Leland's Itinerary of England and Wales: Volume IV, Appendix II.




In lenght abowt a xxiiii. myles.


TO know by what notable places the lenght of Herefordshire ys extendyd. From Clifford, the which stondeth harde on the border, but not yn the shire to a village cawlled Lee, wherof the one dim. ys yn Herfodshyre, the other yn Glocestreshyre. Lee ys withyn iii. myles of Rosse, a market town. Winfordtown a village a myle a this side Clyfford semeth to be the uttermoste part.

In bredth abowte a xxiii. myles or sumwhat les.

The bredth of the shyre, and by what notable places yt is limited. Fro Ludlo Brige hard by Ludlo to Doure a monastery of White Munkes. [b]

What notable ryvers be yn the shyre, what theyr names be, where they ryse, and by what notable places they make theyr curse.


[a] The first few pages of this Appendix on Herefordshire and some Welsh castles are found in Collectanea, vol. iii (Top. Gen., c. 3), pp. 149-152 (printed by Hearne in the Appendix to his vol. vii of the Itinerary, following the pages on Kent (see before, pp. 47-71). To these I add some further notes relating to Wales taken from a copy by Stow of a lost volume of Leland (printed by Hearne vol. viii Part II), see pp. 168, 182. The notes as far as p. 167 are partially used in the narrative on Herefordshire. See Leland in Wales (i.e., vol. iii) pp. 49, 103. The last pages, relating to Yorkshire, conclude Hearne's Appendix to his vol. vii from Collectanea, vol. iii.
[b] Abbey Dore.



Kenbrooke rising in Wales goith into Lug at Leonminstre.


Lug cummeth into Wy a iii. myles fro Herford estward at Mortheforth [a] a village. So that Wy is past Heneforth or he receyve Lug.

Pinfulley risith at Kingeslande abowt a ii. miles from Leonminstre, and goith at Leonminstre into Lug.

Arow goith ynto Lugge almost a myle after Lug is past Leonmynstre at a place cawled Warton a village.

Frumeye, or Fromey, cummeth into Lugge at Yarkil.

Yarkil is a iii. myle fro Heneforth.

What castels stond at this tyme yn the shyre.

Aske for M. Blakston of Pekwaters yn.

Wher the mines of the old castels that hath bene yn the shyre do apere.

The castels on Wy. Yn the Marches.

The castel of Beelth [b] longing to the King on the sowth side of Wy stondeth on the March, and ther ys a market town.

The castel of Colewyn on the north side of Wy.

The castel of Bredwo, [c] and ther is a village, on the north side.

The castel of Payne longging to the King, sumtime the Duke's of Bokingham, and ther is a village, on the north side.

The castel of Boghorwide [d] on the north side, and ther ys a village.

The castel of Glasebury on the north side, and ther a village.

The castel of Clereho [e] on the north, and ther a village.

On the sowth syde of Wy, yn the Marches.

Beelth Castel.

[a] Mordiford.
[b] Builth. Leland first wrote Byclth, but corrects as above.
[c] Aberedw.
[d] Boughrood.
[e] Clyro.



The castel of Bruintheys [a] with a villag.

The castel of Dinas, the Kingges, on a very hye hil, with a village.

The castel of Hay.

The castel of Clifford.

Withyn the shyre on the north side of Wy.

Herford withyn the cyte.

The castel of Byknor, [b] with a village.

How many market townes be yn the shyre. Leonmynstre a market town abowt viii. mylesfro Herforde northward. Ther is an abbay of Blake Monkes now longging almost as a selle to Reding. The abbay yoinith almost to the paroche chyiche.

Pembrige x. myles fro Herford by north north west. The ryver of Arow runneth by the north side of the town.

Webley a market towne vii. myles fro Herford. Ther is a fayr castel of my Lord Ferrars. Yt stondeth by west of Herford, and iiii. myles sowthest fro Pembrige.

Ross a market towne a iii. myles fro the Lee. Wye is on the sowth side of the town. Ther hath been a palace of the Bisshop of Herford.

Ther is a riveret towarde Lee market side caullid Stroode.

At Hay owt of Herfordshire beside the castel, as they say, apere the ruines of a wal of a town. Ther is much antique mony fownd, and pottes with other notable thingges.

