Principal Separate Elements
THE PRINCIPAL SEPARATE ELEMENTS (OTHER THAN PERSONAL NAMES) IN HEREFORDSHIRE PLACE-NAMES, WITH LISTS OF HEREFORDSHIRE INSTANCES.
-age. , -arne. , -bache, -batch. , -borne, -bourne. , -bridge. , -bury, -borough. , -by. , -chester. , -combe. , -cott, -cote, -cot. , -court. , -den, -dean. , -don. , -ett. , -ey. , -field. , -ford. , -gate. , -hall. , -ham. , -hampton. , -hay. , -honger, hunger. , -hope. , -hurst. , -ing-. , -ley. , -low. , -mere. , -more, -moor. , -over, -or (sometimes -er). , -stoke. , -stone. , -stow. , -sty. , -ton. , -tree, -trey. , -wardine. , -well. , -wick. , -wood. , -yard.
A rare and always puzzling ending; often not a true ending at all, but a corruption. Sometimes it is O.E. bage as in Hubbage, Wobage, and perhaps Mowbage. In Stanage, again, it seems to represent aege (= ig), 'an island'. In Burgage it is a common suffix of Med. Lat. Badnage and Carnage have no old forms: and, since all -age endings are late, and need old forms to interpret them, it is wiser not to attempt a guess at their meaning: Badnage, Burgage, Carnage, Embages, Gamage, Hubbage, Mowbage, Stanage, Wobage.
O.E. aern, 'house', 'dwelling': Cowarne.
For this ending see under Bache in the Alphabetical List. It is as common in Cheshire as in our county.
O.E. burna, 'a spring', 'fountain', 'brook' (Mod. Scotch, burn): Holborn, Whitbourne.
O.E. brycg: Bridge Sollers, Dunbridge, Hunbridge, Pembridge, Southbridge, Widbridge, Wormbridge. (It is significant that -bridge occurs in the county 7 times, and -ford 21 times.)
O.E. burh, dat. byrig, 'a fortified place', 'fastness', then 'a castle', 'town'. In the early forms of pl.-ns. burh is often confused with O.E. beorh, 'a hill' (which is usually found as -barrow). In the Mod. English forms of pl.-ns. O.E. burh appears usually as Bur- when it is a first element, -borough when a second: -bury is from the dat. byrig: Aconbury, Avenbury, Bosbury, Bredenbury, Brobury, Brockbury, Bug (8), Coldborough, Forbury, Graftonbury, Kilbury, Ledbury, *Newborugh, Ribury, *Salberga, Sawbury, Thornbury, Burton, Burghill, Burley, Burford, Burgage, Burghope.
The Danish ending for 'dwelling', 'village'; most common in Yorks.; runs south as far as Rugby; eight -bys in Ches., but none in the western counties south of Ches., except the Herefordshire Ridby (q.v.).
O.E. cester, a loan-word from Lat. castra: Kenchester, Chester Meadow. In the neighbouring counties of Worcester and Gloucester, the O.E. form survives unchanged; in the N. it usually is -caster, e.g. Doncaster.
See cwm in list of Welsh elements.
O.E. cot, 'a cottage', 'house'; then 'a collection of cottages', 'a settlement'. Popular etymology sometimes confuses -cot with -court: Bodcot, *Brocote, Burcot, Caldicott, *Draycote, Fencote, Leddicott, *Lincot, Upcott, Wintercott.
N.-Fr. curt, Lat. cohors, 'a clear space enclosed by a wall', then 'a large building', 'a castle'; we have no instance of -court as an actual suffix. But we have Court everywhere in the county. See under Hall Court in Alphabetical List.
O.E. denu, 'a valley', usually deep, narrow, and wooded. In M.E. forms of pl.-ns. -den is constantly confused with -don, or -dune: Aulden, Bicton, Grendon.
O.E. dun, 'a down', 'hill'; often confused in early forms with denu, 'a valley'. Indeed most pl.-ns. in -den and -dean have a -don among their early forms, and vice versa: Brandon, Egdon, *Elsedune, Shobdon.
