Leland's Itinerary of England and Wales: Volume I, Appendix II.

APPENDIX II 315

Cornwall.

Plymmowth is the est port on the sowth se betwyxt Devonshyre, for the ryver of Tamar yssueth owt ther.

The Myddel Part of Cornewale.

By the ryver of Tamar from the hedde north north est yssuyng owt towarde the sowthe, the contery being hilly, ys fertile of corne and gresse with sum tynne warkes wrougth by violens of water.

Hengiston [a] beying a hy hylle, and nere Tamar, yn the est part, baryn of his self, yet is fertile by yelding of tynne both be water and dry warkes.

The myddel of Cornewale to the est part hy montaynes, rochel ground, very baren with sum tynne warkes yn them.

Cornewal thorough owt from the east part to the west, nerer to the north part then to the sowth, ys hy montaynes baren ground.

Fruteful from Launston to Bodman, yn a drye somer good for pasturage for catel wyth sum tynnes werke.

Looke for Dosmery Poole, otherwise cawled Douneuet, almost by S. Annes Hille.

From Bodman to Redruthe, village nerer to the north se


[a] Hingston.

316 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cornwall.

then to the sowth be hy montaynes baren also, yelding bare pasture and tynne.

From Redruth to Carne Gotholghan the contery ys hylly, very baren of gresse and plenteful of tynne.

From Lanant [a] to S. Juste, alias Justinian, beyng the very west poynt of al Cornewayle, the north part ys montaynes and baren growne, but plenteful of tynne. The very west poynt as yt ys cawled now yn Cornysch ys Penwolase, id est, infimum caput.

The North Part of Cornewale.

Fro Stratton, not very far from the hedde of Tamar, to Padstow the contery by the north se ys rather hylle then montaynenius, and ys very fertyle of gras and corne. And the clives of the sayd northe se betwne the places aforesayd hath good fyne blew slates, apte for howse kyveryng, and also hath diverse vaynes of leade and other metalles not yet knowen.

Also abowt Camelford ar certen old mynes, wrought yn tymes past, but of what metalle yt ys now onknowen. Wyth yn a myle above that poore village sowth runneth the ryver that goyth ynto the Severn se at Paddistow; and yt is the greatest ryver on the north syde of Cornewale, and ys cawled yn the commune spech there Dunmere, and yn the Kyngges grawnt of privilege to the chanons of Bodmynne, and the burgeses of the same towne, Alan, yt may fortune for Alaune. Sum historyes cawled Cablan. By this ryver Arture fowght his last feld, yn token wherof the people fynd there yn plowyng bones and harneys.

Wyth yn iiii. myles of the sayde Camylford apon the north clif ys Tintagel, the which castel had be lykehod iii. wardes, wherof ii. be woren away with gulfyng yn of the se, yn so much that yt hathe made ther almost an isle, and no way ys to enter ynto hyt now but by long elme trees layde for a bryge. So that now withowte the isle renneth alonly a gate howse, a walle, and a fals braye dyged and walled. In the isle remayne old walles, and yn the est part of the same,


[a] Lelant.

APPENDIX II 317

Cornwall.

the grownd beyng lower, remayneth a walle embateled, and men alyve saw ther yn a postern dore of yren. Ther is yn the isle a prety chapel with a tumbe on the left syde. Ther ys also yn the isle a welle, and ny by the same ys a place hewen owt of the stony grownd to the length and brede of a man. Also ther remayneth yn the isle a grownd quadrant walled as yt were a garden plot. And by this walle appere the mines of a vault. The grownd of this isle now nuryshyth shepe and conys.

Paddistow, a haven towne of one paroch of fysscher men, wher shyppes cum not yn but at the flowyng water. In the est part of Paddestow Haven be ii... kketes that ... yth se ... The est ... ys cawled ... tyre, and so ys the land that lyeth agaynst yt. The grownd by the se cost from Paddestow to Saynct Anne's hille, wheron (i.e., super montem Annae) ys no maner of buylding, the ground sumwhat hilly, ys fruteful of corne and gresse, but wyth lytle tynne. Apon an viii. myles from Paddestou ys a lytle howse of canons secular cawled Crantoke.

Fro Saynct Anne's Hil [a] to Lanant [b] a village the contery by the north se ys sumwhat hylly, sanday, and baren, and yn sundery places of the same wel replenyshed with tynne.

By Conarton cummith a river cawllid Dour Conor, and goith to the se not far from Lanant ryver mouth.