Wher apere any tokins of great old townes now clene desolated.

Castels withyn the shire on the sowth side of Wy.

Leonhauls [c] a castel ofmyLord Ferrars, iii. myles fro Weble.

Webley castel longging to the Lord Ferrars.

The castel of Bredwardine.

The castel of Dorston.

The castel of Snottehill. [d]

The castel of Mapelart, alias Ewisharneis.

[a] Brwynllys. Leland first wrote Brynllis and Bruinleys.
[b] Welsh Bicknor.
[c] Lyonshall.
[d] Snodhill.



Ewys Harald Castelle } now in Harfordshire. [a]

Ewys Laci Castelle }

The castel of Wylton.

The castel of Goderich.

The castel of Landamas.

The castel of Gresemont.

The castel of Guyn, a great thing.

The castel of Longton of Ewys.

Upward on the Marches.

The castel of Scannrayth [b] toward Breknauc in Melennith.

The castel of Dowr.

The castel of Monemuth.

In the shyre.

Maperalt, alias Maperart, is a vi. miles from Abergevenni, parteli, as I here say, longging to the King, parteli to the Lord of Abregeveny.

What abbays be yn the shyre.


Kery and Kidowen townes by Montgomerik.

The Walche Poole a preati town having a castel, now set as part of the new shire of Montgomerike.


Yn what places of the shyre any mony of brasse or sylver of the Romayne coyne hath be fownd yn pottes by plowgyng, diggyng, or otherwyse.

At Kenchester iii. myles fro Heneforth westward a myle fro the bank of Wye was a palays of Offas, as sum say. The mines yet remayne, and the vaultes also. Here hath bene and is fownd a fossoribus et aratoribus Romayn mony, tessellata pavimenta, a litle crosse of gold to were abowte ons nekke, and ther they cawle them Dwery, or Dwerfich, halfpens or mony. Sir John Lyngain was owner of the ground, after now his heyre.

At Sutton a palayce of King Offas was King Ethelbright sleyn. Sutton is iii. myles fro Heneforth northward apon Lugge. Yt is now cawled Suttun Walles, and now no thing but ruines.

[a] Herefordshire.
[b] Llansantfraecl.


What forestes be yn the shyre.

Abbas Cairmardin.

Laurod abbas Pennalun.

Cuhelin abbas LLan isan.

Abbas LLan Sanfrigt.

Arturius Petrifilius sed recentior veteri Arturio.

Saturnlius episcopus Menevensis.

LLanhuateni castel, vulgo LLanhaden.

Agri omnis Huateni.

Pagus de Cadweli, Kidweliforsan.

Castellum de Madua in eodem pago.

Vendraith, id est, album littus.

In Synodo breui.

Coit Maur [a] castel, nunc Coitmore by Tyue, by twixt Gilkarran [b] and Cairdigan. Nunc vestigia tantum extant.

It is yet in the name of a barony to one Mortymer of Cardiganshire.

Bridge North yn Shropshyre is a walled towne. Aske.

Ex chronico incerti autoris.

Post Kereticum Cadwanus rex Venettorum sublimatus in regem Angliae. Bellum Cairlegion in quo Silla filius Kenan cecidit.

Cadwallo filius Cadwani patri in regno successit.

Depulsus Cadwallo ab Edwino Armoricam petiit, et reversus Edwinum interfecit et regnavit.

Cadwalarus filius Cadwallonis regnat in Britan.

Coenobium [c] S. Davidis incensum.

Ivor Cadwaladri filius successit. Obiit Cadwalladrus anno Dom. 689.

[a] Coetmor.
[b] Kilgerran.
[c] Senobium.


Beli filius Elphini moritur.

Bellum apud Heyl in Cornubia.

Bellum Card Mailauc.

Bellum Pentun. In his bellis regnante Ivor Britones vicerunt Saxones.

Beda moritur qui hunc librum annalium composuit.

Talagarn rex Pictorum occiditur a Britonibus.

Tuder ap Hely moritur.

Pascha mutatur apud Britones ab Elbodo homine Dei.

Sermana filius Idwalli moritur. Vastatio Britonum dextralium ab Offa rege Saxonum. Vastatio Britonum ab Offa in aestate.