N.-Fr. dim. suffix. Usually in form -et or -ot with pers. names; e.g. Emma and Emmot, William and Wilmot. As one would expect in a county so thoroughly Normanized as Herefordshire, we have many examples of this ending: Burnett, The Byletts, Fowlett, Horsnetts, The Laskett, The Linnett, *The Langet, The Valletts (4), *Westelet, The Witsets, Yearsett.
This ending is O.E. -ig (Wessex), -eg (Mercia), 'island', 'elevated piece of land wholly or partially surrounded by water'. But it is inextricably mixed up with O.E. ea, 'stream', then 'watery land', 'water-meadow'. (Skeat thinks ig is a derivative of ea.) The M.E. -ei, or -ey (from whichever of the two elements it comes) is loosely used of any place surrounded with brooks or streams, or of a marshy piece of ground: Bidney, Cheyney, Eye, Eyton, Rompeney, Tedney, Walney, Whitney.
O.E. feld, 'field', often written by Norman scribes feud, the l being vocalized; and sometimes again confused with O.E. fald, 'fold': Archenfield, Benfield, Bilfield, Bowellfield, Brimfield, Broadfield, Byfield, Courtfield, *Dorfield, Gethenfield, Haffield, Hatfield, *Hennersfeld, Hopesfield, Kingsfield, Mawfield, *Malfield, Merryfield, Munderfield, Petchfield, Portfield, Sarnesfield, Suffield, *Twinordesfelde, Urchingfield, Westfield, Whitfield.
O.E. ford, 'a ford', a common and very early element in pl.-ns., as is likely when bridges were scarce, and fords of importance. In Herefordshire -ford is found three times as often as -bridge, but in England as a whole the proportion is probably six to one: Boresford, *Bradford, Burford, Butford, Byford, Clifford, Flanesford, Gatsford, Higford, Kinford, Longford (2), Ludford, Mordiford, Rhwynford, Stanford, Stretford (2), Twyford, Walford, *Wapleford.
O.E. geat; but g in O.E. is often interchanged with y:- Ballsgate, Bargates, *Byllack Yatt, Flitgate, Flood-gates, *Foukesyate, Hondys Gate, Northgate, Symon's Yat, Yatton.
A much-debated suffix, in which two O.E. words are confused. There is a genuine O.E. heall, 'a palace', 'mansion', 'hall'; but few, if any, of the hundreds of pl.-ns. in -hall are derived from it. Most or all of them come from O.E. healh, 'a nook', 'corner', then 'a flat meadow by a river'. In Dom. this ending is usually -hale; more rarely -heale. It is the commonest of all Mercian endings, occurring over 250 times in Ches. alone. In a Dore charter of 1327 a meadow called La Hale is referred to; and 'Richard in the Hale' is ordained at Hereford in 1335. The ending is often confused with O.E. hyll, 'a hill'. In our county Patsall and Shucknall should really be -hill: Aberhall, Almshall, Bucknall, Coxall, Criggalls (?), *Fernhale, Gridall (?), *Hathinchalle, Leinthall, Lionshall, Lyonshall, Lynhales, Mennalls, Mitchell, Reshale, Ruckhall, Rudhall, Sidnal, Wassal, Wegnal, Wiggall, Winnall.
This common suffix represents two distinct words, and we cannot be sure which it is, unless we have O.E. charter evidence, for the distinction is never marked in Dom. One is O.E. ham, 'a homestead', very common everywhere. The other is O.E. hamm, homm, 'a pasture', 'a meadow enclosed by water, usually at the bend of a river'. This latter word is found in Herefordshire and Glos. uncompounded. There are whole groups of Hommes round Ledbury and Marcle. (For this use of the word see under Holme Lacy in the Alphabetical List.) In Goodrich in 1413 (Inq. p.m.) is 'the pasture of Over-wyes-ham, and Nether-wyes-ham: Ankerdine, Bartonsham, Baynham, Baysham, Bodenham, Flintsham, Huntsham, Kinsham, Lulham, Orlham, Warham.