In the mouth of the ryver that cummyth by Lanant ys the rokket Godryve wheryn bredeth se fowle.

From Lanant by the north se to S. Just, alias Justinian, wher ys no thyng but a paroch chyrch of divers sparkeled howses at the west poynt of the shore cawled J ... The grownd ys but baren, but yt hath yn divers places good tynne warkes.

By al the north se yn Cornewale be sundry crekes, wher as smawle fisshers bootes be drawne up to dry land, and yn fayr wether the inhabitans fysche with the same.

At Paddestow haven, Lanant, and S. Yes, [c] the balinggars


[a] St. Agnes' Beacon.
[b] Lelant.
[c] St. Ives.

318 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cornwall.

and shyppes ar saved and kept fro al weders with keyes or peres.

Dosmery Poole stonding yn the east part of the same sumwhat toward the sowth is of lenght by estimation ii. arow shottes, and of bredth one, stonding on a hille, yn the est part of the which poole ys a vale of xiiii. or xv. fadome depe by estimation; and owt of thys poole issueth a ryver, the which runnyng by the space of a myle and a dim. ys of ii. fadome depe, and ys cawled Depe Hatche. Looke wher he essueth ynto the se.

Also yn the sayd hilly grownd and mooresch be redde deere, the wich when they be schafed # take the sayde poole for soyle.

Ther be of the Isles of Scylley cxlvii. that bere gresse (besyde blynd rokkettes) and they be be estimation a xxx. myles from the west part of Cornewale.

In the byggest isle (cawled S. Nicholas Isle) of the Scylleys ys a lytle pyle or fortres, and a paroch chyrche that a monke of Tavestoke yn peace doth serve as a membre to Tavestoke abbay. Ther be yn that paroch abowt a lx. howseholdes.

Ther is one isle of the Scylleys cawled Rat Isle, yn the which be so many rattes that yf horse, or any other lyving best be browght thyther they devore hym. Ther is a nother cawled Bovy Isle.

Ther is a nother cawled Inisschawe, [a] that ys to sey, the Isle of Elder, by cawse yt bereth stynkkyng elders. There be wild bores or swyne.

From S. Just to Newlin estward the grownd ys sumwhat hilly and fertyle of gresse, with tynne werkes both weete and dry, withowt havyn or creke, savyng yn dyver places ther remayne capstaynes lyke engins as shyppes doth way ther ancres by, wherwith they draw ther bootes up to dry land, and fisch but yn fayr wether.

Also yn the sowth-west poynt betwyxt S. Just and Newlyn ys a poynt or a promontory almost envyroned with the se wheryn ys nothyng but as yt wher a hil enclustered with rokkes as yt had bene yn tymes past a castel, and for the


[a] Now Trescow.

APPENDIX II 319

Cornwall.

declaration therof there remayne yet toward the land ii. wardes clene fawllen downe; but the stone of them remayne ther very fayre and well quadrated. The ruine of the fortelet yn the poynt ys at thys day a hold irrecuperable for the fox.

Ther lyith betwyxt the sowth-west and Newlyn a myle or more of the se S. Buryens, [a] a sanctuary, wherby, as nere to the chyrch, be not above viii. dwellyng howses. Ther longeth to S. Buryens a deane and a few prebendarys that almost be nether ther. And S. Buryens ys a iiii. myles fro the very sowth-west poynt.

Newlin ys a poore fischar towne, and hath al only a key for shyppes and bootes with a lytle socur of land water. Withyn a arow shot of the sayd key or pere lyith directly a lytle low island with a chapel yn yt. And this lytle islet bereth gresse.

Mowsehole ys a praty fyschar town yn the west part of Montesbay lyyng hard by the shoore, and hath no savegarde for shyppes but a forced pere. Also yn the bey be est the same towne ys a good roode for shyppes cawled Guaves Lake. [b]

Pensants [c] abowt a myle fro Mowsehoole stonding fast in the shore of Montbay, ys the westest market towne of al Cornwayle, and no socur for botes or shyppes but a forsed pere or key. Ther is but a chapel yn the sayd towne as ys yn Newlyn. For theyr paroches chyrches be more then a myle of.

Marhasdeythyou, [d] alias forum Jovis, ys a fischar towne with a market, and standeth fast apon the shore of the bay directly agaynst the foote of S. Michaels Mont northward. Be the west end of the towne ys a lake, or a rwu/us, the hedde wherof risith withyn a myle of Lanant north wordde fro Marhesdeythyou.

