- circ. 1130 'Taratyr super ripam Gui', Lib. Land.
Seems to have been the name of the stream which flows from Aconbury into the Wye below Dyndor. In the Black Book of Carmarthen 'Aber Taradr' is said to be a few miles below Hereford, marking the extreme N.E. limit of Erging (Archenfield). The name is still preserved in Tars Mill, a mile below Aconbury village.
- 1086 Tatintune, Dom.
- 1243 Tatinton, Tatinton parva, T. de Nevill.
- 1291 Tattindon, Tax. Eccles.
- 1303 Tatynton, F.A.
- 1341 Tatynton, Non. Inq.
- 1346 Tadynton, F.A.
- 1428 Tadinton, F.A.
- 1448 Tatynton, Ind. Ct R.
- 1538 Tadyngton, Val. Eccles.
- 1577 Taddington alias Tarrington, Saxton's Map.
- 1650 Taddington, Hereford Corp. MS.
- 1652 Much Taddington, Little Taddington, Survey.
- 1716 Taddington, Llandinabo Par. Reg.
- 1786 Tarrington, Taylor's Map.
'Tun of Taeta or Tata'. The modern form never appears before 1577, and it was two centuries longer before the old form disappeared.
Taddington (Derbs.) is also 'Tun of Tata'; also Deddington (Oxfs.), which is Tadynton in 1289. Tetbury (Glos.), which is circ. 1100 Tettanbyrig, is 'Taeta's burh'.
- 1519 Teddeswode, Ep. Reg.
'The wood of Tette'. See under Tedstone.
No old forms, but prob. O.E. Tettan-ig, 'Tetta's island'. See Appendix, -ey.
- 1086 Tedesthorne, Tetistorp, Dom.
- 1286 Todesterne, Chart. R.
- 1291 Tedesterne la Mare, Thedesterne de la Mare, Todethorne Wafr, Tax. Eccles.
- 1294 Capella de Tedesterne, Ep. Reg.
- 1303 Teddesthorn Wafre, F.A.
- 1341 Tudesterne la Mare, Non. Inq.
- 1346 Tedestron de la Mare, Ep. Reg.
- 1428 Teddynstorne Delamere, F.A.
- 1538 Tedinston, Tedston, Val. Eccles.
'The thorn', or (in the other Dom. form), 'the thorp of Teda'; or of Tidda or Tuda; or of Teotta or Tette. All these are common, and kindred, personal names.
One hesitates to discuss a river-name. This is said to be from a Celtic root found in varying forms, Tame, Tamer, Thame, Thames; and (since in Welsh f = v = aspirated m) Taff, Tavy, and Taw. In 1223 Tenbury is Tametebyri (Brec. Cart.).
- 1086 Tingehalle, Tingehele, Dom.
- 1283 Thynchull, Chart. R.
- 1291 Thyngel, Tax. Eccles.
- 1303 Thynghull, F.A.
- 1327 Thynghull, Plac. de Banco.
- 1577 Dynchille, Saxton's Map.
- 1611 Dynchill, Speed's Map.
- 1786 Thinghill, Taylor's Map.
'Hill of meeting'.
O.E. faran to thinge is 'to go to a meeting'. The Dom. entry confuses '-hill' with 'hall', as often.
- 1086 Torneberie, Dom.
- circ. 1240 Thornbir', Leom. Cart.
- 1291 Tharbur', Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Thornbury, Non. Inq.
O.E. thorn-byrig, 'burh with the thorn trees'. Or it may be from a pers. name Thorn, very common in the N. of England. Thornton occurs 34 times in Dom. of Yorks. alone. These could scarcely be all named after a tree !
- 1086 Thornlau, Tornelaus, Tornelawes, Dom.
- 1226 Thurkelleston, Fine R.
- 1243 Thurlestun, T. de Nevill.
- 1291 Thurkeleston, Tax. Eccles.
- 1316 Therleceston, F.A.
- 1332 Throkelistone, Ep. Reg.
- 1341 Thurcleston, Non. Inq.
- 1428 Thorcleston, F.A.
- 1538 Thruckeston, Val. Eccles.