A very common suffix, apparently meaning 'home-town'. But the distinction between -ham and -ton is so slight that -hampton seems almost to be tautological: Brockhampton, Bryhampton, Easthampton, Felhampton, Fenhampton, Hillhampton, Moorhampton, Uphampton.
There are two O.E. words, akin but distinct, and with much the same meaning: hege, 'a hedge', and haga, 'a hedge' and also 'an enclosure', and sometimes 'a dwelling-house': Badsay, Hay, Haybrook, Haywood, Urishay, *La Haye, Hyde.
O.E. hangra, 'a bank'. For this ending, and its occurrence in Herefordshire, see Clehonger and Hungerhill in Alphabetical List.
O.E. hop, 'a small enclosed valley, especially a smaller opening branching out from the main dale, and running up to the mountain range', 'a blind valley'. Morte D'Arthur (ante 1400) has Thorowe hopes and 'hymlande hillys'. The suffix may be traced across England in an irregular line, beginning in Lincs., continuing across Notts. and Derbs., increasing steadily in frequency through Staffs. and Salop into Herefordshire; it rarely appears elsewhere: Brinsop, Bullinghope, Burghope, *Burthop, Covenhope, Cusop, *Eardishope, Fownhope, Henhope, Hercope, Woolhope, Hope (10), Hopesfield, Hopton, *Lautoneshope, Littlehope, Myleshope, Sollershope, Stanhope, *Thurlokeshop, Tyllyshope, Westhope, Woolhope, Yarsop.
O.E. hyrst, 'a wood'. In some counties it appears as -hirst, occasionally as -herst. It is almost completely wanting throughout the N.E. of England, and also in Worcs.,Warwcs., Derbs., and Staffs.: Ballhurst, The Hurst, Hurstans, Hurstley, Hurstway, Shernhurst, *Stanihursta.
This medial element may be:
(1) A patronymic, O.E. -inga (gen. plur.), but this use is rare.
(2) O.E. -an, a gen. sing. ending, usually of a personal name. This is by far the most common origin of -ing-, the intrusive g being a purely careless corruption, and often quite late.
(3) O.E. adjectival suffix -en-, -egn-.
(4) O.E. ending of a personal name in -wine, -wen, or -win.
(5) It is occasionally part of a word which ends in -ing as in our Herefordshire pl.-n. Hollingwood (q.v.).
(6) Dr H. Bradley (Eng. Hist. Rev., Oct. 1911) makes out a strong case for -ing or -inge being an ending to denote a place on a river or stream.
Unless the -ing- is actually found in an O.E. form, it is wise to assume that it is not a patronymic. Kemble's theory, which was first stated in 1848, and has held the field until quite recently, being accepted even by such writers as Stubbs and Green, was that the existence of an original -ing- in any place-name points to a settlement of the district covered by the name by a group of kinsmen, -ingas, clansmen. 'The villages' (i.e. those in ingham, or ington), says Prof. York Powell, 'bear clan-names, not personal names'. On this theory it becomes as easy as it is inaccurate to say, with a recent writer, 'Among the English clans which are recognized by the patronymic suffix' "ing" 'as having taken part in the settlement of Herefordshire are the Willings, Billings, Huntings, Hollings, Bullings, Ballings, Donnings, Burrings, Collings, Brockings, Tibbings, Nuppings, Sparrings, Monnings, Munnings, Coddings, and Wassings [This list, strangely enough, does not include the Tarrings, from Tarrington, though Kemble gives them as a clan settled there, in spite of the fact that Tarrington was Tatintune in Dom., and Taddington down to the mid-eighteenth century.] But Dr Horace Round demolished this theory in his 'pioneer paper'; and now all competent students agree with Professor Wyld, who says 'I do not believe in these bogus "families" which are produced so often by writers on nomenclature. We have no evidence of their existence'. Moreover, when we get a really early form, it usually has no g [J.H.R. gives a good instance of the development of -ing- in a Worcestershire 'Hereford', which by the addition of -tun became Herefordtun, and appears in Dom. as Herferthun; but it is now Harvington, 'a settlement of the Harvings' ! In a very few cases, on the other hand, the objection of the Dom. scribe to writing ng has reduced a true patronymic ing to in or yn.]. Unless we have definite evidence to the contrary, it is safest to give the medial -ing- a simple possessive value. (In Berks. we find a few names, like Reading and Sonning, in which the -ing is final. Possibly here it may denote something like 'the possessions of Read and Sunna.') The following Herefordshire pl.-ns. contain the medial -ing-, and each should be studied for itself in the Alphabetical List: Ballingham, Bollingham, Bullinghope, Billingsley, Berrington, Burrington, Coddington, Collington, Crossington, Cublington, Donnington, Dormington, Drabbington, Huntington (2), Ivington, Lassington, Monnington (2), Nunnington, Siddington, Suthington, Tarrington, Tillington, Wellington, Winnington, Withington. (Dorstone and Shutton really belong to the same class of words.)