Vastatio Rienneth ab Offa.

Bellum Rudelan.

Mareduc rex Demetarum obiit.

Cradauc rex Venedotiae a Saxonibus jugulatur.

Arthen rex Keredigiaun obiit.

Reyn rex Demetarum, et Cadel rex Powisiae moriuntur.

Elbodus episcopus Venedotiae obiit.

Combustio Meneviae.

Owein filius Mareduc obiit.

Degannoe ictu fulminis comburitur.

Bellum inter Howell et Kenan, sed vicit Kenan.

Hoel iterum pugnavit cum Kenan, et expulit eum de Monia insula.

Hoel de Monia iterum expulsus est a Kenan.

Kenan moritur.

Saxones vastant monies Eriri.

Bellum LLannays.

Saxones arcem de Gannoe vastaverunt.

Howell moritur.

Sadurnven episcopus Menevensis.

Merhin moritur.

Bellum Citil.

Bellum Finant.

Ithail rex moritur.

Meuric a Saxonibus occiditur.

Monia vastatur a gentilibus.


Eygen rex Poiseae Romae obiit.

Matusalem moritur.

Urbs Eboraci vastatur.

Gogaun rex Keredigiaun mergitur.

Novis episcopus Menevensis moritur.

Bellum in Mone.

Rodricus et filius ejus occiduntur.

Bellum Conny, i.e. Dial Rodri.

Howell Romae obiit.

Hincid moritur.

Anaraud cum Saxonibus vastavit Keredigiaun.

Mervin rex filius RodriciaJ gentilius occiditur.

Bellum dy Nerth.

Asser fit episcopus Britann,

Cadel filius Rodrici moritur.

Othyr venit in Britan.

Anaraud rex moritur.

Cledaun filius Cadel occiditur.

Bellum dinas Newith.

Howell rex filius Cadell Romam perrexit et obiit.

Grifin filius Owein occiditur.

Hinerd filius Cledanc moritur.

Adelstanus rex Sax. moritur.

Cadel filius Artnail moritur.

Idwal filius Rodrici et ejus jugulatur a Saxon:

Lunvert episcopus Menevensis moritur.

Kengen filius Elissed veneno extinguitur.

Eneuris episcopus moritur.

Morcleis episcopus moritur.

Howell rex Britonum cog: bonus moritur cui successit ejus filius Owein.

Jago et Jenaf filii Idwalli, quos Howel bonus a regno expulerat, pugnant cum Oweyn juxta Hautecarno et vincunt.

Vastatio Dynet a filiis Idwalli. Rodricus filius Howell moritur.

Bellum juxta Nant Conny inter filios Idwalli et Hoeli.

Edwine filius Howel moritur.

Anarud filius Guiridith occiditur.


Rodricus filius Idwalle moritur.

Jenaf filius Idwalle a Jagone fratre incarceratur.

Einiaun filius Owein vastavit Gowher.

Jago expulsus a reg: suo, et Howel rex post eum.

Einiaun iterum vastavit Goher.

Menue filius Idwalli occiditur.

Vastatio Dynet et Meneviae a Godisric filio Haroldi.

Einiaun pugnavit contra Sax: et Alfre eorum ducem, et contra Howell filium Jenaf, et multos ex eis interfecit. Sed Einiaun ab optimatibus de Guent dolo occiditur. Howel filius Jenaf occiditur.

Mariduc filius Owein interfecit Cadwalan filium Jonab, et ejus regnum possedit.

Godisric filius Haroldi cum nigris gentibus vastavit Menaw.

Owein filius Howel moritur. Gentiles vastaverunt Meneviam, Lanpader et Landroch.

Mareduc censum reddidit nigris J gentibus.

Mareduc vastavit Maishineid.

Owein vastavit Dynet et Cairdigan.

Bellum inter filios Meuric et Marienc. Vicerunt filii Meuric. Teudur filius Eyniaun occiditur.

Idwal filius Meuric occiditur.

Mareduc filius Owein moritur.

Menevia vastatur a gentilibus, et Morgenew episcop. occiditur.

Kenan filius Howell occiditur. Menevia vastatur a Saxonibus, Edric et Ubric.

Aidan filius Bledkenrid cum 4. filiis a Lewelno occiditur.