'Tun of Thorkell or Thurkill', a shortened form of Thurcytel. In 1243 there is a Thurlokeshop, which in 1403 (Feet of Fines) is Thorllokeshope. In both entries it is held with Wilmaston in Peterchurch.
- no date 'inter Tudinoverem et Langfordiam', MS. Chart.
- 1327 Tudenore, Capes.
- 1330 Tudenore, Capes.
- 1358 Tudenore, Ep. Reg.
'Tida's or Tyda's bank'. See Appendix, -over.
Cf. Dadnor, Totnor Farm.
- 1303 Tulynton, F.A.
- 1327 Tullynton, Plac. de Banco.
- 1395 Tulyntone, Ep. Reg.
- 1431 Tulynton, F.A.
Roberts thinks Tillington (Sussex), which also is spelt with -u- in 10th and 12th centuries, may be from O.E. Tila, a shortened form of some name beginning with such as Tilbeorht, Tilbrand, Tilhere, etc.
Almost certainly the Turpleton of 1479 (Ind. Ct R.).
- 1086 Titlege, Titellege, Dom.
- 1123 Titellega, Leom. Cart.
- 1291 Tytteleye, Tax. Eccles.
- 1327 Tiddesleye, Plac. de Banco.
- 1341 Titteleye, Non. Inq.
There is a Titley Hill in Abbeydore.
'Totta's or Tota's bank'. See Appendix, -over.
Cf. Tottanstoc (Kemble).
As in Scotland, Somerset, and Cornwall, 'town' was, until quite recently, used in Herefordshire in the true sense of the O.E. tun, 'an enclosure, homestead, farm', being applied to the smallest hamlet, or even to a farmyard. This use is reflected very widely in the place-names of the county. We have The Town in Crasswall (of all places !), Town Farm (Castle Frome and Ullingswick), Ton Farm (Clifford), Townhouse (farms, Llanveyno, Mathon and Madley), Lower Town (farm, Preston Wynne), Townend (Upper and Lower, farms, Bosbury), Townend (Westhide), Townsend (Dilwyn, Edvin Ralph, Kington, Mansell Lacy, Stretton Grandison). In 1342 Robert atte the Tonishende was ordained at Hereford. In Foy in 1420 is Townmediew; and Silas Taylor mentions 'those excellent grounds called Letton's townesend'.
- 1086 Tragetreu, Dom.
Before the railway was made a tram-line ran from Abergavenny to Hereford for conveying coal. On this was a public- house called Tram Inn. The Great Western Railway inexplicably called what should have been Dewchurch or Kilpeck Station Tram Inn.
Surrounded on all sides by Welsh names, mostly beginning with Tre-, one suspects that this name is corrupted from some Tre- name. But we have no old forms.
- circ. 1130 Villa Iudbiu, Lib. Land.
- 1222 Traradu, Coram Rege R.
- 1545 Trerado, Inq. p.m.
- 1553 Trehaddou, Chanc. MS.
- 1576 Treradow, Courtfield MS.
- 1722 Treradow, Terrier.
The first element is W. tref- (for which see Appendix); the second element is the name of an obscure Saint.
- 1607 Treiago, Ct R.
- 1608 Treyago, Ct R.
A pers. name seems involved in the second element, perhaps 'ago', 'James'.
The second element is W. pandy, 'a fulling mill', a very common element in Welsh pl.-ns.
- circ. 1130 Villa Cair Birran, Lib. Land.
- 1722 Treberran, Terrier.
- 1292 Humfreyeston, Inq. p.m.
- 1722 Trebumfrey, Terrier.
The English form in 1292 sufficiently explains the meaning of the Welsh. There is a hamlet called Humphreston in Donington (Shrops.).
- 1671 Trecelley, H'shire Hearth Tax List.
- 1722 Trecellys, Terrier.
Prob. W. tre-celli, 'grove-town'.
- 1488 Tradraghan, Inq. p.m.
- 1671 Tredroughan, H'shire Hearth Tax List.
- 1722 Tredraughan, Terrier.
- 1831 Tred-uchain (sic), Ord. Map.