O.E. leah, dat. leage (in Dom. often -lai) 'a bit of cultivated land', 'a meadow', 'lea'. It is sometimes confused with O.E. hlaw, 'a hill' (see under Marcle). After -ton it is the commonest of endings in Herefordshire pl.-ns.: *Abbedeleye, Adley [Adley was Adlaton as late as the 16th century], Ailey, Almeley, Amberley, Badley, Batley, Berkley, Birley, Birtley, Burley, Bitterley, Bowley, Bradley, Brierley, Braley, Brockaly, Butterley, Catley, Checkley, Cowley, Cradley, Criseley, Deabley, Didley, Drumleigh, Eardisley, *Eastley, Elburley, Fawley, Foxley, Gatley, Gorsley, Hackley, Hagley, Hazle, Huntleys, Hurstley, Kidleys, *Kingsley, Kinley, Kinnersley, The Lea, Linley, Litley, Luntley, Hadley, Marcle, Howley, Munkleys, Munsley, Netherley, Oatley, Ocle (2), Pinsley, Pixley, Putley, Redley, Redmarley, Rowley, Shirley, Sodgeley, Stensley, Stockley, Studley, Titley, Tupsley, Wapley, Weobley, Willersley, Willey, Wormesley.
O.E. hlaw, 'a hill', then 'a burial ground', 'barrow', 'tumulus'. Lew (Oxfs. and Devon) is a form of low. Sometimes an old form in -low is replaced in later forms by -ley: Bradlow, Docklow, Marlow, Radlow, Thornlau, Warloe, Wolferlow, Wormelow.
O.E. mere, 'a pool', 'a lake': Blakemere, Holmer. (In other counties it is sometimes found representing O.E. ge-maere, 'a boundary.')
O.E. mor, 'waste land': Allensmore, Bellimore, Blackmore, Dippermoor, Enemore, Fridmore, Lidgmoor, Meadmore, Spenmore, Swinmoor, Westmoor, Wetmore.
O.E. ofr, 'border', 'margin', 'river-bank'. It is sometimes confused with O.E. ora, which, having practically the same meaning, causes no misunderstanding: Adzor, Bicknor, Bircher, Burcher, Bradnor, Chadnor, Dadnor, Eastnor, Hennor, *Ruuenore, Tidnor, Totnor, Westnor, Yazor. (The adjoining Radnor is in 1257 Radenovere, 'red-bank.')
O.E. stoc, stocc, 'a stock', 'post', then 'a stockade', 'fenced-in place', 'village': Stoke Bliss, Stoke Edith, Stoke Lacy, Stoke Prior, Stocks, Stockton, Stockwell, Stockley (2), Stocken (2), Stocking (2).
O.E. stan, 'a stone'. This ending is constantly confused with -ton. Many spurious -stones will be found under -ton. In some cases (e.g. Dorstone, Turnastone) the false etymology has generated interesting local legends ! Two Herefordshire place-names only are genuine -stones: Aylstone Hill, Langstone.