Lewelin filius Sisille rex Venedotiae pugnavit contra Reyn, qui dicebat se esse filium Mariduc, et devictus est Reyn in hostio, Guili.

Eilaph venit in Brytanniam, et vastavit Denet et Meneviam. Lewelin moritur.

Roodrich reg. dextral: Britonum tenuit.

Keinan filius Sisille occiditur.


Rederch filius Gestine occiditur.

Jacob et filii Brwin, i.e. Howel et Mereduc, tenuerunt reg

Mareduc filius Edwyn a filii Kenan occiditur.

Cradauch filius Redric ab Anglis occiditur.

Sweyn rex Angliae moritur.

Gentiles tenuerunt Meuric f filium Howel.

Jacob rex Venedotiae occiditur, pro quo Grifin ap LLuelin reg: et Howelum filium Edwin expulit.

Herbin episcopus Meneven: moritur.

Bellum Pencader in quo victor fuit Grifin.

Grifin captus fuit a gentilibus Dulyn.

Howel filius Edwyni acceptis 20. navibus gentilium coronatus est, et coepit desolare Cambriam, cui obviavit Grifith filius LLuelin, etcommisso bello in ostio Teyni cecidit Howell.

Tota dextralis patria Cambr: metu gentilium.

Grifin fil. Lewelni interfecit Grifith fil. Redric.

Destructio Herford a Grifino. Filius Harold vastavit regiones Angli: auxilio Grifin.

Owein filius Grifithe moritur.

Griphin filius Lewelini rex Britonum occiditur.

Joseph episcopus Meneven: moritur.

Bellum inter Bledyn et Rualam, filios Cinnin, et Mareduc et Idwal, filios Grifini.

Rualan occiditur. Bledyn regnavit.

Mareduc, filius Owein, a Cradac, filio Grifin, et a Francis occiditur super ripam Remey.

Franci vastaverunt Cairdigan. Menevia et Bangor vastatae a gentilibus. Gentiles nunc pro Danis, nunc Hibernis ponit.

Bledus episcopus Meneven: moritur. Successit Sulgenius. Franci iterum vastaverunt Cairdigan.

Bledin filius Kennin dolo malignorum de Estratewy a Res filio Owein occiditur, cui successit Traharin, filius Craudauc ejus consobrinus, reg: Venodotiae tantum tenens.

Res et Redric filii Craudauc dextralem Britann. termrnt.

Redric filius Craudauc dolo occiditur a consobrino suo Meirchanri.

Bellum Pullgudic, in quo Traharn rex Venedot: victori


et tota familia Res cecidit. In fine hujus anni Res et Howel ejus frater a Craudauc, filio Grifini, occiduntur.

Sulgenius episcopal: Meneven: reliquit et Abraham accepit. Res filius Teuder incepit reg.

Meneva a gentilibus vastata, et Abraham episcopus occisus.

Sulgenius sedem Menevensem repetit.

Bellum mentis Cam, in quo Traharn filius Craudauc, et Craudauc fil. Grifin, et Meilir fil: Rualan, et Res filius Teuder, et Grifin frater Einiaun, et Jacob occiduntur.

Gul. rex Angliae Menevia peregre venit.

Res filius Teudir de reg. suo expellitur a filiis Bledith, i.e. Maduc, Cadugaun, et Ririd.

Res Hibern: petiit, et cum classe rediit, et in bello de Penletheren filii Bledith ceciderunt.

Scrinium S. David ablatum ea Menevia spoliata.

Obiit Sulgeng episcopus Meneven. 75. anno aetatis suae.

Res filius Teuder a Francis, qui in Brecheniauc habitabant, occiditur.

Tunc Denet vastatur a Cadugana, filio Bledin.

Franci invadunt Keredigaun et Denet, et castella in eis firmaverunt.

Walli tempore Cal. Juni: Francorum castella in NorWallia diruunt, et in Cairdigan et Dynet exceptis Penbroc et Rydcors. Franci devastant Goher, Kidwelli, Estratewi; Kairdigan, Dynet et Estratewi departe veniam serunt.

Gul. filius Baldwini, qui jussu regis Gul: castellum Ridcors fundavit, moritur, et castellum deseritur.