In Marhasdeythyow ys but a poore chapel yn the myddes of the poore town, and a lytle chapel yn the sand nere by the towne toward the Mont.

Betwyxt the hedd of this rivulus and the nerest part of the ryver of Heyle,e that cummeth yn to the se at Lanant, is not a myle. And the grownd of bred betwene the ful se marke


[a] St. Buryan.
[b] Gwavas lake.
[c] Penzance.
[d] Marazion or Market Jew.
[e] Hayle r.

320 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cornwall.

at forum Jovis and the ful se marke of Lanant ryver is not ii. myles.

The cumpace of the roote of the Mont of S. Michael is not dim. myle abowt. The sowth sowth-est part of the Mont is pasturable and breedeth conys. The resydue hy and rokky. In the nort north-est ys a garden with certen howses with shoppes for fyscher-men. To the north northwest is a peere for bootes and shyppes. The way to the chyrche enteryth at the north syd fro half heb to half fludde to the foote of the Mont, and so assendeth by steppes and greces westward, and thens returneth estward to the utter ward of the chyrch. Withyn the sayd ward is a cowrt stronly walled, wher yn on the sowth syde is the chapel of S. Michael, and yn the east syde a chapel of our Lady. The capytayne and prestes lodginges be yn the sowth syde and the west of S. Mich, chapel. The Mont is enclosed with the se fro dim. flud to dim. ebbe, other wyse men may cum to the Mont a foote.

In the bay betwyxt the Mont and Pensants be fownd neere the lowe water marke rootes of trees yn dyvers places, as a token of the grownde wasted.

Ther be found from the inward part of the ... yvers ... re stones ... wes and ... ois v. miles ... the se.

The cumpace of the bay ys from Lyzart poynt to Newlyn abowt a xx. myles.

Wyth yn iii. myles of Lyzart poynt ys a lytle isle with yn the bay, cawled Inispriuen, and conteyneth ii. acres of grownd wher yn be byrddes and cones.

The ground fro Neulin to Loo poole by the sowth se ys not very fertile, but hath good tynne worke.

Fro the poynt of Lyzart to Hayleford [a] Haven the grownd is fertile of come and gresse by the sowth se.

Also wythyn iii. myles of the sowth se betwene Haylford and the est syde of Montesbay is a wyld moore cawled Gunhilly, i.e., hilly hethe, wher ys brood of catayle.

Also yn the west syde of the poynt of Hayleford Haven,


[a] Helford.

APPENDIX II 321

Cornwall.

and withyn the land of Meneke, or Menegland, is a paroch chirch of S: Keueryn, otherwis Piranus, and ther is a sanctuary with x. or xii. dwelling howses, and therby was a sel of monkes, but now goon home to ther hed hows. The ruines of the monastery yet remenith.

Wyth yn ii. myles of the hedde of the ful se marke of Heyle ryver ys Heylston [a] a market town, withyn the which ther is a cowrt for the coynage of tynne kept twys yn the yeer. Yn the town is both a chapel and a paroch, and yet appereth yn the town vestigia castelli yn the west part; and a ryver runnyng under the same vestigia of the castel yssueth toward the sowthe see, stopped ther with sowth est wyndes casting up sandes maketh a poole cawled Loo, of an arow shot yn breede, and a ii. myle yn cumpas yn the somer. In the wynter, by the reason of fluddes floweng to Heylston town, wherby the mylles nere Heylston beyng stopped men" be constrayned to cut the sandy banke betwyxt the mowth of the poole and the se, wherby the water may have yssue, and the mylles grynd; by the which gut so opened the se floweth and ebbeth yn to the poole, wherby se fysch enteryng with a sowth est wynde ys closed yn the poole, the gut beyng agayn choked and fylled with sand, and so after taken with trowtes and eles drawen yn the same poole.

The cowntery fro Newlyn to Heylston ys meetely fertyle of gresse and corne, and plentuus of tynne by the sowth se.

Fro the mowth of Heylford [b] to Falemuth be water ys iiii. myles.

Falemuth ys a havyng very notable and famose, and yn a maner the most principale of al Britayne. For the chanel of the entre hath be space of ii. myles ynto the land xiiii. fadum of depes, wich communely ys cawllyd Caryk Rood [c] by cawse yt ys a sure herboro for the greatest shyppes that travayle be the occean. At the entre of the haven lyith a blynd roke covered at ful see, nerer the west syde of the


[a] Helston.
[b] Helford.
[c] The Carrick Roads.