O.E. stow, 'a dwelling-place', 'mansion', 'habitation': Bridstow, Marstow, Peterstow, Plaistow, Stowe.
O.E. stiga, 'a path' (for which see under Bringsty in Alphabetical List): Beansty, Bringsty, *Ynsty, *Meresty, *Bicknorsty, *Cnappesty, *Hamsty, Holsty, Monsty, Pikestye.
[Placenames in -hampton and -ington
are tabulated separately under those endings.]
O.E. tun, 'enclosure', 'homestead', 'farm'. The commonest, by far, of Herefordshire place-name suffixes, and perhaps the most commonly found throughout England, unless -ley is more common. In Herefordshire, also, as frequently in Scotland, and occasionally in Somerset, Cornwall and elsewhere, town is still used for a single farm, e.g. 'The Town', a small holding in Crasswall. (For a complete list of many such instances in the county see Town in the Alphabetical List.) This is the true O.E. and even M.E. meaning of the word; as late as 1389 Wyclif's Bible, in Matt. xxii. 5, reads 'oon to his toun, anothir to his marchaundise.' Only gradually the word came to be applied to a hamlet or village, and still later to what we call a town.
The forms -don and -ton often run into one another, and need to be carefully distinguished in the old forms. There is too a common confusion with -stone; but in Herefordshire all the -stones except two (see under -stone above) are really -ton, the s being the gen. ending of a personal name. The development of the name Tedstone (q.v.) shows that -ton sometimes is a corruption of an original -thorn or -thorp: Acton, *Adhekerdeston, Adforton, Alton, Aramstone, Arkstone, Ashton, Ashperton, Aston (3), Aylton, Bacton, Banstone, Barton (4), Baynton, *Bernaldeston, Bickerton, Biddleston, Biggleston, Bishopstone, *Bitton, Blackmarston, *Bolton, Boulstone, Brampton (5), Breinton, Brockmanton, Brinstone, Buckton, Burlton, Burton (2), Byton, Castleton, Chanston, Chilstone, Claston, *Clatretune, Comberton, Coughton, Downton, Drayton, Easton, Eaton (4), *Edwardestune, *Elnodestune, Eggleton, Elverstone, Elton, Eton, Eyton, Felton, Freetown, Garnstone, Gayton, Gilbertstone, Glewstone, Grafton, Hallaston, Hampton (2), Harpton, Hartleton, *Heliston, *Herntun, Hinton, Hopton, Howton, Hunderton, Hunton, Instone, Ingestone, Kimbolton, Kingstone, Kington, Kinton, Knapton, Knolton, Kynaston, Lawton, Lenaston, Letton, Linton, Longtown, Lucton, Luston, Lyston, Mainstone, Marston (2), Middleton, Milton, Moraston, Moreton (2), Munstone, Netherton, Newton (3), Newtown, Norton, Nunupton, Nurton, Orleton, Parton, Paunton, Perton, *Pletune, Poston, Preston (2), Priddleton, Pudleston, Pullaston, *Querentune, Rowlestone, Ruxton (2), Stapleton, Staunton (2), Stretton (2), Sufton, Sutton, Swanston, Thruxton, Tipton (2), Trippleton, Turnastone, Tuston, Tyberton, Upton, Velvetstone, Wacton, *Wadetune, Walterstone, Walton, Wassington, Weston, Welcheston, Weston (2), Wharton, Whitton, Wigton, Wilmaston, Wilton, Winforton, Wisteston, Witherstone, *Wluetone, Woonton, Wootton (5), *Wormeton, Yarcledon, Yatton, Yearston.
O.E. treu, 'a tree': Aymestrey, Bartestree, Bollitree, Brainstree, Bromtrees, Cholstrey, Goytre, *Hezetre, Holstrey, *Tragetreu, Webtree, *Wimundestreu.