Brechnauc, Guent et Guenlinne jugum , Franc, respuunt. Franci aedificant castella in Brekniauc.

Provinc. Pembrok a Wallis vastata.

Gerarodus dapifer de Pembroc fines Meneviae vastat.

Walli defendunt Monam contra duos Hugones comites.

Comites castra construunt in Mona.

Mag: rex Norwegiae pugnat cum consulibus.


Caducan fil: Bledin a Francis partem Walliae accipit.

Lewelin filius Cadugaun ab hominibus de Brechauc occiditur.

Grifin filius Kenan Moniam obsedit. Rikewarth filius Suhen episcopus moritur.

Hugo Crassus urbis Legionum comes moritur, cui Rogerus ejus filius successit.

Gronoe fil. Cadugaun obiit.

Jornerth fil: Bledin cepit fratrem suum Mareduth, et in carcerem trusit, tempore Henrici I.

Jornerth fil. Bledin captus est ab hominibus regis Angliae apud Slopesberiam, decus et solamen Britanniae.

Owein fil. Edwini obiit.

Howell filius Gronoe a Richardo filio Bleduerin expulsus praedas agit. Howel fil. Gronoe dolose a Francis apud Riedcors, et et a Googaun filio Meric occisus.

Meuric et Grifin fill: Traharyn ab Oweno filio Cadugaun occisi.

Mareduc filius Cartere evasit. Flandrenses ad Ros venerunt.

Geraldus dapifer firmavit castellum de Kilgarran.

Castellum Kenarth ab Owein filio Cadugaun destruitur. Quamobrem expulsus est ad Hibern: sed eodem anno obiit.

Jornerth filius Bledin jussu regis Angliae de carcere liberatus in patriam rediit.

Oweyn filius Cadugaun, et Mereduc filius Ridir, combusserunt Merionith.

Owein fecit irruptiones de Cairdigan in Flandrenses. Quapropter Cairdigan a missit, et Gilberto filio Richardi traditur.

Owein et Madauc expulsi Hibern: petunt; sed Madauc rediit et latuit in silvis.

Jornerth a Maudauc nepote suo interficitur, et ab eodem Maudauc Cadugaun suus avunculus interficitur.

Owein rediit ab Hibern: et terram suam a rege Angl. recepit.

Madauc filius Ridir a familia Mariduc tenetur, et traditur Owein, a quo oculis privatus est.


Wilfridus episcopus Menevensis moritur. Successit Bernardus Normannus.

Grifin filius Res fecit irruptiones in Flandrenses.

Grifin filius Res Arberth castellum invasit et destruxit, et villam de Cairmardin combussit, et Owein filius Cradauc ibi occiditur.

Bellum geritur apud castell: Aberyscoite.

Owein a Flandrensibus in Estrate Brunns occiditur.

Einaun fil: Cadugaun, et Grifith filius Mariduc castellum Venderaith, quod est Kymener, fregerunt, et terram ejus t obtinuerunt.

Gilbertus filius Richardi moritur.

Bellum Mays Mayn Kembro, in quo Lynnarth filius Owein cecidit. Howell fil: ibi vulneratus postea obiit.

Grifin filius Mariduc occidit Ithail fratrem Ridir consobrinum suum.

Cadwalaun fil. interfecit 3. avunculos suos, filios Owein, Gronoe, Ridir et Mailer.

Morgan fil: Caduguan occidit fratrem suum Mareduc.

Grifith filius Res ab Henrico rege a terra sua expulsus.

Morgan filius Cad. qui ob fratricidium Hierosoly: petiit, in silva Cipres moritur.

Maraduc filius Linnarth a Jennab filio Owein occiditur.

Jarnerth filius Lywarth a Lewelin filio Owein occiditur.

Lewelin filius Owein a Mariduc filio Bledin oculis et testiculis privatus.

Jenudb frater Owein a consobrinis suis filiis Lennarth occiditur.

Madauc frater Lennarch a Meuric filio Meuric consobrino suo interficitur.

Meuric filius Meuric oculis privatus.

Jornerth filius Owein occiditur.

Cadwalan filius Grifin a consobrino suo Cadugan fratre Gonoe occiditur.

