.
[d] ? Shillingstone.
108 LELAND'S ITINERARY
The personage of the towne was impropriate onto Glessenbyri, and the revenues of the lordeship mount to a 80. li. by the yere.
From Stourminster over the bridge, and lesse then a mile farther I passid over a bridge of 4. arches that standith, as I remember, over Devilles broke, and thens aboute a mile onto Thornehul.
From Thornehul onto Caundel a praty village a mile. The Lord Stourton hath a fair maner place. It was the Chidiokes maner. (There be diverse villages caullid Caundelle.)
From Caundel onto Shirburne 3. miles by enclosid and sumwhat hilly grounde meately welle woddyd.
The parke of Shirburne excepting a litle aboute the logge is enclosid with a stone waulle.
From Shirbourne onto Wike, [a] now Mr. Horesey house, a late the Abbate of Shirburne maner place, set on the righte ripe of Shirburne water, alias Ivel [b] ryver, scante 2. miles.
Thens to Bradeforde [c] a pratye village on the righte ripe of Ivel and thens to Clifton Mr. Horsey's maner place scant a myle.
Bradford Bridge of 2. arches a litle above the toune.
Clifton standithe on the ryght rype of Ivel in the paroche of Yatminster, [d] where be 3. prebends longinge to Salisbyry. This lordeshipe longyd to the Mawbanks, whos heires generall were maried onto Horesey, and Ware, and they partyd the lands. Ormond Erle of Wileshire aboute Kynge Edwarde the 4. tyme invadid Clifton, and possessyd it by violence withe a pretencyd tytle, and began a greate foundation there for stable and howsys of office, and entendyd to have
[a] Wyke Farm.
[b] Yeo r.
[c] Bradford Abbas.
PART X 109
buyldyd a castle there, but shortly aftar Clifton was restoryd to Horsey.
The auncient name and maner place of the Horeseys was at the end of the greate hylle that goithe from Glessenbyry almoste to Bridgewatar. It is about a myle from Bridge Watar, and Ser John Horsey possessithe yet the lande.
The broke of Sherburne and Myllebroke water metithe togethar a qwartar of a myle or more by nethe Clifton.
From Clifton onto Ivelle [a] a good market towne a myle or more. It stondithe plesauntly on a rokky hille, and is meatly welle buildyd. It stondithe in Somersetshire in laeva ripa flu. Ively. [b]
The towne is privilegyd withe greate libertes, and kepithe courts for decidinge of suts. The paroche chirche is faire and lyghtesom. In it be 4. or 5. cantuaries endwyd withe lands.
There is at the weste ende of the churche a greate and fayre olde chapel, the whiche semithe to be a thinge more ancient then the paroche. It is usid for a chauntrey.
There is a bridge a litle from the toun of 3. great arches of stone apon Ivel, and is the highe way from Shireburne westward. Shireburne is 3. myles or more from Ivele towne.
A litle above Ivel bridge brekethe out an arme of Ivel, and aboute the bridge the armes mete agayne togithar and make a fayre medowe as an isle.
The streame goithe from Ivel Bridge onto Ilchester a 3. myles, and thens rennythe northe to Mychelborow [c] levinge Athelney somewhat distant on the lyfte ripe, and so onto Lambourne, [d] and to Bridge Northe [e] that standithe hard on the lifte ripe of it. [f]
Lamburne hathe bene a right praty towne, and a good market. In it were many fayre howses. Now it decayithe.
From Shireburne onto Milburne Porte [g] about a 2. mils. It hathe had a market, and yet retaynithe privileges of a fraunchisyd borow.
[b] Yeo r.
[f] There is error here, the river Yeo falls into the Parret at Langport.
[g] Milborne Port.
110 LELAND'S ITINERARY
There comythe a broket downe by the towne, and resortithe onto Shireburne Watar. [a]
Thens a myle to Tonmer Parke encompasyd with a stone waulle.
The lordeship of Tonmers was one Tonmers whos heire generall was maried onto one of the Carents, and there by was Carents lands moste augmentid.
From Tonmer to Stalbridge a myle. This towne was privilegyd withe a market and a faire by the procurement of an abbat of Shirburne. The market is decayed. The fair remaynithe.
The abbot of Shireburne, lord of the towne, had there a maner place on the southe syd of the churche.
There is a right goodly springe on the southe syde of the churche waullyd about.
Stowre is the next water on it, and that levithe Stalbridge aboute a mile on the right ripe.
Calebridge on Cale ryver is a mile and halfe of.
Marnelle [b] on the ... rype of Stowre is a good uplandishe towne, and the lordshipe there longid onto Glessenbyri.
Marnelle is aboute a 6. myles from Shaftesbyry.
From Stalbridge onto the causey that ledithe to Scheftesbyry a myle. Thens to Fyyebridge [c] upon Cale ryvar a bout a 2. myles. There be 5. principall arches, where of it takethe name, but ther joynethe hard onto a longe stone causey, in the whiche be dyverse archelets.
Al the countre aboute Fivebridge is a flate vale of a greate cumpace environid withe high hills.
Passynge a myle farthar I roode over a broke that be lykelihode resortythe to Stowre.
Thens aboute a 3. miles on to Shaftesbyry a great market toune stondinge on an highe hille havinge 4. paroche chirches in it.
The abbay stode by ... of the toun.
There was an inscription on the right hond enteringe of
[a] Yeo r.
[c] Five Bridges.
PART X 111
the chapiter howse set up by Alfredus, Kynge of the West-Saxons, in knoledge that he repayred Schaftesberye, dystroyed by the Danes. The inscription of the remaines of the whiche William of Malmesbyri spekethe stodd in the waulle of S. Marie's Chapell at the townes end. The chapell is now pullid downe.
Stowre ryver levithe Schaftesbyri ... the lyfte ripe.
From Sheftesbyri towarde Myre [a] I passid a 2 . mils by woody grounde, and ther I passyd ovar a broke that ran downe on the lifte hand toward Stowre, and so goynge thoruge a peace of Gillingham Forest I passid over a nother broke.
[a] Mere.Return to top of page