The O.E. weorth, worth, 'open space',
'piece of land', 'farm', 'estate', perhaps originally
'place of worth', is found in several forms in many parts
of England. As -worth (Dom. usually -orde,
-urde, or -worde) it is frequent everywhere,
except in Northumberland and Cumberland, where it is never found.
In all there are about 300 -worths in England
(31 in Yorks. alone). Even in London we have three
(Walworth, Wandsworth, Isleworth).
There is an uncompounded Worth in Sussex, which extends
into Worthing (practically synonymous with it)
on the coast of the same county.
Passing into the West Country it becomes -worthy (O.E. worthig, an extended form of worth, with the same meaning). In Devon there are nearly 500 pl.-ns. ending in -worthy, more especially the thick cluster of hamlets and farms round Holsworthy and Hatherleigh. A few instances of -worthy are to be found in Cornwall, Somerset, and Dorset, but none elsewhere in England.
The West Mercian form of worth is worthign (Dom. -urdine), which is found commonly in Shropshire and Herefordshire, with a few instances in adjoining counties, but is unknown elsewhere. In Chesh. is Carden (cf. Carwardine, found both in Shropshire and in Herefordshire); in Flint are Hawarden (Dom. Haordine) and Worthenbury; in Staffs. Harden; in Worcs. Bedwardine and Tollerdine; in Glos. Ruardean, Shepherdine, and *Wolfedeworthin. In Shropshire we have the uncompounded Worthen (Dom. Wrdine), and 9 -wardines [Belswardine, Cheswardine, Ellerdine, Fulwardine, Ingardine, Pollardine, Shrawardine, Stanwardine, Wrockwardine. All these are in Dom. except Pollardine. We might raise the number to twelve, if we (doubtfully) included Larden, Broadward, and Treverward], with Llanfair Waterdine (Dom. Watredene) in Radnorshire. Possibly the -wardine ending was more widely spread in early days, since Brockworth (Glos.) is Brokwordyn in 1199, but has become Brockeworth in Val. Eccles. (1538).
In Herefordshire we have a *Wortheyn uncompounded in 1390 (Leom. Cart.); and an *Oldewortheynesasshe in Hope Mansel in 1338. Round Kington the -wardine ending tends to contract into -ward, as in Chickward, which is Dom. Cicwrdine. The Herefordshire -wardines are: Blackwardine, Breadward, Bredwardine, *Brocheurdie, Carwardine (2), Chickward, Dolward, Gazerdine, Leintwardine, Lugwardine, Mangerdine, Marden, *Mateurdin, Pedwardine, Scutterdine, Strongwood, Whiterdine.
O.E. well, 'a well', 'fountain'. It is often confused with -wall; and sometimes in M.E. with hull (O.E. hyll, 'a hill'), as in Whitewall (q.v.). Professor Earle thinks that -well is often 'the naturalized form of the Latin villa'. But both Dr J.H. Round and Mr W. H. Stevenson conclusively demolish this view: Calderwell, Cobhall, Coldwell, Colwall, Crasswall, Cruxwell, Dewell, Dewsall, Eccleswall, Fudwell, Stockwell, Whitewell.
O.E. wic, 'a dwelling', 'habitation', then 'a village': a word borrowed from Lat. vicus. It is sometimes softened into -wich, especially in Ches. and Worcs., where -wich is popularly interpreted as indicating a salt or brine spring, for which there is no O.E. authority: Hardwick, Mosewick, Poswick, Powiswick, Shelwick, Ullingswick, Whitwick.
O.E. wudu, 'a wood', 'forest'. In the following list the many pl.-ns. are omitted in which Wood is a separate word: Attwood, Bishopswood, Blaethwood, Bringewood, Broxwood, Dineterwood, Dingwood, Eastwood, Harewood, Haywood, Hennerwood, Henwood, Hollingwood, Kingswood, Middlewood, Netherwood, Pridewood, Teddeswood, Westwood.
O.E. geard, 'a yard', 'enclosure': Bromyard, Cockyard, *Killyards.