Grifith frater Res cum omnibus ducibus Canbr: pugnavit contra Francos et Flandrenses apud Aberteyvi et vicit. Sinan fil: Owein ibi occiditur. Owein et Cadwalader fill: Grifin


combusserunt castellum Estrat Meuric; et postea adjunctis Anaraud et Cadel et Grifin fratribus destruxerunt castell: de Cairmardin. Postea venerunt cum 15. navibus gentilibus plenis ad Aberteyui, et treugas fecerunt ad tempusculum.

Gentiles spoliaverunt ecclesias de Landedoch et Seint Dogmaele.

Kenricus filius Owein occiditur ab Howell fratre Mareduc.

Mareduc filius Howell a filiis Bledin fil: Guin.

Howell frater Mariduc occisus a Res filio Howell.

Anauraud frater Griffin occisus a familiaribus Cadwaladar.

Mylo Herford: comes ictu sagittae militis dum cervum peteret occisus.

Owein et Cadwalader concordati.

Prima fundatio monach: de Albalanda per Bernardum episcopum Menevensem, qui dedit eis locum apud Trefgarn in Denglethes.

Owel filius Owein et Kenan ejus frater destrux: Aberteyui.

Meriduc filius Madauc fil: Iduerth ab Hugone occisus est. Meuric filius Madauc a suis occisus. Cadel frater Owein cum aliis invaserunt Carmardein et Lanstupha Castle.

Hugo de mortuo mari oculos Resi fratris Howel eruit in carcere. Bernardus episcopus Meneven: obiit 33. episcop: sui anno: cui David Giraldus filius successit.

Owein frater Grifith castellum in terra Yale construxit.

Manadauc frater Mereduc Crois Oswald reaedificavit, et dedit Kenevelliauc nepotibus suis Owein et Meuric fill: Griffith. Airon flu: in Cardiganshire.

Cadel, Res et Mereduk fill: Howelli, fil. Owein, Cuirdigan in abstulerunt, et Eustrate Meuric aedificaverunt.

Cadell a sagittariis de Denbigh occisus.

Maneduc filius Res, fil. Grifith, veneno extinctus.

Res filius Griffith fossam apud Aberedeui fecit, et castellum ibi fundavit.

Rogerus comes de Clare castella sua per Cairdigan firmavit.


Madauc filius Maruduc princeps Powise obiit.

Res filius Grifin castella de Walwerins et Lanandeueri incepit.

Henricus 2. venit Pencader.

Cadugane fil. Mariolu occisus ab Waltero filio Richardi.

Rex Angliae obsides Wallorum 22. oculis et testiculis privavit.

Castle de Aberteyui per dolum h Reso filio Grifin captum, et ad solum destructum.

Robertus fil. Stephen custos castri captus.

Owein frater Grifith cum suis aedificaverunt castrum de Cairhonaun. In reditu castel: de Walwerin habuerunt.

Res filius Grifin aedif: castell: de Abereynaun.

Owain et Res castell: de Rudelan destruxerunt.

Res fil: Grifin destruxit castell: de Buelih.

Robertus filius Stephaun a carcere Wallorum liber: Hibern: petit, et Castle Carreg aedificavit.

Resus frater Griffin reaedificavit Castell Aberteyui quod destruxerat.

Resus frater Grifin Castle de Kemerdin Assumpt. Mar. cepit.

Resus frater Grifin castrum de Sweinsey 10. Sept. obsedit: sed obsidi deseruit

Hoelus filius Resi castrum de Villa Viech dolo cepit, et Lanamdeueri destruxit.

Rogerus de Mortun castrum Camaron firmavit.

Gul. de Breosa castrum de S. Claro incepit, et 4 de famil. Howeli fil. Resi.

Res frater Grifin combussit Cairmardin et Macsheneth.

Petrus episcopus Meneven: novum opus ecclesiae S. Davidis incepit.

Johannes rex 1000. navibus a Milford in Hibern. profectus.

Inceptum fuit novum opus majoris ecclesiae S. Thomae Haverfordiae.

Henricus Turbevil succurrit castro de Cairmardin, et fregit pontem de Cairmardin.