Prob. tre-dragwn, 'settlement of the leader or chief'.
- 1551 Treyaben, Inq. p.m.
- 1722 Trevan, Terrier.
W. 'Evanston'. Cf. Evancoyd (Radnor).
- 1831 Trefassi, Ord. Map.
Possibly tre-fosydd, 'house or village in the trenches or ditches'.
- 1243 Treget, T. de Nevill.
- 1316 Treget, F.A.
The only W. word resembling the second element is gid, 'a goat'. It may, however, be a corruption of some other word, perhaps of coed. Or, since the 1243 entry says it was held by knight-service, i.e. probably by Norman knights, the second element may be a corruption due to Norm.-Fr. influences.
- 1540 'Trelandon in Ewias Lacy', Aug. Of.
Evidently a corrupt form: possibly of tre-lluesdau, 'encampment-village' 'Campton'.
- 1335 Treyloghe de Wormbrugge', Ep. Reg.
W. tre-llwch, 'house in the marsh'.
Prob. W. tre-maidd, 'whey-farm'.
- 1831 Tremoreiddig, Ord. Map.
- 1838 Tremerithig, Tombstone.
Apparently W. tre-meryddig, 'marsh-farm'.
- circ. 1130 Trineint, Lib. Land.
W. tre-nant, 'village in the valley', or 'brook-village'.
John Trefnant was Bishop of Hereford, A.D. 1389-1404.
- 1722 Trepenkennett, Terrier.
W. tre-pen-cen-nant, 'house at the head of the valley'. Others interpret tre-pen-cenad, 'house of the chief messenger'.
- 1831 Trerees, Ord. Map.
W. tre-rhys, 'settlement of Rice' (a common Welsh pers. name).
Cf. Trerice (Cornwall).
- 1722 Trerible, Terrier.
- circ. 1200 Treschoit, Gir. Cambs.
- 1241 Troscoit, Chart. R.
- 1541 Trescoyte, Aug. Of.
W. tre-is-y-coed, 'house below the wood'.
Cf. Bangor Is-y-coed (Flints.).
- 1630 Tretawbot, Courtfield MS.
W. tal is in pl.-names -end, e.g. Tal-y-bont, 'Bridgend'; Tal-y-llyn, 'End of the lake'. But this might be tre-tail, 'dung-town', or tre-dol, 'meadow-town'; or it may be a corruption of Trerothal (see Llanrothal), 'House of St Ridol'. Without old forms, we can decide nothing.
- 1277 Retir, Ep. Reg.
- 1291 Rittyr, Tax. Eccles.
- 1302 Retbyr in Irchinfeld', Quo War.
- 1308 Rettyre, Inq. p.m.
- 1314 Retir, Ep. Reg.
- 1341 Rityr, Non. Inq.
- 1369 Rythyre, Ep. Reg.
- 1538 Tretire, Val. Eccles.
- circ. 1550 Tirtre, Leland.
It is clear that the first element only became tre-, on the pattern of the places round, in the 16th century. It may have been rhyd-tir, 'ford-land', or rhudd-tir, 'red-land'.
- 1722 Trevace, Terrier.
W. tre-faes (mut. of maes), 'house in the field'.
W. 'Madoc's town'.
In Welsh f (i.e. v) is the mutation of m.
The second element does not seem to be pure Welsh. It may represent a (16th century ?) settler named Baker, whose name by mutation would become -vaker.
V being the mutation of b or of m, the second element may be W. ban, 'lofty, conspicuous'; or it may be maen, 'stone'. The -ing ending is not Welsh; it is prob. a corruption due to English influences.
- 1699 Trevervin, Tombstone.
W. tre-ferfain (mut. of berfain) 'Verbena house'.
- 1086 Triueline, Dom.
- 1160 Trivel, Pipe R.
- 1216 Trivelbroc, Dore Chart.
- 1321 Tryvile, Ep. Reg.
- 1327 Tryvel, Plac. de Banco.
The Dom. form suggests the true W. tre-wilain (mut. of bilain), 'house of the villan-tenant'.