'A meadow' (pl. caeau): Cae-beddow, Cae-draen, Cae-flwyn, Cae-wendy, Lancaegy. (Cayo and Keyo may be forms of the plural.)
'A wood': Cefn-coed, The Coed, Coed-moor, Coed path, Coed-Robin, Coed-y-gravel, Coda, *Coyed Llanke, Maes-coed, *Trescoyte, Tricordivar.
Said by Welsh scholars to be a valley between two hills whose sides come together in a concave form, whereas the sides of a glyn come together in convex form. It is very difficult, in Herefordshire, to say whether any word in which -comb is an element is Welsh or English. For O.E. cumb is 'a bowl'; and when the English settlers found the natives calling a hollow valley "cwm", the likeness to their own word for a bowl struck them, and they adopted it. Outside Herefordshire the word is chiefly found in Somerset, Dorset, and Devon. For a complete account of the combes and cwms in the county see under Combe in the Alphabetical List.
The Welsh cil is 'a corner', 'a retreat'. The Irish Kil- seems to have acquired the meaning of 'a graveyard', or even 'a church', almost equivalent to the Welsh Llan-: Killbreece, Kilbury Camp, Kill-bullock meadow, Kill-dane Field, Kilforge, Kilpeck, Kilreagne, Killyards (?).
Originally 'a level spot', then 'an enclosure', later 'a sacred enclosure', 'a churchyard', and at length simply 'a church'. (In 1541 the Abbey of Dore possessed property in 'Llan egloys', where llan is used in its earlier meaning of 'enclosure'.) It is sometimes confused with glan (see Llanhaithog), and Nant- often becomes, in course of time, Llan- (e.g. Nant Honddu became Llanthony). There are 465 Llans- in 'Crockford': Lancaegy, Lanerch, Llanarrow, Llanavon, The Llan, Llanach, Llanbodon, Llancillo, Llancloudy, Llandee, Llanderwyn, Llandore, Landmore, Llandinabo, Llanedry, Llanfair, Llanfrother, *The Langet, Llangarren, Llangunbille, Llangunnock, Llanhaithog, Lunnon, Llanrosser, Llanrothal, Llanveyno, Llanwarne, Llanwonog.
Properly 'a brook', then 'the valley through which it flows': Nant-y-bar, Nant-y-glas-dwyr, Nant-yr-Esk, Nantrorgwy, Nant-y-aun, Pennant, Trenant, Turnant, Trepencennant.
'A head', 'a chief', then 'a top', 'a hill-top': Penalt, Penblaith, Pencombe, Pencoyd, Pencraig, *Penebecdoc, Penerwy, *Penfilly, Pengethly, Pennant, Pennypit, Penrose, Pentre, Pentwyn, Penyard, Pen-y-Park, Pen-y-dree, Pen-yr-hen-llan, Pen-y-lan (6), Pen-y-moor, Pen-y-wrlod.
'A bridge', a loan-word from Lat. pons: Pontenyws, Pont Hendre, Pontrilas, Pont-y-Mwdy, Pont-y-Pina, Pontys, Pont Vaen.
'Homestead', 'hamlet', 'village': Treaddow, Treago, Trebandy, Treberran, Trebumfrey, Trecilla, Tredoughan, Tredunnock, Tre-evan, Trefassy, Tregate, Trelandon, Trelesdee, Trelough, Tremahaid, Tremorithig, Trenant, Turnant, Trepencennant, Trereece, Treribble, *Trescoyte, Tre-tawbot, Trethal, Tretire, Trevadock, Trewadock, Trevaker, Trewaugh, Trewyn, Trevervan, Trevace, Treveranon, Trewen, Trewern, Trewern du, Trewarne, Treworgan, Trevanning, *Treygreys, Treyseck, Tricordivor, Trilloes, Triloode, Hendre, Pentre (6), Penydree, Goytre.
'A house': Ty bach, Ty boobach, Ty bordy, Ty Craddock, Ty Glen, Ty mawr, Ty-nag-Quint, Ty-ucha, Tynyrheol.Return to top of page