- 1086 Radelau, Dom
(The Dom. entry is a Hundred, not the place in Tarrington.) O.E. 'red hill'.
No old forms. Probably O.E. hraefnes-iga, 'raven-island': equivalent to Ramsey (hramm being a late form of hraefn).
Bromyard Rea is in 1512 (Fine R.) Ree. Leland mentions 'a broket called Rhe', trib. of Teme, flowing from Clee Hill. Duignan thinks the name is ea, 'water', the r being transferred from the preceding word in some such phrase as on thaere ea, just as n is transferred in Nash and Norke (q.v.).
Almost the only English place-name in the parish.
- 1290 Rudmarle, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Ridmarleo, Webb.
- 1332 Rudmerle, Ep. Reg.
Said to be a corruption of Welsh rhyd-yr-heol, 'ford on the street', since a supposed Roman road here crosses the Wye.
Probably Welsh rhyd, a ford'. In Much Dewchurch the Read farm of 1831, Ord. Map, has become, under the later influence of purists, Rhydd; but it would seem that they have put in a d too many, since, meaning 'ford' (on the Worm brook), they have said 'liberty'.
- 1275 Reshale, Ep. Reg.
W. rhiw glas, 'green slope'.
Seems to be W. rhwyn-ffordd, 'a winding road'.
W. 'ford on the river'.
W. 'ford of the hook'.
- 1313 Rydekyr, Mon. Accts.
W. 'ford for carts'.
Said to be W. rhyd-y-nog, 'ford at which animals will get restive'.
W. rhys is 'a rushing'.
- 1291 Ecclesia de Castro Ricardi, Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Ecclesia de Castro Ricardi, Non. Inq.
- 1428 Ricardes Castel, F.A.
For this place-name see J.H.R., 'Feudal England'.
No forms earlier than 1831. The second element is not likely to be the Danish ending -by so common in the north, since we have no traces of any Danish influence on Herefordshire place-names. I suspect the word (in the heart of Archenfield) is W. rhyd-bych, 'little ford'; as Tenby (Pembs.) is an Anglicised form of din-bych, 'little hill'.
- circ. 1200 boscum quod dicitur Rughemore', Brec. Cart.
Hard by is Fildemore.
In 1227 in Ludford is 'via que vocatur Rugwey' (Glos. Cart.); and, a little earlier, Rugweyesende. There is in Dorstone a ruggeweye in 1369 (Ep. Reg.). Ridge Hill in Aconbury is circ. 1086.
- circ. 1190 La Rinega, Capes.
- 1086 Riseberie, Dom.
- 1123 Risebiria, Leom. Cart.
- circ. 1150 Risebir, Risebur', Leom. Cart.
- 1216 Riseberi, Brec. Chart.
- 1303 Risebury, F.A.
- 1337 Rusbury, Chart. R.
- 1431 Rysbury, F.A.
'Burh of Risa'. Though it is just possible that the first element might be O.E. risc, 'a rush', or hris, 'brushwood', which Skeat says is the first element in Riseley (Beds.).
- 1318 Rock in Mordiford', Chart. R.
In 1334 (Chart. R.) we find la Roke; but apparently it is near Dilwyn and Pembridge. Rock (Worcs.) is always Aka in 13th and 14th centuries.
- 1138 Rudelai, Glos. Cart.
- circ. 1170 Rudeleya, Glos. Cart.
- 1275 Rodele, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Rodele, Tax. Eccles.
- 1304 Rudele, Ep. Reg.
It is evident that the Stoke Lacy Rodds was once Rudley or some such form:- 'red meadow' from O.E. read, reod, rude, 'red'. Of The Rodds near Kington we seem to have no early forms. But it is on the borders of Radnor, which is in 880 (Kemble) Readenora, 'red-bank'. Hence we may presume a history somewhat similar to that of the Stoke Lacy Rodds.
- 1503 'via vocata Rody-pot, quae ducit versus le Watryng-place', Heref. Corp. MS.
- 1289 Rompe'n', Ep. Reg.
- 1541 Rumpney, Local Will.
- 1086 Rosse, Dom.
- 1148 Ros, Capes.
- 1243 Ros, T. de Nevill.
- 1291 Ros, Tax. Eccles.
- 1316 Ros Forincecum, F.A.
- 1346 Roos, Ep. Reg.
- circ. 1670 Rosse Foreine, Silas Taylor.