Bothe Vendraith Vaur and Vendraith Vehan ryse in a pece of Cairmardynshire caullid Lowe isse Kenen, [a] that is to say the lowe quartar about Kennen ryver; and betwyxt the heddes of these 2. is only an hille, wherin be stones of a grenishe coloure that the people ther make lyme of. The name of the hill that Vendraith Vaur risethe in is cawlyd Mennith Vaur, [b] and there is a poole as in a moresch ground caullid LLintegowen, wher the principall springe is. This hill is an 8. or 9. myles from Kidwely. The hill that Vendraithe Vehan springith owt of is cawled Mennith Vehan. This cummythe by Kidwelly towne.

But a 3. or 4. miles or it cum thither it receyvythe a brooke into it caullyd Tresgirth. The course of this is litle above a myle from the place where it goithe into Vendraith. And yet it hathe 4. or 5. tukkynge mylls, and a 3. corne mills: and at the hedde of this brooke is an hole on the hill syde where men often entre and walke in spacious rome of a whit sandy smothe soyle undar the foote, and ther men fable that dyvers prints of wormes be sene in the sands, but that none of the vermyn is sene there. The tyme hathe bene that the inhabitaunts there hathe for feare hydden theyr goods; and as for the broke is one of the plentifullest and commodyows of Wales.

All the sydes a longe of Vendraith Vaur be full of coles.

The Castle of Lle Careig that hathe bene so famous standing upon a hy rok stepid on every syde, from whens the great rise of Wales derivith, as from the Princis, his lyne, is apon the hill that standithe betwixt the 2. Vendraiths. It is now but ruine, and no very greate distaunce from it is Craig Dinas. a nothar stepe rok caullyd Craig Dinas, whereby in the bottom some say that ther hathe bene a towne. And that there hathe bene a bridge bitwyxt these 2. rokks. This brige for stepenes was nevar archid with stone. A lesse lykelyhode ther is that it was of tymbar, the distaunce of the 2. rokks be suche. And there is also a hole by the heade of Wendraith Vehan, where men use to entre in, and there they say be spatius waulks, and that thens gouithe one way undar the ground to Worme hedde, and a nother to

[a] Is Kennen.
[b] Mennydd Maur.


Cair Kennen [a] Castle a 3. miles and more into the land. Ther is very good hawkynge for herons on Vendraith Vetian.


There is also a wonderfull hole at the poynt of Worme heade, but few dare enter into it, and men fable there that a dore withein the spatius hole hathe be sene withe great nayles on it: but that that is spoken of waters there rennynge undar the ground is more lykely.


Kair Kennen Castell is so namid of the river that goith by it, and the hole course of this ryver [b] litle passithe 3. myles, and goithe into Tewe aboute Landilouaur [c] a 2. myles and more uppar in Tewe then Dinevor Castele. A lytle benethe the heade of Cair Kenen that stondithe in a syde of the rootes of Mennith de (blak) [d] is Cair Kenen Castell, some tyme of great name, the princis of Southe Walls beinge in prosperitie. And aftar longe tyme fawlynge still to ruyn was at the last spelunca latronum, and therapon a 50. or 60. yeres syns almost totaly defacyd by men of Kydwely, findynge the contry vexid withe resorte of theves thethar.

There is within halfe a myle of Drislan [e] Castel on Tewe [f] on a hyll betwixt the highe waye to Cairmarden and the rype of Tewe a mightye campe of men of warre with 4. or 5. diches and an area in the midle. It is of some caullyd Rounghay, that is to say, the Round Hegge, and of some caullid Arcair gather.

The castle, as some say, of Joyius Gard in the forest of Come [g] betwyxt Llan Stupham and Taue muth. [h]

The hed of Tewe [i] ryver cumynge to Cairmarden is in a forrest wodde caullyd Bysshopps Forest about a xxiiii. myles from Cairmarden, and the hed of this ryver is almoste in the midlewaye betwixt LLandewystreme and LLancanery Castell.

Ther be a great numbar of pitts made with hand large lyke a bowle at the heade, and narow in the botom, ovar growen in the swart with fine grase, and be scaterid here and there about the quartars where the heade of Kennen river is

[a] Carreg Kennan.
[b] Kennen r.
[c] Llandilo Vaur.
[d] Mynydd du.
[e] Dryslwyn.
[f] Towy r.
[g] Coomb.
[h] Mouth of Tav r.
[i] Towy r.



that cummythe by Caire Kennen. And some of these will receyve a hunderith men, sum 2. hundrethe. They be in the blake mountayne.