322 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cornwall.

haven then the east, cawled Caregroyne, i.e., insula vel rupes potius vitulorum marinorum, alias Seeles. Seles when they cast theyr calves they cum to lond, and ley ther foetum in a dry banke, the which they may com to, and ther they suffer theyr foetum to tary a whyle or the bryng hym to the se.

In the est syde of the sayde haven entereth a creek flowing by the space of ii. myles ynto land, and ys fed at the hedde with fresch water. Apon the sowth syde of this creke ys a selle longing to the howse of Plymton cawled S. Antony's, having but ii. chanons. On the very north shoore of the sayde creeke toward the havyn's mowth ys a poor fischar village cawled S. Mausa, [a] alias La Vousa, and nygh to this village toward the same haven ys a fortelet lately buylded by the contery for the defens of the haven.

In the west syde of the haven is a creeke that flowith up fro the haven's mowth ynto the land above iii. myles, at the very hedd of the which standeth a prety towne cawled Peryn, [b] of marchandyse, and vytayle market. Withyn the towne ys a colleg wel walled and dyked defensabley cawled S. Thomas, wher be secular chanons and a provost. Also yn the towne ys a chapel, and a quarter of a myle owt of the town ys the paroch chyrch. Also viii. myles and more above the sayd haven's mowth is a market towne est north est cawled Trureu, wheryn is a mayre, and also coynag for tynne, with a paroch chyrch and a blake freers. Also on the sowth est syde at the hedde of the olde ful se marke of Falemuth is a market towne xii. myles and more up ynto land cawled Tregoney, wher yn is an old castel and a paroch chyrch of S. James standing yn a more by the castel: also a ch ... standing yn the myddes of the towne, and at the est end of the town a paroch chyrche.

St. Austol's, a poore village with a paroche chyrch, is vi. myles east fro Tregoney.

Trewardreth [c] Bay hath at the hedde on the est side a poore village, with a paroch chyrch, and a priory yn the same town of Cluny monkes.

From Falemuth to Trewardreth by the sowth se the ground is metely fertyle of corn and gresse, and no tyn werkes from Falemuth to Dudman foreland.


[a] St. Mawes.
[b] Penryn.
[c] Tywardreath.

APPENDIX II 323

Cornwall.

In the mydde way betwene Falemuth and Dudman [a] is an islet or rok berying gresse cawled Grefe, a ii. acres abowt, but standyng yn the myddes torring up right. Ther bredeth yn the isle se fowle.

Fro Dudman Foreland to Trewardreth the contre sumwhat baren of gresse and corne, and replenishid with tynne werkes, with vaynes yn the se clyves of coper. Pasture, corn and woode meatly plenty.

From Trewardreth to Fowey town ys ii. myles. Bytwene thes townes by the sowth se ther is plenty of corn and gresse, but no tynne werkes.

The town of Fowey ys a market town walled defensably to the se cost, and hath gates also. Yn the towne is but one chyrche, but the howses of the towne be well buylded of stone, and yl enhabited. Also at the entery of the haven on the west syd is a blokke howse and a chapel of S. Catarine be the same. Also ther is on the same syd a towre with ordenans for defens of the haven.

On the west syde a ii. myles up yn the haven ys a fyssher town cawled Gullant. [b]

At the hedd of the ful se marke of this haven, and a quarter of a myle more is the toune of Lost Whythyel [c] havyng a market, and ys the shyre towne of Cornewal. For ther the shyre is kept by the shryfe ons yn the moneth. Also at this town is quynag of tynne twys a yere. And by the shyre hawle appere mines of auncyent buyldinges, a howse of the Duke of Cornwal. It is evydently knowen that yt f hath flowed to Lost Whythiel; but the spuing of the sandes of the tynne werkes hath stoppe yt now. The litle rownd castel of Restormel standith in the kinges parke ny to Loswithiel. At the est syde of the haven's mowth of Fowey stondeth a towr for the defens therof, and a chapel of S. Savyor a lytle above the same. Ny by the sayd towr standith a fysshar village cawled Porthruan.

A myle beyond Polruen on the est syde of the same haven


[a] Dodman.
[b] Golant.
[c] Lostwithiel.

324 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cornwall.

stondeth a poore fisshar village cawlled Bodennek. Ther is the passage or trajectus to Fowey.

ii. myles above Bodennek ynto the land northward is a creke apon the north syde, wheryn ys a sel of ii. blake monkes of Montegu, and is dedicat to S. Sirice and Julit.