Welsh rhos, 'a moor, heath'. (H.O. says that in many Welsh, Cornish and Irish place-names, rhos bore the sense of 'peninsula'. The bend of the river at Ross makes quite a definite peninsula, but it is on the side of the river opposite to the town; so the meaning is probably 'moor') A variant of rhos is rhosan, which may be the original form of Rosen Green in Boulstone. In modern Welsh Ross is 'Rhossan ar Wy'. Without old forms one cannot pronounce on Rosemore in Whitbourne, which looks like Rhos-mawr, but is very far east for Welsh. It might be Rons, from a family name (see under Maund).
- 1086 Retrowas, Dom.
- 1243 Rudrewas, T. de Nevill.
- 1271 Rotherwas, Ep. Reg.
- 1316 Rotherwas, F.A.
- 1327 Rutherwas, Plac. de Banco.
- 1645 Retherose, Civil War Pamphlet.
The second element is O.E. wase, 'ooze, soft mud', found in Alrewas (Staffs.), Broadwas (Worcs.), Hopwas (Staffs.), Strangeways (Lancs.), which is Strang wase, 'stiff ooze', and our Herefordshire Sugwas (q.v.). H.0. quotes a form in 1603, Marlesand woase. The first element is O.E. hryther, 'an ox, horned animal'. The forms in e and u are normal descendants from the O.E. word. The -o- forms are due to the writing of -o- for -u- before -th-. Or possibly, in 13th century popular etymology, the forms in -o- may have been influenced by confusion with the pers. name Hrothere. In Sussex popular etymology has changed Rother-bridge into Robertsbridge.
O.E. ruh, M.E. rough. A fairly common element in Herefordshire place-names. As a substantive we have Park Rough (Westhide), Hope Rough (Cowarne), Hampton's Rough (Dewsall), Horse Rough (Harewood), and Shepherd's Rough (Bolston). As an adjective it is found in Rough Acre (Staunton-on-Arrow), Rough Mintridge (Avenbury), and Rough Moor (Dilwyn). Rugden (Sollershope) is probably 'rough valley', but we have no old forms.
- circ. 1150 Ruberh, Ruebergh, Cart. Brec.
Probably O.E. rug, ruh, ruw, 'rough', and berga, beria, 'a berry'. Rowberry is a common surname in Herefordshire.
- 1086 Ruedene, Dom.
- 1243 Rugedun, T. de Nevill.
- 1286 Roudon, Assize R.
- 1303 Roudon, F.A.
- 1431 Rowdon, F.A.
The first element is O.E. rug, ruh, ruw, 'rough'. In the second element there is the not uncommon interchange between O.E. denu, 'a valley', and dun (don), 'a hill'.
- temp. Hen. III Rogedich, Rugedich, Inq. p.m.
- 1486 Rough ditch, Customs of Hereford.
O.E. rug, ruh, ruw, 'rough'. In circ. 1220 'le Ruediche' is mentioned near Brecon.
- 1278 Roulestone, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Villa Radulphi, Tax. Eccles.
- 1294 Rovelestone, Ep. Reg.
- 1300 Rolueston, Inq. p.m.
- 1367 Roulestone, Ep. Reg.
'Tun of Hrolf, Ralph, or Raoul', cf. Rowlston (Yorks.) which is Dom. Rolvestun. I have always thought that Rowlestone and the neighbouring Gilbertstone are the settlements of the Ralph and Gilbert who are mentioned in Dom. as knights holding land in the castelry of Ewias. There is another Rowlestone or Rowston in Little Birch which is in 1304 Rolvestone, and in Moccas is Rowlsford.
Possibly O.E. hroc, 'a rook', and pal, a lake, 'a pool'. The word would then equal the Oxfs. Rokemarsh. Cf. Crowmarsh.
- 1304 Ruddok', Ep. Reg.
- circ. 1260 Reodhale, Glos. Cart.
The first element is O.E. hreod, 'a reed-bed'; the second hale, 'a meadow', for which see Appendix.
- 1086 Ruiscope, Dom.
- 1335 Ruyssoke, Ep. Reg.
- 1553 Rushok, Ind. Ct R.
O.E. hrise (later risk, rush), 'a rush', and -cop, 'a top'. We have no forms by which to trace the change in the second element between 1086 and 1335. The name is said once to have been Riscol.
- 1086 Ruuenore, Dom.
The second element is O.E. ofer, so common in our county (for which see Appendix).
- 1722 Ruxton, Terrier.