The brow selfe, or end of the Blak Mountayne, that crestithe so by a good peace of Walls, [a] cummith within a vi, myles of Cairmarden.

There appere but small tokens of any great buyldings at the place in the haven of Cairmardine caullyd Grene Castell, [b] yet it hathe the name of a baronye.


Godmundham is a mile from Whighton by est.

Harpham yn the Woolde not very far from Driffeld.

Ecclesia S. Nicolai, in Beverlac: vulgo Holme chirch, ubi fossa pro naviculis: the Cut out of Hulle river to the bridge at Holme on the Cut about half a mile.

South Burton, alias Bishopes Burton, 2 miles from Beverle in the way to York.

Walkington a 2 miles by west from Beverle.

Northburton half a mile south west from Lekingfeld.

Scorburg a mile north est from Lekingfeld. [c]

Dalton a 4 miles north west from Beverle. The Provost hath a praty house there.

Molescroft Crosse a limite of the sanctuarie hard by entering Lekingfeld Park from Beverle.

Ther was a nother toward North Burton a mile out of Beverle.

Ther was a nother toward Kinwalgrenes a mile owt of Beverle.

There was nother cross by south toward Humber.

Al these were markes of sanctuarie, ech a mile out of Beverle.

Sigelesthorn in Holdernes.


Haec sedes lapidea ab Anglis dicebatur Fridstol, id est, pacis cathedra ad quam reus fugiendo perveniens omnimodam pacis securitatem habebat.

[a] Wales.
[b] Green castle.
[c] Scorbrough; Leconfield.


By the shore.

From Grimesby to Marsche Chapelle, where is a dok or creke, aboute a 4. miles. Grimesby is countid a 30. miles from Boston.

To Saltflete Haven a 6. miles.

To Wilegripe.

To Skegnesse sumtyme a great haven toune a 4. or 5. miles of. Mr. Paynelle sayid onto me that he could prove that there was ons an haven and a towne waullid having also a castelle. The old toune is clene consumid, and eten up with the se, part of a chirch of it stode a late. At low waters appere yet manifest tokens of old buildinges. For old Skegnes is now buildid a pore new thing.

To Waynflete about a 5. miles. It hath beene a very godde toune, and yn it 2. paroche chirches. Shippeletes cam in hominum memoria up to the schole. The haven now decayith. Paynelle sayith that as he rememberith there is a place caullid the Castell Hill at Wainflete.

To Friskeney a 2. miles, wher sum say was ons a havenet, but I have not the certente of it. It is a mile and a half from the shore.

To Wrangle a vi. miles from Wainflete.

To Boston an vi. long miles.

Freston is on the farther ripe of Boston 2. miles lower then it on the ripe.

Alane de la corone Lord of Freston was caullid Alane Opendore, be cause he kept so great a house.

Boston is countid a 24. miles from Lincoln.

The Esterlinges kept a great house and course of marchaundice at Boston ontylle such tyme that one Humfrey Litlebyri, marchaunt of Boston, did kille one of the Esterlinges there about Edward the 4. dayes; wherapon rose much controversie: so that at the laste the Esterlinges left


their course of marchaundise to Boston, and syns the towne sore decayed.

One Mawde Tilney layid the first stone of the goodly steple of the paroche chirch of Boston, and lyith buried under.

The Tylneys were taken for founders of 3. of the 4. howses of freres at Boston.

The Lord Monteville had a goodly great and auncient manor place at Fischetoft a mile from Boston. It is now al yn ruine, and longid to the Lord Willougby, and now to the Duke of Southfolk.

The Lord Monteville's landes cam partely by heyre general to the Bekes, and thens by heyre generale to the Willoughbys.


These extracts and abstract notes from a Chronicle appear to have been made from the " Brut y Tywysogdion," or perhaps from a similar chronicle founded upon that, in which some items relating to the bishops of St. David's, from the Annales Menevensis, were incorporated. Leland omitted all dates save one, I have therefore added a few to serve as stepping-stones, chiefly taken from Sir T. Hardy's notes in Le Neve's Fasti, vol. i, pp. 288-290.

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