Prob. W. tre-gwach, 'house in a hole'.
- 1243 Trewen, T. de Nevill.
- 1722 Trewen, Terrier.
W. tre-gwyn, 'white house'.
- Clodock 1540 'Trewern in Ewias Lacy', Aug. Of.
W. tre-gwernau, 'house among the alders'.
- 1722 Treworgan, Terrier.
The second element is a man's name, Gwrgaint (the Geraint of Arthurian legend).
- 1540 Trewyn Capella S. Martini, Aug. Of.
W. tre-gwyn, 'white house'. The more correct form would be Trewen (q.v.).
- 1367 'campus de Treygreys', Ep. Reg.
Possibly the second element is W. gwres, 'heat', 'warmth'. Trey- is, like tre-, W. tref.
- 1551 Tresoke, Inq. p.m.
'Village built on drained land', from W. sock, 'a drain'.
Seems to be compounded of tre- with coed, 'wood', and Ivor, a pers. name.
Possibly W. tref and llwys, 'clean, pure, holy'.
This may be the Turpleton of 1479 (Ind. Ct R.) (but more probably Tipton is the place referred to).
In the heart of a Welsh district, it is probably an English corruption of some Welsh pl.-n., which, without old forms, we cannot know.
'A fulling or cloth mill'. O.E. tucian, 'to full cloth'. A Tucker is a cloth-worker.
Cf. Walk Mill (q.v.) which has almost the same meaning.
- 1086 Topeslage, Dom.
- 1241 Topesle, MS. Chart.
- 1302 Toppesley, Quo War.
- 1316 Hampton Thopesley Villa, F.A.
'The meadow of Toppa or Topa'.
Cf. Toppesfield (Essex), Topsham (Devon).
- 1243 Thurneiston, T. de Nevill.
- 1291 Thurneston, Tax. Eccles.
- 1299 Thornestone, Ep. Reg.
- 1341 Turneston, Non. Inq.
- 1428 Tornaston, F.A.
- 1538 Turnaston, Val. Eccles.
- 1610 Torneston, Rowland Vaughan.
'Tun with the thorn tree', or, more probably, from a pers. name Thorn. See under Thornbury.
Turnastone is merely a form of Thornton, retaining the -es of the genitive. Why this is sometimes retained in later forms of place-names, and sometimes lost, no investigator has yet satisfactorily explained.
Tustin is a surname in the county.
This is an English, not a Welsh word, and should be written Tut- as in the Stoke Lacy form. J.G. Wood derives it from O.E. totian, 'to peep out', and translates it as 'a watch place'. He compares Tutshill, near Chepstow; Tothill Lane on Plymouth Sound; Tothill Fields (Westminster), and Totmanslow.
- 1250 Twinordesfelde, Auc. Pet.
'The twiner's field', i.e. belonging to the man who twined ropes from the hemp grown on the Manor.
- Callow 1243 Thwyford, T. de Nevill.
- " 1316 Twyford, F.A.
- 1340 Twyford, Aconbury Accts.
- Eardisland 1547 Twyford, Ind. Ct R.
W. ty-bach, 'small house', 'cottage'.
- 1086 Tibrintintune, Dom.
- 1218 Tybyrtone, Capes.
- 1243 Tyberton, T. de Nevi11.
- 1267 Tibriton, Inq. p.m.
- 1291 Tybreton, Tibriton, Tax. Eccles.
- 1341 Tyberton, Non. Inq.
- 1831 Tibberton, Ord. Map.
Prob. 'Tun of Tidbeorht'. Tibberton (Glos.) is Dom. Tibriston, which also seems to point to Tidbeorht. Tibberton (Worcs.) is Dom. Tidbrihtingctun, which is unmistakably Tidbeorht.
W. ty-bwbach, 'goblin's house'.
'House of boards', 'wooden house'. The second element is evidently a corrupt plural of W. bwrdd, 'a board'.
W. 'Caradoc's house'.
W. 'House in the glen'.
W. ty-mawr, 'great house'.
W. ty'n-yr-heol, 'roadside house'.
W. ty-uchaf, 'upper house'.Return to top of page