By est the haven of Fowey upon a iiii. myles ys a smawle creke cawled Poul Pier, [a] and a symple and poore village apon the est syde of the same of fisjshar men, and the bootes ther fisshing by saved by a peere or key.

In the est syde also of this Poul Pyrre ii. myles of is a nother creeke cawled Loow, being but a tyde creke. For at low water be nethe the bridge a man may both wade and ryde over yn the somer. Ther is on eyther side of this smawl creke a smaule fissher villag hard on the se shore, the one cawlled Est and the other West Loowe, Est Loowe being a market towne, and yn eyther of them a chapel. Also yn the sayde creekes mouth neere sumwhat to the sowthe west is a lowe isle cauled S. Nicholas Isle, not a quarter of a myle fro the mayn shore, and conteyneth a vi. or viii. acres yn cumpace, and fedeth shepe and cones, nurishing also broode of se byrdes.

Ther is a bridg sumwhat above thes ii. vyllages of x. or xii. stones arches, over the which men passe when the se ys yn.

Fro Fowey Haven to Lowe Creeke the grownd ny the see syde ys very fertile of come and gresse, and no tynne werkes.

From Loowe Creke to Tamar ys a xii. myles toward the towne of Plymmuth. Yn the west syde of Tamar withyn iii. myles of the haven muth of Tamar is a symple fisshar towne cawled Mylbrooke. Also apon an other creke west of the sayd ryver and nerer up is a towne cawled S. Germayns,t wherin is now a priori of blake chanons, and a paroche chirche yn the body of the same. Beside the hye altare of the same priory on the ryght hand ys a tumbe yn the walle with an image of a bisshop, and over the tumbe a xi. bisshops paynted with their names and verses as token of so many bisshops biried theere, or that ther had beene so many Bisshoppes of Cornwalle that had theyr seete theer.


[a] Now Penpoll.

APPENDIX II 325

Cornwall.

And at this day the Bisshop of Exceter hathe a place cauled Cudden Beke joyning hard apon the sowthest side of the same towne.

North est of S. Germaynes vi. myles apon the ryver of Tamar is a market town cawled Asshe. [a] And neere to the same westward withyn ii. myles ys a rownd castel of the kinges cawled Tremeton, as a man showld say the secund forteres on Tamar.

At the towne of Asshe is a passage or fery of a quarter of a myle over.

Also ii. myles fro Asshe northward ynto the land is a smaul village cawled Caregrin. [b] Est of this is Bere Parke and hous in Devonshire, dividid from Caregrin tantum Tamara.

From Low to Tamar by the sowth se the grownd is fertile of corn and gresse, but withowt tynne warkes.

Cornewail ys now ... d by ... hunderithis that is to say on the sowth ... e fro the este part west warde the hunderedes of est, and west, Powder and Kyryer.

On the north westward Stratton, Lesnewith, Tryg, Pyder and Penwith.

Launston, [c] otherwys cawled Lostephan, yn old tyme cawlled Duneuet, stondith ii. myles beyownd Powlston Bridge on Tamar westward. The sayde town Duneuet, otherwise Lawnston, is a walled towne ny yn cumpas a myle, but now ruinus. On the northt side of the towne a castel stonding on a hye hille with yn the sayd towne hath iii. rowndes wardes. Part of the castel stonding north west ys parcel of the walle of the town. Ther be withyn this town iii. gates and a postern; also a gate to go owt of the castel ynto the old parke. Sum gentelmen of Cornewal hold ther landes by castelgard, that ys to say for reparation of this' castel and towne: and withyn this castel ys a chapel, and a hawle for syses and sessions, for a commune gayle for al Cornwayle is yn this castel. Withyn this towne is a market,


[a] Saltash.
[b] Cargreen.
[c] Launceston, anc. Dunneheved.

326 LELAND'S ITINERARY

Cornwall.

a mayre and burgesses, with a chapel of Mary Magdalen to theyr uses.

In a vale at the foote of the hil of the sayde town, abowt an arow shot fro the castel northward, is a priory of chanons regular dedicate to S. Stephan.

North est almost half a myle of the sayde priory is a lytle village apon a hille, and a paroche chirche of S. Stephen yn yt. The opinion is that the chanons first dwelled on this hille, and cam thens downe to a better and a warmer site. In the Priory chirche yarde standeth also a paroche chyrche.

The wall of Duneuet ys hy, larg and strong, and defensably set.

By the north side of the priory runneth a litle ryver.

In Duneuet be ii. conduites of derived water.

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